Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Irish: Naomh Brid . C 451-525) is one of Ireland’s patron saint, along with Patrick and Columba. Irish hagiography makes her an early Irish Christian nun, [3] the abbess, and founder of several monasteries of nuns, including that of Kildare in Ireland, which was known and revered. Her feast day is February 1, which was originally a pagan festival called Imbolc, marking the beginning of spring.Her feast day is shared by Dar Lugdach, which tradition says was his student, and the woman who succeeded her.

The Saint shares her name with an important Celtic goddess, and there are many legends and folk customs associated with her. Some researchers suggest that the saint is just enkristnandet of the goddess. Others suggest that she was a real person who took the goddess attributes.

Name

The saint has the same name as the goddess Brigid, derived from Proto-Celtic * Briganti “high, exalted” and finally the origin of Proto-Indo-European * bʰerǵʰ- . In Old Irish her name was spelled Brigit and pronounced [bʲrʲiɣʲidʲ].In modern Irish is spelled Brigid / Brighid and pronounced [bʲɾʲiːdʲ]; it becamebrid 1948 spelling reform.

The English spelling of her name is Bridget , or the bride and she is sometimes called the Mary of the Gael . In Welsh, she called fraid (genitiveFfraid , which in many places is called Llansanffraid “St. Brigit’s Church”).

Historicitet

There is a debate about whether St Brigid was a real person. She has the same name, associations, and day of celebration as the Celtic goddess Brigid, and there are many supernatural events, legends and folk customs associated with her.

Some researchers suggest that the saint is just a Christianization of the goddess. Others suggest that she was a real person who took the goddess attributes. Medieval art historian Pamela Berger argues that Christians “monks took the old figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions of their Christian counterparts.” [4] Professor Daithi Ó hÓgáin and suggests that the saint had been chief druidess in the temple of the goddess Brigid, and was responsible for converting it to a Christian convent. After her death, became the name and the characteristics of the goddess attached to the saint. [5] [6] [7]

Life

Probably the earliest biography ( Life or Vita ) St. Brigid is that by St Broccán Clóen (d. 650). Various biographies contradictory accounts of her life, with much literary merit in itself. A second life written by Cogitosus, a monk of Kildare in the eighth century, and is a good example of Irish scholarship in the middle of the eighth century. The Life printed Coelan dating ca. 625, deriving further importance from the fact that a forward later added by St. Donatus, also an Irish monk who became bishop of Fiesole in 824. St. Donatus refers to previous biographies of St Ultan and St. Aileran. [8]

In the battle of the historic presence of Brigid that broke out in the last third of the 20th century, researchers noted that eleven people Brigid is associated in her life are independently certified in annalistic sources, sources that sets her death in AD 523 (in the Annals of Tigernach and Chron Scotorum) and her birth in 451 (calculated from the alleged age of 72 at death). [9]

early life

According to tradition, Brigid was born in AD 451 Faughart, [10] County Louth. Due to the legendary quality of the earliest accounts of his life, there is much debate among many secular scientists and even Christians as to the authenticity of her biographies. Three biographies agree that her mother was Brocca, a Christian Pict and slave, who had been baptized by Saint Patrick. They name her father Dubhthach, a chief Leinster. [11]

They vitae say that Brigid’s mother was a slave, and Dubthach wife forced him to sell her to a druid when she became pregnant. Brigid herself was born into slavery. From the beginning it was clear that Brigid is sacred. When the druid tried to feed her, she vomited because he is unclean. A white cow with red ears seemed to hold her instead. [11] As she grew older, Brigid performed many miracles, including healing and feeding the poor. According to a story, as a child, she once gave away his mother the whole layer of butter. The butter was then filled in response to Brigid prayers. [12] Around the age of ten, she was back as a household servant to his father, where her habit of charity led her also to donate their possessions to anyone who asked. In two lives , Dubthach was so irritated at her, he took her in a carriage to the King of Leinster, to sell her. While Dubthach spoke to the king, Brigid gave away his jewels sword to a beggar to barter it for food to feed his family. The king acknowledged his holiness and convinced Dubthach to grant his daughter her freedom. [13]

Religious life

It is said that Brigid was the “veiled” or received either by St. Mac Caill in Croghan, or by St. Mel of Ardagh in MAG Tulach (current Barony Fartullagh, County Westmeath), which also granted her Abbatial forces. It is said that if the 468, she and St Maughold (Macaille) followed St. Mel in the Kingdom Tethbae, which consisted of parts of modern County Meath, Westmeath and Longford.

According to tradition, around 480, Brigid founded a monastery in Kildare (Cill Dara , “Church Oak”), on the site of an old pagan shrine to the Celtic goddess Brigid, served by a group of young women who tended the eternal flame. The place was under a large oak tree on the ridge of the Drum Criadh.[14] Brigid, with a first group of seven companions, is credited with organizing joint consecrated religious life for women in Ireland. [15] She founded two monasteries institutions, one for men , and the other for women and urged Conleth (Conláed), a hermit from Old Connell near Newbridge, to help her in Kildare as spiritual pastor of them. It has often been said that she gave canonical jurisdiction to Conleth, Bishop of Kildare, but Archbishop Healy says she simply “chose the person that the church gave this privilege,” and her biographer tells us clearly that she chose Saint Conleth “to control the church together with oneself “. Thus, for centuries, was Kildare ruled by a double line of abbot-bishops and abbesses, the abbess of Kildare is considered superior general of the monasteries in Ireland. Her successor has always been Episcopal honor. [16] Brigid of Kildare small oratory became a center of religion and learning, and developed into a cathedral city.

Brigid is also credited with founding an art school, including processing and lighting, which Conleth monitored. Kildare scriptorium did book Kildare, which drew high praise from Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis), but that has disappeared since the Reformation. According to Giraldus, nothing he had ever seen was at all comparable to the book, each page gorgeously lit, and he concludes by saying that the intertwined work and harmony of the colors left the impression that “all this is the work angelic, and not human skill”. [ 8]

The Trias Thaumaturga says Brigid spent time in Connacht and founded many churches in the diocese of Elphin. She is also said to have visited Longford, Tipperary, Limerick and South Leinster. [10] Her friendship with Saint Patrick noted in the following paragraph from the Book of Armagh “Inter Sanctum Patricium Brigitanque Hibernesium columpnas Amicitia caritatis inerat Tanta, Ut Unum cor consiliumque haberent unum. Christus by Illum illamque Virtutes Multas peregit “. (Between St. Patrick and Brigid, pillars of the Irish people, it was so great friendship charity that they had but one heart and one mind. Through him and through her Christ performed many great works.)

When they die, the St Brigid said to have been given the last rites of St. Ninnidh. Afterwards, he had reportedly his right hand encased in metal so that it would never be defiled, and became known as “Ninnidh of the Clean Hand”. [8] Tradition says that she died at Kildare February 1 525. [17]

St. Brigid said to have had a female companion named Dar Lugdach , a younger nun that she shared his bed with. According to tradition, Dar Lugdach Brigid succeeded as abbess of Kildare and predicted by Brigit, she died exactly one year after her. The two thus the same day of celebration. [18]The name Dar Lugdach (also spelled Dar Lugdacha or Dar Lughdacha) means “daughter of the god Lugh.” [19]

Miracle associated with Brigid

Brigid is celebrated for his generosity to the poor. In her case, most of the miracles associated with her relate to healing and household tasks generally attributed to women.

  • When Brigit was marital age, a man named Dubthach moccu Lugair came to woo her. Since Brigid offered her virginity to God, she said, the man that she can not accept him, but to go to the woods behind the house, where he finds a beautiful maiden to marry. Everything he says to the maiden’s father will be appealing to them. The man followed her instructions and it was as she said. [11]
  • In one story, Brigid protected a woman from a nobleman who had entrusted to a silver brooch to the woman for storage but then secretly threw it into the sea. He charged her with stealing it, knowing that he could take her as a slave if a judge ruled in his favor. The woman escaped and sought refuge with Brigid Community. By chance, one of her fisherman reeled in a fish that, when cut open, appeared to have swallowed brosch.Adelsmannen liberated woman confessed their sins and bowed in submission to Brigid. [13] A similar story of St Kentigern.
  • On another occasion, Brigid was traveling to see a physician for their headaches. She stayed at the house of a Leinster couple had two daughters dumb. The daughters traveling with Brigid when her horse startled, causing her to fall and graze your head on a rock. A touch of Brigid blood healed girls. [13]
  • Once on the banks of the River Inny, Brigid was given a gift of sweet apples and sloes. She later entered a house where many lepers asked her for these apples, which she offered helpfully. The woman who had given the gift of Brigid was angered by this, saying she had not given the gift to leprosy. Brigid was angry nun for exemption from the leprosy and cursed their trees so that they would no longer bear fruit. Another woman also gave Brigid same gift, and again Brigid gave them to begging leprosy. This time the other woman asked that she and her garden is blessed. Brigid said then that a large tree in the garden maiden would have double the fruit from its offshoots, and this was done. [11]
  • One Easter Sunday, a leper came to Brigid to ask for a cow. She said she would rest and would help him later; But he does not want to wait and said he would go elsewhere to a cow. Brigid then offered to cure him, but the man stubbornly replied that his condition allowed him to get more than he would if he was healthy. After convincing leper that was not the case, she told one of her bridesmaids to have the man washed in a blessed cup of water. After this was done, the man was healed, and promised to serve Brigid.
  • One of the more widely told stories is Brigid ask the King of Leinster for land. She told the king that the place where she stood was the perfect place for a monastery. It was next to a forest where they could collect firewood and berries. There was also a lake nearby that would provide water and soil was fertile. The king laughed at her and refused to give her any country. Brigid prayed to God and asked him to soften the king’s heart. Then she smiled at the king and said, “You will give me as much land as my robe will cover?” The King thought she was joking, and, hoping to get rid of her, he went. She said four of her sisters to take up the mantle, but instead of laying it flat on the turf, each sister, with her face turned to another point on the compass, began to run quickly, the screen grows in all directions. The cloak began to cover many acres of land. “Oh, Brigid!” Said frighted king, “what are you about?” “I am, or rather my coat is about covering your entire province to punish you for your stint to the poor.” “Call your virgins back. I will give you a decent plot of land. “The saint was convinced, and the king held his purse strings tight in the future, she only had to hint at his robe to bring him to reason. Shortly thereafter, the king became a Christian, began to help the poor and commissioned the construction of the monastery.The legend, the monastery was famous for making jam from local blueberries intended for the whole of Ireland. There is a new tradition that begins among followers of St. Brigid eating jam 1 February to commemorate this miracle. [20] [21]
  • After Brigid God promised a life of chastity, her brothers grieved over the loss of a bride price. When she was outside carrying a load past a group of poor, some began to laugh at her. A man named Bacene said to her: “The beautiful eyes that are in your head will be espoused to a man if you want it or not.” In response, Brigit stuck his finger in the eye and said, “Here it is beautiful eyes you. I think it is unlikely that someone will ask you about a blind girl. “Her brothers tried to save her and remove blood from her wounds, but there was no water to be found.Brigid said to them, “Put my staff about this sod in front of you,” and after they did, came a stream from the ground. She said to Bacene, “Soon your two eyes will burst in the head,” and it happened as she said.[11]
  • She is associated with the preservation of a nun chastity under unusual circumstances. Some authors [ who? ] Claim that it is an account of an abortion. Both Liam the PAOR (1993) [22] and Connolly & Picard (1987), in their complete translations of Cogitosus, give essentially the same translation [23] for the sake of Brigit mission to a nun who had failed to keep its promise of chastity and become pregnant. In 1987, translation: “A certain woman who had taken the vow of chastity fell through youthful desire of pleasure and her womb swelled with children Brigid, exerts the most potent force his unspeakable faith, blessed her, causing the child to disappear. without coming to birth, and without pain. She returned faithfully to the woman’s health and penance. “

Reverence

Brigid said to have been buried to the right of the high altar of Kildare Cathedral, and a costly tomb raised over her “Adorned with beads and gems and crowns of gold and silver.” Over the years, her shrine became the object of veneration for pilgrims, especially on his feast day on 1 February. Around the year 878, because of the Scandinavian raids, Brigid alleged relics be buried in the grave Patrick and Columba. [17] In 1185, John de Courcy had their alleged remains re buried in Down Cathedral. [24]

In modern Ireland, “Mary of the Gael” remains a popular saint, and Brigid still a common female first names.

relics

En skalle sägs vara Brigid har bevarats i Igreja São João Baptista (Church of St John the Baptist ) i Lumiar i Portugal ( 38 ° 46’29 “N 9 ° 09’54” W . [25] ) (nära Lissabon airport) sedan 1587 och vördas den 2 februari (inte den 1 februari som i Irland). [26] St Brigid huvud var meningen transporteras till kung Denis Portugal i 1283 av irländska riddare reser till Aragonien korståg . Enligt Denis Murphy, när relikerna av de heliga förstördes i det sextonde århundradet, under vikariat Lord Leonard Gray, var Brigid huvud sparas genom några av de präster, som tog den till Neustadt i Österrike. 1587 var det fram till kyrkan av Society of Jesus i Lissabon, av kejsar Rudolf II. [27]

The inscription on the tomb of Lumiar reads: “Here in these three tombs are the three Irish knight who brought the head of St. Brigid, virgin, born in Ireland, whose relics are preserved in this chapel. In memory of the officials at the altar of the Saint caused this to happen in January, AD 1283. ”

A fragment of the skull was taken to St. Bridget’s Church, Kilcurry 1905 by Sister Mary Agnes in Dundalk Convent of Mercy and in 1928 another fragment was sent by the Bishop of Lisbon to St Brigid’s Church in Killester, in response to a request from fathers Timothy Traynor and James McCarroll.

On Armagh was a “Templum Brigidis”; namely the small monastery church called “Règles Brigid”, which contained some relics of the saint, which was destroyed in 1179 by William FitzAldelm.

Iconography

In liturgical iconography and statuary Saint Brigid depicted often keeps a sharp cross, a Crozier of the kind used by the Abbots and a lamp. Early hagiographers portray Saint Brigid lives and ministries concerned with fire.According to PW Joyce, the tradition of nuns at her convent held a sacred eternal flame burning there. [10] leitmotifs, some of them borrowed frånapokryferna such story where she hangs his cloak on a sunbeam associated with wonder stories of her hagiography and folklore . In her life, Saint Brigid is produced which has the power to multiply such things as butter, bacon and milk, donating sheep and cattle and to check the weather.Plant Designs in connection with St. Brigid include white madonna lilyknown since the Middle Ages as the Madonna Lily for its association with the Virgin Mary, and Winflower Anemone coronaria , called “Brigid Anemone” since the early 19’s. Kildare, Church of oak Quercus petraea , is associated with a tree sacred to the Druids. Her color, white, worn by Kildare United Irishmen rebellion in 1798 and worn by Kildare sports teams. [ Citation needed ]

Placenames

Kilbride is one of Ireland’s most found placenames, are 43 Kilbrides located in 19 of Ireland’s 32 counties: Antrim (2), Carlow, Cavan, Down, Dublin, Galway, Kildare, Kilkenny (3), Laois, Longford, Louth, Mayo ( 5), Meath (4), Offaly (4), Roscommon (2), Waterford, Westmeath (2), Wexford (4), Wicklow (8) as well as two Kilbreedy s Tipperary, Kilbreedia and Toberbreeda Clare, Toberbreedia in Kilkenny, Bridewell Commons in Dublin, Bride Town and Templebreedy in Cork and Rathbride and Bride’s Church in Kildare. [28] in the same way, there are a number of placental derived from Cnoic Bhríde ( “Brigit’s Hill”), such as Knock Bridge in Louth Knock Bride in Cavan . In Wales, the villages of Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain, Llansantffraed and Llansantffraid, Ceredigion is named after her; “Llan” meaning “church” and “Ffraid” or “Ffraed” is Welsh for “bride”.

Other

The artwork supper is a location setting for Saint Brigid. [29]

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Notes

  1. Hoppa upp^ “Story of St Brigid” . St. Brigids GNS, Glasnevin .
  2. Jump up ^ “After Brigid’s Way – The Irish Catholic”.
  3. Jump up ^ Jestice, Phyllis G. (2004). Holy people in the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 140-. ISSN 9,781,576,073,551thRetrieved February 1, 2013. Brigid of Ireland, or Kildare, has been venerated since the early Middle Ages, together with Patrick and Columba, as one of the three national Christian patron saint of Ireland…. At least two Latin life had consisted at the end of the seventh century, describes her as a nobleman’s daughter who chose to consecrate her virginity to God, took the veil as a Christian nun, and became the leader of a community of religious women, or perhaps of both women and men, certainly of the seventh century was an important double monastery in Kildare who regarded her as its founder.
  4. Jump up ^ Berger, Pamela (1985). Goddess Obscured: Transformation of the Grain sheltering from the Goddess to Saint. Boston:. Beacon Press ISBN 9,780,807,067,239th
  5. Jump up ^ Ó hÓgáin, Daithi. Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encyclopedia of the Irish folk tradition . Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.61
  6. Jump up ^ Wright, Brian. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint . History Press, 2011. pp.36-37
  7. Jump up ^ Robert Lentz & Edwina Gateley. Christ in the margin . Orbis Books, 2003 p.121
  8. ^ Jump up to: abc “Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Brigid of Ireland “.
  9. Jump up ^ Discussion on the date of the annals and the accuracy of dates relating to St Brigid continues, see AP Smyth, “The earliest Irish annals: the first modern records and the earliest centers of recording”,Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy lxxii C (1972) pp1-48 and Daniel McCarthy: “the chronology of St. Brigit of Kildare” in Peritia , XIV (2000), pp255-81.
  10. ^ Jump up to: abc Joyce, PW, miracles Ireland , 1911
  11. ^ Jump up to: abcde “Bethu Brigte”.
  12. Jump up ^ Wallace, Martin. A small book of Celtic Saints. Belfast.Apple Press, 1995 ISBN 0-86281-456-1, p.13
  13. ^ Jump up to: abc “St. Brigit of Ireland – Monastic Matrix “.
  14. Hoppa upp^ “History of Kildare Town” .
  15. Jump up ^ “ST. Brigid IRELAND :: Catholic News Agency (CNA) “.Katolska news agency.
  16. Jump up ^ Edward Sellnor do this in the book, Wisdom Celtic Saints (Ave Maria Press, 1993)
  17. ^ Jump up to: ab “Our Patroness,” Brigidine Sisters
  18. Hoppa upp^ TM Charles-Edwards, “Brigit (439 / 452-524 / 526), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004nås 22 Dec 2014
  19. Jump up ^ Wright, p.41
  20. Jump up ^ Story of St. Brigit, November 14, 2012
  21. Jump up ^ Kennedy, Patrick. ‘St. Brigid mantle, ” Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts , 1891
  22. Jump up ^ St. Patrick’s world , Liam the PAOR, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 1993 – Chapter 33, Cogitosus life of St. Brigid virgin, accessed February 13, 2012
  23. Jump up ^ Page 211 of the PAOR; page 16, Single Chapter 9, Connolly & Picard
  24. Hoppa upp^ Johnathan Bardon, A History of Ulster , sid 38. Blackstaff Press, 2007. ISBN 0-85640-764-X
  25. Jump up ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000 and 1990 ‘. The US Census Bureau. 12 February, 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  26. Jump up ^ St. Brigid skull. 14 December 2007 – through YouTube.
  27. Jump up ^ Murphy, Denis. ‘St. Brigit of Kildare “, Journal of Kildare Archaeological Society and surrounding districts , Vol. 1, p.175, Kildare Archaeological Society, 1895
  28. Hoppa upp ^ “logainm.ie”. Logainm.ie.
  29. Jump up ^ envelopes. Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved on 06/08/2015.