Phoenix Park (Irish: Pairc an Fhionnuisce [1] ) is a city park in Dublin, Ireland, located 2-4 km west of the center, north of the River Liffey. Its 11 km facade encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. [2] [3] [4] It covers large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. The English name comes from the Irish Fionn Uisce means “pure water”.[5] The Irish government lobbying UNESCO to have the park designated as a World Heritage Site. [6]


After the Normans conquered Dublin and its hinterland in the 12th century, Hugh Tyrrel, 1st Baron Castle granted a large tract of land, including what now comprises the Phoenix Park, the Knights Hospitaller. They established a monastery påKilmainham on the spot now occupied by the Royal Hospital Kilmainham. The Knights lost their land in 1537 after the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII of England. Eighty years later lands reverted to the ownership of the king’s representative in Ireland. If the restoration of King Charles II, his Viceroy in Dublin, the Duke of Ormonde, established a royal hunting park in the country in 1662. It contained pheasants and wild deer, making it necessary to enclose the entire area with a wall. The park originally included demesne Kilmainham Priory, south of the River Liffey, but when the construction of the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham began in 1680, the park was reduced to its current size, all of which are now north of the river. It was opened for the people of Dublin Earl of Chesterfield year 1745th

1882 was the site of two murders. The Chief Secretary for Ireland (the British minister with responsibility for Irish Affairs), Lord Frederick Cavendish, and Under-Secretary for Ireland (chief officer), Thomas Henry Burke, was stabbed to death with surgical knives while walking from Dublin Castle. A small rebel group called the Invincibles was responsible. [7]

During Emergency thousands of tonnes of peat from bogs transported to Dublin and are stored in high piles along the main road in the park. [8] [9] [10]


The park is divided among three civil parishes: Castle to the northwest, Chapelizod in the south and St James’ in the north. The latter is mainly centered south of the River Liffey around St James’ Church. The park has its own piece of legislation Phoenix Park Act, 1925 which includes giving powers to park rangers remove and arrest of criminals who do not obey their own rules, which include “A person shall act in violation of public morality in the park”. [11 ] [12]

Aras an Uachtarain

Main article: Aras an Uachtarain

The residence of the President of Ireland, Aras an Uachtarain, built in 1754, located in the park. As Viceregal Lodge, it was the official residence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to the creation of the Irish Free State 1922nd

Dublin Zoo

Main article: Dublin Zoo

Dublin Zoo is one of Dublin’s main attractions. It houses more than 700 animals and tropical birds from around the world and was founded in 1830 [13]and opened to the public September 1, 1831 with animals from the London Society, making it the third oldest zoo in the world. Within a year, the zoo housed 123 species. [14]

cross Pontifical

Main article: Papal Cross § Papal Cross (Dublin, Ireland)

The Papal Cross was erected at the edge of the Fifteen Acres for the visit of Pope John Paul II on September 29, 1979. More than a million people attended an open-air mass in the park at that time. The white cross, which dominates its surroundings, is 35 meters (115 feet) high and was built with steel beams. It was installed with some difficulty. After several attempts, the cross was eventually erected in just two weeks before the Pope arrived [15]


The Wellington monument is 62 meters (203 feet) tall obelisk commemorating victories of the Duke of Wellington. It is the largest obelisk in Europe and would have been even higher if publicly signed the funding had run out. Designed by Robert Smirke are four bronze plaque cast from cannons captured at the Battle of Waterloo -three who have pictorial representations of Wellington’s career while the fourth has an inscription at the foot of the obelisk.

One other notable monuments are the “Phoenix Column” (shown in the header image above), a Corinthian column carved from Portland stone is centrally located on Chesterfield Avenue, the main street in the park, at the junction of Acres Road and Phoenix it. main entrance to Aras an Uachtarain[16] a contemporary account described it as follows:

“About the middle of the park is a fluted column thirty feet high, with a phoenix in the capital, which was built by the Earl of Chesterfield during his viceregality.” [17] (1747)

Residence Deerfield

The Deerfield Residence (former Secretary of State’s Lodge ), originally built in 1776 was the former residence of the chief secretary for Ireland, and previously was Park Länsmans lodge.Det has been the official residence of the US Ambassador to Ireland since February 1927, and was until the beginning of 1960 US Embassy in Dublin. [18]

Phoenix Park Visitor Centre and Ashtown Castle

The oldest building in the park is Ashtown Castle, a restored medieval tower house dating from the 15th century. Restoration began in 1989 and it is located next to the visitor center which houses interpretive displays of 5500 years of park and area history.

People Gardens

The gardens, located near the Parkgate Street entrance, covers an area of 9 hectares (22 acres), and was re-opened in 1864. These gardens were originally founded in 1840 as the Promenade Grounds. They display Victorian horticulture, including ponds, playground, picnic area and bedding systems.A statue in the gardens dedicated to works Easter Rising ledareSeán Heuston.There is a plaque in memory of the Irish sculptor Jerome Connor at Infirmary Road, overlooking the garden, which he often visited. Hours are 8:00 to dusk.Closing times vary throughout the year.

Magazine Fort

Main article: Magazine Fort

The Magazine Fort in the southeastern part of the park marks the spot where the Phoenix Lodge was built by Sir Edward Fisher in 1611. In 1734 the house was demolished when the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset directed to a gunpowder provided to Dublin. An additional wing was added to the fort in 1801 for soldiers. It was the scene of the Christmas Raid in 1939.

The newspaper has continued satirically immortalized in a jingle of Jonathan Swift wrote:

Now here is a testament to Irish feel, Irish wit is seen, when nothing is left that is worth defending, we are building a magazine .” Other points of interest

  • In the southwest corner of the park is an area called the Furry Glenwhich has a series of short walks centered on a small lake with birds, plants and animals. Jay, normally a rather shy bird, is common and conspicuous here.
  • State Guest House, Farmleigh, adjoins the park to the northwest.
  • Headquarters of the Garda Síochána, police in Ireland, located in the park.
  • National Ambulance Service College is at Saint Mary’s Hospital in Chapelizod side of the park. This building dates from 1766 and was the former Hibernian Military School.
  • Ordnance Survey Ireland is located in Mountjoy House near Castlegate.The house was built in 1728 and was originally known as Mountjoy barracks that accommodated the mounted escort of Lord Lieutenant who lived in the Viceregal Lodge (now Aras an Uachtarain). [19]
  • Adjacent to the park to the southeast are Irish Defence Forces “McKee Barracks. Built in 1888 as the Marlborough Barracks once housed 822 horses military. [20]
  • Ratra house at the back of the Aras, was the home of Civil Defence Ireland since its founding in 1950 until 2006 when the headquarters was decentralized to Roscrea, County Tipperary. Named Ratra house at the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde who retired to the house in 1945 from his presidency. He named it after their homeland Ratra Park in Frenchpark, Roscommon, where he had made much of his writing. Built in 1876, Winston Churchill lived there from age 2-6. [21]
  • Grange Gorman Military Cemetery is located just outside the walls of the park on Blackhorse Avenue.
  • The park also features several sports fields for football, throwing, football, cricket and polo.
  • Bohemian Football Club was founded in the Gate Lodge next to the North Circular Road entrance 1890. The club played its first games in the park’s Polo Grounds.
  • On Conyngham Road, near South Circular Road junction, take the usual wall of an unusual arc before leveling off again marks the point where the Liffey bridge into the park via enjärnvägstunnel that continues for Wellington Monument. It is regularly used for freight, and some limited special passenger. It was used during World War II to store supplies of food. [ Citation needed ]


There are 351 identified plant species in the park; three of these are rare and protected. The park has retained almost all their old grasslands and forests and also rare examples of wetlands. [22] Deer were introduced in the park in the 1660s; the current 400-450 fallow deer descended from the original crew.[23] 30% of the park is covered by trees, mainly deciduous trees.

A birdwatch survey in 2007-08 found 72 species of birds including buzzards, sparrowhawk, kestrel and Eurasian jay. The great spotted woodpecker, Ireland’s newest breeding bird has been spotted in the park several times. [24]

The park also has several streams, tributaries of the River Liffey.

In July and August 2006 when the Minister for Health, Mary Harney, has issued three decisions which exempts two new community health units, to be built at St Mary’s Hospital in the park, from the usual statutory planning permission, although the Phoenix Park is a designated and protected national monument. The Department of Health said the decision was made because of what it called the department’s “acute reaction to the acute crisis at the time,” although care units in operation since 2008, primarily for the elderly. [25]

In a 2009 conservative management plan for the park, the Office of Public Works (a Treasury agency) commented, “… the construction, without having to resort to normal planning procedures, two important developments in St.Mary’s Hospital illustrates the vulnerability of the Phoenix Park to internal development, which affects largely on the essential character of the park and its unique value as a historic designed landscape. “In a section titledpressures and threats on the Park , mum planning issues , expressed documents concern that” Without appropriate planning designation, there is a risk that the development can be done that is not in line with the integrated vision of this plan. “The document warned of similar risks to the integrity of the park as” uncoordinated construction … and the current state of some historical buildings such as the Magazine Fort, outbuildings below the St. Mary’s Hospital and Mountjoy House of Ordnance survey Complex. ” [16]



Motorsport first took place in the Phoenix Park in 1903 when the Irish Gordon Bennett race speed trials held on the main straight for both cars and motorcycles. This was followed in 1929 by the Irish International Grand Prix;the first of three Irish motorsports Grands Prix. [26] Racing took place from 1932 until the beginning of World War II in 1939 and was revived again in 1949 with a sprint on the Oldtown circuit [27] followed the next year by a full racing meeting again and have been used in virtually uninterrupted until today.Over the years seven different circuits have been used, two of which are named after the famous Ferrari World Champion racing driver Mike Hawthorn.

Phoenix Park motor racing

After the Grand Prix events, continued Motor racing in the park even though the 1980s and 1990s and until 2012, with many events live on RTÉ. It contained many drivers including Eddie Jordan, Eddie Irvine and Tommy Byrne. However, it has been announced that the Phoenix Park motor racing once again ready to go ahead in 2016, on 30 and 31 July. This is expected to attract large crowds as a free admission event no tickets are required.

Great Ireland Run

The Great Ireland Run, a 10 km running competition has been held annually every April in Phoenix Park since 2003. It includes races for professional runners and the public, and the 2010 edition attracted over 11,000 participants. [28] [29] Athletes Sonia O ‘ Sullivan and Catherina McKiernan is among the competition’s previous winners.


Concerts have been performed in the park of conduct such as Coldplay, Duran Duran, Robbie Williams, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Ian Brown, justice, Kanye West, Arcade Fire, Tom Waits, Snow Patrol, Florence and the Machine, Swedish House Mafia, Snoop Dogg , Tinie Tempah, Calvin Harris and The Stone Roses.

Phoenix Park free festivals

Ubi Dwyer organized one-day free events between 1977 and 1980. [30] As the ‘International Times reported, “The Hollow Phoenix Park spun and danced to the rhythms of the World Peace Band, free spirits, Mod Quad Band, Frazzle, speed, Stryder, Axis, Tudd , skating to name a few. the whole thing was organized by gentle Ubi Dwyer was previously involved in Windsor affair of rock and the rest of England. Certainly the Irish version was positively lighthearted although the gain was too much for boxes. some chappies near the bandstand nearly whipped to death with his long hair as they responded to the bio-rhythms of the scene. ” [31] U2 played at the 1978 festival. [32]

Phoenix Cricket Club

Phoenix Cricket Club, the oldest cricket club in Ireland, founded in 1830 by John Parnell, father of Charles Stewart Parnell located in the park. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1970s, were the dominant club in Leinstercricket. [ Citation needed ]

popular culture

The park is prominent in James Joyce’s novel Finnegans Wake and tangentially in Ulysses .

In general, the Dublin postal districts on the Northside are odd numbers, while the Southside codes yet. An exception is Phoenix Park, located on the North Side, but is part of an even-numbered districts (Dublin 8).

See also

  • Further reading gardens in Ireland
  • Phoenix Park Racecourse
  • Phoenix Park Conservation Management Plan: Consultation Draft, Office of Public Works, March 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2010. Includes detailed history and description of the Phoenix Park, its amenities, landscape, flora and fauna, archeology, architecture and other park matters.


  1. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park”. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ “If – Phoenix Park”. Office of Public Works. Are downloaded January 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park”. Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ Richmond Park in London, England is greater in the area of 955 hectares (2,360 acres) but is a suburban royal park.
  5. Jump up ^ Joyce, Weston St. John (1921). Neighbourhood Dublin (PDF).Dublin: MH Gill & Son. p. 416th
  6. Jump up ^ “Secret history of the Phoenix Park.” Irish Independent.January 19, 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ ROUNDELL, Julia (July-December 1906). Nineteenth century and after: Volume 60 London .. Spottiswoode & Co. pp 559-575. From a diary at Dublin Castle in Phoenix Park Trial
  8. Jump up ^ “A farewell to the old sod.” Irish Independent. March 9, 2012.Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  9. Jump up ^ Corcoran, Tony (2009). The goodness of Guinness: A Loving the history of the brewery, it’s people, and … New York: Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 83. ISBN 9,781,602,396,531th
  10. Jump up ^ Gill Cummins, Maureen (2012). “Early Days: The Kildare Scheme and Turf Camps”. Taken from Sceal na Mona, Vol. 13, no. 60, December 2006, p70-72. Table na Mona. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  11. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park Bye Laws”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park Act.” Office of Public Works. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  13. Jump up ^ “About Zoo – Zoo history.” Dublin Zoo. Retrieved ten May 2009.
  14. Jump up ^ Kilfeather, Siobhán Marie (2005). Dublin: a cultural history.Oxford University Press. pp. 115-116. ISBN 0-19-518201-4.
  15. Jump up ^ “Sights in the park”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  16. ^ Jump up to: ab “The Phoenix Park Conservation Management Plan: Consultation Draft March 2009” (PDF). Office of Public Works .March in 2009. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
  17. Jump up ^ careful Observer “Memories of half a century”, published in London (1838)
  18. Jump up ^ “Ambassador’s residence.” The Embassy of the United States: – Ireland. Retrieved 27 September of 2010.
  19. Jump up ^ “Ordnance Survey Ireland: A Brief History.” Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  20. Jump up ^ “McKee Barracks”. Dublin Public Library. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  21. Jump up ^ “Ratra House – A Brief History.” Civil Defence Ireland.Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  22. Jump up ^ “Nature and Biodiversity”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  23. Jump up ^ “Fauna”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  24. Jump up ^ “The Birds of Phoenix Park, County Dublin BirdWatch Ireland in March 2008” (PDF).
  25. Jump up ^ “Harney exempt Phoenix Park plan”. The Irish Times. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 11 August of 2010.
  26. Jump up ^ The Event . Retrieved 7 March 2007.
  27. Jump up ^ Phoenix Park race tracks. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
  28. Jump up ^ “Great day for a run as 11,000 take over the park.” Irish Independent. 19 April 2010. Retrieved April 25 of 2010.
  29. Jump up ^ “Race history”. Great Ireland Run. Retrieved April 25 of 2010.
  30. Jump up ^ International Times, January 1, 1980 – “UBI DWYER has launched a” Legalize it “campaign in Ireland”
  31. Jump up ^ International Times, August 1, 1977 – “Ubi streamlines its Shillelagh”
  32. Jump up ^ Memories of Ubi Dwyer – “The Phoenix Free Festival” by Gareth Byrne