Belfast ( / b ɛ l . F ɑː s t / eller / b ɛ l . F æ s t / , från Irish : Béal Feirste , som betyder ” mun av sandbankar “)  är huvudstad och största staden Nordirland , och i mitten av den tionde största Primär stadsgränsen i Storbritannien .  på Lagan , hade en befolkning på 286 tusen vid folkräkningen 2011 och 333.871 efter 2015 reform av rådet  Belfast beviljades stadsrättigheter 1888.
Belfast var ett centrum för de irländska linne , tobak, repslageri och varvsindustrin: i början av 20-talet, Harland and Wolff , som byggde RMS Titanic , var den största och mest produktiva varv i världen. Belfast spelade en nyckelroll i den industriella revolutionen , och var en global industrikoncern centrum förrän under senare delen av 20-talet.Industrialiseringen och inflyttning det tog gjort Belfast den största staden i Irland i början av 20-talet.
Idag är Belfast ett centrum för industrin, liksom konsten, högre utbildning, näringsliv, och lag, och är den ekonomiska motorn i Nordirland. Staden drabbades hårt under period av konflikter som kallas ” oroligheterna “, men på senare tid har genomgått en lång period av lugn, fri från den intensiva politiska våld av tidigare år, och betydande ekonomiska och kommersiella tillväxt. Dessutom, Belfast centrum har genomgått omfattande expansion och förnyelse under de senaste åren, särskilt runt Victoria Square .
Belfast har två flygplatser: George Best Belfast City Airport i staden, och Belfast International Airport 15 miles (24 km) väster om staden. Belfast är en stor hamn, med kommersiella och industriella bryggor dominerar Belfast Lough kusten, inklusive Harland and Wolff varvet och är noterat av Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) som englobal stad . 
Namnet Belfast kommer från den irländska Béal Feirsde , som senare stavat Béal Feirste .  Ordet Beal betyder “mun” eller “rivermouth” medan feirsde / feirste är genitiv singularis av fearsaid och hänvisar till en sandrev eller tidvatten ford över en flod mun.   namnet skulle alltså översätta ordagrant som “(flod) mynning sandrev” eller “(flod) mynning ford”.  Denna sandrev bildades vid sammanflödet av två floder på vad är nu Donegall Quay: den Lagan , som rinner ut i Belfast Lough och dess biflod Farset . Detta område var det nav kring vilket den ursprungliga bosättningen utvecklas.  Den irländska namn Béal Feirste delas av en townland i County Mayo , vars namn har anglicized somBelfarsad . 
En alternativ tolkning av namnet är “mun [floden] av sandrev”, en anspelning på floden Farset, som rinner ut i Lagan där sandrev var belägen. Denna tolkning gynnades avEdmund Hogan och John O’Donovan .  Det verkar dock klart, att själva floden fick sitt namn efter den tidvatten korsningen. 
I Ulster Scots namnet på staden är Bilfawst   eller Bilfaust ,  även om “Belfast” används också.  
Huvudartikel: History of Belfast
Även om länet stad i Belfast skapades när den beviljades stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888,  staden fortsätter att ses som gränsöverskridande County Antrim ochCounty Down . 
Platsen för Belfast har varit ockuperat sedan bronsåldern . Den Giant Ring , en 5000-årig henge , ligger nära staden,  och resterna av järnåldern fornborgar kan fortfarande ses i de omgivande bergen. Belfast förblev en liten bosättning av liten betydelse under medeltiden . John de Courcy byggt ett slott på vad som nu är Castle Street i stadens centrum på 12-talet, men det var i mindre skala och inte så strategiskt viktigt som Carrickfergus Castle till norr, som byggdes av de Courcy i 1177. O’Neill klanen hade en närvaro i området.
I den 14: e århundradet, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, ättlingar Aodh Buidhe O’Neill byggde Grey slott på Castlereagh, nu i östra delen av staden.  Conn O’Neill av Clannaboy O’Neills ägde stora landområden i området och var den sista invånare i Grey slott, en kvarvarande länk vara Conn Water flod som rinner genom östra Belfast. 
Belfast blev en betydande lösning i 17-talet efter att ha etablerats som en stad av Sir Arthur Chichester ,  som ursprungligen avgjordes av protestantiska engelska och skotska invandrare vid tidpunkten för Plantation of Ulster . (Belfast och länet Antrim, dock inte en del av denna Plantation system som de privatkoloniserade.) 1791, den United Irishmen grundades i Belfast, efter Henry Joy McCracken och andra framstående presbyterian från staden inbjuden Theobald Wolfe Tone och Thomas Russell till ett möte, efter att ha läst Tone s “Argument på uppdrag av katolikerna i Irland”.  Bevis på denna period av Belfast tillväxt kan fortfarande ses i de äldsta delarna av staden, som kallas inlägg .
Belfast blommade som en kommersiellt och industriellt centrum i den 18: e och 19-talen och blev Irlands framstående industristad. Industrier frodades, inklusive linne, repslageri, tobak, tung industri och varvsindustrin, och i slutet av 19-talet, gick om Belfast kort Dublin som den största staden i Irland. De Harland and Wolff varv blev en av de största skeppsbyggare i världen, som sysselsätter upp till 35.000 arbetare.  I 1886 staden drabbades intensiva upplopp i frågan om självstyre, som hade delat staden. 
I 1920-1922, blev Belfast huvudstad i den nya enheten i Nordirland som ön Irland delades . Den medföljande konflikten (den irländska frihetskriget ) kosta upp till 500 liv i Belfast, den blodigaste sekteristiska stridigheter i staden tills oroligheterna i slutet av 1960-talet. 
Belfast var kraftigt bombat under andra världskriget . I en räd, 1941, tyska bombplan dödade cirka tusen personer och lämnade tiotusentals hemlösa. Bortsett från London, var detta den största förlusten av liv i en nattrazzia under blitzen . 
Huvudartikel: De Troubles
Belfast har varit huvudstad i Nordirland sedan starten 1921 efter Government of Ireland Act 1920 . Det hade varit skådeplats för olika episoder av sekteristiska konflikt mellan dess katolska och protestantiska befolkning. Dessa motsatta grupper i denna konflikt nu ofta benämns republikan ochloyalist respektive, även om de är också löst kallade ” nationalistisk ” och ” fackförenings ‘. Det senaste exemplet på denna konflikt var känd som besvärar – en civil konflikt som rasade från cirka 1969 till 1998. 
1972 Donegall Street bombningarav provisoriska IRA
Belfast såg några av de värsta oroligheterna i Nordirland, särskilt under 1970-talet, med rivaliserande paramilitära grupper som bildats på båda sidor. Bombning, lönnmord och gatuvåld bildade en bakgrund till liv under oroligheterna. Den provisoriska IRA detonerade 22 bomber inom ramarna för Belfast centrum på 1972, på vad som är känt som ” blodiga fredagen “, dödade elva personer. Regeringstrogna paramilitärer inklusive Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) och Ulster Defence Association (UDA) hävdade att dödandet de genomförts var i vedergällning för IRA kampanjen . De flesta av deras offer var katoliker utan kopplingar till den provisoriska IRA.  En särskilt ökänd grupp, baserat på Shankill Road i mitten av 1970-talet, blev känd som Shankill Butchers .
Sammanlagt var över 1600 personer dödats i politiskt våld i staden mellan 1969 och 2001.  Sporadiska våldsamma händelser fortsätter från och med 2015 , även om det inte stöds av de tidigare antagonisterna som hade nått en politisk överenskommelse 1998.
Belfast beviljades stad status av Jakob I av England i 1613 och officiellt stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888.  Sedan 1973 har det varit en lokal styrningområde under lokal administrering av Belfast kommunfullmäktige . Belfast är representerat i både det brittiska underhuset och i Nordirlands beslutande församling . För val till Europaparlamentet , är Belfast i Nordirland valkretsen .
Belfast kommunfullmäktige är kommunen som ansvarar för staden. Stadens förtroendevalda är borgmästare Belfast , biträdande borgmästare och höga Sheriff som väljs bland 60fullmäktigeledamöter . Den första överborgmästare i Belfast var Daniel Dixon, som valdes i 1892.  Den borgmästare för 2016-17 är Alderman Brian Kingston i Demokratiska unionistparti , medan vice borgmästaren är Mary Ellen Campbell av Sinn Féin , både varav valdes i juni 2016 för att avtjäna ett år i taget. The Lord Mayor uppgifter hör ordförande över rådets möten, ta emot framstående besökare till staden, och företräda och främja staden på nationell och internationell nivå. 
1997, unionister förlorade övergripande kontroll över Belfast kommunfullmäktige för första gången i sin historia, med Alliance parti Nordirland vinner maktbalansen mellan nationalister och unionister. Denna ståndpunkt bekräftades i de tre efterföljande Valen, med borgmästare från Sinn Féin och socialdemokratiska och arbetarpartiet (SDLP), vilka båda är nationalistiska partier, och eftersom mellan befolkningsgrupperna alliansparti väljs regelbundet. Den första nationalistiska överborgmästare i Belfast var Alban Maginness av SDLP, 1997.
De senaste valen till Belfast kommunfullmäktige hölls den 22 maj 2014 med stadens väljare val sextio råds över tio distrikt val- områden . Resultaten var: 19 (3) Sinn Féin, 13 (-2)Demokratiska unionistparti (DUP), 8 (2) Alliance Party , 7 (-1) SDLP , 7 (4) Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) , 3 (1) Progressiv Unionist Party (PUP), med traditionella Unionist Voice . gröna ochmänniskor före vinst Alliance alla vinnande deras första platser. 
Belfast råd deltar i vänortssystemet ,  och kopplas samman med Nashville i USA,  Hefei i Kina,  och Boston i USA.  
Nordirländska församlingen och Westminster
Stormont är hem till den nordirländska församlingen.
För mer information om detta ämne, se Nordirland Montering och Storbritanniens parlament .
Se även: Belfast (Nordirland parlamentets valkretsar) och Belfast (UK parlamentvalkretsen)
Som Nordirlands huvudstad, är Belfast värd för nordirländska församlingen på Stormont , platsen för den decentraliserade lagstiftaren för Nordirland. Belfast är indelad i fyra Nordirland Montering och brittiska parlaments valkretsar: North Belfast , West Belfast , South Belfast och östra Belfast . Alla fyra sträcker sig utanför stadsgränserna för att inkludera delar avCastlereagh , Lisburn och Newtownabbey distrikt. I Nordirland Monterings Val i 2016 , valdes Belfast 24 medlemmar av den lagstiftande församlingen (MLAs), 6 från varje valkrets . Belfast valdes åtta DUP , 7 Sinn Féin , 3 SDLP , 3 Alliance Party , ett UUP , en grön och en PBPA MLAs.  I 2015 brittiska allmänna valet, valde Belfast en MP från varje valkrets till huset vid Westminster , London. Detta bestod av 2 DUP, en SDLP, och en Sinn Féin. 
Vapenskölden och motto
Belfast vapen antogs 1890
Staden Belfast har latinska motto ” Pro tanto quid retribuamus .” Detta är hämtat från Psaltaren 116 Vers 12 i den latinska Vulgate bibeln och är bokstavligen “För så mycket vad ska vi återbetala” Versen har översatts i biblar annorlunda – till exempel som “Vad skall jag göra till Herren för alla sina fördelar mot mig? “.  det är också översatt som” i gengäld så mycket, vad skall vi ge tillbaka? ”  den Queens University Students ‘Union Rag Week publikation PTQ har fått sitt namn från de tre första orden i mottot .
Den vapenskölden av staden utformades av John Vinycomb och skildras som Party per fesse argent och azurblå, chef en hög gråverk och på en kanton Gules en klocka argent, i botten ett skepp med segel satt argent på vågorna i havet korrekt . Denna heraldiska språk beskriver en sköld som är uppdelad i två horisontellt ( part per fesse ). Den övre ( chef ) av skärmen är silver ( argent ), och har en punkt-down triangel ( en stapel ) med en repeterande blå-vitt mönster som representerar päls ( Vair ). Det finns också en röd fyrkant i det övre hörnet ( en kantonen gules ) på vilken det finns en silverklocka. Det är troligt att klockan är ett exempel här på “sned” (eller punning) heraldik, som representerar den första stavelsen i Belfast. I den nedre delen av skärmen ( i bas ) finns en silver segelfartyg visas seglar på vågorna färgade i de faktiska färgerna i havet ( korrekt ). Den supporter på “Dexter” sida (höger sida, att notera att i heraldik “rätt och” vänster “är från bäraren av skölden perspektiv) är en kedjad wolf, medan den” illavarslande “(till vänster från innehavarens perspektiv) är en sjöhäst. den krönetovanför skärmen är också en sjöhäst. Dessa armar går tillbaka till 1613, när Jakob i av England beviljade Belfast stad status. den tätningen som används av Belfast köpmän hela 17-talet på sina skyltar och handels-mynt.  ett stort blyinfattade fönster i stads~~POS=TRUNC visar armarna, där en förklaring antyder att sjöhäst och fartyget avser Belfast betydande maritima historia. vargen kan vara en hyllning till stadens grundare, Sir Arthur Chichester , och hänvisar till sin egen vapensköld. 
Flygfoto över Belfast.
Belfast är i den västra delen av Belfast Lough och vid mynningen av floden Lagan ger det en idealisk plats för varvsindustrin som en gång gjorde det berömda. När Titanic byggdes i Belfast i 1911-1912, Harland and Wolff hade den största varvet i världen.  Belfast ligger på Nordirlands östra kust vid 54 ° 35’49 “N 05 ° 55’45” W . En konsekvens av denna nordliga breddgrad är att det både tål korta vinterdagar och har långa sommarkvällar. Under vintersolståndet , är lokal solnedgång den kortaste dagen på året före 16:00 medan soluppgången är ca 08:45.Detta balanseras av sommarsolståndet i juni, när solen går ner efter 22:00 och stiger före 05:00. 
År 1994 en fördämning byggdes över floden från Laganside Corporation att höja den genomsnittliga vattennivån så att det skulle täcka de opassande lera lägenheter som gav Belfast sitt namn  (från irländsk Béal Feirste , som betyder “Sand ford på mynningen “).  området Belfast Local Government District är 42,31 kvadrat miles (109,6 km 2 ). 
Den floden Farset är också uppkallad efter detta slam insättning (från den irländska Feirste betyder “sand spotta”). Ursprungligen en större flod än vad det är idag, Farset bildade en brygga på High Street fram till mitten av 19-talet. Bank Street i stadens centrum hänvisade till älvstranden och Bridge Street namngavs för platsen för en tidig Farset bro.  Ersatt av floden Lagan som viktigare floden i staden, försmäktar i Farset nu i dunkel, enligt high Street. Det finns inte mindre än elva andra mindre vattendrag i och runt Belfast, nämligen Blackstaff, Colin, den Connswater, den Cregagh, den Derriaghy, Forth, Knock, den Legoniel, den Milewater, den Purdysburn och Ravernet. [57 ]
Cavehill , en basalt kulle med utsikt över staden
Staden omges i norr och nordväst av en rad kullar, inklusive Divis Mountain , Black Mountain och Cavehill , tros vara inspirationen för Jonathan Swift’s Gullivers resor . När Swift bodde på Lilliput stuga nära botten av Belfasts Kalksten Road, inbillade han att Cavehill liknade formen av en sovande jätte skydda staden.  Formen på jätte näsa, som lokalt kallas Napoleons näsa , officiellt kallas McArt Fort namnges förmodligen efter konst O’Neill, en 17-tals hövdingen som kontrollerade området vid den tiden.  de Castlereagh Hills utsikt över staden på den sydöstra.
Liksom resten av Irland, har Belfast en tempererat eller havsklimat, med ett smalt intervall av temperaturer och regn under hela året. Klimatet i Belfast är betydligt mildare än vissa andra platser i världen på en liknande latitud, på grund av uppvärmningen påverkan av Golfströmmen. Det finns för närvarande 5 väder observera stationer i Belfast: Helens Bay, Stormont, Newforge, Castlereagh och Ravenhill Road. Lite längre bort är Aldergrove Airport.  Den högsta uppmätta temperaturen vid någon officiell väderstation i Belfast var 30,8 ° C (87 ° F) vid Shaws Bridge den 12 juli 1983.  Belfast innehar rekordet för Nordirlands varmaste natten minst 19,6 ° C (67,3 ° F) vid Whitehouse den 14 augusti 2001. 
Staden blir kraftig nederbörd (större än 1 mm) på 157 dagar i ett genomsnittligt år med en genomsnittlig årlig nederbörd på 846 mm (33,3 tum),  mindre än områden i norra England eller de flesta av Skottland ,  , men högre än Dublin eller sydöstra kusten av Irland.  Som en urban och kustområde, Belfast blir vanligtvis snö på färre än 10 dagar per år.  den absoluta maximala temperaturen vid väderstationen i Stormont är 29,7 ° C ( 85 ° F), utspelar sig under juli 1983.  i ett genomsnittligt år den varmaste dagen kommer att stiga till en temperatur av 24,4 ° C (75,9 ° F)  med en dag av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller ovan inträffar ungefär en gång vartannat i tre år.  den absoluta minimitemperatur på Stormont är -9,9 ° C (14 ° F), under januari 1982  men i ett genomsnittligt år den kallaste natten faller lägre än -4,5 ° C (24 ° F) med luft frost registreras på bara 26 nätter.  Den lägsta temperaturen att inträffa under de senaste åren var -8,8 ° C (16,2 ° F) den 22 december 2010. 
Den närmaste väderstationen som solsken data och långsiktiga observationer längre finns är Belfast International Airport ( Aldergrove ). Extrema temperaturer här har något mer variation på grund av den mer inre platsen. Den genomsnittliga varmaste dag på Alder exempelvis kommer att nå en temperatur av 25,4 ° C (77,7 ° F),  (1,0 ° C [1,8 ° F] högre än Stormont) och 2,1 dagar  bör uppnå en temperatur av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller högre totalt.Omvänt den kallaste natten medel år -6,6 ° C (20,1 ° F)  (eller 1,9 ° C [3,4 ° F] lägre än Stormont) och 39 nätter bör registrera en luft frost.  Några 13 mer frostiga nätter än Stormont. Den lägsta temperatur vid Alder var -14,2 ° C (6 ° F), under december 2010.
Areas and Districts
Main article: Subdivisions in Belfast
For more information about the City Layout, see § Transport in Belfast city layout.
Belfast expanded very rapidly from being a market town to become an industrial town during the 19th century. Because of this, it is less an agglomeration of villages and cities that have expanded into each other, than other comparable cities, such as Manchester or Birmingham. The city expanded into the natural barrier of the hills that surround it, overwhelming other settlements. Accordingly roads along which the expansion took place (e.g., Falls Road or Newtownards Road) is greater than in the districts define nuclear settlements. Belfast is still segregated by walls, commonly known as the “peace lines”, built by the British army after August 1969, and which still divide 14 districts in the inner city.  In 2008, a process was proposed for the removal of “peace walls”.  In June 2007, a £ 16 million program announced that will change and clean up the streets and public places in the center.  Major thoroughfares (quality bus corridor) in the city include the Antrim Road, Shore Road, Holywood Road, Newtownards Road , Castlereagh Road, Cregagh Road, Ormeau Road, Malone Road, Lisburn Road, Falls Road, Springfield Road, Shankill Road, and Crumlin Road, Four Winds. 
Belfast city center is divided into two postcode districts, BT1 for the area located north of the City Hall, and BT2 for the area in the south. Industrial and Docklands BT3. The rest of Belfast for the city is divided roughly clockwise systems from BB3 in northeast around to BT15, BT16 and BT17 with further out to the east and west respectively. ÄvenBT derived from Belfast, the BT postcode area stretches across Northern Ireland. 
Since 2001, boosted by increasing the number of tourists, the City Council has developed a number of cultural quarters. The Cathedral Quarter takes its name from St Anne’s Cathedral (Church of Ireland) and has taken on the mantle of the city’s most important cultural city.  It hosts an annual visual and performing arts festival.
Custom House Square is one of the city’s largest outdoor places for free concerts and street entertainment. The Gaeltacht Quarter is an area around the Falls Road in West Belfast which promotes and encourages the use of the Irish language.  The Queen’s Quarter of South Belfast is named after Queens University. The area has a high proportion of students and hosts the annual Belfast Festival at Queens every autumn. It is home to botanical gardens and the Ulster Museum, which reopened in 2009 after extensive refurbishment.  The Golden Mile is the name of the mile between Belfast City Hall and Queen’s University. With the Dublin Road, Great Victoria Street, Shaftesbury Square, Bradbury Place, contains some of the best bars and restaurants in the city.  Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the nearby Lisburn Road has developed into the city’s most exclusive shopping strip.   Finally, the Titanic Quarter covers 0.75 km 2 (0 sq mi) of reclaimed land adjacent to Belfast Harbour, formerly known as the Queen of Iceland. Named after the RMS Titanic, which was built here in 1912,  work has begun which promises to transform some former shipyard land into “one of the largest waterfront development in Europe”.  The plans include apartments, a river entertainment district, and a major Titanic-themed museum. 
Main articles: Architecture Belfast, Buildings in Belfast, and List of tallest buildings and structures in Belfast
The architectural style of Belfast buildings ranging from Edwardian, like City Hall, the mother, who Waterfront Hall. Many of the city’s Victorian landmarks, including the viktigasteLanyon building at Queens University Belfast and Line Hall Library, designed by Sir Charles Lanyon.
City Hall was completed in 1906 and was built to reflect Belfast city status, granted by Queen Victoria in 1888. The Edwardian architectural style of Belfast City Hall influenced Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, India, and Durban City Hall in South Africa.   The dome is 173 feet (53 m) high and numbers above the door state “Hibernia encouraging and promoting commerce and art in the city.” 
Among the city’s most beautiful buildings are two former banks: Ulster Bank in Waring Street (built in 1860) and Northern Bank, in nearby Donegall Street (built in 1769). The Royal Courts of Justice in Chichester Street is home to Northern Ireland’s highest court. Many of Belfast’s oldest buildings are the Cathedral Quarter area, which is currently undergoing redevelopment as the city’s largest cultural and tourist area.  Windsor House, 262 feet (80 m) high, has 23 floors and is the second tallest building (as opposed to the structure) in Ireland.  Work has begun on longer Obel Tower, which already surpasses the height of the Windsor House in its unfinished state.
Scottish Provident Institution, an example of Victorian architecture in Belfast
Ornately decorated Crown Liquor Saloon, designed by Joseph Anderson in 1876, in Great Victoria Street is one of only two pubs in the UK owned by the National Trust (the other is the George Inn, Southwark in London). It was made internationally famous as the setting for the classic film, Odd Man Out, starring James Mason.  The restaurant panels in the Crown Bar was originally made for Britannic, the sister ship of the Titanic,  built in Belfast.
Harland and Wolff shipyard has two of the largest dry docks in Europe, , where giant cranes, Samson and Goliath stand out against Belfast’s skyline. Including Waterfront Hall and the Odyssey Arena, Belfast has several other venues for the performing arts. The architecture of the Grand Opera House has an oriental theme and was completed in 1895. It was bombed several times during the unrest, but has now been restored to its former glory.  The Lyric Theatre, (re-opened May 1, 2011 after undergoing a refurbishment program) is the only full-time producing theater in the country, where film star Liam Neeson began his career.  The Ulster Hall (1859-1862) was originally designed for large dances but now mainly used as a concert and sporting venue. Lloyd George, Parnell and Patrick Pearse all attended political rallies there. 
Parks and gardens
Main article: List of parks and gardens in Belfast
Palm House in Botanic Gardens
Sitting at the mouth of the River Lagan where it becomes a deep and protected lough, Belfast is surrounded by mountains that create a microclimate that promotes horticulture. From the Victorian Botanic Gardens in the heart of the city to the heights of Cave Hill Country Park, the large expanse of Lagan Valley Regional Park  to Colin Glen, Belfast contains an abundance of park and forest parks. 
Parks and gardens are an integral part of Belfast’s heritage, and home to an abundance of local wildlife and popular places for a picnic, a stroll or a jog. A large number of events take place throughout including festivals such as Rose Week and special activities such as bird watching evenings and great beast hunts. 
Belfast has over forty public parks. Forest of Belfast is a partnership between the state and local groups in 1992 to manage and conserve the city’s parks and open spaces. They have ordered more than 30 public sculptures since 1993.  In 2006, the City Council set aside £ 8 million to continue this work.  The Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club was founded in 1863 and is administered by the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. 
With an average of 670,000 visitors per year between 2007 and 2011, is one of the most popular parks, the Botanic Gardens,  in the Queen’s Quarter. Built in 1830 and designed by Sir Charles Lanyon, Botanic Gardens Palm House is one of the earliest examples of a curvilinear and cast iron greenhouse.  Other attractions in the park include the Tropical Ravine, a humid jungle glen built in 1889, rose gardens and public events ranging from live opera broadcasts to pop concerts.  U2 played here in 1997. Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park, south of the city center, attracts thousands of visitors each year to its International Rose Garden.  Rose the week of July each year features over 20,000 summer.  It has an area of 128 acres (0.52 km 2) by meadows, forests and gardens and has a Diana memorial garden, a Japanese garden, a walled garden, and Golden Crown Fountain commissioned in 2002 as part of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee celebrations. 
In 2008, Belfast finalist in the big city (200,001 and over) category of the RHS Britain in Bloom competition along with the London Borough of Croydon and Sheffield.
Belfast Zoo is owned by Belfast City Council. The Council spends £ 1.5 million each year to run and promote the zoo, which is one of the few local government-funded zoos in the UK and Ireland. The zoo is one of the best visit the attractions of Northern Ireland, which receives more than 295,000 visitors per year. The majority of the animals are endangered in their natural habitat. The zoo houses more than 1,200 animals of 140 species, including Asian elephants, Barbary lions, Malayan sun bears (one of the few in the UK), two species of penguin, a family of western lowland gorilla, a squad common chimpanzees, a pair of red pandas , a pair of Goodfellow tree-kangaroos and Francois’ langurs. The zoo also carries out important conservation work and participates in European and international breeding programs that help to ensure the survival of many endangered species. 
For more information on this topic, see List of people from Belfast.
Ethnic groups in the census 2011
Irish Member (0.08%)
At the 2001 census, the population was 276,459,  whereas 579.554 people lived in the wider Belfast Metropolitan Area.  This was the fifteenth largest city in the UK, but the eleventh largest metropolitan region.  Belfast experienced a huge growth in population in the first half of the twentieth century. This increase subsided and reached around the beginning of the unrest in 1971 census shows nearly 600,000 people in Belfast city limits.  Since then, the inner city numbers have dropped dramatically as people have moved to swell the Greater Belfast suburb population. The 2001 census population in the city limits had dropped to 277.391  people, with 579.554 people living in the greater Belfast Metropolitan Area.  The 2001 census registered 81.650 people from Catholic backgrounds and 79.650 people from Protestant backgrounds in working age live in Belfast.  The population density in 2011 was 24.88 people / hectare (compared to 1.34 for the rest of Northern Ireland).  Like many cities, Belfast city center is characterized today by the elderly, students and single young people, while families tend to live in the periphery. Socio-economic areas radiate out from the Central Business District, with a pronounced wedge of prosperity extends Malone Road and Upper Malone Road in the south.  An area of greater loss extends to the west of the city. The areas around the Falls and Shankill Roads are the most deprived wards in Northern Ireland. 
Despite a period of relative peace, most areas and districts of Belfast still reflect the divided nature of Northern Ireland as a whole. Many areas are still very segregated along ethnic, political and religious lines, especially in working-class areas.  These zones – Catholic / Republican on the one hand and the Protestant / Loyalist on the other – is always marked by flags, graffiti and murals. Segregation has existed throughout the history of Belfast, but has been maintained and increased by any outbreak of violence in the city. This escalation of segregation, described as a “ratchet effect”, have shown few signs of easing.  When violence flares, it tends to be in interface areas. The highest levels of segregation in the city are in West Belfast with many areas greater than 90% Catholics. Opposite but comparatively high levels seen in predominantly Protestant east Belfast.  Areas where segregated working-class areas meet is called interface areas and sometimes marked by peace lines.
Ethnic minority communities have been in Belfast since the 1930s.  The largest groups are Poles, Chinese and Indians.   Since the enlargement of the EU, the numbers have increased by an influx of Eastern European immigrants. Census figures (2011) showed that Belfast has a total non-white population of 10,219, or 3.3%,  while 18,420, or 6.6%  of the population born outside the UK and Ireland.  Nearly half of those born outside the UK and Ireland live in South Belfast, where they make up 9.5% of the population.  Most of the estimated 5,000 Muslims  and 200 Hindu families  living in Northern Ireland living in the Greater Belfast area.
Judging by the fact that 6.6% of the population was born outside the UK, it is likely that Belfast is approximately 92.5% White Irish / British and 3.3% non-white. This makes the city about as ethnically diverse as Sunderland and York.
Belfast City Council area in 2011 census
Percent Catholic or raised Catholic
The most cited national identity
Percentage of people born outside the UK and Ireland
Main article: Economy of Belfast
The IRA ceasefire in 1994 and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 has given investors confidence to invest in Belfast.   This has led to a period of sustained economic growth and large-scale reconstruction of the city center. Developments include Victoria Square, the Cathedral Quarter, and Laganside with the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall.
Waterfront Hall. Built in 1997, is a concert hall, exhibition and conference center.
Other important developments include the regeneration of the Titanic Quarter, and the construction of the Obel Tower, a skyscraper set to be the tallest tower on the island.  Today, Belfast Northern Ireland educational and commercial hub. In February 2006, Belfast unemployment at 4.2%, lower than both Northern Ireland  and the average British 5.5%.  In the past 10 years, employment has grown by 16.4 percent, compared with 9.2 per cent for the UK as a whole. 
Northern Ireland’s peace has led to soaring property prices in the city. In 2007, Belfast saw house prices grow by 50%, the fastest growth rate in the UK.  In March 2007, the average house in Belfast cost £ 91,819, with the average in South Belfast is £ 141,000.  In 2004, Belfast had the lowest utilization owners in Northern Ireland at 54%. 
Fred has increased the number of tourists coming to Belfast. There were 6.4 million visitors in 2005, an increase of 8.5% from 2004. The visitors spent £ 285.2 million, supporting more than 15,600 jobs.  The number of visitors increased by 6% to 6.8 million in 2006, with tourists spending £ 324 million, an increase of 15% compared to 2005.  the city’s two airports have contributed to making the city one of the most visited weekend destinations in Europe. 
Belfast has been the fastest growing economy in the thirty largest cities in the UK over the past decade, a new economy report by Howard Spencer found. “It is because [of] the fundamentals of the UK economy, and [why] people actually want to invest in the UK,” he commented on the report. 
BBC Radio 4’s World reported furthermore that despite higher corporation tax in the UK than in the Republic. There are “large quantities” of foreign investment coming into the country.
Times wrote about Belfast’s growing economy: “According to the region’s development agency, in the 1990s Northern Ireland had the fastest growing regional economy in the UK, with GDP increasing by 1 percent per year faster than the rest of the country. any modern economy, the services sector is crucial for the development of Northern Ireland and enjoys good growth. in particular, the region has a thriving tourist industry with record levels of visitors and tourist revenues and has established itself as an important location for call centers. “ Since the end of the conflict areas, tourism has the biggest in Northern Ireland, heavily using low cost. 
Der Spiegel, a German weekly newspaper of politics and economy, titled Belfast as The New Celtic Tiger which is “open for business”. 
A 1907 stereoscopic postcards showing the construction of a passenger liner (RMS Adriatic) at Harland and Wolff shipyard
As the population of Belfast town began to grow in the 17th century, its economy based on trade.  It provided a market for the surrounding countryside and the natural inlet of Belfast Lough gave the city its own port. Gateway delivered a route for trade with Britain and later Europe and North America. In the middle of the 17th century Belfast exported beef, butter, hides, tallow and corn and it imported coal, cloth, wine, brandy, paper, wood and tobacco. 
At this time, linen trade in Northern Ireland blossomed and in the mid-18th century, one fifth of all the linen exported from Ireland delivered from Belfast.  The present town, however, is a product of the industrial revolution.  it was not until industry transformed linen and shipbuilding industries as the economy and population greatest. At the turn of the 19th century, Belfast had turned into the largest linen producing center in the world,  earning the nickname “Linenopolis”.
Belfast Harbor was dredged in 1845 to provide deeper berths for larger ships. Donegall Quay was built out into the river when the harbor was developed further and trade flourished.  The Harland and Wolff shipyard was founded in 1861, and at the time the Titanic was built, in 1912, it had become the largest shipyard in the world. 
Samson and Goliath, Harland & Wolff’s gantry cranes.
Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company based in Belfast. It was the first aircraft manufacturing companies in the world. The company began its cooperation with Belfast in 1936, with short and Harland Ltd., a company jointly owned by Shorts and Harland and Wolff. Now known as Shorts Bombardier it works as an international aircraft manufacturer is located near the port of Belfast. 
The rise of mass-produced and cotton clothing after World War I were some of the factors that led to the decline of Belfast’s international linen trade.  Like many British cities dependent on traditional heavy industry, Belfast suffered serious decline since the 1960s, become much worse during the 1970s and 1980s by the unrest. More than 100,000 manufacturing jobs have disappeared since the 1970s.  For decades, requires Northern Ireland’s fragile economy significant public support from the British exchequer of up to £ 4 billion per year. 
niversity of Ulster, Belfast Campus
Belfast saw the worst unrest in Northern Ireland, with almost half of the total deaths in the conflict occurring in the city. Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, there has been a significant urban renewal in the city center, including Victoria Square, Queens Island and Laganside and the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall. The city has two airports: DenGeorge Best Belfast City Airport adjacent to Belfast Lough and Belfast International Airport which is near Lough Neagh. Queens University in Belfast is the largest university in staden.Den University of Ulster also maintains a campus in the city, which concentrates on art, design and architecture.
Belfast is one of the constituent towns that make up the Dublin-Belfast corridor region, which has a population of just under 3 million.
Silent Valley Reservoir, showing the masonry spills
Most of Belfast’s water is supplied from the Silent Valley Reservoir in County Down, created to collect water from the Mourne Mountains.  The rest of the city’s water comes from Lough Neagh, via Dunore water treatment plant in County Antrim.  the citizens of Belfast pay for their water in their rates bill. Plans to bring in additional water tariffs have been shot divisional centralization in May 2007.  Belfast has about 1300 km (808 mi) of sewage, which is currently being replaced in a project costing over £ 100 million and will be completed in 2009. 
Northern Ireland Electricity is responsible for the transmission of electricity in Northern Ireland. Belfast electricity comes from Kilroot Power Station, a 520 megawatt dual coal and oil fired plant, located näraCarrickfergus.  Phoenix Natural Gas Ltd. began supplying customers in the Greater Belfast and Larne with natural gas in 1996 through the newly Scotland-Northern Ireland pipeline.  prices in Belfast (and the rest of Northern Ireland) was reformed in April 2007. The discrete capital value system means rates bills are determined by the capital value of each domestic property assessed avvärderings and Lands Agency.  The recent dramatic increase in house prices has made these reforms unpopular. 
The Belfast Health & Social Care Trust is one of five trusts created April 1, 2007 by the Department of Health. Belfast contains most of Northern Ireland’s regional specialist centers.  The Royal Victoria Hospital is an internationally recognized center of excellence in trauma care and provide specialized trauma care for the whole of Northern Ireland.  It also gives the city a specialist neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ENT and dental services. The Belfast City Hospital is the regional specialist center for hematology and is home to a cancer center that competes with the best in the world.  The Mary G McGeown Regional Nephrology Unit at the city hospital’s kidney transplant center, the regional renal services for Northern Ireland.  Musgrave Park Hospital in south Belfast specializes in orthopedics, rheumatology, sports medicine and rehabilitation. It is home to Northern Ireland first acquired brain injury unit, costing £ 9 million and opened by the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall in May 2006.  Other hospitals in Belfast include the Mater Hospital in north Belfast and Children’s Hospital
Main article: Transport in Belfast
Great Victoria Street station Northern Ireland Railways
Belfast is a relatively car-dependent city by European standards, with an extensive network of roads including the 22.5 miles (36 km) M2 and M22 motorway route.  A 2005 study of how people travel in Northern Ireland showed that people in Belfast made 77% of all journeys by car, 11% by public transport and 6% on foot.  it showed that Belfast has 0.70 cars per household compared to figures of 1.18 and 1.14 in the East in the Western Northern Ireland.  A road improvement systems in Belfast began in early 2006, with the upgrading of two junctions along West dual carriageway for overpass standard. The improvement scheme was completed five months earlier than planned in February 2009 with the official opening will take place on 4 March 2009. 
Commentators have argued that this could create a bottleneck at York Street, the next street intersection, until it also upgraded. [Citation needed] On October 25, 2012 Stage 2 report for York Street intersection approved  and in December 2012 planned upgrade moved into the third stage of the development process. If successfully completed the necessary statutory procedures, work on the flyover to connect the West to the M2 / M3 motorway is scheduled to take place between 2014 and 2018,  to create a continuous link between M1 and M2, the two main highways in Northern Ireland.
Black taxis are common in the city, which operates on a stock basis in some areas.  These outnumbered by private hire taxis. The bus and rail public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by a subsidiary of TransLink. Bus services in the city proper and the closer suburbs operated by Translink Metro, with services that focus on connecting residential areas with the city center in 12kvalitet bus corridors running along the main radial roads, 
More distant suburbs are served by Ulsterbus. Northern Ireland Railways provides suburban services along three lines running through Belfast’s northern suburbs to Carrickfergus, Larne and Larne Harbour eastwards towards Bangor and south west towards Lisburn and Portadown. This service is called the Belfast Suburban Rail system. Belfast is linked directly to Coleraine, Portrush and Derry. Belfast has a direct train to Dublin called Enterprise which is run jointly by the NIR and Iarnród Éireann, the national railway company of the Republic of Ireland. There is no train service to cities in other countries in the UK, because of the lack of a bridge or tunnel connecting Britain to the island of Ireland. However, there is a combined ferry and train ticket between Belfast and the cities in the UK, called Sail Rail. 
In April 2008, the Department for Regional Development, reported on a plan for a light rail system, similar to the one in Dublin. The consultants said Belfast do not have the population to support a tramway, which suggests that investment in bus-based rapid transit would be preferable.The study showed that bus-based rapid transit produces positive economic results, but light rail do not. The report by Atkins & KPMG, however, said that there would be an opportunity to migrate to the light rail in the future should the increased demand.  
The city has two airports: Belfast International Airport offers domestic, European and international flights to Newark (New York) operated by United Airlines, Orlando and Las Vegas are both operated by Thomas Cook. The seasonal flight to Orlando is also operated by Virgin Atlantic. The airport is located northwest of the city, near Lough Neagh, while George Best Belfast City Airport, which is closer to the center by train from Sydenham påBangor Line, adjacent to Belfast Lough, offers UK domestic flights and some European flights. In 2005, Belfast International Airport was the 11th busiest commercial airport in the UK, which accounts for just over 2% of all UK terminal passengers while George Best Belfast City Airport was the 16th busiest and had a% of UK terminal passenger. Belfast – Liverpool route is the busiest domestic route in the UK, excluding London with 555.224 passengers in 2009. Over 2.2 million passengers flew between Belfast and London in 2009. 
Belfast has a large port used for exports and imports of goods and passenger ferry service. Stena Line operates regular routes to Cairnryan in Scotland using their conventional vessels – with an overpass of about 2 hours and 15 minutes. Until 2011, the route went to Stranraer and used, among other things, a HSS (High Speed Service) vessel – with a crossing of about 90 minutes. Stena Line also operates a route to Liverpool. A seasonal sailing to Douglas, Isle of Man operated by Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.
Main article: Culture of Belfast
AC / DC with Bon Scott (center) pictured with guitarist Angus Young (left) and bassist Cliff Williams (back), performing at the Ulster Hall in August 1979
Belfast’s population is evenly split between the Protestant and Catholic residents.  These two distinct cultural groups both have contributed greatly to the city’s culture. Full Troubles, Belfast artists continued to express themselves through poetry, art and music. In the period since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, Belfast has begun a social, economic and cultural transformation gives it a growing international cultural reputation.  In 2003, Belfast had an unsuccessful bid for the 2008 European Capital of Culture. The bid was run by an independent company, Imagine Belfast, who boasted that it would “make the Belfast venue for Europe’s legends, where the sense of history and faith find a home and a sanctuary from caricature, parody and oblivion.”  According to The Guardian the bid may have been undermined by its history and volatile politics. 
2004-05, the arts and cultural events in Belfast attended 1.8 million people (400,000 more than last year). That same year, 80,000 people participated in cultural and arts activities, twice as many as in 2003-04.  A combination of relative peace, international investment and the active promotion of art and culture attract more tourists to Belfast than ever before. 2004-05, 5.9 million people visited Belfast, an increase of 10% compared with the previous year, and spent £ 262.5 million. 
The Beatles come to the Ritz Cinema, Belfast after their concert November 8 in 1963.
The Ulster Orchestra, based in Belfast, Northern Ireland is the only full-time symphony orchestra and is well known in the UK. Founded in 1966, it has existed in its present form since 1981, when the BBC Northern Orchestra disbanded.  The music school Queens University is responsible for arranging a remarkable series of lunchtime and evening concerts, often given by renowned musicians who usually given in Harty Room at the university (University Square).
There are many traditional Irish bands playing throughout the city and a lot of music schools concentrate on teaching traditional music. Well-known city center venues would include Kelly’s Cellars, Maddens and the Hercules bar. Famous artists would include McPeakes, Brian Kennedy and the band 9Lies.
Musicians and bands have written songs about or dedicated to Belfast: U2, Van Morrison, Snow Patrol, Simple Minds, Elton John, Rogue Male, Katie Melua, Boney M., Paul Muldoon, Stiff Little Fingers, Nanci Griffith, Glenn Patterson, Orbital James Taylor, Fun Boy Three, Spandau Ballet, The Police, Barnbrack, Gary Moore, Neon Neon, toxic waste, and energy Orchard.
Furthermore, in Belfast the Oh Yeah Music Centre located (Cathedral Quarter), a project that was founded to give young musicians and artists a place where they can share ideas and get started his music career as a chance to be supported and promoted by professional musicians Northern Irish music scene.
Belfast has a long underground club scene, which was formed in the early 1980s. 
Like all areas of the island of Ireland outside the Gaeltacht, the Irish in Belfast not an unbroken intergenerational transmission. Because of the Community’s activities in the 1960s, including the establishment of Shaws Road Gaeltacht community, vast in Irish art, and the progress made in the availability of Irish medium education in the city, it can now be said that there is a “native” community of speakers. [Dubious – discuss]. language is heavily promoted in the city and is particularly visible in the Falls Road, where the signs of both the iconic black taxis and buses are bilingual  Belfast has the highest concentration of Irish speakers in Northern Ireland.  Project to promote language the city funded by various sources, especially Foras na Gaeilge, an all-Ireland body funded by both the Irish and British governments. There are a number of Irish primary schools and a secondary school in Belfast. The provision of certain resources for these schools (such as the provision of textbooks) are supported by the charity of the TACA.
Belfast Telegraph Headquarters
Belfast is home to the Belfast Telegraph, Irish News and Newsletter, the oldest English-language newspaper in the world still in publication.   The city has a number of free publications including Fate magazine, Go Belfast and Vacuum, distributed through bar, cafes and public places.
The city is the headquarters of BBC Northern Ireland, ITV station UTV and commercial radio stations Belfast City Beat and U105. Two community radio stations, Tops 106 and Irish-language station Raidió Fáilte, sent to the city from west Belfast, as well as Queen Radio, a student-run radio station that broadcasts from Queens University Student Union. One of Northern Ireland’s two community television stations, nvtv, is based in the Cathedral Quarter of the city. There are two independent cinemas in Belfast: the Queens Film Theatre and the Beach Cinema, which host screenings during the Belfast Film Festival and the Belfast Festival at Queens. Sending only through the Internet is homely Planet, culture radio station for Northern Ireland, which supports community relations. 
The city has become a popular film location; Paint Hall at Harland and Wolff has become one of the UK Film Council’s main studios. The complex consists of four stages of 16,000 square feet (1000 m 2). Show filmed at The Paint Hall feature film City of Ember (2008) and HBO’s Game of Thrones series (starting in late 2009).
In November 2011, Belfast was the smallest city to host the MTV Europe Music Awards.  The event was hosted by Selena Gomez and celebrities like Justin Bieber, Jessie J, Hayden Panettiere, and Lady Gaga traveled to Northern Ireland to take part in the event, held at the Odyssey Arena. 
Main article: Sport in Belfast
The Kingspan Stadium is home förUlster Rugby
Belfast has several notable sports teams playing a variety of sports such as soccer, Gaelic games, rugby, cricket and hockey. The Belfast Marathon is run annually on the first of May, and attracted 20,000 participants in 2011. 
The Northern Ireland football team, ranked 43rd October 2014 in the World Cup Rankings,  play their home games at Windsor Park. The current Irish League champions Crusaders are based at Seaview, in the northern part of the city. Other Premier teams include 2008/09 champions Glentoran, Linfield and Cliftonville. Intermediate-level clubs are: Donegal Celtic, Dundela, Harland & Wolff Welders, Newington Youth, PSNI, Queen’s University, and Sports & Leisure Swifts, who specializes in NIFL Championship; Albert Foundry FC, Ballysillan Swifts, Bloomfield FC, Crumlin Star FC, East Belfast FC Grove United FC, Immaculata FC, Malachians FC, Orange Old Boys’ Association FC, Rosario Youth Club FC, St. Patrick Young Men FC, Shankill United FC, short Brothers FC and Sirocco Works FC in the northern Amateur Football League and Brantwood Ballymena & Provincial League. Belfast was the hometown of Manchester United legend George Best who died in November 2005. On the day he was buried in the city, 100,000 people lined the road from his home on the Cregagh road to Roselawn Cemetery.  Since his dödCity Airport was named after him and trust has been set up to fund a memorial to him in the center. 
Gaelic football is the most popular spectator sport in Ireland,  and Belfast is home to over twenty football and hurling clubs.  Casement Park in west Belfast, home to the Antrim county teams, has a capacity of 32,000, making it the second largest Gaelic Athletic Association ground in Ulster.  The 1999 Heineken Cup champions Ulster Rugby plays at Kingspan Stadium in the southern part of the city. Belfast has four teams in rugby’s All-Ireland League: Belfast Harlequinsi Division 1B; and Instonians, Queen’s University and Malone in Division 2A.
Ice hockey is one of Northern Ireland’s most popular sports mainly down to it’s home to one of the largest British clubs, the Belfast Giants. The Giants founded in 2000 and play their matches at the 9500 capacity Odyssey Arena, the audience normally range from 4.000 to 7.000. Many ex-NHL players have been featured on the Giants roster, none more famous than the world super Theo Fleury. The Giants play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League is the top league in England. The Giants have been league champions four times, most recently in the 2013-14 season. The Belfast Giants is a huge brand in Northern Ireland and their growing stature in the game led to the Belfast Giants play the Boston Bruins in the NHL, October 2, 2010 at Odyssey Arena in Belfast, losing the game 5-1.
Other notable athletes from Belfast include double world snooker champion Alex “Hurricane” Higgins  and world champion boxers Wayne McCullough and Rinty Monaghan.  Leander ASC is a well known swimming club in Belfast. Belfast produced Formula One racing stars John Watson, who competed in five different teams during his career in the 1970s and 1980s, and Ferrari driver Eddie Irvine.
Gerry Adams, outpatient Main article: List of people from Belfast
A blue plaque adorned Belfast birthplace of former President IsraelChaim Herzog
- John Stewart Bell, a physicist
- George Best, soccer players, Ballon d’Or winner
- Danny Blanchflower, footballer and manager
- Jackie Blanchflower football
- Sir Kenneth Branagh, actor
- Christopher Brown, football player
- Jocelyn Bell Burnell, astro
- Patrick Carlin, Victoria Cross recipients
- Ciaran Carson, author
- Frank Carson, comedian
- Craig Cathcart, footballer
- Shaw Clifton, former General of the Salvation Army
- Lord Craigavon, former Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
- Mal Donaghy, footballer
- Jamie Dornan, actor
- Barry Douglas, musicians
- John Boyd Dunlop, inventor
- Jonny Evans, football
- Corry Evans, football
- Carl Frampton, boxer
- Sir James Galway, musicians
- Craig Gilroy, rugby union players
- Chaim Herzog, former president of Israel
- Alex Higgins, snooker player
- Eamonn Holmes, programs
- Paddy Jackson, rugby union players
- Oliver Jeffers, artist
- Lord Kelvin, physicist and engineer
- CS Lewis, author
- James Joseph Magennis, Victoria Cross recipients
- Jim Magilton, footballer and manager
- Paula Malcomson, actor
- Mary McAleese, former President of Ireland
- Gerry McAvoy, musician and long time bassist with Rory Gallagher
- Wayne McCullough, Olympic silver medalist, WBC World Champion Boxer, Patron Northern
- Ireland Children’s Hospice
- Alan McDonald, footballer
- Sammy McIlroy, footballer and manager
- Gary Moore, guitarist
- Van Morrison, singer and songwriter
- Doc Neeson, singer-songwriter
- Mary Peters, Olympic sports
- Patricia Quinn, actor
- Pat Rice, football players and coaches
- Trevor Ringland, rugby union players
- Peter Robinson, first minister of Northern Ireland
- Bobby Sands, the IRA hunger striker
- David Trimble, former First Minister of Northern Ireland, Nobel Peace Prize winner
- Gary Wilson, cricketer
See also: List of schools in Belfast, List of high schools in Belfast, and the List of grammar schools in Belfast
The Lanyon Building of Queen’s University in south Belfast
Belfast has two universities. Queens University Belfast was founded in 1845 and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of 20 leading research-intensive universities in the UK.  It is one of the largest universities in the UK with 25,231 basic and postgraduate students spread over 250 buildings, of which 120 are listed as of architectural value.  University of Ulster, created in its current form in 1984, is a multi-center universities a university campus in the Cathedral quarter of Belfast. Belfast campus has a special focus on art and design and architecture, and is currently undergoing major refurbishment. The Jordan campus, just seven miles (11 km) from Belfast city center focusing on technology, health and social sciences. The Coleraine campus, about 55 mi (89 km) from Belfast city center concentrates on a wide range of topics. Course provision is broad – biomedicine, environmental science and geography, psychology, business, humanities and languages, film and journalism, travel and tourism, teacher training and computers are among the campuses forces. The Magee campus, about 70 mi (113 km) from Belfast city center has many educational strengths; including business, computers, creative techniques, care, Irish language and literature, social sciences, law, psychology, peace and conflict studies and performing arts. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) Web Service gets funding from both universities and is a rich source of information and sources of unrest as well as society and politics in Northern Ireland. 
Belfast Metropolitan College is a large further education college with three main locations around the city, including several smaller buildings. Formerly known as the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education, specializing in vocational training. The College has over 53,000 students enrolled on full-time and part-time courses, making it one of the largest further education colleges in the UK and the largest on the island of Ireland. 
The Belfast Education and Library Board was established in 1973 as the municipality is responsible for education, youth and library services in the city.  There are 184 primary, secondary and grammar schools in the city. 
The Ulster Museum in Belfast.
Titanic Belfast, Belfast devoted built RMS Titanic, was opened in 2012
Belfast is one of the most visited cities in the UK,  and the second most visited on the island of Ireland. [Citation needed] In 2008, 7.1 million tourists visited the city. [Citation needed] Many popular tour bus companies and boat trips run there throughout the year.
Frommers, the American travel guidebook series, which is listed Belfast as the only UK destination in its Top 12 destinations to visit in 2009. The other listed destinations were Berlin (Germany), Cambodia, Cape Town (South Africa), Cartagena (Colombia), Istanbul (Turkey), the Lassen Volcanic National Park (USA), Saqqara (Egypt), the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail (US), Waiheke Island (New Zealand), Washington, DC (USA), and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada ). 
Belfast City Council is currently investing in the whole rebuilding of the Titanic Quarter, which is planned to consist of apartments, hotels, and a river entertainment district. A major tourist attraction, Titanic Belfast is a monument to Belfast’s maritime heritage at the site of the former Harland & Wolff shipyard was opened on 31 March 2012. It has a cross by escalators and suspended walkways and nine high-tech galleries.  They also hope to invest in a new modern transport systems (including high-speed and others) for Belfast, with a cost of £ 250 million. 
There is a tourist information office is located on Donegall Place. 
Twin towns – Sister cities
Belfast has the following twin cities: 
Nashville, Tennessee, United States (since 1994)
Hefei, Anhui Province, China (since 2005)
Boston, Massachusetts, United States (since 2014)
Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China (since 2016)
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30. Jump up ^ Connolly, Sean J. (2008). Divided Kingdom Ireland 1630-1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 434-449. ISBN 978-0-19-958387-4.
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33. Jump up ^ Robert Lynch, Northern IRA and the first years of Partition, P227
34. Jump up ^ “The Belfast Blitz remember.” BBC News. 11 April 2001. Hämtat12 March 2007.
35. Jump up ^ Kelters, Seamus (February 2013). “Violence in the Troubles”. History. BBC .Hämtad May 19, 2014.
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39. Jump up ^ “Local Government (Boundaries) Act (Northern Ireland) 1971”. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). 2007. Archived from the original July 7, 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
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42. Jump up ^ “Belfast signs Sister Cities agreement with Boston.” belfastcity.gov.uk.
43. Jump up ^ “Sister Cities Online Directory: UK, Europe, Sister Cities International Retrieved 17 November 2011 ..
44. Jump up ^ Belfast signed sister city agreement with Hefei 4NI.co.uk. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
45. Jump up ^. Black, Rebecca (25 March 2014) “Belfast and Boston to be named sister cities -“. Belfasttelegraph.co.uk. Hämtastvå August 2014.
46. Jump up ^ Elle Movement, John (12 May 2014). “Boston signed sister city agreements with the Belfast”. The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
47. Jump up ^ “Northern Ireland elections”. BBC News. May 8, 2016. Retrieved 11 May, 2016.
48. Jump up ^ “Westminster elections in Northern Ireland 2005 ‘. Northern Ireland elections. Northern Ireland Social and Political Archive (ARK). 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
49. Jump up ^ King James Bible, Psalm 116 Verse 12
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51. ^ Jump up to: a b. Brett, the CEB (1967) Buildings of Belfast, from 1700 to 1914. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
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57. Jump up ^ Des O’Reilly, rivers of Belfast – A History
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59. Jump up ^ “If Cave Hill.” Cave Hill Conservation Campaign. 2007. Archived from the original February 6, 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
60. Jump up ^ “Station Locations”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
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62. Jump up ^ “2001 Minimum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
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64. Jump up ^ “rainfall in Ireland.” Met Éireann. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
65. Jump up ^ “1983 Maximum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
66. Jump up ^ “1971-2000 average warmest day”. Hämtadskrevs 23 September 2011.
67. Jump up ^ “> 25c days”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
68. Jump up ^ “> January 1982 Minimum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
69. Jump up ^ “> Air frost occurrence.” Retrieved 23 September 2011.
70. Jump up ^ “> December 2010 minimum. ‘ Retrieved 23 September 2011.
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79. Jump up ^ Margrethe C. Lauber. “Belfast Peace Lines: An analysis of urban boundaries, Design and social space in a divided city.” Archived from originaletden 8 February 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
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81. Jump up ^ “Major makeover for Belfast City Centre”. Department of Social Development (NI). June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
82. Jump up ^ “the arterial Routes”. Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan 2015 Draft Plan. Planning Service. Archived from the original 18 May 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
83. Jump up ^ “The UK Postcode System.” List Masters. 2005.Arkiverat from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
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85. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht Quarter.” Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure. 2007. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Taken 15 januari2016.
86. Jump up ^ “Contact”. Ulster Museum. 2007. Archived from the original The 29 May 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
87. Jump up ^ “The Golden Mile Pub Crawl”. Virtual Belfast. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
88. Jump up ^ “Shopping at a Glance”. Visit South Belfast. South Belfast Partnership. Archived from the original 25 May 2014. Retrieved 18 maj2007.
89. Jump up ^ Burns, Gemma (28 February 2007). “A passion for preserving Belfast Beauty”. South Belfast News. Retrieved March 12, 2007. [Dead link]
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94. Jump up ^ Morgan, Ian (4 March 2007). “Ireland’s tallest building to be converted into apartments.” 24dash.com. Archived from the original September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2007.
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96. Jump up ^ “Harland and Wolff complete SeaRose docking project”. Harland and Wolff. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
97. Jump up ^ “Grand Opera House.” Bio taxes. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
98. Jump up ^ “Neeson in the attempt to revive the theater.” BBC News. 10 December 2004. Archived from the original The 16 January 2008. Hämtatsyv December 2007.
99. Jump up ^ Home
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103. Jump up ^ “If the Field Club.” Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
104. Jump up ^ gardens and Tourism, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, March 2012, p. 5, retrieved May 25, 2014
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108. Jump up ^ “Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park.” Discover Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 15 June 2007. Hämtat18 May 2007.
109. Jump up ^ “Parks and gardens”. belfastzoo. On April 1, 2007. Archived from the original April 14, 2009. Retrieved sixteen May 2009.
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120. Jump up ^ “Ethnic minorities: Who lives here” (PDF). Northern Ireland Education: Teacher’s Notes. BBC. Archive (PDF) from the original The 5 June 2007. Hämtat24 May 2007.
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123. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Belfast Islamic Centre. In 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
124. Jump up ^ “Hinduism”. Primary focus: Program 1 – Indian Community .BBC. Retrieved 8 October of 2007.
125. Jump up ^ “Durkan” hopeful “for the future of the Good Friday Agreement”. Department of Finance and Personnel. Retrieved 17 September of 2007.
126. Jump up ^ “the House of Commons Hansard written reply to Feb. 13, 2002” .The house. Retrieved 17 September of 2007.
127. Jump up ^ “U2 Tower strikes bad chord with residents.” BBC News. 7 August 2006. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
128. Jump up ^ “Monthly Labour Market Report”. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment. 15 February 2006. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
129. Jump up ^ “employment”. National Statistics. Office for National Statistics.Mars 2006. Archived from the original The 18 May 2007. Retrieved 18 maj2007.
130. Jump up ^ Morgan, Oliver (1 April 2007). “From bombs and bullets boom towns”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved sixteen May 2007.
131. Jump up ^ “Northern Reaches Watershed in house prices” (Press release) .University of Ulster. 15 November 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2007.
132. Jump up ^ Carson, Helen (28 February 2007). “Typical price of Ulster homes edges ever closer to £ 200,000.” The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved March 13, 2007. [dead link]
133. Jump up ^ “Homeowners Occupation Prices” (Press release). Halifax. 19 November 2004. Archived from the original (DOC) of 5 June 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
134. Jump up ^ Belfast 2005: Tourism Facts and Figures (PDF). Belfast City Council. 2006. File (PDF) from the original The 5 June 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
135. Jump up ^ “Record number of visitors coming to Belfast.” GO Belfast. July-August 2007, p. 6th
136. Jump up ^ “Invest in Belfast: A 2007 city guide for investors”. Belfast City Council. Archived from the original The 10 October 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
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139. Jump up ^ “The New Celtic Tiger: Belfast is Open for Business.” DER SPIEGEL. 4 July 2008. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
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143. Jump up ^ Beckett, JC; Sweetman, R (2003). Belfast, The Making of the City.Kapitel 4: Development of the port. Belfast Apple Press Ltd. p 57-70..ISBN 0-86281-878-8.
144. Jump up ^ “Corporate series Northern Ireland” (PDF). Corporate Northern Ireland in 2007. Corporate series. Archived from the original (PDF) of 16 February 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
145. ^ Jump up to: a b “? Northern Ireland – Where is the bright new future. ” Management Today .23 March 2006. Retrieved sixteen May 2007.
146. Jump up ^ “The Silent Valley”. Northern Ireland Water. In 2007. Taken 30 maj2014.
147. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Strategic Plan Framework: public services and utilities” .Förslag Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan 2015 Planning service..Arkiveras from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
148. Jump up ^ “Water reform: Secretary of State announces the suspension of contributions” .Water Reform NI. March 2007. Archived from the original June 9, 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
149. Jump up ^ “Belfast Sewer Project – Facts”. Northern Ireland Water. In 2007. Retrieved May 26 of 2007. [Dead link]
150. Jump up ^ “Summary of credit rating reform domestic” .Institutionen for finance and personnel. 2005. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
151. Jump up ^ “Domestic prices Reform”. Fair prices campaign. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
152. Jump up ^ “Review of Public Administration: Consultation on draft legislation for the establishment of five new integrated health and social care trusts” (PDF) .DHSSPS. Archive (PDF) from the original The 27 September 2007. Hämtad17 September of 2007.
153. Jump up ^ Payne, William (September 1998). “Hospital Development: PFI beyond DBFO”. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Wilmington Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 6 May 2007. [Dead link]
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155. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Hospital: If the unit.” Renal Association.November in 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
156. Jump up ^ “TRH open Northern Ireland’s first Regional Acquired Brain Injury Unit” .The Prince of Wales. May 15, 2006. Archived from the original March 7, 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
157. Jump up ^ “M2 / M22 motorway.” Wesleyjohnston.com. Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
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159. Jump up ^ “The official opening of the M1 / Westlink Improvement Scheme” .Avdelningen for regional development. March 12, 2009. Archived from originalpå 27 December 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
160. Jump up ^ “road improvements Sy