Page 2 of 2

The Rosses

The Rosses (officially known by its Irish name, Na Rosa , [1] in the genitiveNa Rosann ) is a geographical and social area in the west of County Donegal, Ireland, with a population of over 7000 centered on the town of Dungloe, which serves as the educational, shopping and commercial center for the area. Defined by physical borders in the form of rivers, as well as history and language, the area has a distinct identity, separate from the rest of Donegal.The extensive region situated between the parish of Gweedore in the north and the town of Glenties in the south. Much of the Rosses is in Gaeltacht, which means that Irish is the spoken language. The Rosses, Cloughaneely and Gweedore, known locally as ” the three parishes ” with 16,000 Irish speakers, together form a social and cultural region different from the rest of the county, with Gweedore serves as the main center for socializing and industry. [2] [3] Gaeltacht lair is another Irish-speaking area.


The following is a list of electoral divisions in the area:

  1. En Clochan Liath (1785) (15%)
  2. Anagaire (2138) (55%)
  3. Great Arran (529) (62%)
  4. Inis Mhic en Rutland (1410) (9%)
  5. En Duchoraidh (78) (34%)
  6. Lettermacaward en Ward (650) (19%)
  7. En Links (615) (15%)
  8. Cro Birch (170) (60%)


Once a predominantly Irish -speaking area in recent generations, English has become increasingly common. Irish is still widely used in some areas, including parts of the island of Arranmore, the townland of Ranafast and the village of Annagry. In some areas, the hills around Dungloe, around Loughanure and in the pockets of Doochary and Lettermacaward, the Irish dominant.

Locals are said to have a preference for the Gaelic football of football, which is often the case in rural areas of the country. The area field a number of football clubs, both in football and Gaelic football. Keadue Rovers from lower Rosses has traditionally been the area’s strongest football teams, while Dungloe has been the strongest in Gaelic football. There is also a strong tradition of songwriting in the area, Seán McBride (1906-1996) from Cruit Island wrote the popular song “home of Donegal”.

There are links between the people of the Rosses and Scotland, Glasgow in particular because of the economic need for emigration in the past and the strong ties forged over generations as a result. Many people from The Rosses, like people from other parts of County Donegal also has settled istaden Derry, especially since the late 1840s.


The area is bounded by the river Gweebarra to south, Gweedore River to the north, the mountains and Derryveagh Gweebarra River (Doochary Bridge) to the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The name comes from “Rose”, the Irish word for cape. The area is a rocky barren landscape, studded with a myriad of lakes and bays in the sea.


The Rosses Donegal has only airport in Carrickfinn. Various coach companies serving the area.


The Rosses has been inhabited since ancient times, and the old church of St Crona in Termon near Dungloe has been dated to the 6th century. It was the site of a monastery founded by St Crona, a cousin of the Royal Saint Columcille, founder of the monastic settlement on Iona, and was the center of the parish Temple Crone.

In the 16th century, a number of ships from the Spanish Armada sank off or landed off the coast.


Historically, The Rosses has relied heavily on the hospitality, tourism and the fishing industry as the mainstay of its economy. The area has its own domestic food chain called the Copesom has been very successful. There is very little manufacturing industry in Rosses apart from a few companies in Dungloe.

COPE is a cooperative indigenous to the area, with two large stores in Dungloe (one photo) and several others around the other parts of the Rosses.


The area claims a large part of Donegal tourism revenue, because of its famous landscape [4] and many festivals, including Mary from Dungloe International Festival. There is a very strong tradition of marching bands emanating from the region; the area has many All-Ireland championship bands in all grades and disciplines. [5] [6]

Notable people from Rosses

  • Packie Bonner, past Ireland goalkeeper
  • Goats are not straight, folk bands
  • Niall O’Donnell, lexikograf
  • Daniel O’Donnell, singer
  • Peadar O’Donnell, socialist and writer
  • Pat the Cope Gallagher , MEP
  • Margo, singer
  • Séamus Ó Grianna, writer
  • Seosamh Mac Grianna, writer
  • Skara Brae, folk band

Townlands i Rosses

  • Annagry ( Anagaire )
  • Braade ( Braade )
  • Burton ( sections en Crescent )
  • Carrickfinn ( Carrick Fhinne Eller Carrick Finn )
  • Crolly ( Croithlí ) (half of which is located in Gweedore)
  • Doochary ( An Dúchoraidh )
  • Dungloe ( Dungloe )
  • Keadue ( Keadue )
  • Kincasslagh ( Above Caslach )
  • Lettermacaward / Letterkenny ( Leitir Mhic en Bard )
  • Loughanure ( Lake en Newry )
  • Maghery ( Year Mhachaire )
  • Meenbanad ( Meenbanad )
  • Mullaghduff ( Top Black )
  • Ranafast ( Rannafast )
  • Roshine


  • Arranmore ( Arranmore )
  • Harp ( The Croft )
  • Iniscaoragh ( Mutton )
  • Inisfree ( Inishfree )
  • Owey Island ( students Slab )

See also

County Galway

  • Galway City Gaeltacht
  • Connemara Gaeltacht
  • South Connemara
  • Aran Islands
  • Joyce Country

County Donegal

  • Gaoth Dobhair
  • Cloughaneely
  • Gaeltacht en lya

County Kerry

  • West Kerry Gaeltacht

County Mayo

  • Erris and Achill Gaeltacht

External links

  • Gaeltacht Irish language 2007


  1. Hoppa upp ^ placen (Gaeltacht Districts) Order 2004
  2. Hoppa upp^
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Hoppa upp^
  5. Hoppa upp^
  6. Hoppa upp^

St Eunan’s Cathedral, Raphoe

St Eunan Cathedral (also known as Raphoe Cathedral) is one of two cathedral churches United Diocese of Derry and Raphoe in the Church of Ireland. It is in Raphoe, County Donegaloch is dedicated to Saint Eunan (Adomnán of Iona) (627/8 – 704), who was Abbot of Iona (679-704). The second pin Cathedral St Columb’s Cathedral.

The oldest part of the present building is the southeast corner, which goes back to the 12th century. The rest of the cathedral is a mixture of progressive remodeling and changes dating from the 17th to the late 19th centuries. A major restoration, almost a reconstruction of the medieval cathedral was taken care of by The Rt. Reef. Dr. George Montgomery around 1605. [1]Montgomery had been chaplain to King James I, and was nominated not only Bishop of Raphoe, but Clogher and Derry simultaneously.

After centuries of modifications and restorations, much of the current building dates from the 1730s. The entrance is through the porch under the tower was built in 1738 by Bishop Forster (1716-1744).

By the 1870s the building had once been mistreated and neglected. It attracted adverse criticism by many church people and ecclesiologists. A high church architect, Sir Thomas Drew, described the cathedral as “the most neglected church in the diocese but is located in the richest part of Donegal.”

In 1892 Drew was asked to initiate a plan for restoration that uncovered a large part of the medieval fabric while “medievalizing” most of the rest of byggnaden.Katedralen retains characteristic of many of these medieval buildings where larger bodies of priests offered more elaborate liturgies of the quire or chancel is longer than denlånghuset.


  • Alexander Cairncross (Archbishop)
  • Alexander Montgomery (1720-1800) – “Old Sandy”, MP för County Donegal i 32 år.


  • St Eunan Cathedral, Raphoe
  • Entrance doors in the Cathedral
  • St Eunan Cathedral, Raphoe

See also

  • Dean of Raphoe
  • Bishop of Derry and Raphoe
  • Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columba in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Raphoe


  1. Hoppa up^


Raphoe (/ r æ f oʊ / Irish: Ráth Bhoth ) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland.It is the largest city in the fertile district of East Donegal called Laggan, as well as giving its name to the Barony of Raphoe and although the Catholic Diocese of Raphoe and the Church of Ireland (or Anglican) diocese Derry and Raphoe.

The Burn Deele (Irish: An Daoil ; also spelled in English as Dale Burn) is aburn (a small river) that flows a short distance south of Raphoe. Burn Deele flows eventually, through the village Ballindrait, the River Foyle, just north of Lifford.


Raphoe , historically Raffoe , [2] comes from the Irish Ráth Bhoth , which consists of the words Ráth (fast) and two (hut). This refers likely mud and wattle huts surrounded by a strong fortified hill. [3] It is believed these huts were built by monks in the early Christian period.


The rich farmland around Raphoe has been inhabited and cultivated for thousands of years, and evidence of this can be seen through monuments such Beltany Circle, just off staden.Domarringen is one of the largest in Ireland with a diameter of 44 meters (165 feet) and consists of more than sixty blocks in all. The site is believed to date to about 2000 BC, and it was originally a closed cairn. Its name is believed to be linked to the Celtic festival of fertility called “Beltane”. [4]

Around 550 AD Columba (also known as Colmcille), one of the three patron saints of Ireland, founded a monastic settlement in området.Denna website has been further developed by his relative Eunan, which gives its name to the city’s cathedral and is the patron saint of the Diocese of Raphoe.

1198, John de Courcy, a Norman knight who had invaded Ulster in 1177, returned to County Donegal to devastate Inishowen and road ruined churches on Ardstraw, County Tyrone and Raphoe. [5]

The design of the modern city is traced to the Ulster Plantation in the early 17th century, when the city was granted English and Scottish settlers. It was these settlers who laid out the town with “Diamond” in the center, in a similar way as other Plantation cities somDerry and Donegal.

Raphoe Castle

Main article: Raphoe Castle

Built in the 1630s as the Bishop’s Palace, the “castle”, which is now a ruin, was besieged during the Irish rebellion in 1641, was captured by Cromwell’s troops in 1650 and was injured by supporters of King James II and VII of the 1689th Although still awaiting restoration, Raphoe Castle is probably the most impressive castles in Donegal. In 1633, John Leslieöversattes from the Scottish look of the islands to become Bishop of Raphoe. Married at the age of 67, absorbing the Bishopric of Clogher at the age of 90, dominated the Leslie area until his death, aged 100 in 1671. Feeling threatened in its new location, he built himself a new palace on a hill overlooking the city using stone from an old Round Tower in 1637. This proved fortuitous when the rebellion broke out in 1641, and the bishop was forced to shelter in the “castle” as it has come to be known, until relieved by Lagganeer army. Eight years later, Leslie, royalist besieged by Cromwellian troops. This time, he was forced to surrender, but unlike almost any other bishop in Ireland survived Leslie and returned to his See of the restoration in 1660. A leading figure in the established church, Bishop Leslie was no friend of either Catholic or non-conformist . 1664, he ordered four dissenting Presbyterian ministers to appear before his court, and when they did not appear, had them arrested and imprisoned in Lifford prison. [6] A century later, in 1798, the castle was attacked again, this time by the United Irishmen, three of whom were killed.The castle was destroyed in a fire in 1838 [7]

Raphoe Cathedral

Main article: St Eunan’s Cathedral, Raphoe

St. Columcille and St. Eunan ninth Abbot of Iona, had churches in Raphoe in the 5h and 6th century. Several 9th century boulders can be found in the porch and in the north wall of the present cathedral. The southeast corner is the 12th century. The last building is from the 1730s. Supper plate is also noteworthy.

Notes bishops including Bishop George Montgomery, the first Protestant bishop 1605-1610, a Scotsman, who was mainly involved in regaining church lands, and Bishop Andrew Knox 1611-1633, which started to repair and rebuild the cathedral. A stone inscribed “And. Knox II. Epi. Cura “, into the porch, commemorates him. Bishop John Leslie had previously been a soldier and had his own private army which he led in battle. Bishop Philip Twysden, 1747-1752, spent much time in Raphoe but squandered the family fortune in London; According to recent reports, he was shot while robbing a stagecoach.

Sandy Montgomery, a kinsman of Bishop Montgomery is in the cemetery.His inscription reads: “Here lyeth Build Alexander Montgomery, Esq., Who departed this life 29 September 1800, aged 78. He represented this once independent country, 32 years” [6]

Beltany Stone Circle

Main article: Beltany paving

On top of Beltany Hill, just over one mil from Raphoe where stands one of the finest stone circles in Ireland. Reputed older than Stonehenge, consists of 64 standing stones in an original 80. The stones vary in height from 4 feet to 9 feet (1.2-2.7 meters) while the diameter of the circle is 145 feet (44.2 meters). To the SE of the circle is a standing stone 6 feet (2 meters) high.Beltony is a corruption of Baal tine, fire Baal; This suggests that the inhabitants of this area worshiped Baal, the sun god and ruler of nature.Tradition tells us that the most important ceremonies were performed at the summer solstice; a sacred fire was lit in the middle of the circle of stones, representing the stars and the fire of the sun god Baal. [8]


The town lends its name to both the Roman Catholic Church and Ireland diocese, which covers almost all except the very southern part of County Donegal, including Inishowen liksomCounty Londonderry and the northern part of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland. Raphoe status has declined significantly in recent centuries, however, with the Anglican diocese merged with Derry, while the Roman Catholic bishop now has his See in the larger town of Letterkenny. The Church of Ireland Cathedral, built on the site of Columba monastery, named after St. Eunan (which is the Roman Catholic cathedral in the letter). There is also a Presbyterian Church in Ireland in Raphoe.


Raphoe railway station opened on 1 January 1909, finally closed on 31 January 1959. [9]

The nearest railway station is run by Northern Ireland Railways and runs from Derry / Londonderry railway station via Coleraine to Belfast Central Station and Belfast Great Victoria Street Railway Station. The strategic Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements of the permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services.


Raphoe has two secondary schools and two primary schools. Royal and Prior elementary school is the Protestant ethos Deele College is non-denominational. [10]

recent history

In recent years, Raphoe come under the media spotlight following the establishment of Morris Court to investigate allegations of corrupt and dishonest police in the county vidGarda Síochána. Tribunal’s second report in conjunction with the Garda trying to design a local publican, Frankie McBrearty, for the murder of cattle dealer Richie Barron. [11]

On 27 August 2005, the first major Royal Black Preceptory demonstration was held in Ireland in Raphoe, although local preceptories have rolled in the county for decades. [12]

Gerry Robinson is an Irish businessman and TV personality currently living in Raphoe. He is the former non-executive chairman of Allied Domecq and free-Chairman / CEO of Granada. He owns a farm on the outskirts of Raphoe named Oakfield Park, which includes a Georgian mansion and a botanical garden with a 15 (381 mm) gauge [13] Railway, Difflin Lake Railway. The gardens and the railway is open to the public.

Notable people

  • Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed, 1st Bt. , Flag officer in the British Royal Navy who served in the American, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Paul Hegarty
  • Frank McBrearty, Sr., businessman targeted by police misconduct
  • McBrearty Frank, Jr. , Former County Mayor of County Donegal
  • Chloe Magee, professional badminton player and Olympic competitor
  • Conor O’Devany, bishop and martyr
  • Half Hung MacNaghten, Ulster-Scots landowners, player and convicted murderer
  • Sir Gerry Robinson, former non-executive chairman of Allied Domecq and free-Chairman / CEO of Granada.

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Dunduff Castle, South Ayrshire


  1. Hoppa up^
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  3. Jump up ^ In and around Raphoe published in 1999
  4. Jump up ^ Noonan, D: “Castles and heritage sites in Ireland”, page 137. Aurum Press, 2001
  5. Jump ^ DeBreffny, D & Mott, G (1976). The churches and monasteries of Ireland. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 60-61.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab [1] Filed 25 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. Jump up ^ Noonan 2001, p.146.
  8. Jump up ^ Beltony Stone Circle. Retrieved on 23/07/2013.
  9. Jump up ^ “Raphoe station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Pulled 11/22/2007.
  10. Jump up ^ Deele College, Raphoe | (074) 91 45493 -. (04.23.2013). Retrieved on 23/07/2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Irish Examiner : “Morris Tribunal condemns garda negligence; June 2, 2005. Seen 2008-04-14
  12. Jump up ^ RTÉ News: “Royal Black Preceptory keeps Donegal parade”;27 August 2005. Seen 2008-04-14
  13. Jump up ^ Oakfield Park – Train


Ramelton (Irish: Ráth Mealtain ) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. Its population is 1212 (2011).

Ramelton is situated at the mouth of the river Lennon, 11 km north of Letterkenny and 4km east of Milford, on the western shore of Lough Swilly.The city name from Ráth Mealtain , (Irish for “fort Mealtan”), an early Gaelic chief. The fort is said to lie under the ruins of a medieval castle of O’Donnell, the ruling family in West Donegal before their exile to the European continent in the 1607th

Ramelton was settled by English and Scottish planters during the Ulster Plantation of the 17th century and is the site of the oldest Presbyterian Church in Ireland.

Ramelton har också en Church of Ireland Church of St Paul, Parish of Tullyaughnish.

The city was the setting for the 1995 TV series The Hanging Gale , who told me about the potato famine of the 19th century. The city hosts the Lennon Festival, a village fair, since 1970. Ramelton is a Fáilte Ireland designated Heritage Town.


Ramelton served by many shops and services in town. Ramelton Town Hall was built in the late 19’s and still has an important role in society today.

Notable people

  • William C. Campbell, researcher, Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 2015 [2]
  • Roy Greens [3]
  • Dave Gallaher, the All Blacks rugby captain, author and WW1 soldier
  • Arthur Gwynn, cricket and rugby union player
  • Lucius Gwynn, cricket and rugby union player
  • John Tudor Gwynn, cricketers
  • Robert Gwynn, cricketers
  • Catherine Black, a private nurse to King George V
  • Conrad Logan, professional football player
  • Francis Makemie, priest, founder of Presbyterianism in the United States
  • William McAdoo , American partiet politiker
  • Basil McCrea, MLA, leader of NI21 in the Northern Ireland Assembly
  • Walter Patterson, first British governor of Prince Edward Island

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of cities in Northern Ireland


  1. Hoppa upp^
  2. Jump up ^ “Irish researchers win Nobel Prize for medicine.”
  3. Jump up ^ “The Irish still love their newspapers.” The Guardian.Guardian Media Group. August 14, 2010. Retrieved 14 August of 2010.The Irish love to read newspapers, whether national or local. It is a joy to see the papers piled high on my local store in Donegal town of Ramelton in the morning and note their disappearance of the evening.

Mount Errigal

[3] Errigal (Irish: An Earagail , possibly meaning “oratory”) [1] is a 751 meters (2,464 ft) mountain near Gweedore in County Donegal, Ireland. [1] It is the highest peak iDerryveagh Mountains, the highest peak County Donegal, and the 76th highest peak in Ireland. [1] Errigal is also the most southern, steepest and highest mountain range, known as the “seven sisters” by locals. The Seven Sisters include Muckish, Crocknalaragagh, Aghla Beg, Ardloughnabrackbaddy, Aghla more, Mackoght and Errigal. The nearest stop is Mackoght, which is also known as Little or Wee Errigal Errigal (Irish: an Earagail Bheag ).

Errigal is well known for the pink glow of the quartzite in the sun. [1] Another noted the quality is the ever-changing shape of the mountain, depending on which direction you view it from. Errigal voted “Ireland’s most iconic Mountain” by Walking & Hiking Ireland in 2009. [4]

climbing Errigal

The mountain is usually climbed from the car park off the R251 road. The trail starts from the beginning of by crossing the heavily eroded and marshy ground against a visible trail through the glossy scree from where the climb proper starts. After reaching the top, people tend to go short but exposed walk along the “One Man’s Pass” that leads to the other and the lower of the two summits. There is no special equipment to climb the mountain, but caution is advised.

In popular culture

  • In the 2008 film Hunger , protagonist Bobby Sands Errigal describes as a“beautiful sight” .
  • Pictures of a foggy Errigal used in the music video for In A Lifetime by Clannad and Bono in 1985. [5] It has also appeared in several music videos by local singer Enya, especially in the video for “How can I keep from singing? “.
  • Several scenes from the 2011 film Your Highness shot at Errigal. [6]
  • The goats are not straight song “Las Vegas (In the hills of Donegal)” contains the line, “To stand on top of Errigal, would give me so exciting” .
  • The Irish composer Vincent Kennedy set the mountain on music in 2012 as part of his music for The Happy Prince in a piece titled “Snow Errigal”


  • The view from Errigal.
  • Errigal as seen from Slieve Snaght.
  • Ascending Mount Errigal.
  • Errigal as seen from the Rosses.
  • An aerial view of Errigal and Gweedore.
  • Abandoned church at the foot of Errigal.
  • Errigal as seen frånCloughaneely.

See also

  • List of Irish counties with the highest point


  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdef mountainviews
  2. Jump up ^ Peak Bagger
  3. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey Ireland – the name is “Errigal” and the word “Mount” should not be used at all even in the title of the article
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up^

Malin Head

Malin Head (Irish: Cionn Mhálanna ), located on the Inishowen Peninsula, County Donegal, Ireland, and is the northernmost point of the island of Ireland. The northernmost tip is uddensom called Banba crown located at latitude 55.38ºN. [1] Malin Head gives its name to the Malin sea. There is a weather station on the head, which is one of 22 such stations whose reports are transmitted as part of the BBC shipping forecast.

Banba crown on Malin Head is the most northerly point of the Irish mainland. [2] Banba was one of the mythical queens of Ireland. Banba Crown is about 16 km (10 mi) north of the village of Malin. The island Inishtrahull is further north, is located about 10 km (6 mi) north-east of Malin Head.Further north still is the northernmost landfall in Ireland, Tor Beg rock.


To the North East Inistrahull Island can be seen. The first lighthouse on the island was put into operation in 1813, and the light flashes every 30 seconds.

Above Banba crown in the east is Ballyhillion beach, a unique elevated beach scheme of international scientific importance. [ Citation needed ] The very different beaches show the changing relationship between the sea and the land from the time when the glaciers began to melt, some 15,000 years ago.At the time, County Donegal was depressed by the weight of an enormous ice, so the level of the sea, in relation to today’s beach was up to 80 feet higher than today.

Wartime use

A military watchtower built in Banba Crown in 1805, during the Napoleonic Wars. Around 1902, a signal station, also built on Banba Crown, quite close to the old Napoleonic vakttorn.Båda these buildings still stand.

During World War II, the Irish government allowed the British government to place two radio finders at Malin Head. This top-secret operation was mentioned in The Cranborne report. RDF equipment used to monitor the submarine and aerial activity in the North Atlantic.

After the war, the site became a weather station for Met Éireann and a NAVTEX transmitter station.


Malin Head is a perfect vantage point to see the autumn movements of seabirds such as gannets, shearwaters, skuas, guillemots and others on their flight southward migration.


  • Hell hole cave.
  • Malin Head coast looking towards the north.
  • View of the rugged coast around the head.
  • Low tide over rocks at Malin Head.

See also

  • Malin till Mizen
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ “Ireland Geographic facts, figures and physical extremities”.Travel through Ireland’s history … Taken 2007-09-15.
  2. Jump up ^ “See Ireland’s most northerly point of Malin Head.” Brilliant Ireland. Archived from the original March 27, 2009.
  3. Jump up ^ “Malin Head 1981-2010 average.” Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ “Absolute Maximum air temperature for each month at selected stations” (PDF). Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ “absolute minimum air temperature of each month at selected stations” (PDF). Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.

Lough Swilly

Lough Swilly (Irish: Loch Súilí , which means “Lake of Shadows” or “Lake of Eyes”) in Ireland is a glacial fjord or sea inlet lying between the western side of the Inishowen halvönoch Fanad Peninsula in County Donegal. Along with Carlingford Lough and Killary Harbour it is one of three glacial fjords in Ireland.

At the northern end of the lough are Fanad Head with its famous lighthouse and Dunaff Head. The cities situated on the lough include Buncrana on Inishowen and Rathmullan on the western side. In the southern part of the Lough lies Letterkenny.

Lough is also famous for its wildlife watching (dolphins, porpoises, sea birds, migratory geese and swans) and diving at the many shipwrecks, including the SS Laurentic was sunk by a German mine (possible torpedo), which went down with 3,211 ingots of gold, of which 3191 was recovered.

In the southern part of the lough a number of islands (Burt, Inch, Coney, Big Isle) was poldered and land recovered during the 19th century for farming and Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway Constructed ramparts on the route from Derry to Letterkenny. These recycled countries is now regarded as one of Ireland’s premier wetlands for nature conservation and bird watching, supports over 4000sångsvan and thousands of Greenland white front, barnacles, gray lag and brent geese.


Steeped in the history of the lough and Grianan Ailigh ancient castle (early fortification and palace 2000-5000 BC) at its southeastern curve was recorded on Ptolemy’s map of the world. There are many early Stone Age monuments and Iron Age fortifications along its banks and a number of shell middens dating to around 7000 BC. It is most famous for being the site of the Flight of the Earls. After a failed uprising in September 1607, Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, the last Gaelic chiefs and defenders of the Brehon Law of Ireland at the time, sailed frånRathmullan with ninety of his followers.

During a storm December 4, 1811 in the Royal Navy 36-gun frigate HMS Apollo class Saldanha sank in Lough Swilly. There were no survivors from the estimated 253 board, and about 200 bodies washed up on shore.

Because of its natural protection and impressive depth Lough was a major naval port. In October 1798, just before the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, a French fleet carrying Wolfe Tone of the United Irishmen, plus soldiers to assist 1798 rebellion, was captured and defeated in a naval battle at the entrance to Lough Swilly. Then Tone captured and brought ashore at Buncrana on the east side of the Swilly.

A subsequent reassessment of the threat of invasion led to the construction of a series of fortifications guarding the various approaches and landing points in the lough which was completed between 1800 and 1820. The Martello tower was built around 1804 to defend the methods of Derry. The six on the lough costing € 1,800 each, were armed with smooth cannon, shoot around shots and was completed in six months. Immediately before the First World War Office improved Napoleonic fort and their armor and add another fort at the entrance to the lake on Lenan Head with 9 inch guns (12-mil intervals) – the largest in Ireland at the time. The remains of these fortifications can still be inspected at Lenan Head, Fort Dunree (now a military museum and wildlife), Ned Point, Buncrana, Inch Island and on the west coast of Rathmullan, Knockalla and Macamish Point.

During World War I, was lough used by the Royal Navy as an anchor for the parts of the Grand Fleet, a merger of prewar Home and Atlantic fleets under Admiral Sir John R. Jellicoe and collection / staging point for Atlantic convoys. During this period, a boom was placed across the lough between Macamish Point and Ned’s Point, with the support of a number of trawlers, to prevent U-Boat attacks. After the Irish War of Independence lough was also one of the Treaty Ports specified in the Anglo-Irish Treaty until the final surrender at Fort Dunree 1938th

According exhibits at Fort Dunree, during World War II Irish troops manned the guns there with explicit instructions to shoot at a ship that may threaten Irish neutrality by entering the natural harbor. There was reportedly only one serious incident, when a Royal Navy ship in the lough and not initially respond to the signals that it will turn back. However, turned the ship before the Irish forces shot at it.

Seen from space: Derry and Donegal Coast, Lough Swilly to the west ochLough Foyle and the Inishowen north of the city

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway

Lough Foyle

Lough Foyle , sometimes Loch Foyle [1] (from Irish: Loch Feabhail , which means “Feabhal’s loch” [2] [3] ), is the mouth of the River Foyle. It lies between County Londonderry iNordirland and County Donegal in Ireland. Sovereignty over these waters has been disputed since the partition of Ireland.

Seen from space: Derry in the Ulster coast of Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle west to the east of the city ochInishowen.


Lough Foyle Ramsar site (wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention), is 2204.36 hectares in area, at latitude 55 05 N and longitude 24 07 01 37 W. It was designated a Ramsar on February 2, 1999. The site consists of a large shallow sea lough which includes the estuaries of the rivers Foyle, Faughan and Roe. It contains extensive areas of tidal mudflats and sand flats, salt marshes and associated brackish ditches. The site qualified under criterion 1 of the Ramsar Convention because it is a particularly good representative example of a wetland which plays a substantial hydrological, biological and ecological systems role in the natural functioning of a major river basin is located in a border location. The qualified even under the Ramsar criterion 2 because it supports a considerable number of rare, vulnerable or endangered species of plants and animals. A number of known species have been recorded for the Lough Foyle estuary and the lower parts of some of its tributary rivers. These include shad, shad, smelt and sea lamprey, which are all Irish Red List species.Important populations of Atlantic salmon migrate through the system to and from their spawning areas. [4]

The site is qualified even under the Ramsar criterion 3 as it supports a large number of wintering waterfowl including internationally important populations of whooper swans, light belliedPrutgås and bar-tailed godwit and wild bird species of national importance in an all-Ireland context, including the red-throated diver, great crested grebe, Mute Swan, Bewick’s swan, greylag , shelduck, teal, mallard, wigeon, eider ducks and red-breasted merganser. Nationally important wader species include Eurasian Oystercatcher, Eurasian golden plover, gray plover, lapwing, red knot, dunlin, curlew, redshank and greenshank. [4]

Flora and fauna


A survey of Lough Foyle was made between March 1937 and June 1939 by H. Blackler. [5] This map shows the distribution of some species of algae in the lough and a complete annotated list of algae recorded along with photographs of various locations. The list includes: cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, lichens and two species avZostera. The marine algae of Lough Foyle are also included in Morton (2003). [6]


The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has a reserve on Lough. [7]


In 1792, the four mil Strabane Canal was constructed from the tidal waters of Lough Foyle at Leck, to Strabane. The canal fell into disuse in 1962. In June 2006 the Strabane Lifford Development Commission awarded a £ 1.3m cross-border waterways restoration contract. The project includes restoration of one and a half miles from the canal and two locks to working order. Work began on the Lough Foyle side of the canal in the summer of 2006, but in 2010 the partial restoration was considered unsatisfactory and the municipality refused to continue to maintain the channel. The Broharris canal was built in the 1820s, when an average, about two miles long on the south shore of Lough Foyle near Ballykelly was made towards Limavady. It served both as a drainage channel and a navigation with goods brought from Londonderry Port, seafood and kelp from the sand banks along the beach.

In the summer, operates a ferry service between Green and Magilligan of Lough Foyle.

railway trip

Northern Ireland Railways runs from Londonderry train station along the scenic shores of Lough Foyle, with views of the Inishowen in County Donegal and the Atlantic Ocean via Coleraine to Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street .The strategic Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvement of permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services.

From Londonderry railway station, the next stop is Bella Clean followed by Castle then Coleraine on his way to Belfast. Walkers access to the trains arrive at the Castle can go to Mussenden Temple is owned by the National Trust and can see the mouth of Lough Foyle and Green a bit away in County Donegal.


The main character of Alfred Bester’s famous science fiction novel, The Stars My Destination , named Gulliver Foyle. Bester took the names of their characters from different places in Ireland and the UK.

World War I

The United States Navy established a Naval Air Station, July 1, 1918 to operate seaplanes during the First World War. The base was closed shortly after the first armistice in Compiegne. [8]


At the end of World War II after the Allied victory, the rest of the Atlantic fleet of German U-boats used to attack supply lines from America to Britain during the Battle of the Atlantic gathered in Lough Foyle ochsank, as part of Operation Dead.

Controversial status

Lough Foyle is a disputed territory between Ireland and the United Kingdom after the Irish division in 1922 both sides claimed it was in its own territory.Although this dispute is still ongoing, there are currently no negotiations regarding its ownership. The State Department stressed its view June 2, 2009 that all the Lough Foyle is located in the UK, a spokesman states; “The British position is that the entire Lough Foyle is in the UK. We recognize that the Irish Government does not accept this position … There are no negotiations currently underway on this issue. The regulation of activities in the Lough is now responsible for the Loughs Agency, a cross-border bodies set up under the Belfast Agreement of 1998. ” [9]

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • List of Ramsar sites in Northern Ireland
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Ireland sharing


  1. Jump up ^ See Google Books, for example, published online.
  2. Jump up ^ Flanagan, Deirdre & Laurence, Irish place names , page 212. Gill & MacMillan, 2002. ISBN 0-7171-3396-6
  3. Jump up ^ placental NI Lough Foyle
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “Especially and Proposed Ramsar sites in Northern Ireland” (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved July 7, 2008.
  5. Jump up ^ Blackler, H. 1951st A study of algae Lough Foyle, Northern Ireland. Proc. R. Ir. . Acad 54B (6): 97-139
  6. Hoppa upp^Morton, O. 2003. Den marina makroalger i County Donegal, Irland .. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. 27 : 3-164
  7. Jump up ^ Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  8. Jump up ^ Van Wye, Adrian O. (1969). Naval Aviation in World War I, Washington, DC. Chief of Naval Operations. pp. 80th
  9. Hoppa upp^3 juni 14:08:52 BST 2009. “Londonderry Sentiniel, Foyle” loughed “i tvist – 3 juni 2009” . . Hämtad 4 april 2011 .

The Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columba

St. Eunan’s Cathedral or the Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columbaas it is also called, is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in the parish Conwal and Leck in Letterkenny, County Donegal, Ireland. It was built between the years 1890 and 1900 and is the only Catholic cathedral in the county, but an older Church of Ireland cathedral of the same name located in the town of Raphoe.

The cathedral was commissioned in late Cardinal O’Donnell, then Bishop of Raphoe, who in 1888 aged 32 became the youngest bishop in the world at that time. [1] The cathedral, located on Castle Street opposite Conwal Parish Church in the city celebrated its centennial in 2001. Parish priests is Fr.Eamonn Kelly (Administrator), father Eamonn McLaughlin & Father Philip Kemmy (Curates). [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]


The cathedral was opened June 16, 1901, and is built in the Victorian Gothic Revival style in a place with views of the city. It was designed by William Hague, the well known Dublin architect and protégé of Pugin and after the Hague death of his partner TF McNamara. [8] . Saint Eunan Cathedral has a spiramed a height of 240 feet. White sandstone from Mount Charles was used in the construction. It was broadcast along the coast and up Swilly.Townspeople by bucketloads of sandstone to the building site in parts. The cathedral is decorated in oak, with a marble pulpit from Pearse Brothers in Dublin. Pulpit shows statues of the four Masters ochfyra evangelist.

The ceilings are works of Amici in Rome, while glass windows illuminating the sanctuary and Lady Chapel is of the firm Mayer Munich. They depict the thirteen scenes of our Lord’s life. Celtic motifs and stained glass designed by Harry Clarke and Michael Healy. The large arch illustrating the life of St.Eunan (better known as St. Adhamhnáin) and St. Columba. The sanctuary lamp is made of solid silver and weighs over 1500 ounces. Some sculptures created by William Pearse who participated in the Easter Rising. [9]

There are 12 bells in the cathedral bell chamber. They bear the names of the saints Tir Conail – Dallan, Conal and Fiacre, Adomnán, Baithen and Barron, Nelis and Mura, Fionán and Davog, Cartha and Caitriona, Taobhóg, Crona and Ríanach, Ernan and Asica and Columba. The 12th bell weighs over two tons 5 CWTS. After the cathedral was opened organist played “O’Donnell Abu” , “St. Patrick’s Day” , “The Last Rose of Summer” , “wearing of the green”and “The Bells of Shandon” . [10]

The cathedral was renovated and refurbished in 1985. Measures were taken to preserve the style and materials of the original altar in the new altar table and chair. The original altarpiece, an Irish carving of Leonardo’s Last Supper, is still present in the cathedral and has been incorporated into the new altar.

Sandstone outside of the cathedral were cleaned in July 2001. The stone then repaired and pointed with a special mortar of lime and sand. Krystol HYDROSTOP finally applied to the outside. [11]

The first five pews in the cathedral always remain empty. The cause is unknown, but many believe it is the result of an old, unwritten Celtic tradition, its origin buried in the mists of the past. [12]

Adoration Chapel

The sacrament chapel worship or Adoration Chapel, as it is more commonly known positioned because of Loreto Convent. It was officially opened on December 4, 1988 by the Bishop of Raphoe, Séamus Hegarty. This one-room chapel is a restored building based on the site of an old school set up by the Loreto Sisters. It is not definitely known when the original building was erected – but during reconstruction work in 1988, was a slate wearing a Stenhuggarmärke from 1850 was discovered. The chapel granite altar designed by Barry Feely from County Roscommon, is situated in front of a stained glass window depicting “The Virgin of the sign” icon. [13]


  • The gangway in the Cathedral
  • Cathedral pulpit
  • Stained glass windows in the cathedral
  • St. Eunan Cathedral Grounds
  • flying buttress
  • Carving of the cathedral wall


  1. Jump up ^ Letterkenny, Co. Donegal, Ireland
  2. Jump up ^
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^
  8. Jump up ^ Gerry Convery. “Poetry in Stone: Sacred Heart Church.” (Omagh Drumragh RC Parish, 1999), p.8.
  9. Jump up ^ Sculptures by William Pearse
  10. Jump up ^ The Cathedral Bell Chamer . Published in the 1990 edition of The Letter and the district’s Christmas Annual, p.117
  11. Jump up ^ St. Eunan Cathedral – Solution
  12. Jump up ^ Catholic Reporter – In search St.Eunan; Mysteriously, no one sitting in the first five pews
  13. Jump up ^ Adoration Chapel . Published in the 1990 edition of The Letter and the district’s Christmas Annual, p.100


  • Falcarragh – 39.7 km
  • Glenties – 44 km
  • Gweedore – 46.4 km
  • Killybegs (via Donegal Town) – 75.7 km
  • Lifford – 25.4 km
  • Milford – 19.9 km
  • Lurgybrack – 2 km


Further information: Battle of Farsetmore and battle Scarrifholis

The modern town of Letterkenny began as a market town at the beginning of the 17th century, during the Plantation of Ulster. It may have formed on the site of a previous Gaelic settlement. It was the first border crossing in the River Swilly. In the recent past, Letterkenny was a largely agricultural town, surrounded by large cattle and sheep grazing on former untilled slope – at a time when Conwal (3 km west of the letter) was the ecclesiastical center and port. The water in the Atlantic had not yet withdrawn from the basin of the Swilly, the mouth of which at the time extended up almost as far as New Mills – evidence of this can be found in the alluvial flat land between Oldtown and Port Road.

Rory O’Cannon, the last governor of O’Cannon Clan, was killed in 1248. Godfrey O’Donnell succeeded Rory O’Cannon as King of Tír Conaill. He engaged Norman lord Maurice FitzGerald, 2 Lord of Offaly, in the battle of Credan in the north in what is now County Sligo in 1257 where both were badly damaged – Fitzgerald immediately fatally so. Godfrey (also dies of his wounds) retreated to a Crannog on Lough Beag (Gartan Lake). O’Neill of Tyrone – take advantage of Godfrey’s fatal illness – demanded submission, hostages and promises from Cenél Conaill because they had no strong chieftain then hurt by Godfrey. Godfrey summoned his forces and led them himself, even though he had to be carried on a litter (stretcher). O’Neill and his men were completely defeated by the Swilly in 1258. Godfrey died, however, after the battle near the town of Letterkenny, where is today. He was buried in the cemetery Conwal. A flat cross-shaped coffin marks his grave today.

Weakening of the waters of the Atlantic eastwards enabled progress, and with the construction of bridges, etc., the city began Letter to the form it has today. In the wake of the Plantation of Ulster (which began around 1609), when the 1:04 square kilometers (990 acres) area granted to a Scotsman Patrick Crawford, the compact community was formed.

The honor of formally launching the town fell to Sir George Marbury married Patrick Crawford’s widow – Crawford died suddenly during a return visit to his native Scotland. Initially, there were maybe fifty simple dwellings located where the Oldtown is today.

The main streets, but now suffer from congestion, was simple pony trails used by mountain farmers to reach markets. The market – started by Patrick Crawford with only a few animals – grew much livelier mart which does not exist today.

An ancient castle once stood near where the Cathedral of St. Eunan and St.Columba stands today. Letter Castle, built in 1625, was located south of Mt South on Castle Street. Outlaw Redmond O ‘Hanlon found refuge there in 1690. No remains of the castle are today. [6]

During the Irish uprising in 1798, October 12, a large French force consisting of 3000 men, and Wolfe Tone, tried to land in County Donegal, close to Lough Swilly. They were stopped by a large British Royal Navy force, and finally surrendered after a three-hour battle without ever landing in Ireland.After Wolfe Tone was captured, he was held for a short time on Laird’s Hotel (opposite the square) in the main street of Letterkenny [7] before transferring to the nearby Derry Gaol. He was later tried by the war in Dublin and found guilty. He committed suicide in prison.

1824, when the first description of Letterkenny as a modern city was written it was noted that: “Within a half mil is the port of Ballyraine, where ships of 100 tons take iron, salt and groceries and from where they export hides and butter” . Nothing now remains except the stock with examples of 19th century warehouse architecture. [8]

Letterkenny achieved town status in the early 1920s after the partition of Ireland. When the Irish punt replaced the British pound in County Donegal in 1928, many Irish banks that had previously been located in Derry (in the new Northern Ireland), opened offices in Letterkenny.

Letter made history in August 2012 when the two winning Lotto ticket with the same numbers for the same drawing was purchased at two different locations in the city – Mac Mace on the High Road and The Paper Post on Main Street. The presence made national news. A spokesman for Lotto headquarters in Dublin said it was the first time this had happened. [9]


The population of Letterkenny and environs is 19,588 (based on the 2011 census conducted by the CSO). [1]

Letterkenny is the largest town in County Donegal. Despite a long tradition of emigration that continued until the early 1990s, the letter recently had net immigration. The new immigrants are mostly of foreign origin, with many immigrants from Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. This is reflected in the recent growth of the immigrant restaurants and shops, including Chinese and Indian restaurants, as well as specialized shops run by and provide goods for Africans, Asians, South Americans and Eastern Europeans. Letter is home to the only Hindu temple in Ireland. [5] [10]

The figures for ethnic and cultural background of the people in the state in 2006 shows that 16% of Letterkenny’s population are foreign nationals. The figures also show that most of Donegal non-national population living in the city. Of the city’s total population in 2709 are foreign nationals. [11] According to the 2006 census, 4,957 people have disabilities disease, 640 people have registered disabilities, 537 have a chronic disease, while 345 are suffering from a psychological or emotional state. [12] The 2006 census showed also that there were 199 passengers living in cities surrounding. [13]


Climate data for Letter registered at Malin Head in the northernmost tip of the county. Malin Head climate is classified as Tempe Oceanic (Köppen Cfb ) and is much milder than some other places in the world on a similar latitude, this depends on the stations located near the Atlantic coast and exposure to the heat of the Gulf Stream. Because of its northern latitude, Malin Head experiencing long summer days and short winter days. Summers are cool, with temperatures rarely exceed 25 ° C (77 ° F), while winters are relatively mild with daytime temperatures rarely drop below 0 ° C (32 ° F). Extreme heat is very rare, but the city can sometimes get extreme cold of the Arctic, where temperatures drop several degrees below 0 ° C (32 ° F). Snow is relatively uncommon and the station receives an average of 20 days recorded snowfall per year, the vast majority of these occur between December and March. Humidity is high year round and rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year, with the winter months get the most rainy days, but the letter may have four seasons in a day, rain, snow, sunshine, hail.



Letterkenny Town Council oversaw the affairs of the city until the city council abolished in the country in 2014. [14] [15] It is now Newsletter municipality, which returns ten inhabitants tillDonegal County Council.Currently, there are four independent, three members of Fianna Fail, two members of Sinn Fein and from Fine Gael. [16]

In 2008 Letter represented Ireland in the Entente Florale, has scooped gold in the metropolitan Centre category of the 2007 National Tidy Town Awards.Locally there was a small commotion all the flags of competing nations displayed in prominent areas of the city, with some difficulty in the locals discovered the controversial Union Jack flag hanging from a pole next to the library and Paddy Delap’s newsagent. The flag is still upsetting to many people angered by continuing British rule iNordirland and as such has led to an intense heated debate on local radio station Highland Radio [17] [18] the day the judges were in town. The flag was first mounted the previous day (7 August) and had to be taken down after some concerns about their safety on a busy Thursday night. The re-assembled following day. Still, the city won the gold medal in the competition. [19]


Until the 2016 general election, letter was part of Donegal North East constituency. From 2016, it is part of the nationwide five-seat constituency of Donegal. In the 2016 general election, the constituency back Charlie McConalogue (Fianna Fáil), Pearse Doherty (Sinn Féin), Pat the Cope Gallagher (Fianna Fáil), Joe McHugh (Fine Gael) and Thomas Pringle (Independent).


Main article: Architecture Letter

See also: Public art in Letterkenny

Many of Letterkenny’s more notable buildings built in the early 1850s or before. These include educational and ecclesiastical buildings. The city’s tallest building ärkatedralen St Eunan and St Columba, which was completed in 1901. The cathedral was designed by William Hague from County Cavan. It is built in a light Victorian neo-Gothic version of the French 13th century Gothic style. Located opposite the Cathedral, at the junction of Church Street with the cathedral, is Conwal Parish Church, parts of which date from the 17th century.

Another dominant building in the town is the historic Saint Eunan college.Saint Eunan’s is a three-story castelated structure with four round towers at each corner of the building. It was constructed in the Edwardian version of the neo Hiberno-Roman style. Other architecturally remarkable buildings can be found at Mount South Terrace, perched on the Market Square, next to Castle Street. This Georgian style terrace of red brick built in 1837 by Lord Southwest. The terrace includes five of the most distinctive examples of Georgian house in Letterkenny and also served as homes by Maud Gonne, who lived here on holiday in Donegal. [20] St. Conal psychiatric hospital is a large Victorian neo-Georgian structure situated påKilmacrennan Road in the city. One of the most notable buildings in West Ulster, the oldest parts are from the 1860s. The hospital’s chapel was built in neo-Norman style in the 1930s.

The Donegal County Museum is housed in the old workhouse and is located on the High Road. It was built in 1843 in neo-Tudor style typical for this type of building.

In recent years, Letter seen more unusual architectural development. The new Letterkenny Town Council offices, known locally as “The Grass House” was constructed by Donegal baseradeMacGabhann Architects. One of the most notable features is its distinctive sloping grass roof situated above a wide band of Aluka carpet lining but it is also notable for its path-like ramp to the first floor hallway. It is said to be a building of international interest.[21]

Media and art


There is a large cinema complex in the city. Located on Canal Street, Century Cinemas [22] is an eight-cinema. An Grianan Theatre, [23] the largest theater in County Donegal with a capacity of 383. There is Letterkenny Arts Centre and recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to the Letter Library and Arts Centre and Gallery Cristeph.Letterkenny Regional Cultural Centre, located behind a Grianan Theatre, opened on 9 July 2007. The city has an active music scene. [ Citation needed ]


The city has recently hosted the annual Irish music festival, Fleadh Cheoil two consecutive years. Both festivals were organized by Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann. The city also hosts the International Pan Celtic Festival for two consecutive years (2006 and 2007). Celts from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Isle of Man, Brittany and Cornwall visited the Letter of ‘craic agus ceoil “. Along with the daily street performances on the square, An Grianan Theatre and The Courtyard Shopping Centre, vocals, violin, harp and dance competitions also featured.


The town is a popular nightlife spot for local catchment and, indeed, for the rest of Ulster – especially on weekends and especially for visitors from nearby Derry. The Main Street, originally the retail center of the city, has become a center for popular nightclubs and pubs, boosted by the remnants of the old shopping district. There are several nightclubs in the area, including Milan Nightclub often hosts international tours and DJs and Pulse which offers live bands regularly. The Grill Music Venue is a popular nightclub on Sundays, which regularly hosts acts as Shane MacGowan, Ash, Hot Chip, Dirty Sanchez, Fun Lovin ‘Criminals. [24] Club Voodoo is a highly regarded [25] bar and night -Club Lower Main Street and has attracted figures such as Sander van Doorn, Markus Schulz, Paul van Dyk, Eddie Halliwell and Marco V in recent years. There are many pubs like The Central Bar (established in 1808), The Cavern, Sara’s sister, Josie’s Bar, McGinley and The Cottage Bar.


Annual events include:

  • Patrick’s Parade (March)
  • Northwest 10K (May)
  • St. Eunans College 5k (May / April)
  • Donegal International Rally (June)
  • Earagail Arts Festival (June / July)
  • Donegal Harvest Rally (October)


Letter can receive all national radio stations, TV stations and cable and satellite services. The area can also get many stations in Northern Ireland, including C9TV, a local television station based in Derry. The National RTÉ has a studio located in Ballyraine district.

The regional radio station Highland Radio broadcasting from the city to the north, east and west County Donegal, West Tyrone and Derry City. It began broadcasting in 1990.

Letterkenny is home to several media companies. The main regional newspaper in the city and county is the Donegal Democrat (owned by the Derry Journal ), whose office also writes two other titles every week – theDonegal People’s Press on Tuesday and also Donegal on Sunday . Another local paper, The People Derry Donegal News (popularly known locally as The Derry People ). It is distributed on a Friday and a Monday edition. The Milford based Tirconaill Tribune , printed in Letter is distributed throughout the county. The city also produces two complimentary magazine papers, Letter People (formerly Letter Listener ), which is distributed on a Thursday and theLetter Post ., Who writes on a Thursday night for Friday circulation in Derry Journal based in Derry itself is also a major newspaper in the city and its surroundings .


There were a total of 777 public order offenses recorded in the city in 2003 with 1 505 in 2008. These statistics place the letter as the sixth worst city in Ireland for public order offenses. [26]

During the past few years have seen serious violations of the letter is linked with feuds between gangs passing in some areas of the city. In one such incident, a man was seriously injured when attacked with pitchforks and slash hooks at a gas station where passes the bunch happened to meet each other. [27] , the Oldtown area has seen several feuds in recent years – dubbed“Battle of the Oldtown” of Media. In one incident, a man was stabbed and another was taken to hospital. The gangs used the ninja-type weapons chains and swords. They calmed down only on the intervention of a local priest. [28] daggers, knives, chains and rapier-type sword later confiscated by gardai. [29]

The Main Street has seen many abuses, [30] stabbings, [31] [32] [33] [34] sexual assault, [35] [36] drug raids [37] and attacks on the Gardai [38] in the past. Letter In recent years, local organizations, ranging from local to local businesses, all have set about dealing with social issues.


Letterkenny Chamber of Commerce and Industry was founded in 1965. It is the only Donegal Chamber connected to the Chambers Ireland, which means that it “provides grants to national and regional lobbying policy,” according to its website. [39]


Upper Main Street, lit up at night and crowded with people. Cross View House can be seen in the background. Several clubs, such as Milan, pulse and Grill Music Venue, located close to this area.

Retail Letter contains modern shopping centers and family owned local shops – often giving craft.

Many high street stores operating in Letterkenny. The city is the north-western regions of large shopping centers [40] , and helping to serve outlying areas including rural County Donegal and Derry. The three main shopping malls Courtyard Shopping Centre, Forte Shopping Centre and Letterkenny Shopping Centre , which is the oldest. Built in 1984, is the largest shopping center in County Donegal, [41] and was the first of several such complexes in Letterkenny. It is also the third largest in Harcourt Developments retail portfolio. While originally built on the outskirts of the city means urbanization is now located in the city proper. Letter has been identified as one of Europe’s fastest growing cities with business owners. [42] In mid largely unchanged until 2004, when the center was expanded [43] and new lighting, flooring and furnishings were added. More retail units were constructed along with the expansion of Tesco outlet and thus become “one of the major developments in Ireland”. [44] The carpark was extended to allow for a capacity of 750. The entire project is supervised by Burke Morrison engineering company. [45] These centers have a large number of international and Irish chains such as Marks & Spencer, Tesco, Eason and others. There are also many other small centers such as Glencar mall and Market Centre .

Previous Main Street was the main shopping area of the city, but the trade has moved further expanding the city in the process. Main Street is home to many older facilities including R. Mccullagh Jewellers, [46] dating back to 1869, and Speer’s department store. Newer shopping areas in the city include Letterkenny Retail Park on Pearse Street and Canal Lane . Smaller streets likeChurch Street and Castle Street has increased in recent years with companies such as bakeries, pharmacies and fashion stores have opened. The squarehas also attracted fresh business.


The city’s largest employers include General Hospital (which grew from St. Conal psychiatric hospitals), Pramerica, and the Department of Social and Family Affairs, the latter is decentralized to the city in 1990, as a result of a government decision to move 200 jobs in the service sector civilians from Dublin. Letterkenny General Hospital is now called Letter University Hospital.

Traffic jams on the High Road Letterkenny

Letter is the center of industry in the North West of Ireland. Eircom, Boston Scientific and UnitedHealth Group is a major employer in the region. As the main commercial center in north Donegal, Letterkenny is also a variety of financial services institutions, law firms and small businesses.

Pramerica is a business and technology operations subsidiary of US-based Prudential Financial Inc .. (NYSE: Pru), located in Letterkenny, County Donegal and has over 1,100 employees, Microsoft Ventures backed local software startup, Farmflo, based on the Letterkenny Institute of Technology.With Microsoft’s investment, the company hopes to create 60 new jobs in the city over the next three years. [47]

There has been a significant decline in the manufacturing base, while employment has increased in the services sector. Since 2002, there has been a significant expansion in the retail sector. Allied to this growth has been the development of the cultural infrastructure. This includes the opening of An Grianan Theatre and the development of a new arts center.

Letter was also home to confectionery manufacturers Oatfield. It was based at the entrance to Ballyraine, near the city’s downtown area. The factory was demolished in summer 2014. Rock Hill barracks was once a major contributor to the local economy, but was closed in January 2009 due to military downsizing. [48] Modern wooden house, a log house manufacturing company located in Bonagee.Den Rambling Man destillery was located Eastend to 1976, and was not named after its owner Stephen Rambling. [49]

Construction work in a private hospital, which is to provide radiotherapy services to the northwestern region, began in June 2008. Construction of the first independent hospitals in the county will cost 70 million €. The hospital will provide four surgical theaters, renal dialysis and MRI and PET scan. The 1100 m 2 (11,840 sq m) Wyndale clinic was due to be completed in 2009. [50]

The economy of the town is heavily dependent on cross-border trade, and boom periods is primarily determined by the currency exchange rate between the euro and the British pound.


The Letterkenny Institute of Technology [51] (LYIT, known locally as the regional and IT ), located east of the center of Port Road, is a center for technology, information technology, materials science, design, business and nursing humanities. The Institute has a student population of 3,000 and is one of the largest institute for postgraduate studies anywhere iUlster, which offers a range of degrees to master level.

Saint Eunan College is a large secondary school center in Letterkenny.Located just northwest of downtown, was built in 1906.

Primary and secondary education in the city is organized in the same way as the rest of Ireland. There are five primary schools in Letterkenny, including Scoil Colmcille and Woodland School, while there are four high schools. [52]

Coláiste Ailigh is a gaelcoláiste Letter. There is a secondary school designed specifically for education through Irish. It was opened in 2000.

The Loreto Convent Secondary School, adjacent to St. Eunan’s Cathedral, is over 150 years old.


See also: List of people Letter – Sports

Letter has a modern community purpose-built leisure complex, consisting of a swimming pool, soccer fields (both natural grass and astroturf), and gymnasiums. Gaelic football, rugby and football are the most popular sports in the city, but many other minority sports are also exercised, such as hurling, boxing, karate, kick-boxing, handball, bowling, golf, swimming and gymnastics.

Association football

A view of the skyline Letter

Letterkenny Rovers are one of the most famous football clubs in the city.The team plays its home games at Leckview Park, on Canal Road in the city.Bonagee United are another local teams and play their home games at the Dry Arch Park and Glencar Celtic FC is a different team from the town who plays in Donegal League and the recent winners of the Saturday League Cup.There are a number of school soccer clubs in the city surroundings and an annual league played on the under 12, under 14 and under 16 age groups.

Current Arthurlie FC professional soccer player Denis McLaughlin born from Letterkenny.

Gaelic football

Letter has two GAA clubs: Naomh Adhamhnáin and Letter Gaels, who play their home games at O’Donnell Park, and Pairc na nGael in The Glebe, respectively. Almost uniquely in Ireland, Letterkenny Gaels, GAA club, sharing facilities with, Letterkenny Rugby Club. Gaelic football, like most of County Donegal, is the dominant sport, although the English variety is also very popular.


Rugby is also popular in the city, played on different levels, from school to higher league level. Letter RFC, founded in 1973, is the biggest rugby club in the city. Recently it has forged links with New Zealand rugby student because of the fact that Dave Gallaher, the first captain of all black, born in Ramelton, a village eight miles (13 km) from the paper. The club rugby ground in Letterkenny named Dave Gallaher Memorial Park in his honor in November 2005 by a visiting contingent of all black players, led by captain Tana Umaga.

Other sports

Letter has two men’s basketball team, Letter Heat and Letterkenny IT, as well as a junior basketball club, Letter Blaze. [53] Letterkenny Golf Club is located just outside the city center. There are also pitch and putt and tennis in town.Letter Sports Complex, a modern leisure center complete with skate park, located on the outskirts of the city. Letterkenny Athletic Club is also located in the city. The city is also host to Donegal International Rally, the third weekend of June each year ochDonegal Harvest Rally every October. It is a campaign run by a local councilor for the construction of a horse racing track and facilities on land on the Big Isle, on the outskirts of the city. [54]

In 2014 Donegal Marathon was relaunched in the city after an absence of 29 years. [ Citation needed ]


Letter Infrastructure Hub & Midlands Gateway access


The nearest airport is the City of Derry Airport, located about 48 kilometers (30 mi) to the east at Eglinton. Donegal Airport (locally known as Carrickfinn Airport) is less than an hour away, is west of the Rosses.

Letter is a small privately run airfield on the outskirts of the city that is in operation; it has both hard and grass of 620 meters, hangars available for overnight guests, ICAO Eilt. There is also a small private airfield at Finn Valley about 8 miles away. It is run and operated by Finn Valley Flying Club.The runway is 700 meters grass; It is primarily for the use of ultralight aircraft and light aircraft. The airfield is home to a lot of ultralight aircraft and flying club run a large open weekend every August where many aircraft are flying in to participate in den.Flygfältet is only suitable for small private aircraft and ultralight aircraft, and there is no commercial traffic anywhere where ; It is sometimes used by businessmen to land their small plane, and that is about 8 miles from the city.


See also: History of Irish railways

The city was once, in connection with the once extensive narrow gauge rail County Donegal. This gave connections to Derry (and through it to Dublin and Belfast), Lifford and Strabane, to Gweedore and Burton and Carndonagh, north of Derry. The railway system was built in the late 19th century, with the recent addition opens in the 20th century. Some of these lines were never profitable, built by the then British government subsidies. Just a few decades later, the independent Irish Free State from the rest of the UK resulted in railway companies operating across two countries where previously been.This had devastating effects on an already fragile economic situation, which ultimately results in the definitive cessation of all parts of the railway system in the area of in 1960.

Today, the nearest railway station to County Donegal is Londonderry train station in the nearby town of Derry. The station is owned and operated by Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) and runs through Coleraine to Belfast Central Station and Belfast Great Victoria Street Railway Station. The strategic Belfast-Londonderry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements of the permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services. NI Railways (TRANSLINK) [55]


Letter is well served by road traffic. Bus Eireann runs several daily services from the bus depot to Ireland’s major urban centers such as Dublin (number 32), Derry and Galway (both # 64). Private bus companies operate daily flights to and from the city. The Lough Swilly Bus Company (popularly known locally as Lough Swilly and the Swilly Bus ) operated a local transport service until they ceased operations in April 2014. Bus Eireann is now the main bus provider in the city. Currently, the availability of Dublin improving motorway status of roads built along the road, so cars to complete the Dublin Letter trip in about 3 hours and 30 minutes. Galway, in the south, is 4 hours away by car, while the Belfast, to the southeast, is 2 hours away by car.

Private companies provide daily bus service to Belfast. Letter has no cross-connection between the right to Belfast.

Taxi services are available from a rank on Main St. the Market Square.

Two national primary roads serve the city: the N13 from the south (Stranorlar) and N14 from the East (Lifford). N13 also has links to the A2 road (Northern Ireland) to Derry. The N56 county road, beginning at N14 in the city, traveling in a loop around the county, which ended in Donegal town.Regional roads include R245, which connects Letter north to Fanad and Rosguill peninsulas, and R250 southwest of Glenties.


Cathedral grounds Letter

See also: List of people and Letter List of Donegal people

Jean Glover died on Letter 1,801th

Letterkenny Community Centre on Pearse Road runs regularly carboot sales on Saturdays. [56]

tidy Towns

Letterkenny has a long history of the Irish National Tidy Towns Competition, first recorded in 1959 and did his best results in 2015. [57]

In 2002, a National Anti-Litter League survey conducted by a Taisce compared Letter excess litter normally associated with the liberties, a litter black spot which is located in Dublin’s poor inner city. [58] It was voted “Best Kept Urban Centre” in 2007 “best kept Town Awards [ citation needed ] and took first prize in the category” Large Urban Centre “at the 2007 Tidy Towns competition. It seemed to keep her brood status for the rest of this decade, judging by the results of a study by business group Irish Business against Litter, published August 23, 2010. [59]

In 2011 it was named as his county’s tidiest town, receiving 306 points, four less than the overall winner Killarney. This included 47/50 points for its landscaping, the highest score of any city in this category. Of the 821 participants in the contest in 2011, ended Letter in eighth place and received a gold medal for the ninth consecutive year. In the 2012 contest, was chosen as the tidiest town in the northwestern part of the country. [60] In 2013, it was chosen as one of Ireland’s top ten cities. [61]

In 2015, letter achieved its best results in the Tidy Towns competition, awarded first prize in the category “Large Urban Centre” and receive the total price as Ireland’s tidiest, Ireland’s best. [62] [63] [64]


The following sites are twinned with Letter:

  • Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, USA [65]
  • Derry, Northern Ireland

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland
  • List of sites for the All Ireland Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann (2005, 2006)
  • Market Houses in Ireland


  1. ^ Jump up to: abc “Census 2011 Results – Profile a city and country – population distribution and movements and population by Area” (PDF).Central Statistics Office Census 2011 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ “First County Title”. Naomh Adhamhnáin. Archived from originaletden April 12, 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ “Confidence boost for the Cathedral Town”. Donegal News. 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  4. Jump up ^ Draft Letter Plan 2009 – 2015 Volume 1 – The 75th
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “From wooden to God’s house”. Irish Independent.Independent News & Media. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 21 August of 2007.
  6. Jump up ^ Donegal News – 18 April 2007.
  7. Jump up ^ “Wolf Tone Trapped in the Letter”.
  8. Jump up ^ Only Warehouse architecture remains
  9. Jump up ^ Harkin, Greg (13 July 2012). “It could be you .. and also, Letter scoops two Lotto wins”. Irish Independent. Independent News & Media .Hämtad 13 August 2012.
  10. Jump up ^ “Letter Indian Community Centre”.
  11. Jump up ^ Donegal Democrat report, July 31, 2007
  12. Jump up ^ Donegal News report, 9 November 2007
  13. Jump up ^ Census 2006 – Irish Travellers
  14. Jump up ^ “Call for Letter Forums City Council meets for the last time.”Highland Radio. May 12, 2014. Archived from the original on 9 Mar, 2015.Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  15. Jump up ^ “” A dark day ‘looms for Letter to City Council stops “.Donegal Democrat. May 11, 2014. Archived from the original on 9 Mar, 2015.Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  16. Jump up ^ “Donegal County Council”.
  17. Jump up ^ Highland Radio – Latest Donegal News and Sports Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  18. Jump up ^ [1] Filed July 26, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. Jump up ^ Letter wins gold in the Entente Florale Highland Radio 22 September 2008
  20. Jump up ^ Mount South, on Flickr. com (accessed May 29, 2008)
  21. Jump up ^ “In the march”, Archi Seek August 4, 2002 (accessed 29 May 2008)
  22. Jump up ^ Century Cinemas website (accessed 29 May 2008)
  23. Jump up ^ An Grianan Theatre website (accessed 29 May 2008)
  24. Jump up ^ 任意整理についての注目ホームページ« thegrillniteclub »”
  25. Jump up ^ [2] [ dead link ]
  26. Jump up ^ Letter listed as one of the worst cities for public order offenses, Donegal News, March 16, 2009
  27. Jump up ^ “BBC NEWS – United Kingdom – Northern Ireland – police unit to investigate the” feud “”.
  28. Jump up ^ Priest to end the dispute, the Irish News, October 27, 2007
  29. Jump up ^ “”.
  30. Jump up ^ Gardai issue appeal to the licensed trade for serious abuses in Letterkenny, Belfast Telegraph May 22, 2007
  31. Jump up ^ Man due in court over stabbing Donegal, Irish Independent, October 17, 2008
  32. Jump up ^ Two hurt in separate assaults, Irish Independent, October 10, 2006
  33. Jump up ^ Dubliner held on stabbing and drug charges, the Irish Times, October 14, 2008
  34. Jump up ^ Horror knife attack, Donegal News, 18 September 2009
  35. Jump up ^ Gardai fear the power of sex attacks are linked, Irish Independent, 23 November 2002
  36. Jump up ^ Gardai launch search for sex attack duo, Irish Independent, February 6, 2006
  37. Jump up ^ Gardai make two cannabis seizures night, the Irish Times, September 9, 2001
  38. Jump up ^ spit Letter to the “beginning, middle and end of a blaggard” – Judge Kilrane, Donegal Democrat, 9 September 2008
  39. Jump up ^ “About”. Letterkenny Chamber of Commerce and Industry.Archived from the original September 29, 2015.
  40. Jump up ^ Letter Shopping capital of the North West
  41. Jump up ^ “Relaunch of Letterkenny Shopping Centre”. The Sunday Business Post .12 December 2004. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006. Hämtad12 February 2012.
  42. Jump up ^ “player”. 5 September 2005. Hämtat12 October of 2007.
  43. Jump up ^ “New look for Donegal town center.” Irish Independent. 24 November 2004. Retrieved 11 October of 2007.
  44. Jump up ^ Ireland’s Shopping Mecca
  45. Jump up ^ Burke Morrison Project
  46. Jump up ^ R. McCullagh Jewellers website (accessed 29 May 2008)
  47. Jump up ^ “London coup Farmflo”. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  48. Jump up ^ Four barracks to the military hospital closed the Irish Independent, October 15, 2008
  49. Jump up ^ Fleming, Sam (1984). Letter past and present. Donegal Democrat.
  50. Jump up ^ Letter Private Hospitals
  51. Jump up ^ Letterkenny Institute of Technology website (accessed 29 May 2008)
  52. Jump up ^ Education at Letterkenny
  53. Jump up ^ Letter Blaze Basketball. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  54. Jump up ^ “ Smarter Home Improvement – HVAC, lighting, plumbing, Door Hardware & More”.
  55. Jump up ^ All timetables. Translink. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  56. Jump up ^ “Fleamarket”. Letterkenny Community Centre.
  57. Jump up ^ O’Faherty, Jane (28 September 2015). “After 56 years, finally clears Letter on Tidy Towns awards.” Irish Independent. Hämtad28 September 2015.
  58. Jump up ^ “Letter as dirty as freedoms”. The Belfast Telegraph. 29 May 2002. Archived from the original September 29, 2015.
  59. Jump up ^ “Letter is Ireland’s 15 cleanest city”. In 2010.
  60. Jump up ^ “Letter excels in the 2012 Tidy Towns awards.” Highland Radio. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Hämtat10 September 2012. Letterkenny [sic] has retained its gold medal in 2012 […] competition, and has been named the tidiest town in the northwestern region, as well as in County Donegal.
  61. Jump up ^ “Letter hope to be crowned Ireland’s top city after being named in the top ten.” Donegal Daily. 26 November 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  62. Jump up ^ “Letter is Ireland’s tidiest town in 2015!”. Tidy towns. 28 September 2015. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015.Hämtat28 September 2015.
  63. Jump up ^ “Letter of Co Donegal named Ireland’s tidiest town.” RTÉ News.28 September 2015. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  64. Jump up ^ O’Brien, Tim (28 September 2015). “Tidy Towns: Lovely Letter buckets national top spot.” The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  65. Jump up ^ Elizabethtown Borough’s website (accessed 29 May 2008)


Killybegs (Irish: Na Cealla Beaga ) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. It is the largest fishing port in the county and on the island of Ireland. It is located on the south coast of the county, north of Donegal Bay, near Donegal Town.The city lies at the head of a beautiful harbor and at the foot of a large mountainous tract that extends north. [1] In the summer, there is a street festival celebrating the fish catches and incorporating the traditional “Blessing of the Boats”. It has a population of 1297 [2]


1588, Killybegs was the last stop of the Spanish ship La Girona , which had cast anchor in the harbor when the Spanish armada picked up on the Irish coast during the Spanish war with England. Using a Killybegs chieftain, MacSweeney Bannagh, the Girona’s staff fed, her rudder repaired, and she set sail for Scotland, but wrecked off the Antrim coast with the loss of nearly 1,300 lives. [3]

fishing industry

Killybegs is a natural deep water harbor with a depth of 12 meters at low water spring tide on the new € 50 million pier completed in 2004. The port is home to all the major Irish floating pelagic trawlers, and a modest whitefish fleet, but it handles many other types of shipping samt.Dessa include cruise ship passengers and mixed specialist loads. In recent years, Killybegs been favored port for the importation of wind turbines, and is a service port for offshore gas drilling / rigs.

The city is the center of the Irish pelagic fishing and processing industry, which specializes in processing and freezing of species sommakrill, herring, SCAD, and blue whiting. The finished processed fish exported to markets in Africa, the Middle East and Europe freezer vessels. But because of the blanket application of EU fisheries rules on Irish vessels from the Irish Department of the Marine, beginning in 2005, and mackerel shoals longer in Norwegian waters, there has been a decline in the fishing industry in the city.This has led to redundancies in the fish processing industry, where the fish factory workers have been hardest hit.


The first national school, known as “Killybegs National School” and later as “Commons National School”, which was opened in 1834 on a site originally supplied by Plantation Commissioners in the reign of King James I [4] There are three national schools and a second level school in Killybegs and a third level institution tourism College Killybegs, the only dedicated tourism Institute in Ireland, which offers courses in hospitality ochkulinariska skills.The college has been academically integrated with Letterkenny Institute of Technology since 2001. Donegal Town to Killybegs, Donegal Railway branch of the county finishes at the port and some of the remains can still be seen today. The railroad closed on the last day of 1959. ” St Catherine’s Vocational School” is a non-denominational, co-educational school second. There are twenty six teachers, five special needs assistants and three support staff. The student population is 348 and the male female student ratio to about 50:50.The existing two-storey building was opened in 1987 provides opportunities for students, teachers and members of the community. St. Catherine’s has a number of extra curricular activities, the school has had success in English, Irish and scientific debates. The art is well provided with an arts and music department, music department has staged a number of musical productions, students learn a variety of instruments. Work of art dept can be seen on Sport is also an important aspect of school students participate in teams representing the school in football, Gaelic football, athletics, basketball and rugby.


Fintra beach (registered blue flag) is located on the outskirts of Killybegs town. It consists entirely of fine golden sand, and receives a large number of day-trippers during the peak of tourist season. It is lifeguarded during the bathing season, and is considered one of the safest beaches in Ireland.

Donegal Carpets

Main article: Donegal Carpets

Killybegs is famous for its tapestries and carpets, some of which are produced on the largest carpet loom in the world “Donegal Carpet Factory”.Carpets, called Donegal , are hand-knotted in the Turkish style. The rugs have adorned many important buildings in Ireland such as Dublin Castle, the Royal Hospital Kilmainham, Aras an Uachtarain, Buckingham Palace and internationally Vatican, the White House, 10 Downing Street and most government buildings around the world. The factory in Killybegs was closed in 2003 and has been open since 2006, Maritime & Heritage Centre. It provides information about carpet-making and fisheries. Tours are conducted daily and visitors can watch small rugs that are made and try and make a knot. There is also a ship simulator which is the most modern in Ireland. The simulator provides three levels of technology that provides great fun for kids and not so young to test their navigation skills. The center is open year round.


The local football club, St. Catherine FC, founded in 1896 and they play their home games at Emerald Park.

The local GAA club is Na Cealla Beaga. They play their home games The Eamon Byrne Memorial Park.

Killybegs in the literature

Killybegs Author: John C. Ward: A Teagasg Criostaidhe fa Choinne Dioghoise Ratha Bhota 1891; Turas na croiche agus a Choróin Mhuire maille le dántaibh diadha 1892; Na hEipistil agus na soisgéil do Domhnaigh agus na na laetha saoire are dtarraingt go Gaeilge 1904; Chart Cruinneolaí 1906;Leabhar filíochta fa choinne Scoil na 1909 (with Padraig O’Beirne).

Thomas Colin MacGinley (Kinnfaela): The Cliff Scenery Donegal South West1867 (reprinted by four Masters Press 2000), General Biology in 1874.

Very Reverend James Stephens, PP: Illustrated Handbook of the landscape and Antiquities in the South West Donegal 1872nd

Charles Conaghan: Vitter of Killybegs in 1975.

Dr. Donald Martin: Killybegs then and now in 1998, Killybegs Down Memory Lane 2011.

Pat Conaghan: bury 1989; The Great Famine in southwest Donegal from 1845 to 1850 in 1997. The Zulu Fishermen 2003, steamed fish (Phoenix No. 2, Winter 1991/2), Stranorlar, not San Francisco (Phoenix No. 3, Spring 1992).

Bella McGee (poet) James Conwell (poet) Padraig O’Beirne (poet) such as Mo Phiopa Gairid Donn (nd).

In 2011, French author Ensure Chalandon published “Retour à Killybegs” (Return to Killybegs “), whose main character, Tyrone Meehan a 80-year-old former IRA officer and a British agent for 20 years was born then assassinated in April 2007 at his family home Killybegs.


  • Kevin Sharkey, artist and musician
  • Manus Boyle, Gaelic footballer
  • Barry Cunningham, Gaelic footballer
  • Barry McGowan, Gaelic football
  • Séamus Coleman, Everton FC return
  • Brian Brady, Fianna Fáil politician
  • Noelle Vial, poet
  • Thomas Pringle Independent TD
  • Hugh McFadden, Gaelic footballer

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Samuel Lewis (1858), a topographical Dictionary of Ireland, p. 158, retrieved July 23, 2011
  2. Jump up ^ “”. Implement Geoname Database.Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  3. Jump up ^ “La Girona” (PDF). Annual Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck, 2005. The Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck Sites. pp. 35 pp.Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  4. Jump up ^ bury-New Horizons on the history of Killybegs Killybegs: Pat Conaghan, Aghyeevoge (1989) OCLC 22529769


Inishowen (Irish: Inis Eoghain , meaning “island of Eoghan”) is a peninsula in County Donegal, Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in all the island of Ireland. Inishowen is a picturesque place with a rich history. The peninsula includes Ireland’s most northerly point, Malin Head, along with Lagg sand dunes, some of the highest in Europe. The Grianan of Aileach, a ring fort that served as the royal seat of the Kingdom Ailech, stands at the entrance to the peninsula.

Towns of Inishowen

The main towns and villages in Inishowen are:

  • Ballyliffin , Buncrana , Bridgend , Burnfoot , Burt
  • Carndonagh , Carrowmenagh, Clonmany , Culdaff
  • Dunaff
  • understand
  • Glengad, Gleneely, Greencastle
  • Killea
  • Malin , Malin Head , Moville , Muff
  • Newtowncunningham
  • Redcastle
  • Quigley Point
  • Urris

After the last ice age peninsula was an island. Most of Inishowen’s population inhabit the peripheral coastal areas, while the interior consists of low mountains, mostly covered by swamps, of which the highest is the Slieve Snaght which is 619 meters (2,030 feet) above sea level. Other large hills located in the Malin Head peninsula, as well as Urris Hills in west Inishowen.Because of its geography, Inishowen usually has relatively more moderate weather conditions, with temperatures slightly lower than in other parts of Ireland in the summer and slightly warmer in the winter, especially during periods of extended cold väder.Inishowen is a peninsula of 884.33 square kilometers (218.523 acres) , located in the northernmost part of the island of Ireland. It is bordered on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by Lough Foyle, and to the west of Lough Swilly. It is joined at the south to the rest of the island and is mostly in County Donegal in Ireland. The southeastern part of the peninsula is located in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, has been transferred from Donegal on behalf of London businesses as part of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. The peninsula is separated from the rest of Northern Ireland on the River Foyle.

Inishowen has several harbors, some of which are used for commercial fishing purposes, including Greencastle, Bunagee and Leenan. A season ferry crossing Foyle connecting Green with Magilligan County Londonderry, while another cross Swilly connecting Buncrana with Rathmullan. The village of Fahan has a privately built marina.

There are several small outlying islands off the Inishowen coast, mainly Inishtrahull and Glashedy islands, both uninhabited, although the former was inhabited until the early twentieth century. Inch, located in Lough Swilly is technically no longer an island, as it has a causeway connecting it to the mainland at Tooban, south of Fahan.

Lough Swilly is a fjord-like lough, and was of strategic importance for many years to the British Empire as a deep-water port. It is also known as the starting point for the Flight of the Earls. Lough Foyle is important, as the entrance to the River Foyle and the city of Derry, but is much more shallow than Lough Swilly, and requires the use of a pilot boat to guide ships to and from Londonderry Port.

A large area of land, most of which are now part of Grianan Farm , one of the largest farms in Ireland, was reclaimed from a shallow area in Lough Swilly, which stretches from the village of Burnfoot Bridgend and Burt. The contours of this country is conspicuous because of its flatness prove a stark contrast to the more mountainous area around it.


Which preceded the formation of County Donegal by centuries, the area was named Inis Eoghain (island of Eoghan) after Eogan mac Neill, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages ( Niall Naoigeallach , enhögkung), whose name was also used for Tyrone (Irish: Tír Eoghain ). Inis Eoghain is also the homeland Meic Lochlainn (descended from the tribe of Eoghan), a clan that grew so formidable that they eventually came under siege by a Limerick King, who came north to Aileach, and ordered the destruction of Aileach fort and to every soldier was to remove a stone from the fort to prevent its reconstruction. Later, after the fall of Meic Lochlainn was chieftainship of Inis Eoghain usurped by the Ó Dochartaigh clan (descended from the tribe Conaill), because they lost their own homeland in the Laggan valley area Tír Conaill.

Inishowen has many historical monuments dating back to the early settlements, and including the ruins of several castles and forts on Grianan Aileach. The ancient fort of Grianan Ailigh Burt was once the seat of högkung, both the High Kings of Meic Lochlainn, who held power in Inis Eoghain for many centuries. It was restored in the nineteenth century, although some damage in recent years has resulted in the partial collapse of the southern side of the wall. Among the main castle ruins Inishowen is Carrickabraghey on the Isle of Doagh, Norman Castle at Greencastle, Inch Castle, Buncrana Castle and Elagh Castle.

In 1196, John de Courcy, an Anglo-Norman knight who had invaded Ulster in 1177, defeated the king of Cenél Conaill and most of Donegal was at his mercy. Two years later he returned to devastate Inishowen. But in subsequent campaigns they Courcy defeated by O’Neill clan headed by his manager AED Méith and found himself unable to conquer the west of Ulster.[1]

1608 Sir Cahir O’Doherty, the last Gaelic Lord Inishowen and a former ally of the crown, launched O’Doherty revolt by burning Derry. After the defeat of the uprising lot of O’Doherty former countries was awarded to Arthur Chichester.

Ireland’s fatal traffic accident happened on the Inishowen in July 2010. [2] [3] [4] [5]


At the last census in Ireland in 2006, Inishowen counted a population of 31,802, an increase of 8.4% compared to 1996. [6] Buncrana is the largest city in Inishowen, with a population in 2006 of 3394 in its locality. [6]


At the national level, Inishowen is a part of Donegal constituency, which selects five TDs to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament). At the county level are Inishowen an electoral district, a municipal district, the election of nine councilors to Donegal County Council. Currently there are three members of Fianna Fáil, two each Sinn Féin and Fine Gael, the Labour Party and one independent. [7]


In addition to the radio stations and newspapers available elsewhere in Donegal, several media are based solely on the peninsula, including two magazines (in Inish Times and Inishowen Independent , both published in Buncrana) and an online daily local news service ( ).Inishowen is also home to the only community station in the county (Inishowen Community Radio, based in Carndonagh). The traditional source of news for Inishowen is the Derry Journal , published in nearby Derry city, since 1772. It still serves the peninsula as a paper of record.


Inishowen 100 tourist route [8] is an approximately 100 mil signposted scenic drive around the peninsula. It takes in or passes near most of the tourist attractions and places of interest on the peninsula.

It starts at Bridgend where there is a picnic area with a large map and information boards. The first part of the coastal road along the coast of Lough Swilly. It passes Inch Island, Fahan (a blue flag beach), Fahan 18-hole golf course, Buncrana Town, Tullyarvan Mill (an interpretive center tracing over 250 years of textile manufacturing in Buncrana area.). It continues along the western shore of Lough Swilly.

The routes go Dunree beach, Dunree Fort (military museum) and then turns inland for Mamore Gap (between Urris Hills and Raghtin More mountain), Leenan Bay, Dunaff head Tullagh Bay (a blue flag beach), through the villages of Clonmany and Ballyliffin. Ballyliffin has a well respected golf course with 18 holes.

After Ballyliffin route passes the Isle of Doagh (where there is a famine museum and interpretive center). Next is Carndonagh – the second largest city in Inishowen, after which the road turns north again by Malin Town (known for having won its category in Ireland’s Tidy Towns competition several times), the last five fingers Beach and then up the mountain peak point and car park at Knockamany Bens, then back down to the sea with the route looks in the open Atlantic, before heading for Banba crown a peninsula off the peninsula, it is home to Ireland’s most northerly point Malin Head.

On the northeast coast passing the village of Culdaff and Culdaff Bay (another blue flag beach), remote Tramone Bay, Kinnagoe Bay. As the coast turns east reaches of Lough Foyle and Shroove at the mouth of the Lough and then Green (the port used by fishing boats and landing point for the car ferry to and from Magilligan in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland). Then as the road south along the Lough Foyle it passes through the city of Moville, Quigley Point and Muff village where the road turns right and heads back to Bridgend where the journey began.


As in other parts of Ireland, there are a wide variety of sports organizations and activities practiced on the peninsula.

Gaelic sport

Inishowen is no exception popularity Gaelic football in the county with several clubs representing the different churches in the peninsula. Each club has many different football teams for both sexes and different age groups.While throwing played at underage level of all the clubs there are, still, put no adult teams regularly of any of them. [1]

  • Beart CLG, Burt [2]
  • Buncrana GAA club [3]
  • Carndonagh GAA club [4]
  • Malin GAA club [5]
  • Moville GAA club [6]
  • St Patrick GAA klubb, Muff [7]
  • Urris GAA club [8]


  • Inishowen Rugby [9]


  • Inishowen Football League

Other sports

  • Biking
  • Golf [10]
  • Horse riding
  • kayaking
  • Skytte – North Inishowen Gun Club [11]
  • Surfing
  • mountaineering


  1. Jump up ^ DeBreffny, D; Mott, G (1976). The churches and monasteries of Ireland. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 60-61.
  2. Jump up ^ According to The Irish Times , “the National Roads Authority road safety expert Stephen Lambert said last night the death toll was the highest number of deaths in a single crash since records began in 1961”.
  3. Jump up ^ Watt, Alex (13 July 2010). “Funeral Plans for Men Killed in Crash Irish”. Sky News. BSkyB. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ “Funerals Donegal crash ‘. News BBC. BBC. 15 July 2010.Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  5. Jump up ^ “Eight fatal crash ‘worst on record’ ‘. Irish Independent.Independent News & Media. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “Census 2006 Year-end”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. In 2006. Taken 2010-02-06.
  7. Jump up ^ “Councillors of the Municipality Inishowen.” Donegal County Council. 14 April 2016.
  8. Jump up ^ “Inishowen 100 driving route”. Ride with GPS. 2010-07-04.Pulled 10/11/2014.


Green (Irish: An Caislean Nua ) is a commercial fishing harbor located in the northern part of the scenic Inishowen Peninsula on the north coast of County Donegal, Ireland on Lough Foyle .Numera, given the decline in the fishing industry, it is more like a “typical” Donegal holiday village. It is a few miles from Moville and is approximately 20 miles from Derry. Green’s name comes from the castle in the area, which in turn may have gotten its name from the green Freestone which it was built. The castle, originally built by the Anglo-Normans, is also known as Northburgh Castle.


The first real bridge was built in 1813 [1] and has been added to several times since. Today, as well as being a tie for trawlers and salmon boats and homes for Green Fish Co-Op, Foyle Fishermen’s Co-Op and Fresco Seafoods pier has a completely different “catch”. Visitors disembark Magilligan -Greencastle ferry which opened in 2002. [2] The official website advertises the fact that it saves 78 km (or 49 miles) run, which would be done through Derry. Lough Foyle shipping company has also recently (2004) ushered in a Lough Swilly ferry that goes mellanBuncrana and Rathmullan season. The pier also includes a newly built pilot office to replace the defunct pilot offices Carrickarory Pier.

Green is also one of the avstignings ports for cruise ships visiting Derry.Because of the tidal nature of the Foyle estuary, it is sometimes too shallow for cruise ships to get to Lisahally docks in Derry. Stop at Green also saves 5 hours sailing roundtrip. But passengers have to get through tenders, unlike Lisahally docks, the Green pier is not designed to allow a cruise ship to the dock. [3]

Castle Green has been linked with the castle in the background of Derry weapons. [4]

The castle was built in 1305 to provide a base for the Anglo-Norman power in the North West. This building was named “North Burg”. [5] There is a more modern Martello Fort beside Norman ruin. This was built by the British to stop the Napoleonic invasion circa 1800.

National Fisheries College (NFC) is located in Greenville. NFC has recently completed a € 1.1 million extension financed under INTERREG Initiative 11, which provides better facilities, including a realistic simulator bridge deck.

Marina protests

Statements that visiting boats were turned away from the port now has proved to be totally unfounded. A private company sought to establish a private marina in the public harbor, forcing local fishermen out. A rumor was announced that visiting yachts were turned into a storm; Gardai investigations found these accusations have no basis, as confirmed by the harbor master. [6] [7]

Notable people

  • Mark Farren (Derry City player)
  • William Fitzsimons Irish-born Australian politician who came from Green
  • Brian Friel, Irish dramatist who lived in Greenville from 1960 until his death in 2015.

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland
  • Bella Clean station


  1. Jump up ^ Sean Beattie (2004). Donegal (Ireland old photographs series). Sutton. Printing press ISBN 0-7509-3825-0.
  2. Jump up ^ Donegal Library Information
  3. Jump up ^ “Bad weather scuppers liner visits”. BBC News. 09.02.2009.Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  4. Jump up ^ British Civic Heraldry – Derry Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  5. Jump up ^ Foyle Ferries Info
  6. Jump up ^ [1]
  7. Jump up ^ Irish Times May 20, 2011

Glenveagh Castle

Glenveagh Castle (Irish: Caislean Ghleann Bheatha ) is a large crown manor house built in the Scottish Baronial style in Glenveagh National Park, near both Churchill and Gweedorei County Donegal, Ireland. The castle was built between 1870 and 1873, and consists of a four storey rectangular keep surrounded by a garden, and has a background of some 165.4 square kilometers (40.873 acres) of mountains, lakes, valleys and forests complete with a herd of red deer. The visitor center has displays explaining the park as well as an audio-visual show and available for visitors with disabilities.Gardens and castle were left to the Irish nation in 1981 by Henry Plumer McIlhenny of Philadelphia, who had bought the farm in 1937th Hollywood stars like Marilyn Monroe, Clark Gable, Charlie Chaplin and Greta Garbo holiday at the castle while McIlhenny owned it. [1] Irish Gleann Bheatha (Bheithe) translates into English as “Glen of the Birch Trees”.

captain Adair

The castle was built by Captain John George Adair (1823 – 1885), born in Co. Leix, and a member of the minor nobility. Adair had made his fortune by chancy markspekulationi United States, and he returned to Ireland and bought up large tracts of land in Donegal. Adair had married in 1869, Cornelia Wadsworth Ritchie, a daughter of James S. Wadsworth, a Union general in the American Civil War. Altogether, about the creation of gardens and palaces.Adair’s ambition was to create an estate and castle that surpassed Balmoral, Queen Victoria’s Scottish retreat. John Adair is remembered with affection scarce in Donegal. On the heels of the Great Irish Famine and emigration level with Highland compartment, John Adair evicted 224 tenants from their blackhouses on his land. This was not for financial gain, but only to improve the aesthetic aspect of the castle. These approvals tenant called “Derryveagh evictions”. The name John George Adair Donegal landlord has gone down in history and folklore, ballad and documentary. All have one thing in common – Adair was notoriously cruel. He bought Glenveagh and Gartan 1859 do an estate of 28,000 acres (110 km 2 ).

His problems with the tenants began almost immediately. A row between them and Adair of shooting rights and infringement may culminated in the murder of his Scottish Steward James Murrog. Consequently Adair carried out its threat to evict tenancy. On 3 April 1861 a considerable cortege of 200 police officers, three noncommissioned officers, the resident judges and the sheriff stated from the Letter to perform their duties. Evictions began at Lough Barra, where a widow, Mrs. Hanna McAward and her six daughters and one son were the first to suffer. Desecration continued for three days by Magerashangan, Stag Hall, Claggan, Ardator and Castle among others townlands. A total of 44 families were evicted for a total of 244 people.

It is said that a curse was placed on the castle because of the cruel evictions resulting in any of the subsequent owners to carry any heirs to the family name.

Many of those evicted went to the Workhouse in Letterkenny, others with the help of local people and the clergy also took money. In Australia, Donegal Relief Fund revitalized and arrangements were made to help young people between 16 and 28 years to emigrate. Many took advantage of the system. When they settled in Sydney, the strong oral tradition ensured that the descendants kept his family’s bitter memories.


  1. Jump up ^


Glenveagh (from Irish Gleann Bheatha , meaning “glen of the birches” [1] ) is the second largest national park in Ireland. [2] The park covers 170 square kilometers of hillside above Glenveagh Castle on the shores of Lough Veagh ( Loch Ghleann Bheatha ), 20 km from Gweedore in County Donegal. The network of mainly informal gardens displays a variety of exotic and delicate plants from as far away as Chile, Madeira and Tasmania, all sheltered by windbreaks of pine trees and ornamental rhododendrons.

The farm was founded by John Adair, who became infamous for evicting 244 of his tenants and clearing the ground so that they would not destroy his views. Gardens and castle was presented to the Irish nation in 1981 by Henry P. McIlhenny of Philadelphia who had bought the farm 1937th

The park is home to the largest herd of red deer in Ireland and previously extinct golden eagle was reintroduced in the park in 2000.

See also 

  • List of Loughs in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Glenveagh National Park: In-depth history Glenveagh
  2. Jump up ^ Ireland: Active Pursuits: National Parks |


Inishowen (Irish: Inis Eoghain , meaning “island of Eoghan”) is a peninsula in County Donegal, Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in all the island of Ireland. Inishowen is a picturesque place with a rich history. The peninsula includes Ireland’s most northerly point, Malin Head, along with Lagg sand dunes, some of the highest in Europe. The Grianan of Aileach, a ring fort that served as the royal seat of the Kingdom Ailech, stands at the entrance to the peninsula.


Inishowen is a peninsula of 884.33 square kilometers (218.523 acres), located in the northernmost part of the island of Ireland. It is bordered on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by Lough Foyle, and to the west of Lough Swilly. It is joined at the south to the rest of the island and is mostly in County Donegal in Ireland. The southeastern part of the peninsula is located in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, has been transferred from Donegal on behalf of London businesses as part of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. The peninsula is separated from the rest of Northern Ireland on the River Foyle.

After the last ice age peninsula was an island. Most of Inishowen’s population inhabit the peripheral coastal areas, while the interior consists of low mountains, mostly covered by swamps, of which the highest is the Slieve Snaght which is 619 meters (2,030 feet) above sea level. Other large hills located in the Malin Head peninsula, as well as Urris Hills in west Inishowen.Because of its geography, Inishowen usually has relatively more moderate weather conditions, with temperatures slightly lower than in other parts of Ireland in the summer and slightly warmer in the winter, especially during periods of extended cold weather.

Inishowen has several harbors, some of which are used for commercial fishing purposes, including Greencastle, Bunagee and Leenan. A season ferry crossing Foyle connecting Green with Magilligan County Londonderry, while another cross Swilly connecting Buncrana with Rathmullan. The village of Fahan has a privately built marina.

There are several small outlying islands off the Inishowen coast, mainly Inishtrahull and Glashedy islands, both uninhabited, although the former was inhabited until the early twentieth century. Inch, located in Lough Swilly is technically no longer an island, as it has a causeway connecting it to the mainland at Tooban, south of Fahan.

Lough Swilly is a fjord-like lough, and was of strategic importance for many years to the British Empire as a deep-water port. It is also known as the starting point for the Flight of the Earls. Lough Foyle is important, as the entrance to the River Foyle and the city of Derry, but is much more shallow than Lough Swilly, and requires the use of a pilot boat to guide ships to and from Londonderry Port.

A large area of land, most of which are now part of Grianan Farm , one of the largest farms in Ireland, was reclaimed from a shallow area in Lough Swilly, which stretches from the village of Burnfoot Bridgend and Burt. The contours of this country is conspicuous because of its flatness prove a stark contrast to the more mountainous area around it.


Which preceded the formation of County Donegal by centuries, the area was named Inis Eoghain (island of Eoghan) after Eogan mac Neill, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages ( Niall Naoigeallach , enhögkung), whose name was also used for Tyrone (Irish: Tír Eoghain ). Inis Eoghain is also the homeland Meic Lochlainn (descended from the tribe of Eoghan), a clan that grew so formidable that they eventually came under siege by a Limerick King, who came north to Aileach, and ordered the destruction of Aileach fort and to every soldier was to remove a stone from the fort to prevent its reconstruction. Later, after the fall of Meic Lochlainn was chieftainship of Inis Eoghain usurped by the Ó Dochartaigh clan (descended from the tribe Conaill), because they lost their own homeland in the Laggan valley area Tír Conaill.

Inishowen has many historical monuments dating back to the early settlements, and including the ruins of several castles and forts on Grianan Aileach. The ancient fort of Grianan Ailigh Burt was once the seat of högkung, both the High Kings of Meic Lochlainn, who held power in Inis Eoghain for many centuries. It was restored in the nineteenth century, although some damage in recent years has resulted in the partial collapse of the southern side of the wall. Among the main castle ruins Inishowen is Carrickabraghey on the Isle of Doagh, Norman Castle at Greencastle, Inch Castle, Buncrana Castle and Elagh Castle.

In 1196, John de Courcy, an Anglo-Norman knight who had invaded Ulster in 1177, defeated the king of Cenél Conaill and most of Donegal was at his mercy. Two years later he returned to devastate Inishowen. But in subsequent campaigns they Courcy defeated by O’Neill clan headed by his manager AED Méith and found himself unable to conquer the west of Ulster.[1]

1608 Sir Cahir O’Doherty, the last Gaelic Lord Inishowen and a former ally of the crown, launched O’Doherty revolt by burning Derry. After the defeat of the uprising lot of O’Doherty former countries was awarded to Arthur Chichester.

Ireland’s fatal traffic accident happened on the Inishowen in July 2010. [2] [3] [4] [5]


At the last census in Ireland in 2006, Inishowen counted a population of 31,802, an increase of 8.4% compared to 1996. [6] Buncrana is the largest city in Inishowen, with a population in 2006 of 3394 in its locality. [6]


At the national level, Inishowen is a part of Donegal constituency, which selects five TDs to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament). At the county level are Inishowen an electoral district, a municipal district, the election of nine councilors to Donegal County Council. Currently there are three members of Fianna Fáil, two each Sinn Féin and Fine Gael, the Labour Party and one independent. [7]


In addition to the radio stations and newspapers available elsewhere in Donegal, several media are based solely on the peninsula, including two magazines (in Inish Times and Inishowen Independent , both published in Buncrana) and an online daily local news service ( ).Inishowen is also home to the only community station in the county (Inishowen Community Radio, based in Carndonagh). The traditional source of news for Inishowen is the Derry Journal , published in nearby Derry city, since 1772. It still serves the peninsula as a paper of record.


Inishowen 100 tourist route [8] is an approximately 100 mil signposted scenic drive around the peninsula. It takes in or passes near most of the tourist attractions and places of interest on the peninsula.

It starts at Bridgend where there is a picnic area with a large map and information boards. The first part of the coastal road along the coast of Lough Swilly. It passes Inch Island, Fahan (a blue flag beach), Fahan 18-hole golf course, Buncrana Town, Tullyarvan Mill (an interpretive center tracing over 250 years of textile manufacturing in Buncrana area.). It continues along the western shore of Lough Swilly.

The routes go Dunree beach, Dunree Fort (military museum) and then turns inland for Mamore Gap (between Urris Hills and Raghtin More mountain), Leenan Bay, Dunaff head Tullagh Bay (a blue flag beach), through the villages of Clonmany and Ballyliffin. Ballyliffin has a well respected golf course with 18 holes.

After Ballyliffin route passes the Isle of Doagh (where there is a famine museum and interpretive center). Next is Carndonagh – the second largest city in Inishowen, after which the road turns north again by Malin Town (known for having won its category in Ireland’s Tidy Towns competition several times), the last five fingers Beach and then up the mountain peak point and car park at Knockamany Bens, then back down to the sea with the route looks in the open Atlantic, before heading for Banba crown a peninsula off the peninsula, it is home to Ireland’s most northerly point Malin Head.

On the northeast coast passing the village of Culdaff and Culdaff Bay (another blue flag beach), remote Tramone Bay, Kinnagoe Bay. As the coast turns east reaches of Lough Foyle and Shroove at the mouth of the Lough and then Green (the port used by fishing boats and landing point for the car ferry to and from Magilligan in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland). Then as the road south along the Lough Foyle it passes through the city of Moville, Quigley Point and Muff village where the road turns right and heads back to Bridgend where the journey began.


As in other parts of Ireland, there are a wide variety of sports organizations and activities practiced on the peninsula.

Gaelic sports

Inishowen is no exception popularity Gaelic football in the county with several clubs representing the different churches in the peninsula. Each club has many different football teams for both sexes and different age groups.While throwing played at underage level of all the clubs there are, still, put no adult teams regularly of any of them. [1]

  • Beart CLG, Burt [2]
  • Buncrana GAA club [3]
  • Carndonagh GAA club [4]
  • Malin GAA club [5]
  • Moville GAA club [6]
  • Naomh Mr GAA club, Muff [7]
  • Urris GAA club [8]


  • Inishowen Rugby [9]


  • Inishowen Football League

Other sports

  • Cycling
  • Golf [10]
  • Horse riding
  • kayaking
  • Shooting – North Inishowen Gun Club [11]
  • Surfing
  • mountaineering


  1. Jump up ^ DeBreffny, D; Mott, G (1976). The churches and monasteries of Ireland. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 60-61.
  2. Jump up ^ According to The Irish Times , “the National Roads Authority road safety expert Stephen Lambert said last night the death toll was the highest number of deaths in a single crash since records began in 1961”.
  3. Jump up ^ Watt, Alex (13 July 2010). “Funeral Plans for Men Killed in Crash Irish”. Sky News. BSkyB. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ “Funerals Donegal crash ‘. News BBC. BBC. 15 July 2010.Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  5. Jump up ^ “Eight fatal crash ‘worst on record’ ‘. Irish Independent.Independent News & Media. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “Census 2006 Year-end”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. In 2006. Taken 2010-02-06.
  7. Jump up ^ “Councillors of the Municipality Inishowen.” Donegal County Council. 14 April 2016.
  8. Jump up ^ “Inishowen 100 driving route”. Ride with GPS. 2010-07-04.Pulled 10/11/2014.

Fintown railway station

Fintown railway station served the village Fintown in County Donegal, Ireland.

The station was opened on June 3, 1903 on the Donegal Railway Company line from Glenties to Stranorlar. It closed December 15, 1947 when County Donegal Railways Joint Committee closed the line from Glenties to Stranorlar in an attempt to save money. [2] Freight traffic on the line continued until 10 March 1952. The station reopened on 3 June 1995, the newly formed earn 3 feet (914 mm) narrow gauge Fintown Railway along the former route used by the County Donegal railways joint Committee. The railway runs from Fintown along Lough Finn and the Glenties.


Fanad (official name: Fánaid ) [2] is a peninsula that lies between the Lough Swilly and Mulroy Bay on the north coast of County Donegal in Ireland.Origin of name Fanad are lost in time although there is some speculation that the name derives from an old Gaelic word Fana for “sloping ground”. [3] It is also called Fannet or Fannett in older records. There are approximately 700 people living in Fanad and 30% of Irish speakers.

Fanad include assemblies of Clondavaddog, Killygarvan and parts of Tullyfern and Aughinish. It measures about 25 km north-south, measured from Fanad Head to the town of Ramelton and 12 km east-west, measured between the townlands of Doaghbeg and Glinsk. The southern boundary of the Fanad has been the subject of some controversy for centuries. In the 16th century, during the time of MacSuibhnes as ruler Fanad, it was noted that the territory Fanaid stretched as far south as the River Lennon between Kilmacrennan and Ramelton. In 1835, surveyor John O’Donovan Rathmullan known as the capital of Fanad, and he refers to Clondavaddog as “the northernmost parish Fanaid” , suggesting that Fanad included except Clondavaddog congregations. [4] O’Donovan also noted that “the residents of Inishowen state that Fanaid ranging from Rathmeltan to Mulroy Lough, but the natives of the holy Killygarvan, Tully and Aughnish, who considered themselves civilized, deny that they themselves are of men in Fanaid “ .

Surnames usually recorded in Fanad since the mid-19th century include Callaghan, Cannon / Canning, Carr / Kerr Coll, Coyle, Deeney, Doherty, Friel, fidelity, Gallagher, Martin, McAteer / McIntyre, McConigley / McGunnigal, McGinley / McKinley Sheil / Sheilds and Sweeney / McSwyne. [5]

Geology and Geography

Geological maps of County Donegal show adaptations mountain running southwest to northeast over Fanad peninsula. The underlying rock in the peninsula is mostly of Dalradianmeta-sedimentary rocks, which have been exposed by weathering and erosion over the millennia There are areas of granodiorite igneous rocks throughout the northern part of the peninsula from Ballywhoriskey to Fanad Head, but most of Fanad consists of US- Dalradian Quartzite and some Pellite rocks with local occurrences of slate and Tillites – the latter mainly concentrated around the northern entrance Mulroy Bay. [6]

The cliffs around Fanad Head is exposed granodiorite, while the higher ground running south from Fanad Head to Port Salon is a band of quartzite.Knock All Mountain is also formed of quartzite.

The landscape of Fanad shaped by geological processes that include the effects of recurrent coating of ice sheets and glaciers as recently as 14,000 years sedan.Reträtten of the ice sheet had a great impact on the Fanad and surrounding areas. It is speculated that a large part of the Lough Swilly was may have been dry land which was flooded due to a rise in sea level over the past 10,000 years. Mulroy Bay may be similarly formed at this time. Peat formations on the foreshore at White Beach north of Rathmullan contains the remainder of the trees submerged by the advance of the sea in this area.[7] Many of the beaches in Fanad shoreline was formed at this time of glacial deposits that are then reworked by the action of waves and streams.

As with much of the rest of Ireland, post-glacial landscape gradually changed with increases in temperature from open tundra to one dominated by forests of pine, oak, alder, hazel and birch, with a break in the canopy on the edges of the intermediate expanses of lake and bog . This was probably the landscape that greeted the earliest settlers who ventured along the coast in the late Mesolithic period, perhaps around 5000 BC. There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of coastal areas in Inishowen on Dunaff [8] , and west of Horn Head in this period and it is reasonable to assume that Fanad also saw some transient occupation at this time.

The subsequent development of the landscape in Fanad is probably more human intervention than the forces of nature, reflecting the transition from the visit of mesolitiskajägare, fishers and gatherers to the introduction of primitive agriculture in the Neolithic period from 4000 BC onwards. The tree-covered landscape in the Mesolithic period, would have given way gradually to a more open landscapes in rural areas, which marks the beginning of the contemporary landscape Fanad, with its mix of farmland at lower levels, with bushes and gorse covered highlands and swamps interspersed with occasional lakes and waterways.


Mesolithic and Neolithic periods

There is no specific evidence of human occupation of Fanad during the Mesolithic period (8000 – 4000 BC), but as noted already, it is reasonable to assume that there were no temporary occupation of the coastal sites during this period. The earliest evidence of human settlement in Fanad is probably the presence of megalithic court tombs in a variety of locations including Tyrladden, Drumhallagh Upper and Upper Crevary possibly dating from circa 4.000 to 3.500 BC. There is also the portal tombs or dolmens from the Neolithic period, including examples of Gortnavern south of Kerrykeel and the saltpans on Lough Swilly side of the peninsula. [9] These proposed as dating from about 3.800 to 3.200 BC.

Bronze Age and Iron Age

Proof of occupation of Fanad during the Bronze Age (2000 – 500 BC) continues in the form of tombs and similar monuments. Three possible stone circles probably belong to the Bronze Age have been identified near Rathmullan. Several casket burial sites as though to date from the Bronze Age discovered in Fanad including a group now destroyed in a cairn on Killycolman near Rathmullan. [10]

Ring forts (Cashels) and ornately carved stone characteristic of Donegal Iron Age (500 BC – 400 AD), including such major monuments Grianan Aileach.Evidence ring forts found in 35-40 places in Fanad, mainly in the coastal sites on both Swilly and Mulroy coasts. [11]

early Middle Ages

Bealoideas and the earliest records indicate that Fanad originally occupied by Corpraige from which St Colmcille’s mother Eithne is said to have come.[12] The Corpraige may have occupied an area as far south as the River Swilly and Bin Willy Mountain including Gartan.

In the early 7th century, Cenél Conaill, one of the tribes of Donegal are said to be descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages (Gaelic: Niall Noigiallach) and originating in Mag nItha in Lower Finn Valley, began to expand to Fanad, possibly forcing northward retreat Corpraige. All traces of Corpraige had disappeared from the area of the 12th century. [13] Congal Cennemigher Mac Fergus Fanad was högkung from 700 AD until his death in 710 AD. [14] It is established that the royal seat Cenél Connell power in Fanad was on Cashelmor in “between the waters” in the North West Fanad.

Cenél Conail subsequently reduced by virtue of the expansion of Cenél Eoghain Inishowen during the 8th century, especially after the battle of Clóitech in 789 when Cenél Conaill withdrew to areas south of Barnes. [15]With reduced power Cenél Conaill, territory Fanad came under control O’Breslins derived from Congel Cennemigher son. During this time, there are data on attacks from the Vikings on Fanad- specifically in Mulroy Bay on Kinnaweer near Milford in 921 AD. [16]

End of the Middle Ages

The power of O’Breslins in Fanad lasted until sometime after 1263, when the chieftains of Tir Conaill the O’Donnell granted under the chieftaincy of Fanad to MacSweeneys (Gaelic: MacSuibhne) in exchange for their support for some O ‘Donnell families in their struggle chieftaincy of the clan.

The MacSweeneys was galloglasses, (mercenary warrior) from Scotland, was responsible for the construction of the castle and the Carmelite Monastery in Rathmullan at the end of the 16th century. [17] The MacSweeneys was also responsible for the construction of the tower house on Moross on the upper parts of Mulroy Bay in around 1532. [18]

On the 17th and 18th centuries

The power of Sweeney as the Lords of Fanad ended with the Flight of the Earls in 1607 and the subsequent Plantation of Ulster, though they continued to hold some countries in Fanad that owners until 1641 rises, after which all remaining Sweeney countries were seized. The “familial Commandery” of Fanad left in Sweeney family.

Lands in Fanad were mainly granted servitors (Crown employees including veterans of the nine-year war). Settler noted in the 1654 Civil Survey include Richard Perkins BelliclanmcCallen (sic), William and David Lyne on Bunintyne (Bunnaton?), John Rowly on Ballymastocker, Craveross (Croaghross?) And Magherawarden, Thomas Stewart Carlan, Knockbrack and Drumfad, William Patton in Croghan, Colin and Patrick Campbell on Moross and Luke Ashe on Ballyhork. Some lands on Tullynadall granted to the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College.

Rathmullan originally granted to Sir Ralph Bingley but soon passed to his son-in-law, Bishop Knox. Rathmullan was incorporated as a town and in 1618, Knox changed Carmelite Friary serve as a mansion. It remained the residence of the Knox family until the late eighteenth century. [19] Also noteworthy at this stage was the construction of the Church of Ireland Rosnakill in 1693. [20]

Despite the plantation, Fanad retained its majority indigenous population and the way Gaelic and Irish remained the main spoken language of the peninsula – a situation that was generally unchanged until the mid 19’s. The 18th century introduced in Fanad rural industry with a corresponding improvement of the infrastructure. Livestock commercial herring fishery, flax and linen production became part of the local economy from the mid-18th century.

19th century

In the early 19th century, was also evident manufacture of curved hats, shoes and kelp production. Rathmelton was a major focus of the linen industry was found to have had the greatest pale green in Donegal in the late 18th century and early 19th century – a time of great success in the city. It also flourished as a port at this time. But linen and domestic shoe production went into decline in the 1820s and herring fisheries had also declined. As a result, emigration became the major part of life as the local population increased.[21]

Improvements in local infrastructure and facilities in the early part of the 19th century included the construction of a lighthouse on the Fanad Head in 1818 in response to the lowering of the frigate Saldanah in Lough Swilly 1804. A Framework Constructed on Milford about 1840, and a network of national schools arose some are sponsored by the landlord and some of the churches and religious organizations. The beginning of the 19th century also saw the construction of Catholic churches, starting with the construction of the chapel at Mass Mount Tamney close around 1780 on a site donated by the Patton in Croghan. Further building continued throughout the period, including a chapel of ease in Fanavolty circa 1840th

1837 Samuel Lewis published a topographical dictionary [22] which contained the following contemporary description of the church in Clondavaddog:CLONDEVADOCK or CLONDEVADOGUE, a parish in the Barony of KILMACRENAN, County Donegal and County Donegal, 15½ miles (NE) from Letterkenny; containing 9595 inhabitants. This assembly, which includes under the Ordnance Survey 27,367¼: Constitutional acres, of which 627¾ is water, located on the northwest coast; It comprehends the greater part of the peninsula district Fannet or Fanad, which extends north into the sea, and ends in the points called Maheranguna and Pollacheeny. is primarily occupied by mountains of considerable height, among which Knockalla is 1196 surface feet above the level of the sea: these are separated by deep and narrow valleys where the ground is reasonably good, consisting of a brown gravel mold, sometimes leans clay, on the basis of white clay, brownish or reddish clay, slate in different colors, and sometimes Freestone soft rock. The church contains about 60 quarters lands of good arable land and poor pasture land, with much waste and barren land: many acres have been covered and destroyed by the shifting sands. The point of Fannet are lazy. 55 ° 15 ’50 “(N) and lon 7 ° 39′. (W): it is on the west side of the entrance to Lough Swilly and a lighthouse was constructed on it, which the lamp has a height of 90 feet above the level of the sea at high tide, it consists of nine lights, showing a deep red light towards the sea, and a light fixed light towards the lough or the port, and can be seen in clear weather at the distance of 14 nautical miles. the seats are Croohan House, the residence of RH Patton, Esq.; Green, H. Babington, Esq.;and Springfield, M. Dill, Esq.

The living is a vicarage and rectory in the diocese of Raphoe and the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin: the tenth amounting to £ 463.5.4½. The Glebe-house was built by means of a loan of £ 100 from the end of the Board of First Fruits, 1795; The Glebe covers 240 acres, of which 160 are unmanaged. The church is a common structure, the repairs that the Church Commissioners have recently been granted £ 371.10.3. RC parish is coextensive with that of the established church, and contains two large chapel. There are five schools, of which the denominational schools, partly supported by annual donations from the headmaster and the late Colonel Robertson school fund. In these about 250 boys and 130 girls are instructed; and there are two wage schools, in which about 70 boys and 11 girls, and five Sunday schools.

The landscape evolved to reflect the development of local farms during this time. The presence of picturesque seascapes induced many local landowners to the site “big house” in the park setting overlooking Lough Swilly and Mulroy Bay. Besides the big houses listed by Lewis, other notable buildings constructed during this time included Drumhalla House (1789) by Dr. Knox, Fort Royal in Rathmullan (1807) by Charles Wray, Rathmullan House (1820) by Lieutenant Colonel Knox of Prehen and Glen House (1810) north of Rathmullan built by the Hart family. [23]

The 19th century they were a time of great change and upheaval in agriculture. In the first half of the century, many landowners began to introduce “improvements” to their holdings which effectively saw the end of clachans and old farming methods based around the old Rundale system. The farm scenery Fanad as we know it today, with small individual holdings and regulated limits were introduced from the 1830s onwards, often against the wishes of tenants. [24] The introduction of these “improvements” saw the closure of some major population centers in Fanad including well-established large Doaghbeg villages and Glinsk. Emigration continued and grew as a response to the significant increase in population, and in response to famine and food shortages, including the great famine in the late 1840s.Fanad population, estimated possibly around 4000 in 1766, was 10,344 and rising in 1841. However, it had dropped to 8244 in 1851 and continued to decline to a figure of 5778 1891st

Rural tourism emerged at this time – Fanad features in a 1849 travel guide [25]which states among other things that there are few more romantic places than Ramelton and its vicinity. The city contains three Presbyterian Meeting House, a Methodist chapel and a church: the Roman Catholic chapel is at a certain distance. There are corn mills and shops, a brewery and a bleach green. Although there is no bridge, are certain exports within these small vessels sailing up the harbor. Ramelton contains some good houses and two small inns where cars can be hired …… Rathmullan, its only street, church, battery and no trace of ecclestical and crenellated ruins but offers little to arrest the attention the traveler … Milford contains one or two pubs, a few shops, some respectable housing and in its vicinity a union workhouse .. … village Rosnakill will not detain the traveler, consists mainly of poor cottages but it contains the parish church, some small shops and one or two pubs …… .A good inn on Ballyvicstocker, a of the most wonderful of all our coastal bays and admirably suited for swimming, and where B. Barton, Esq., the holder of the Green Estate, and one or two others have built comfortable homes, with good roads from Ramelton and Rathmullan tend to persuade strangers to visit Fanad .

The second half of the 19th century witnessed the development of infrastructure of schools and other public buildings in the area. By c. 1858 schools had been established in a number of places including Bally, Michael, Doaghbeg, Ballyhiernan, Cashel Glebe, Tullyconnell, Croaghross, Leatbeg, Ballina, Muineagh, Drumfad and Glenvar. There was also a coastguard station, police barracks and a pharmacy and session house Tamney.

The second half of the 19th century was marked by the killing of Lord Leitrim, one of the big local landowners in Fanad and a man much reviled for his strictness in his dealing with their tenants. Leitrim kept much of the northern part of Fanad, with holdings ranging from Glinsk to Doaghbeg. The timing of Leitrim’s death coincided with a ground war that ended the era of landlord domination Fanad. In the decades that followed, and with the approval of various Irish Land Acts, ownership of a large part of the land in Fanad gone from landlords to their tenants. Other large landowners whose land passed into the ownership of its tenants included Barton who owned large areas of land in and around Portsalon, Henry Letham whose holdings were mainly Mulroy side of the peninsula, north of Kerrykeel and Thomas Norman whose land was located around Tamney and Rosnakill , just north of Henry Letham possession. [26]

20 and 21 centuries

In the first half of the 20th century, Fanad, like other coastal areas in Donegal, stuck in a pattern of subsistence farming. Employment outside agriculture was very limited, leading to continued high levels of migration, both permanent and seasonal workers, some overseas to the UK and the US, and a few cities in Ireland, including Derry and to a lesser extent, Belfast and Dublin. The decline in the population continued with the population registered as 2846 1961 about a quarter of that recorded in the 1840s.

The 2006 census reported a total population of 2131 for the electoral district in Carrowkeel, Rosnakill, Fanad Fanad North and South. By this time, agriculture declined significantly with limited livestock breeding as the main component of local agriculture. Local rural industry has grown to a certain extent with fish farming in Mulroy Bay and Lough Swilly as the main local source of employment, even for a time in the late 20’s and early 21’s, the building was undoubtedly a great source local revenue reflects the boom in the supply of homes and a general improvement of the local housing stock and infrastructure both in Fanad and in other parts of Donegal.

A notable addition to the local infrastructure was the construction of a major road bridge at the north end of the Mulroy Bay in 2009, which allows for easy access from Fanad west to Carrigart, Downings and other towns and villages along the northern coast. Tourism also gave some limited seasonal employment.

Some consolidation of local facilities has taken place during the past half century, reflecting the decline in the population. There has been a consolidation of the national school network in a small number of larger sites. Many local shops have closed, partly because of population decline but also undoubtedly due to the increased mobility of the population now has the opportunity to trade on the major population centers such as Letter.


Fanad Gaels, the local Gaelic Athletic Association club, has won several minor titles in the last 10 years.The club was formed in 1982. In 1994, a new park was opened Pairc Uí Shiadhail. The club began life in the County Division 4th

In 2006, the club had a most successful year, won the All County League Division 2 final, as well as reaching County Intermediate Final and an All-Ireland final in Comórtas Peile na Gaeltachta. In 2007, the club made further progress by winning Donegal Intermediate Championship in Pairc Sean Mhic Cumhaill for the first time.

The club would win another Donegal Intermediate title in 2009 and continue to compete at a very high standard in the Middle class in the years that followed. 2013 saw the capture of Comórtas Peile na Gaeltachta title that had eluded them in 2006 and 2014 were brought to a close with the club won its first and only Donegal Intermediate Championship at the reserve level.

The local football team Fanad United was founded in 1971 and has always been among the best football teams in the country. They were the first members of the Donegal League, claiming their first Allsvenskan title in 1973 in what was the first in a historic three in a row. Fanad moved from Junior to Intermediate football in 1986 with the formation of the Ulster Senior League and has dominated the competition since its inception winning the league championship in no less than 12 times.

At the national level Fanad United have also been significant in both FAI Senior Cup and League Cup. Their most famous performances in the League Cup came in 1987 when they reached the semi-finals before losing to Shamrock Rovers in the last four. In 1992 FAI Cup in a 2-0 win away to the Home Farm was followed by a marathon 3 game saga against the St. James Gate. 1996 claimed Fanad arguably the most famous scalp in their history when they beat Bray Wanderers 4-0 in Carlisle Grounds. To this day is still one of the biggest victories with a non-league side to the leading opposition in the Cup.

In 1979 Fanad claimed their first national title when they won the FAI Youth Cup by beating Shelbourne 3-1 in the final at Swilly Park. Nine years later, they became the first team from Donegal to win the Intermediate Cup when they beat Tramore Athletic (Cork) 1-0 in the final at Dalymount Park. A second Intermediate Cup followed in 1995 with a 1-0 victory over College Corinthians in the decider at Terry Park.

Surfing has become very popular on the Fanad peninsula with lots of locals who take up the sport very successful.

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • Lighthouses in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Rowlett, Russ. “Lighthouses in the West of Ireland (Ulster and Connacht)”. The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Download February 10, 2016.
  2. Jump up ^ placenta (Ceantair Ghaeltachta) Order 2004
  3. Jump up ^ The anglicized word Irish placenames Tom Burnell (2006)
  4. Jump up ^ O’Donovans’s Ordnance Survey Letters Donegal in 1835 by Michael Herity (2000)
  5. Jump up ^ Reflecting the frequency of occurrence of the names recorded in Griffith’s Primary Valuation of the 1850s.
  6. Jump up ^ As of maps and text Chapter One – Geology and Geomorphology of Moore, Cooper, Dunlop and Jackson, from Lough Swilly – a living landscape, Ed.Andrew Cooper (2011)
  7. Jump up ^ As of maps and text Chapter One – Geology and Geomorphology of Moore, Cooper, Dunlop and Jackson, from Lough Swilly – a living landscape, Ed.Andrew Cooper (2011)
  8. Jump up ^ Ref. Chapter 1 – prehistoric and early historic agreement in Donegal Brian Lacy from Donegal History and Society – Ed. Nolan, Ronayne & Dunlevy (1995)
  9. Jump up ^ National Monuments Service – Archaeological Survey Database
  10. Jump up ^ National Monuments Service – Archaeological Survey Database
  11. Jump up ^ National Monuments Service – Archaeological Survey Database
  12. Jump up ^ Chapter 3 – early medieval geography West Donegal from Cenél Conaill and Donegal Kingdoms of Brian Lacey (2006)
  13. Jump up ^ Chapter 7 – The emergence of Cenél Conaill from Cenél Conaill and Donegal Kingdoms of Brian Lacey (2006)
  14. Jump up ^ Chapter 3 – early medieval geography West Donegal from Cenél Conaill and Donegal Kingdoms of Brian Lacey (2006)
  15. Jump up ^ Per Chapter Twelve – The Triumph of Cenél hEogain and the invention of “The North” from Cenél Conaill and Donegal Kingdoms of Brian Lacey (2006)
  16. Jump up ^ Per Chapter Four – Sandhills, silver and shrines of Raghnall O’Floinn from Donegal History and Society – Ed. Nolan. Roynane and Dunlevy (1995)
  17. Jump up ^ According to chapter six -Late Medieval Donegal Katherine Simms and Gaelic families of County Donegal from Donegal History and Society – Ed. Nolan. Roynane and Dunlevy (1995)
  18. Jump up ^ National Monuments Service – Archaeological Survey Database
  19. Jump up ^ Per Chapter Four – Archaeology and History Lough Swilly by Thomas McErlean, from Lough Swilly – a living landscape, Ed.Andrew Cooper (2011)
  20. Jump up ^ National Monuments Service – Archaeological Survey Database
  21. Jump up ^ Per Chapter Thirteen – The development of City Network by WH Crawford from Donegal History and Society – Ed. Nolan. Roynane and Dunlevy (1995)
  22. Jump up ^ County Londonderry & Donegal – a topographical Dictionary of townships, villages and cities in the county in the 1830s by Samuel Lewis (1837)
  23. Jump up ^ Per Chapter Four – Archaeology and History Lough Swilly by Thomas McErlean, from Lough Swilly – a living landscape, Ed.Andrew Cooper (2011)
  24. Jump up ^ The original OS maps for Fanad that considered in the late 1820’s and early 1830 show clachans. The maps produced at the time of Griffith’s Primary Valuations in the early 1850s shows the origins of the current land holdings.
  25. Jump up ^ A handbook for travelers in Ireland James Fraser (1849)
  26. Jump up ^ Per holding maps in the introduction to the outer edge of the Ulster Hugh Dorrian – Ed. Brendan MacSuibhne and David Dickson (2000)

Donegal Castle

Donegal Castle (Irish: Caislean Dhun na nGall ) is a castle located in the center of Donegal Town, County Donegal in northwest Ireland. For most of the past two centuries, most of the buildings lay in ruins, but the castle was almost completely restored in the late 1990s.

The castle consists of a 15-century rectangular keep at a later Jacobean-style wing. The complex is located on a bend in the River Eske, near the mouth of Donegal Bay and is surrounded by a 17th century boundary wall. There is a small gatehouse at the entrance mirroring the design of the Keep. Most of the stone was constructed from locally limestone with some sandstone. The castle was a stronghold of the O’Donnell clan, Lords of Tír Conaill and one of the most powerful families in Gaelic Ireland from the 5th to the 16th centuries.

On Wednesday, May 25, 2016, the castle was visited by the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall, during his official visit in County Donegal.


Donegal (Ireland, Dun Na nGall), which translates into Foreigner Fort , possibly from a Viking fortress in the area were destroyed in 1159. But because of hundreds of years of development, has no archeological evidence of this early fortress was found. The elder Sir Hugh O’Donnell, wealthy head of the O’Donnell clan, built the castle in 1474. At the same time, he and his wife Nuala, built ettfranciskanerkloster monastery further down the river. A local legend [ citation needed ] tells of a tunnel that connects the two, but no evidence of this was found. Castle is considered one of the finest Gaelic castle in Ireland. This is indicated by a report from the visiting English Viceroy, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir Henry Sidney, in 1566, in a letter to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, the Lord High Treasurer, describes it as “the largest and strongest fortress in all Ireland “, adding: [1]

“It’s the biggest I’ve ever seen in an Irish hands: and appears to be in good storage, one of the most fair is on good ground, and so nigh a portable water a boat of ten tons can come within ten yards of it”

In 1607, after nine years of war the leaders of the clan O’Donnell left Ireland in the Flight of the Earls. In 1611 the castle and its lands were granted an English captain, Basil Brooke. Keep had been seriously damaged by the outgoing O’Donnell to prevent the castle used the Gaelic clans but was quickly restored by its new owners. Brooke has also added windows, a gable and a large manor wing to keep all the Jacobean style. Brooke family owned the castle for many generations until it fell into a devastating condition in the 18th century. In 1898 the then owner, Earl of Arran, donated the castle to the Office of Public Works.


Recently, the Office of Public Works has renovated the castle. Keep have had new roofs and floors added in line with the original styles and techniques used in the 15th and 17th centuries. The stone has been restored and manor wing is partly roofed. The oak wood used came from Brookeborough Estate in County Fermanagh. The castle is now open to the public and often hosts events such as the Gaelic cultural evenings.


  1. Jump up ^ Calendar government paper for Ireland, 1566

Donegal Town

Donegal or Donegal Town (/ d n ʌ I ɡ ɔː l / or / d ʌ n ᵻ ɡ ɔː l / dun -in-gawlIrish: Dun Na nGall , which means “the fort foreigners” [1] ) is a city in County Donegal, Ireland Identification historically written in English as Dunnagall or Dunagall.

Donegal gave its name to County Donegal, although Lifford is now the county town. Until the early 17th century, Donegal was the “capital” of Tír Chonaill , a gaelic kingdom checked avO’Donnell clan of Cenél Conaill .Donegal sits at the mouth of the River Eske and Donegal Bay, which is overshadowed by the Blues Mountains (the Croaghs “). The city circumvented avN15 and N56 roads. In the middle of the city, known as The Diamond, is a hub of music, poetry and cultural gatherings in the area.


There is archaeological evidence of settlements around the city dates to prehistoric times including the remains of round forts and other defensive earthworks.

St. Patrick was captured by raiders from the clans governed by Niall of the nine hostages, and this region is that Patrick back, are familiar with the people, language, customs and lands. [ Citation needed ] The first tribe to convert to Christianity as a result of St. Patrick’s effort was Clan Connaill (also known while Clan Dálaigh: in English, this is pronounced Daley and it can be translated as “one in a leading role”). Connall was a son of Niall of the nine hostages. As a result of their acceptance of Christianity, Patrick blessed clan members; the sign of the cross appeared on the chief’s shield, and it was not just the heraldic device of the clan, but also for County Donegal.

Donegal town itself is famous for being the former center of the government of the O’Donnell clan, the great Gaelic royal family styrdeTír Chonaill in western Ulster for centuries and who played a crucial role in Irish history.Their original homeland was further north in the area Kilmacrenan. From the 15th to the 17th century, they were an important part of the resistance to the colonization of Ireland by England. The town itself contains Donegal castle, on the banks of the River Eske and the remains of Donegal Abbey, a Franciscan monastery dating back to the 15th century on the south shore of the bay. Annals of the Four Masters may have been partially written in the old convent in the 1630s . The story of Aodh Rua Ó Domhnaill (Red Hugh O’Donnell, also known as Red Hugh II), Lord of Tyrconnell, was the inspiration behind many books and films, not least, Disney’s The Fighting Prince of Donegal .

In 1601 Siege of Donegal took place in Tyrone rebellion. After the Flight of the Earls from Rathmullan close in September 1607, the castle and its land confiscated by the English crown and given to an Englishman, Captain Basil Brooke, as part of the Plantation of Ulster. Brookebeviljades castle around 1611 and he continued to perform extensive reconstruction work and added a wing to the castle in the Jacobean style. The current plan of the city was also posted by Brooke, including an attractive square known as The Diamond .From the late 17th to the early 20th centuries, formed Donegal part of the great estates of the Gore family (from 1762 Earls of Arran in the Peerage of Ireland) and it was under their ownership that the town took its present appearance. [ Needed citation ] Donegal Borough returned two members to the Irish house of Commons, the lower house of parliament in Ireland, until the law Union came into force in January 1801. Evidence of the Irish Famine still exists including a workhouse, whose buildings are now part of the local hospital, and many famine graves.

Industry and Tourism


The Church of Ireland at night in Donegal Town.

There are many sandy beaches in the area Donegal, such Murvagh beach, and some boasting good surfing conditions, such Rossnowlagh. Donegal is also used as a base for hill-walking in the nearby mountains Blues. Despite the city’s many hotels catering to visitors, it suffers from a lack of social amenities for the locals. Many have to travel to nearby towns such as Letterkenny for facilities such as swimming pools, movie theaters and major shopping centers. [2]

Like most clothing manufacturers in Ireland, the size of the workforce has been in decline for many years. Donegal also has a long tradition of weaving rugs. Donegal carpets made in Killybegs for over a hundred years and has proven to Aras an Uachtarain, the University of Notre Dame and the White House.


The Bus Eireann service 64 Derry / Galway route: this makes several other stops including Letterkenny and Sligo (which enables the rail links from Iarnród Éireann, from Sligo Mac Diarmada station in Sligo to Dublin Connolly. This route also enables train from Londonderry Railway Station to Belfast via Coleraine. the number of 30 Donegal Town / Dublin route makes stops at other important towns such as Enniskillen (providing connections to Belfast via Ulsterbus.) [3] Two private companies operate the other lines: “McGeehan bus runs a regular service from Glencolumbcille [4] and Dungloe[5] in West Donegal to Dublin Airport and Busaras in Dublin, passing through the city, [6] while Feda O’Donnell Coaches (also known as bus Feda) runs a regular Glenties / Galway who stay in Donegal . [7]

Donegal Town railway station was opened September 16, 1889 finally closed 1 January 1960. [8] The location of the old station is now used by CIE as a bus depot while the building is home to Donegal Railway Heritage Centre. [9]


Donegal town is home to many amateur sports clubs. The most popular sport in the area is Gaelic football and the local GAA club is four Masters. [10]The club has also been developing hurling. Other popular sports are soccer, rugby, basketball and athletics.

Donegal Town hosted the final stage of the World Rally Championship February 1, 2009 and was seen by 68 million people worldwide.


The city is home to the regional newspapers Donegal Democrat and Donegal Post and the local Donegal Times [11] newspaper. The North West Expressregional magazine is also distributed throughout the city and surrounding county, which is the Derry Journal . Ocean FM, an independent local radio station from Collooney, County Sligo, has one of its three studios in the city, which sends most of South County Donegal. Highland Radio, which is based in Letterkenny can also be received in the city.

Donegal Town hosted the final stage of the World Rally Championship 1 February 2009 and seen by 68 million people worldwide.

Notable people

  • Paul Durcan, Gaelic football goalkeeper
  • Karl Lacey, Gaelic footballer and 2012 All Stars Footballer of the Year
  • Alexander Porter, United States Senator
  • Colonel Robertson, soldier and philanthropist
  • Pauric Sweeney, fashion designer
  • John White, Conservative MP in the Canadian House


The most common surnames in Donegal at the time of the United Kingdom Census 1901: [12]

  • 1. Martin
  • 2. McGinty
  • 3. Cassidy
  • 4. Callaghan
  • 5. Gallagher
  • 6. Stevenson
  • 7. Wray
  • 8. Thomas
  • 9. Morrow
  • 10. Slevin


The climate in this area has mild differences between peaks and valleys, and there is enough rain all year round. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate, “Cfb” (Marine West Coast Climate / Oceanic climate). [13]

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland
  • Abbey Vocational School
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Donegal)


  1. Jump up ^ Donegal Town website
  2. Jump up ^ Letter Information Letter Reunion, Earagail Arts Festival, Donegal Rally, St. Patrick’s Day. (18 August 2008). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  3. Jump up ^ Bue Éireann website
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ McGeehan Bus website
  7. Jump up ^ Bus Feda website
  8. Jump up ^ “Donegal station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad23 September of 2007.
  9. Jump up ^ County Donegal Railway Restoration Ltd. website
  10. Jump up ^ Four Masters GAA Club
  11. Jump up ^ The Donegal Times Online
  12. Jump up ^ The most common surnames in Donegal
  13. Jump up ^ Climate Summary for Donegal
  14. Jump up ^ “”. Weather Base. 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.

The Derryveagh Mountain

The Derryveagh Mountain (Irish: Cnoic Dhoire Bheatha ) is the largest mountain range in County Donegal, Ireland. It constitutes a large part of the country of the county, and is the part of Ireland with the lowest population density. The mountains separate the coastal parts of the county, såsomGweedore and Glenties, from the large inland cities such as Ballybofey and Letterkenny. The highest peak is Mount Errigal.


Bundoran (Irish: Bun Dobhráin ) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. The city is located on the N15 road near Ballyshannon, and is the southernmost city in Donegal. The town is a popular tourism badortoch has been in the center for the local economy since 1777. [2] Bundoran is a world famous surfing area and was listed by National Geographic magazine in 2012 as one of the world’s top 20 surf towns. [3] [4]



Bundoran, or as it is known in Irish Bun Dobhráin (meaning the foot of a little water), was until more than a century ago, two separate villages.Bundoran was the village west of the bridge over the river Bradoge. This area is now known as the West End . East of the bridge, about 2 kilometers (1 mile) away, was the single village street. Between these two separate communities were townland of Drumacrin. Drumcacrin The area is now part of what is today downtown. Single Street was where most of the locals lived. It was only after the completion of the railway Enniskillen and Bundoran1868, which opened a terminal as it is called Bundoran , [5] that the two distinct communities developed and merged into what today is called Bundoran.

The first official record of Bundoran is a deposition of Hugh Gaskein 16 May 1653. He was a witness to the events during the 1641 uprising when he was an apprentice butcher in Sligo. [6] In 1689 a skirmish was fought near Bundoran between a Jacobite force under SirConnell Ferrall and the retreating Protestant garrison in Sligo.

William Cole, Viscount Enniskillen, built in Bundoran Lodge, his summer home in 1777. This building still stands on Bayview Avenue and is now called Homefield House. Viscount seems to have started a trend among his contemporaries as more of them discovered Bundoran and visited there to enjoy the sea and what was considered its health benefits.

The public roads

The rights of people to have access to the beach was blocked by a local landlord, but the locals found a champion in the parish priest Canon Kelaghan who fought in court in 1870 to ensure that the roads and paths to the beach remained open to the public. Canon Kelaghan also had the current Catholic Church was built in 1859. [7]


The opening of Enniskillen and Bundoran Railway (BR & E) 1868 connected Bundoran railway station with Ireland’s growing rail network [5] and made the city more accessible from Belfast, Dublin and other urban areas in the east and northeast coasts of Ireland. The Great Northern Railway (GNR) operated E & BR line from 1876 and absorbed the company in 1896. [8]

During this period Bundoran emerged as one of Ireland’s most popular seaside resorts. In the late 19th century it had become one of the major seaside resorts in Ulster. Hotels and lodging houses were opened around the city and GNR built the Great Northern Hotel, Bundoran one of the most famous landmarks. [9]

Rougey Cliff Walk.

During the Emergency of 1939-1945 GNR presented Bundoran Express [10]who switched Dublin and Bundoran through Dundalk and Enniskillen. [11] It also allowed the pilgrims to and frånPettigo, which was the nearest station to Lough Derg in County Donegal. [10] There was also through trains between Bundoran and Belfast. [12]

The partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the border with County Fermanagh in an international border. Henceforth Bundoran only rail link with the rest of the Irish Free State was over Northern Ireland, and as such was subject to delays for customs controls. The government of Northern Ireland closed a lot of GNR network on its side of the border in 1957, including E & BR as far as the border. [13] [14] This gave the Republic no practical alternative but to allow the closure of the line between the border and Bundoran. Then nearest railheads Bundoran was Sligo in the Republic and Omagh in Northern Ireland, until 1965 the Ulster Transport Authority closed the line through Omagh, too. [13] [15]

Today, the nearest railway station to Bundoran is Sligo Mac Diarmada Station in Sligo Town and Waterside Station in Derry.

Bundoran Beach

For almost two centuries, people have flocked to Bundoran beach during hot summer days. The tradition of bathing boxes began during the Victorian period. They are mainly used by members of the gentry, who were reticent about undressing in public. The boxes have pushed on wheels, to the water and the customer into the box through a door, put on her bathing suit and went out another door to get into the sea. The box remained there until the bathers was clear, dry and fully clothed again. The bath box was brought back to its original location on the beach, ready for the next customer.

Stationary bathing boxes were introduced in the early 1900s. They proved to be more suitable and less expensive for the public. In the 1920s, Mrs. Elizabeth Travers and her brother-in-law, Bilshie Travers (uncle the famous Bilshie Travers, former Mayor of Bundoran) hired the boxes from the municipality. For three old pennies a client hired a swimsuit and six old pennies they can rent “the whole package” that consisted of a bathing cap, suit and towel. The swimsuit was washed in a bucket and hung to dry until the next customer arrived. A familiar sight on the beach during the 1950s and 1960s was “The Duck”. This was a former British Army amphibious vehicles that ferried tourists out on the bay. It was driven by the Rooney family.Although prone to break down, it was a major attraction at the time. [16]

Promenade to Tullan Beach From Bundoran Bridge and looking out towards the sea is Cladach Leathan (the wide beach) which is Ireland Bill Stone, named after the rescue of a shipwrecked sailor. Beyond it’s world class surf break on the top. At the end of the promenade is Carraig na Sea (the mountain of the birds). Pump house overlooking the bay was built by local landlords the Hamiltons 1861. Nearby is a Carraig Choisceim (cutting step).Next to it is Poll Uain which is also known as The Horse Pool. The Thrupenny pool was named after the price of admission. The main beach called Tra Na Draina (string of the strong), where according to legend the giant Culina wrestled with his son, both unaware of each other’s identitet.Den little stream that enters the sea on the beach is Sruthan na Cuil Fhinne (the little stream of the real girl). Coral and brachiopod fossils embedded in the old and iconic cliffs Rougey are over 300 million years old. The area around the trampolines bear witness to a curious local custom, where protocol dictates that you must jump off the “Top Rock ‘as a ritual of early adulthood. The lower bar misogynistic given the title of “Lady’s Ledge ‘. At the tip of Rougey is Aughrus (Peninsula of a knight), where martial horses Conall Gulban O’Donnell and pickled. Passing the golf links we get to Pol and Pol Uaine Tobi, popular fishing spots. Next is the “Puffing Hole”. We now come to the Fairy bridges and “Wishing Chair”. Below is Tullan Beach, where the first inhabitants of the area used flint from the rocks to make tools.

“Beautiful Bundoran”

The song “Beautiful Bundoran” was very popular throughout Ireland in the 1950s, and it was performed by Sinéad O’Connor in the film The Butcher Boy .[17]

Central Hotel Fire

Main article: Fire Central Hotel, Bundoran

Tragedy struck August 8, 1980, when a fire broke out at The Central Hotel in the heart of town.Ten people died as a result, including five children. In September 2008, the church installed a hand-painted glass windows made by the world famous Harry Clarke (1889-1931), a window for many years hidden in the parish house of the local Catholic Church. The Council also erected a stone monument carved bench on Central Lane (next to Central Hotel) in August 2010 as a sign of respect lists the names of the ten people who lost their lives.

The Olympic selection

After winning his second Olympic medal, boxer Paddy Barnes was vocal in his intention to go to Bundoran for some relaxation. Self and Michael Conlon was pretty keen to get there. [18]



  • The opening in April 2006 in Bundoran / Ballyshannon bypass has made the resort more accessible. Sligo is 35 kilometers (22 miles) south of Bundoran along the scenic Atlantic coast. The Drowes River, where the southern part of the bypass started and which differs from County Leitrim County Donegal, is also the border point between the provinces of Connacht Ulster in the south and the north.


  • Bundoran railway station was opened June 13, 1866, but finally closed 1 October 1957. [19] The new council office car park is where Bundoran railway station once stood.

The nearest railway station is Sligo Mac Diarmada in Sligo Town Station, where trains to Dublin Connolly and operated by Iarnród Éireann. Buses from Bundoran to Sligo Sligo stop at the bus station located next to Sligo Mac Diarmada Station. Irish Rail Official site – Timetables, services and bookings

Coach / Bus

service Description

Bus Eireann buses connect Bundoran to Sligo Mac Diarmada Station in Sligo Town. Bus Eireann also run regular service, several times a day, from Derry to Galway, via Letterkenny and Bundoran. Feda O’Donnell goes private buses Sligo to Bundoran too. It also provides paths to and from Gweedore via Letterkenny, Donegal Town, Ballyshannon and Bundoran Western Ireland, including Sligo and Galway. There is also a regular bus service from Bundoran to Enniskillen.

bus stops

There are a number of bus stops in the city, but the most important are the East and West bus stop bus stop. The route (s) serving each stop specified in the table below.

Bundoran bus stops

Stop Route (s)
East bus stop Bus Éireann 064 Expressway / 480 to Bally (change to the Dublin / Enniskillen / Cavan) / Donegal / Ballybofey / Letterkenny / DerryBus Éireann 064 Expressway to Sligo / Knock Airport / Galway, 480to Drumcliffe / Sligo

Bus Eireann 483 to Kinlough / Ballintrillick (Fridays only)

Bus Eireann 495 to Kinlough / Largydonnell / Manorhamilton (Fridays only)

Astoria Road Ulsterbus 195 to Belleek / Pettigo (connection to Ennis).
Hollyrood Hotel Bus Feda Sligo / Knock / Clare / Tuam / Galway
Tourist Bus Feda Sligo / Donegal / Letter / Gweedore / Crolly
West bus stop Bus Éireann 064 Expressway / 480 to Bally (change to the Dublin / Enniskillen / Cavan) / Donegal / Ballybofey / Letterkenny / Derry064 Expressway to Sligo / Knock Airport / Galway, 480 to Drumcliffe / Sligo
Great Northern Hotel Innisfree CoachesNatt to / from Sligo (Friday, Saturday and Sunday nights only).
Parking Innisfree CoachesNatt to / from Sligo (Friday, Saturday and Sunday nights only).

The latest developments

Bundoran has seen much development over the past decade, due to its popularity as a destination by the sea and access to tax incentives for the development of holiday homes. Bundoran Thousands of music fans attend in Bundoran Sea Sessions Surf and Music Festival every June. [20]

Astoria Ballroom

Astoria Ballroom was built in 1953 at a time when dance was an important social activity. Show Bands spent many years entertaining large crowds in Astoria Ballroom. In recent years, the Astoria Ballroom, owned by Brian McEniff, was to have a number of facelifts and temporary name changes from Earth Nightclub to Bling , and in the 1980s expanded to add a new bar.Astoria Ballroom was a listed building. But November 29, 2008 it was destroyed by fire. It took fire brigades in Bundoran, Ballyshannon and Belleek over nine hours to extinguish. Bundoran Two firefighters sustained burns from the fire.


On Railway Road stands the St. Louis school, which was built in 1892. The buildings included a school and residence for the Sisters of St. Louis. One of the buildings at a standstill today. Around the same time, the Sisters of St. Louis had his secondary school next to the old Grand Central Cinema in the venue called The Sea View Hotel.

St. Joseph’s orphanage was erected from funds bequeathed by the late Miss Sarah Crudden, Newtownbutler. These buildings later became known as Ard Lughaidh, much of the building was stone and had a great sport and theater hall all in 2006 VEC demolished them without reason too. All that is left of the land is ultimately devoted to the 1980s with the “live in” students at Ard Lughaidh, but this is now under the ownership of Donegal Adventure Centre.Because of the declining classes of Ard Lughaigh in the 1990s, the school faced closure and some students moved to Bally. [1] Some of St. Louis nuns moved to St. Louis building on Railway Road, but a lot of moving. [2]



Recently, Bundoran been noted as a surfing place. [21]


There is a golf course with 18 holes in Bundoran. The golf club was founded in 1894. The course is situated on the historic Great Northern Railway Company location, the old railway sleepers include a golf course that has the most breathtaking and beautiful views of the Atlantic Ocean. The course is a challenging experience despite its short length. [22]

Gaelic game

Bundoran GAA in the 1920s was in Bundoran on the railroad did Bundoran local ground a comfortable place for many big games. The GAA club grounds were purchased in 1938. The club was reorganized and renamed “The Star of the Sea ‘. FIFA park has undergone many developments over the years. The soil was leveled 1947 contained in 1951. The club dressing was constructed 1972. [16]

The juniors were successful in both the 1956 and 1960 World Cup. 1963, the “Star of the Sea” associated with the Bally team Aodh Ruadh to become St.Josephs. The team included many players who contributed to Donegal the county team, including Brian McEniff and former Donegal County Council President Michael McLoone. In 1977 the club again split into two clubs, one each for the towns of Bundoran and Ballyshannon.

1979 beat Bundoran, Ballybofey in a nail-biting one point win to win the Senior Championship. Local man Brian McEniff led Donegal to 1992 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final, where they defeated Dublin in the final 0-18 to 0-14. Bundoran was the scene of large parties for almost a month later. [16]

Notable people

  • Brian McEniff, former Donegal manager
  • Sean McEniff, Fianna Fáil politicians
  • Liam MacDaid, Lord Bishop of Clogher
  • Louis Lipsett, a former major general in the British Army
  • Richie Fitzgerald, surfers

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland
  • List of cities in Northern Ireland
  • List of twinning in Ireland
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports . Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Discover Bundoran – Tourist information from the Irish capital Fun!
  3. Jump up ^ world’s best Surftown – National Geographic
  4. Jump up ^ “Bundoran – Donegal”. Discovering Ireland. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab . Hajdučki, Maxwell S. (1974) A railway Atlas of Ireland .Newton Abbot: David & Charles. 6. map ISBN 0-7153-5167-2.
  6. Jump up ^ Wood-Martin, WG (1882 to 1892). History Sligo, County and City. From accession of James I to the revolution in 1688 Dublin. Hodge & Figgis. pp. 253-257.
  7. Jump up ^ Bundoran public road (1870). Dublin: Mc Glaghan and Magill
  8. Jump up ^ Hajdučki, op. cit. , page xiii
  9. Jump up ^ “News and sports in Donegal – Belle of Bundoran back after 33 years – Donegal News”. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  10. ^ Jump up to: ab McCutcheon, Alan (1970). Ireland . Railway History in pictures. 2 . Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 58. ISBN 0-7153-4998-8.
  11. Jump up ^ Baker, Michael HC (1972). Irish railways since 1916 London.Ian, Allan. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-7110-0282-1.
  12. Jump up ^ McCutcheon, 1970, pp 115
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Hajdučki, op. cit. , map 39
  14. Jump up ^ McCutcheon, 1970, pp 153, 207
  15. Jump up ^ McCutcheon, 1970, pp 155, 209
  16. ^ Jump up to: abc Geagan, M. (2011) Dancing at sea: A journey through time in Bundoran area. Bundoran: Stra Comer Press ISBN 978-0-9568847-0-1
  17. Jump up ^ “Other”.
  18. Jump up ^ “Olympic boxer enjoying Bundoran.” Donegal Daily . August 19, 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  19. Jump up ^ “Bundoran station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways .Hämtad13 September of 2007.
  20. Jump up ^ Sea Sessions Surf & Music Festival, Bundoran, Donegal, Ireland
  21. Jump up ^ “Emerald Swell: Riding icy waves of a raging sea,” the New York Times , March 27, 2008
  22. Jump up ^ Bundoran Golf Club website


Buncrana (/ b ʌ n. K r æ n ə /; Irish: Bun Cranncha , which means “foot of the (River) Crana”) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. It is next to Lough Swilly on Inishowenhalvön, 23 km (14 mi) northwest of Derry and 43 kilometers (27 mi) north of Letterkenny. [2] In the census of 2011, the population was 6839 [3] making it the second most populated city in County Donegal, by letter, and the largest in Inishowen.

Buncrana is the historic home of the O’Doherty clan and was originally developed around the defensive tower called O’Doherty’s stay at the mouth of the River Crana. The town was moved to its current location just south of the River Crana when George Vaughan built the main street of the 1718th

The city was a major center of the textile industry in the county Donegal from the 19th century until the mid-2000s (decade).


O’Doherty’s stay

On the north bank of the River Crana as it enters Lough Swilly sits three floors O’Doherty’s stay, which is the only surviving part of a 14th century Norman castle. The first two levels of the Keep was built after 1333. [4] [5] In 1601 it O’Doherty’s stay was described as a small, two-story castle, inhabited by Conor O’Doherty McGarret. 1602 the third level was added and it was upgraded by Hugh Boy O’Doherty as an intended base for Spanish military support that hoped to land at Inch. [5]

Keep burned by Crown forces in 1608 in retaliation for the uprising by Sir Cahir O’Doherty, who had looted and razed the city of Derry. After Sir Cahir O’Doherty killed vidslaget at Kilmacrennan, he attaindered and his land confiscated. Keep granted Sir Arthur Chichester, who then leased to the Englishman Henry Vaughan, where it was repaired and lived in the Vaughan family until 1718. [6]

1718 was Buncrana Castle was built by George Vaughan was one of the first large mansions built in Inishowen and stone taken from Bawn or defensive wall that surrounds O’Doherty us keep building it. It was erected on the original site of Buncrana, who had grown up in the shadow of the keep.Vaughan moved the city to its current location, where he founded the present main street and built the Castle Bridge (six arched stone single lane bridge) over the River Crana leading to his castle. [7]

During the 1798 Rebellion, Wolfe Tone was held in Buncrana Castle when he was captured by the British / French naval battle off Donegal, before they moved to Derry and then to Dublin. On 18 May 1812, Isaac Todd bought the entire town of Buncrana, even townlands of Tullydish, Adaravan and Ballymacarry the audit Chancery on behalf of the trustees of the Marquess of Donegall. His nephews inherited the castle, and they later became known as Thornton Todd. The castle is still used as a private home today. In the courtyard there is a memorial rock in honor of Sir Cahir O’Doherty, and a plaque dedicated to Wolfe Tone. [8]

When John Newton and his shipmates on The Greyhound found refuge in Lough Swilly April 8, 1748 after a devastating Atlantic storm, he saw his survival as divine intervention, the answer to prayer. The refuge of Swilly and Buncrana area as a spiritual basis of a reformed later life. In 1764 he became a Church of England priest and then as assistant pastor at Olney in Buckinghamshire, an anti-slavery activist and famous hymnist known for writing “Amazing Grace”. [9]

One of the oldest remaining occupiers in Buncrana is a Georgian property called Westbrook House, located at the entrance to Swan Park just north of the town of Buncrana. The house was built in 1807 by Judge Wilson, who also built single arch stone bridge (called the Wilson Bridge) leading to the house and the entrance to the Swan Park.

20th century

In October 1905 Buncrana was the first town in County Donegal to get electricity. It was generated at Swan Mill continued to provide electricity for the city until September 1954 when Buncrana implemented in ESB rural electrification program. [7]

On July 30, 1922 under the Irish Civil War, Buncrana was captured by Free State forces from Republican forces without loss of life. The Free State forces kept the railway station, telephone and telegraph offices and all roads into the city. At 4:00 a sentry stopped a car on the outskirts of the city and to discover it contained the Republican commander, with five armed volunteers, arrested them. At about 7:00 am the Republican forces position was surrounded and were given fifteen minutes to surrender. They are followed, arrested and their weapons and ammunition were seized. Later that day, 100 Free State troops seized a train at Buncrana station and continued to take Clonmany, Carndonagh and other places on the peninsula. [10]

Buncrana was the subject of public attention in 1972, when after Operation Motorman it became refuge for many provisional Irish Republican Army members from Derry. In 1991, a local Sinn Féin Council, Eddie Fullerton, murdered by loyalists from Northern Ireland. [11]



Buncrana Town Council was communal for the city and gave a comprehensive range of services in the area. These services ranged from planning control, provision of social housing, to the maintenance and improvement of roads, maintenance of parks, beaches and open spaces. The city council was abolished in June 2014 when the Municipal Act Reform 2014genomfördes. [12] Its functions were taken over by Donegal County Council in 2014. Buncrana Inishowen located in the municipality, which chooses delegates to Donegal County Council. [13]


Buncrana is part of Donegal (Dáil constituency) since 2016. Earlier it was a part of Donegal Northeast constituency Dáil.


Buncrana is located on the eastern shore of Lough Swilly in northern County Donegal. The main urban area of the city lies between the Crana River in the north and the Mill River in the south. Principle street is a rough north-south route and is divided into upper and lower Main Street from Market Square.Main Street has a one-way traffic system. Crana River is crossed by three bridges: Castlebridge (providing vehicular access to Buncrana Castle and pedestrian access to the Swan Park), Westbrook Bridge (officially, Wilson’s Bridge) and the Cock Hill Bridge. Mill River, south of the city, crossed by two bridges: Victoria Bridge (known locally as the Iron Bridge), which is the main point of access to the city and the Mill Bridge is at the end of Mill Brae Road at the southern end of town.


The bedrock contains Fahan shale formation. River Valley in Mill River flows over a narrow band of Culdaff limestone with a threshold of metadolerite along rivers southern dike stretching from estuarine zone inland. Sandy gravel and clonglomerates overlying bedrock. The geology was formed in the Lower Carboniferous period. The local soils throughout the area ranging from shallow to moderate depth of peat podzols and established podzolics types with a moderate proportion of loam and sandy clays.


Buncrana, like the rest of Ireland, has a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system, which is characterized by cool summers and mild winters. [14] Ireland in the Atlantic means that its climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream, which keeps it a few degrees warmer than other places on the same latitude.

These are average temperatures and rainfall figures between 1961 and 1990, taken at the Met Éireann weather station at Malin Head, about 35 kilometers (22 mi) northwest of Buncrana:


Buncrana station opened September 9, 1864 was closed for passenger September 6, 1948 and finally closed completely 10 August 1953. [16]

The nearest railway station is run by Northern Ireland Railways and runs from Londonderry train station via Coleraine to Belfast Central Station and Belfast Great Victoria Street Railway Station. The strategic Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements of the permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services. [17]

Buncrana is connected to the rest of the national road network via a regional road, the R238. This connects to the N13, the national main guiding connecting Letterkenny and Derry (it becomes A2 when it crosses the border). The city is considered the gateway to Inishowen and is located at “Inishowen 100 ‘, an approximate 100 mil way around the peninsula passing various scenic spots.

Local bus company McGonagle bus runs an hourly bus from Derry to Buncrana and vice versa. The company took over the road from Lough Swilly buses in April 2014 after Lough Swilly ceased operations. [18] [19] The buses run every hour at ten minutes past the hour, each way. schedule


Buncrana Compared [20]
2011 Irish Census Buncrana County Donegal Republic of Ireland
total population 6839 161137 4581269
Foreign-Born 28.8% 22.1% 16.9%
White or white Irish 86,5% 90.6% 84.5%
Black or Black Irish 0.3% 0.6% 1.4%
Asian or Asian Irish 0.6% 0.8% 1.9%
Roman Catholic 90.9% 85.4% 84.3%
No religion 4.1% 3.2% 5.9%
The ability to speak Irish 30,0% 38.4% 40.6%
Third level degree (NFQ Level 7 or higher) 19,0% 18.2% 20.5%

The results of the 2011 census put the population Ireland Buncrana on the 6839th The city had 2,531 households, 25.3% consists of one person living alone, 16.9% were couples without children, 34.9% were couples with children, 15, 6% were single parents, and 7.2% were classified as “other”.

Approximately 90.9% of residents registered as Catholic, 4.3% were of another religion reported (eg Church of Ireland, Presbyterian, Orthodox or Islam). The percentage of people with no religion was 4.1%.

28.8% of the city’s residents were “foreign-born”.

People aged 3 and over, 30.0% were able to speak Irish.

The proportion of people over the age of 15, whose full-time education had ceased possessed a third level qualification (NFQ level 7 or higher) was 19.0%.

There were 3,359 males and 3,480 females in Buncrana during the census of 2011.


Buncrana has a relatively strong tourism industry, and it is one of the most popular resorts in the North West of Ireland. This is possibly because of its proximity to Derry, and also for its wide range of shops. It also has well-developed tourist facilities, and it serves as the main town on the Inishowen Peninsula, which also helps to maintain the tourism industry in the city. [21]

Lisfannon beach, a blue flag beach, located on the shores of Lough Swilly just south of town, and is an important recreational beach that is popular with locals ochdagsresenärer from Derry. [22]


Buncrana is home to many sports clubs, including clubs for football, Gaelic football and hurling, athletics and vattensporter.Fotbollsklubbar built around Buncrana include Buncrana Hearts FC, Cock Hill Celtic FC and Celtic Illies. Buncrana Hearts and Illies Celtic play in Inishowen Football League and Cock Hill Celtic play in the Ulster Senior League.

Gaelic football is also a popular sport in Buncrana, and the club caters to teams from Under-8 level all the way up to the executive level. They play their home games at Scarvey, the team is vey successful minor, to win at least two titles Inishowen recent seasons and winning four county championship since 2000 and reached the under-14 final for the past two seasons as well as under 15 years last season.

Buncrana Golf Club is the oldest 9-hole links course in Ireland. [23]


Three buildings in Buncrana recorded on the record of Protected Structures, namely Drift Inn (formerly Buncrana station), Buncrana Castle and Swan Mill. [24]


Buncrana has a vibrant music scene, with a variety of local pubs and bars with live music most nights of the week. Roddens Bar, O Flaherty and The Drift Inn is always good for a mix of traditional, rock and country. The annual Buncrana Music & Arts Festival takes place every July 23 in the city. [25]

The Buncrana Music and Arts Festival returned to the city in 2010, after an absence of five years. The festival included successful performances from the Coronas, undertones ochAltan. It has returned every year since.

Buncrana is also known for producing traditional artists. Dinny McLaughlin, Paul McClure, Ciaran tourish and Tom Byrne, all natives of the city, and has performed for criticism across the country.


The two main local newspapers that serve the Inishowen area, the Inish Times and Inishowen Independent , have their offices in Buncrana. Local issues in town and the peninsula are also covered in the Derry Journal . The local radio station Highland Radio and is based in Letterkenny.

Buncrana receive all the Irish national television and radio from Saorview television network from the local Fanad TV transmitter. Because of its proximity to Derry / Londonderry, before the 2012 digital broadcasting, the city can get the five main UK TV channels from Londonderry, Limavady TV stations since the mid-1950s.


tidy Towns

In 2012 Buncrana won a silver medal in the national Tidy Towns Competition. Work in Buncrana Lighthouse Restoration Project was also recognized when they received a heritage award. [26]

youth Offices

Buncrana Youth Club is open seven days a week and offers various services such as art, sports, drama, music and computers. It also operates summer camps and provides coaching, personal development and peer education. [27]

Buncrana Youth Drop-in is located at the Plaza theater on Main Street and is usually open from 07:00 til 10:00 and provides a safe place for young people with such facilities as a pool table, internet access, television, game consoles and a small shop. It also runs workshops and other youth projects. [28]

Buncrana Youth Club and Buncrana Drop in both connected with Donegal service.

Breakout is a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth organization in County Donegal which has a local group in Buncrana. The group is open to ages 14 to 23. The group has run various projects to promote LGBT causes in Buncrana. In 2011, positive slogans to fight homophobia drawn on Main Street walkway. The group meets on the Inishowen Development Partnership builds on Saturdays 7:00 to 21:00.


Buncrana served by three high schools: Crana College, a vocational school managed by the Donegal Education Board and Scoil Mhuire, a voluntary secondary school under the trusteeship of CEIST (Catholic Education Irish Schools Trust) and Coláiste Chineal Eoghain (an Irish secondary school in Tullyarvan Mill). Crana College was set up in 1925, while Scoil Mhuire was developed in 1933. [29] In September 2011, the Crana College 540 [30] registered students, while Scoil Mhuire had about 700. [31] The city’s most important schools are Scoil Íosagáin and Cock Hill National School. Other smaller schools include St Mura National School and Gaelscoil Bhun Chrannacha.[32]

Buncrana Community Library opened in 2000 in a renovated Presbyterian church. It won the Public Library Building Awards 2001 for best small library in the converted, extended or renovated category. [33]


  • Ryan Bradley (Gaelic footballer), (1985-Present), 2012 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship winner with Donegal
  • Daniel Devlin (1814 – February 22, 1867), prosperous businessman and the city of Chamberlain in New York City
  • Hugh Doherty (footballer) (1921 – September 29 2014), Irish professional footballer (Celtic FC, Blackpool, Derry City FC, Dundalk)
  • John Doherty (1798-1854), radical union
  • Eddie Fullerton, (1935-25 May 1991), Sinn Féin councilor murdered by the Ulster Defence Association
  • Danny Hutton (born 10 September 1942), singer with Three Dog Night and head of the Hanna-Barbera Records 1965-1966
  • Pádraig Mac Lochlainn, politicians
  • Ray McAnally, (March 30, 1926 to June 15, 1989), an actor whose filmography includes The Mission , My Left Foot , and a very British Coup
  • Michael McCorkell, (3 May 1925-13 November 2006), Lord Lieutenant of County Londonderry
  • Frank McGuinness (born July 29, 1953), playwright and poet whose work included Note the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme
  • Patrick Stone, (14 March 1854-23 December 1926), a member of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly

Castle Bridge over the River Crana as it flows into Lough Swilly

International relations

Main article: List of twin town in Ireland

Twin towns – Sister cities

Buncrana is twinned with two towns. It is twinned with Campbell, Kentucky, both cities had a big Fruit of the Loom plant. The facility was a major source of employment in Buncrana before it moved its operations abroad to Morocco. [34] Buncrana is twinned with the following cities:

City geographical location Nation Since
Campbell Kentucky  USA 1991
Frehel / Plévenon Brittany  France 2007

See also

  • List of populated places in Ireland
  • Buncrana Hearts FC
  • List of RNLI stations


  1. Jump up ^ and Post 1961 figures include the surroundings of Buncrana. For a discussion of the accuracy of pre-svältfolkräknings return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish bills” in the Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54 and even “New developments in the Irish population history , 1700-1850 “by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in the Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November, 1984), p. 473-488.
  2. Jump up ^ “Town information: location”. Hämtad15 October 2011.
  3. Jump up ^ “legal Buncrana town and its surroundings Co Donegal”.Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  4. Jump up ^ Archer, Lucy; Edwin Smith (1999). Architecture in the UK and Ireland, 600-1500. Harvill Press. ISBN 978-1-86046-701-1.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab . Harbison, Peter (1975) Guide to the national monuments in Ireland .Gill & Macmillan.
  6. Jump up ^ Lewis, Samuel; Edwin Smith (1837). A topological Dictionary of Ireland vol.1.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab “chronology of local history”. Buncrana Town Council ( Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  8. Jump up ^ “Local History”. Buncrana Town Council ( .Hämtad 14 October 2011.
  9. Jump up ^ “John Newton and Lough Swilly.”ämtad14 October 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ “rebels routed in Donegal towns, Free State Troops Capture garments risons on Letterkenney, Buncrana and Cardonagh ENDS BRIGANDAGE THE Raiders had terrorized the District of weeks, often hold up the train.”. The New York Times. July 1, 1922.
  11. Jump up ^ “Eddie Fullerton murder probe”. Derry Journal. Hämtad13 October 2011.
  12. Jump up ^
  13. Jump up ^ “Councillors of the Municipality Inishowen.” Donegal County Council. March 3, 2016.
  14. Jump up ^ Peel, MC; Finlayson BL; McMahon, TA (2007). “Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 :. 1633-1644 doi: 10.5194 / hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. (Direct: Final revised papers)
  15. Jump up ^ “Malin Head, monthly and annual averages (1961-1990)”.Met Éireann. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  16. Jump up ^ “Buncrana station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad13 September of 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ McDaid, Brendan (9 November 2011). “Derry railway upgrade on the right track.” The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ “Buncrana Derry bus timetable -“.
  19. Jump up ^ “UPDATE: Ulsterbus to earn Muff-Derry route”.
  20. Jump up ^ “2011 results, Area Population Maps (SAPMAP) Small” Central Statistics Office. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  21. Jump up ^ Team Travel City Guide. “Buncrana Guide – Buncrana tourism and travel”.
  22. Jump up ^ “awarded places: Lisfannon beach”. Hämtad14 October 2011.
  23. Jump up ^
  24. Jump up ^ “Appendix 5 Environmental respect Buncrana & Environs Development Plan 2008- 2015” (PDF). Buncrana and Environs Development Plan 2008-2014. Donegal County Council. Hämtad28 October 2011.
  25. Jump up ^ “MrBuncrana Jamestown Festival – Facebook”.
  26. Jump up ^ “sparkles in Buncrana Tidy Town Awards”. Inishowen News.11 September 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  27. Jump up ^ “Buncrana Youth Club”. Donegal Youth Service. Taken 20 mars2013.
  28. Jump up ^ “Buncrana Youth Drop In”. Donegal Youth Service.Hämtad20 March 2013.
  29. Jump up ^ “Scoil Mhuire secondary school, Buncrana.” CEIST.Hämtad20 October 2011.
  30. Jump up ^ “A Brief History”. Crana College. Taken 20 August oktober2011.
  31. Jump up ^ “About the school”. Scoil Mhuire, Buncrana. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  32. Jump up ^ “Information Education”. Buncrana Town Council ( .Hämtad 21 October 2011.
  33. Jump up ^ “Buncrana Community Library”.ämtad8 November 2011.
  34. Jump up ^ Deegan, Gordon (25 October 2010). “Morocco transmission eating the Fruit of the Loom profits”. Irish Independent. Retrieved 13 August oktober2011.

The Blue Stack Mountains

The Blue Stack Mountains [1] or the Blues Mountains , also calledCroaghgorms (Irish: na Cruacha Rants , meaning “blue bars”), is the largest mountain range in south County Donegal, Ireland. They provide a barrier between the southern part of the county, such as Donegal Town and Ballyshannon and cities in the north and west as Dungloe and Letterkenny.The road between the two parts of the county goes through Barnes Gap.

The highest mountain in the area is Croaghgorm, which is 674 meters high.Nearby summits include Ardnageer (642 m), Croaghanirwore (548 m), Croaghbarnes (499 m), Croaghblane (641 m), Croaghnageer (571 m), Croveenananta (476 m), Gaugin Mountain (565 m), Lacroagh ( 403 m), more Lavagh (671 m) and Lavagh Beg (650 m). [2]


  1. Jump up ^ Blue Stack Mountains placental Database of Ireland.Retrieved: 3/19/2013
  2. Jump up ^ Croaghgorm mountainviews. Pulled: 03/19/2013.


Árainn Mhor (English name: Arranmore ) [1] [2] is an island off the west coast of County Donegal, Ireland. Arranmore is the largest inhabited island in County Donegal, with a population of 514 in 2011, down from 528 in 2006, 543 in 2002 and over 600 in 1996. The island is part of the Donegal Gaeltacht.

It is also known in English as the Aran Island (not to be confused with the Aran Islands off Galway Bay or the Scottish Isle of Arran). In the island of Ireland traditionally called Árainn ; adjective Mór (great) was added fairly recently. It was also sometimes known as Irish Árainn Uí Dhomhnaill , that is, “Aran of O’Donnell”.


There are 529 people living on Aranmore and 62% are native Irish speakers.


The island is located 5 km (3 mi) from Burton, a small coastal village in the Rosses, and is served by two ferry services, a conventional ferry that accommodates up to 96 feet passengers and all sizes of vehicles. This trip takes 15 minutes. In 2007, a fast ferry service that can cover the journey to the island in 5 minutes. Both services run daily throughout the year. The trip to the island of passing a number of small islands before crossing a stretch of open Atlantic waters.


Most of the population lives along the south and the (relatively protected) east coast, where the main village, Leabgarrow (Irish: Leadhb Gharbh ) is located. The island has been inhabited since the “pre-Celtic times,” and the few remaining signs of early settlement include a promontory fort to the south of the island and shell middens dotted along the beaches. Its location near the Atlantic shipping lanes used, with a Coast Guard station and a fyrplacerad in the most north-westerly point, and a 2nd World War surveillance after set up to look out for the U-boats. [ Citation needed ]

The resident population is 650, but it rises to over 1,000 during the summer months. A large part of the housing stock are second homes, both native islanders and their descendants, as well as non locals.

Infrastructure and Economy

The island was the first offshore island of Ireland to get electricity from the rural electrification program, run by the ESB, in 1957, but was among the last places in the country to have universally reliable tap (in 1973-1975) and an automatic telephone exchange (1986). It went straight from a manual transmission to an ISDN-enabled system that need to be upgraded within a few weeks because of the massive demand for consumer telephone lines, as the previous exchange had been limited to issuing numbers to business projects, and only had 47 internal lines.

It is based primarily on tourism for their income (fishing was the island’s mainstay up to the 1980s, but is no longer a major industry), as well as the traditional Gaeltacht summer schools. In recent years, a local development co-op has encouraged the development of other industries on the island, such as a call center and teacher training for Irish teachers. The island’s many lakes provide fishing rod.

Arranmore transmitter

The Arranmore Island transmitter is a relay station used by 2RN and Highland Radio to provide coverage to the island and a large part of the Rosses protected by mountains from the main broadcasting. Two towers are, the less belonging to Highland Radio, and significantly larger to 2RN. The EIRP of the stations that broadcast of 2RN is among the highest of all relästation.Webbplatsen is 125 meters above sea level, with 2RN antenna is 45 meters.

A 1 kW transmitter on 104.0 MHz, have been proposed for i102-104FM radio station launched in February 2008. Both O2 Ireland, Vodafone Ireland, the transmitting stations on 2RN mast.

UHF 45 assigned but unused by TV3. 41, 44, 47 and 51 are assigned for digital terrestrial television.


The island is “twinned” with the Beaver Island, an island in northern Lake Michigan, where a large number of former residents gathered after being evicted from Arranmore in the mid-1800s. There is still today a number of families on Beaver Island which has its basis in Arranmore. [3]

The Arranmore RNLI Station, with its Severn class lifeboat, is among the best equipped in the county.

Places and villages on Arranmore Island

  • Aphort
  • Plohogue
  • Fallagowan
  • Ballintra
  • Ballard
  • illion
  • Leabgarrow (main settlement)
  • Leabrannagh
  • Pollawaddy
  • Scraigatoke
  • Torries

See also

  • Lighthouses in Ireland
  • List of RNLI stations
  • ulster Irish
  • eighter Island
  • Inishcoo
  • Rutland Island


  1. Jump up ^ placenta (Ceantair Ghaeltachta) Order 2004
  2. Jump up ^ As for the meaning of the name, see Deirdre and Laurence Flanagan, Irish place names , Gill & Macmillan, 2002.
  3. Jump up ^

County Donegal

County Donegal (pronounced / d ʌ n ᵻ ɡ ɔ l / or / ˌ d ʌ n ᵻ ɡ ɔ l /; Irish: Contae Dhun na nGall ) is a municipality in Ireland. It’s part of the border area and in the province of Ulster .It is named after the town of Donegal ( Dun Na nGall ) in the southern part of the county. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county and Lifford serves as the county seat. The population of the county is 161,137 according to the census of 2011. It has also been known as (county) Tyrconnell ( Tír Chonaill ), after the historic territory of the same name.

Geography and political subdivisions

In terms of size and range, is the largest county in Ulster and the fourth largest county in all of Ireland. Unique County Donegal shares a small border with only one other county in Ireland -County Leitrim. Most of its land border shared with three counties in Northern Ireland, County Londonderry, County Tyrone and County Fermanagh. This geographical isolation from the rest of the Republic has led to Donegal people maintain a distinct cultural identity [5] and has been used to market the county with the slogan “Up here it’s different.” [6] Although Lifford is the county town, Letterkenny is it in by far the largest city in the county with a population of 19,588. Letter and the nearby city of Derry is the main economic axis of the northwest of Ireland. [7]In fact, what was the city of Derry was officially part of County Donegal until 1610. [8]


Poison Glen ( Gleann Nimhe ), in the North West Donegal.

There are eight historic baronies in the county:

  • Banagh
  • Boylagh
  • Inishowen East
  • Inishowen West
  • Kilmacrennan
  • Raphoe North
  • Raphoe South
  • Tirhugh

Informal districts

The county can be informally divided into a number of traditional districts.There are two Gaeltacht districts in the West: The Rosses (Irish: Na Rosa ), centered on the town of Dungloe (Irish: An Clochán Liath ) and Gweedore (Irish: Gaoth Dobhair ). Another Gaeltacht districts located in the northwest: Cloughaneely (Irish: Cloich Chionnaola ) centered on the town of Falcarragh (Irish: A fal Carrach ). The northernmost part of the island of Ireland is the location of the three peninsulas of outstanding natural beauty: Inishowen, Fanad and Rosguill. The main urban area of Inishowen, Ireland’s largest peninsula, is Buncrana. In the eastern part of the county is Finn Valley (centered on Ballybofey). The Laggan district (not to be confused with the more famous Lagan Valley in the southern county Antrim) is centered on the town of Raphoe.

Seen from space: County Donegal in the Ulster coast of Lough Swillyoch Inishowen west of Derry ochDerry Lough Foyle east thereof.


According to the 1841 census, County Donegal had a population of 296,000 people. As a result of starvation and emigration, the population had fallen to 41,000 by 1851 and further decreased by 18 thousand in 1861. At the time of the 1951 census, the population was only 44% of what it had been in 1841. [15] The 2006 Census, which conducted by the State statistical Office, had County Donegal population stands at 147,264. According to the 2011 census, the county’s population had grown to 161,137.

Largest cities (2011 census)

City Population (2011 Census)
Letter 19588
Buncrana 7199
Ballybofey / Stranorlar 4852
Donegal Town 2607
Carndonagh 2534
Shannon 2504
Bundoran 2140
Lifford 1658
Bunbeg / Derrybeg 1553
Milford 1530
Moville 1481
Convoy 1438
Killybegs 1297
Sleeve 1271
Ramelton 1212
Dungloe 1183
Raphoe 1157
Newtowncunningham 1067

physical geography

The county is the most mountainous in Ulster consists mainly of two series of low mountains; Derryveagh the mountains to the north and the Blues Mountains in the south, medGallaghers at 749 meters (2,457 ft), the highest peak. It has a deeply indented coastline forming natural sea loughs, both of which Lough Swilly ochLough Foyle is the most remarkable. The Slieve League cliffs are the sixth highest sea cliffs in Europe, while Malin Head is the most northerly point on the island of Ireland.

The climate is temperate and dominated by the Gulf Stream, with hot, humid summers and mild wet winters. Two permanently inhabited islands, Arranmore and Tory Island, located off the coast, along with a large number of islands with only transient inhabitants. Ireland’s second longest river Erne, go Donegal Bay near the town of Ballycastle. The River Erne, together with other Donegal streams have been dammed to produce hydroelectric power.The River Foyle separates a part of County Donegal from parts of the two counties of Londonderry and Tyrone.


A survey of the macroscopic marine algae of County Donegal was published in 2003. [16] The survey was compiled with the help of algae quotations in herbaria of the following institutions: the Ulster Museum, Belfast, Trinity College, National University of Ireland, Galway, and the Natural History Museum, London . Directory of flowering plants include: Dactylorhiza purple. (Stephenson and Stephenson) SOO [17]


The animals included in the county include Badgers ( Meles meles L.) [18]

There are habitats for rare corncrake in the county. [19]


Kilclooney Dolmen, which is over 4000 years old. [20]

At different times in history it has been known as County Tirconaill , County Tirconnell or County Tyrconnell (Irish: Tír Chonaill ). The former was used as the official name during 1922-1927. [21] It is with reference to both the old Tuath of Tír Chonaill and county which succeeded it.

County Donegal is famous for being the home of the once mighty Clann Dálaigh, whose most famous branch was Clann Ó Domhnaill, better known in English as the O’Donnell clan. Until about 1600, the O’Donnell was one of Ireland’s richest and most powerful Gaelic (Irish native) ruling families. In the province of Ulster endastClann Uí Neill (known in English as O’Neill Clan) of modern County Tyrone was more powerful. The O’Donnell was Ulster’s second most powerful clan or ruling family from the early 13th century until the early 17th century. For centuries O’Donnell ruled Tír Chonaill, a Gaelic kingdom in West Ulster, covering almost all modern County Donegal. The head of the O’Donnell family had the titles An O Domhnaill (ie the O’Donnellin English) and Rí Thir Chonaill (meaning King of Tír Chonaill in English).Based on Donegal Castle in Dun Na nGall (contemporary Donegal Town), the O’Donnell Kings of Tír Chonaill traditionally inaugurated on Doon Rock near Kilmacrenan. O’Donnell royal or main power finally ended in the then newly created County Donegal in September 1607, after the Flight of the Earls from Rathmullan close. The modern County Arms in Donegal (dating from the early 1970s) was influenced by the design of the old O’Donnell riksvapnet. The County Arms is the official coat of arms of both the County Donegal and Donegal County Council.

The modern County Donegal was shired [22] by order of the English Crown in 1585. The English authorities in Dublin Castle formed the new county by merging the old Kingdom of Tír Chonaill with the old dominion Inishowen.But the English authorities could not establish control over Tír Chonaill and Inishowen until after the Battle of Kinsale in 1602. Full control of the new County Donegal achieved only after the Flight of the Earls in September 1607. It was the center of O ‘Doherty’ Revolt of 1608 with key battle Kilmacrennan take place there. The county was one of those “planted” during the Plantation of Ulster from about 1610 onwards. What was the City of Derry was officially part of County Donegal until 1610. [8]

County Donegal was one of the worst affected parts of Ulster during the great famine in the late 1840s in Ireland. Large parts of the county was devastated by this disaster, many areas are permanently depopulated. Large number of County Donegal people emigrated at this time, primarily through Londonderry Port.

The partition of Ireland in the early 1920s had a massive direct impact on the County Donegal. Partition cut the county of financial and administrative, of Derry, who had acted for centuries as the county’s largest port, transportation hub and financial center. Derry, along with West Tyrone, was now in a new, different permissions officially called Northern Ireland.Partition also meant that the County Donegal was now almost cut off from the rest of the jurisdiction where it was now, the new empire called the Irish Free State, which in April 1949 became Ireland. Just a few miles from the county are physically connected by land to the rest of the Republic. The existence of a border Donegal cut off from its natural hinterland in Derry City and West Tyrone significantly worsen the economic difficulties in the county after the partition. The county’s economy is particularly sensitive, like in Derry, currency fluctuations in the euro against the pound.

Added to this, in the late 20th century, County Donegal has been negatively affected by the Troubles in Northern Ireland. The county suffered several bombings and assassinations. In June 1987 Constable Samuel McClean, a Donegal man who was a serving member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, was shot dead by the Provisional Irish Republican Army at his family home near Drumkeen. In May 1991, the prominent Sinn Féin politician councilor Eddie Fullerton was killed by the Ulster Defence Association at his home in Buncrana. This added to the result of the economic and social difficulties in the county. The greater the economic and administrative integration following the Good Friday Agreement of April 1998 has been of benefit to the county.

It has been labeled “forgotten county’s own politicians, because of the perception that it is ignored by the Irish government, even in times of crisis.[23] [24]


Road signs in Irish in GweedoreGaeltacht.

A large part of the county is seen as a bastion of Gaelic culture and the Irish, Donegal Gaeltacht is the second largest in the country. The version of the Irish language spoken in County Donegal Ulster Irish.

Of the Gaeltacht population of 24,744, [1] 16% of the county’s total of 17,132 say they can speak Irish. [25] There are three Irish-speaking congregations: Gweedore, The Rosses and Cloughaneely .Other Irish-speaking Gaeltacht areas is a den: Glencolmcille, Fanad and Rosguill, islands Aranmore, Tory Island and Inishbofin. Gweedore is the largest Irish-speaking parish, with over 5,000 inhabitants. All schools in the region use the Irish language as the language of instruction. One of the constituent colleges of the NUI Galway, Acadamh hOllscolaíochta na Gaeilge, is based in Gweedore.

There are 1,005 students in five Gaelscoileanna and two Gaelcholáistí in the rest of the county. According to the 2006 census, there are also 7.218 people who identify as daily Irish speakers outside the Gaeltacht in the rest of the county.

Government and politics

Donegal County Council (which has officially existed since 1899) are responsible for local administration, and headquartered in the County House in Lifford. Until 2014 there were also local iLetter, Bundoran, Ballyshannon and Buncrana. The city council was abolished in June 2014 when the law municipal reform in 2014 were carried out [26] and their functions taken over by Donegal County Council.Val to the county council takes place every five years. Thirty seven is elected by the system of Proportional representation -Single transferable vote (STV). To valence region is divided into 5kommundelar comprising the following local electoral areas: Donegal (6), Glenties (6), Inishowen (9), Letter (10) and Stranorlar (6).

For the general election, county-wide constituency choose five representatives to the Dáil. For the European elections, the county is part of the Midlands North West constituency.

Voters have a reputation nationally for being “conservative and contrarian”, the county has achieved prominence for having rejected the Fiscal Treaty in 2012 and both the Lisbon Treaty vote. [27]

free Donegal

Freedom of Donegal is an award given to individuals who have been recognized for outstanding achievements on behalf of the people and County Donegal. Such people inkluderarDaniel O ‘Donnell, Phil Coulter, Shay Given, Packie Bonner, Paddy Crerand and the Brennan family. In 2009, members of the 28th Infantry Battalion of the Irish Defence Forces was also awarded the Freedom of the County of Donegal County Council “in recognition of his longstanding service to County Donegal.”


An extensive rail network that used to exist in the whole county and mainly driven by the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee and Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway Company (known as L & LSR or Lough Swilly Company for short). Unfortunately, all these lines were added to a 3-foot gauge where the connection lines were all that the Irish standard track gauge of 1600 mm (5 ft 3 in). This meant that all goods must be reloaded in Derry and Strabane. Like all narrow gauge railways this became a big handicap after World War 1 when the road began to seriously erode the rail freight traffic. By 1953 Lough Swilly had closed its entire railway system and become a bus and road transport concerns. The County Donegal lasted until 1960 as it had largely dieselised its passenger trains in 1951. In the late 1950s, more work needed to upgrade the track and the Irish government was unwilling to provide the necessary funds, so-called Wee Donegal ” because it was affectionally known, was closed in 1960. Great Northern Railway (Ireland) Ltd (GNR) also ran a line from Strabane by the Laggan, a district in the eastern part of the county, along the river Foyle in Derry. But the rail network in County Donegal was completely closed by 1960. [28] Today, the nearest railway station to the county’s Waterside Station in the city of Derry, operated by Northern Ireland Railways (NIR). Train services along the Belfast-Derry railway line running through Coleraine, Belfast to Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street.

County Donegal served by both Donegal Airport, located at Carrickfinn in The Rosses in the western part of the county and City of Derry Airport, located on Eglinton east. The nearest major international airport to the county is Belfast International Airport (popularly known as Aldergrove Airport), located in the east at Aldergrove, near Antrim Town, Co. Antrim, 92 km (57 mi) from Derry City and 127 kilometers (79 mi) from Letter.


The variant of the Irish language spoken in Donegal shares many features with Scottish. The Irish spoken in the Donegal Gaeltacht (Irish speaking area) is the Ulster dialect, while Inishowen (parts of which became the only English in the early 20th century) used the East Ulster dialect. Ulster Scots is spoken frequently in both the Finn Valley and The Laggan’s East Donegal.Donegal Irish has a strong influence on learning Irish of Ulster.

Like other areas on the west coast of Ireland, Donegal has a distinctive fiddle tradition that is world famous. Donegal is also known for his songs that have, like instrumental music, a distinctive sound. Donegal artists such as band Clannad, The Patterson and Altan and solo artist Enya, has had international success with traditional or traditional flavored music. Donegal music has also influenced people not originally from the county, including folk and pop singer Paul Brady and Phil Coulter. Singer Daniel O’Donnell has become a popular ambassador for the county. Popular music is also common, the county’s most celebrated rock artist to be Bally -born Rory Gallagher. Other notable acts to come out of Donegal include folk-rock band goats not Straight, Eurovision contestant Mickey Joe Harte and indie rock band The Revs and in recent years bands like the thousands and Mojo Gogo has been featured on the front of Hot Press magazine.

Donegal has a long literary tradition in both Irish and English. The famous Irish navvies -turned-writer Patrick MacGill, author of many books about the experiences of Irish immigrant itinerant workers in the UK at around the beginning of the 20s, such as The Rat Pit and autobiographical Children of the Dead End , is from the Glenties area . It is a literary Summer School in Glenties named in his honor. The novelist and socialist politikerPeadar O’Donnell came from The Rosses in West Donegal. The poet William Allingham was also from Bally. Modern exponents include Inishowen playwright and poet Frank McGuinness and playwright Brian Friel. Many of Friel plays set in the fictional Donegal town of Ballybeg.

Author Donegal has created works, as the Annals of the Four Masters , in Gaelic and Latin since the early Middle Ages. The Irish philosopher John Toland was born in Inishowen in 1670. He was thought of as the original thinker George Berkeley. Toland was also instrumental in the spread of Freemasonry throughout the continent. In modern Irish Donegal has produced famous, and sometimes controversial, authors as the brothers Séamus Ó Grianna and Seosamh Mac Grianna from The Rosses and contemporary (and controversial) Irish language poet Cathal Ó Searcaigh from Gortahork in Cloughaneely and where he is known to locals as Guru na gCnoc ( “Guru of the Hills”).

Donegal is famous for its beautiful textiles, whose unique wool blends are made of short filaments with tiny bits of color mixed in a heathered effect.Sometimes it is woven in a rustic herringbone format and other times in more of a box fabric of various colors. These fabrics called Donegal tweed (with a small “d”) and is world famous.

Although approximately 85% of the population is Roman Catholic, [ citation needed ] County Donegal also has a significant Protestant minority. Many Donegal Protestants trace their ancestors to the settlers who arrived during the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. The Church of Ireland is the largest Protestant denomination but is closely rivaled by a large number of Presbyterians. The areas of Donegal with the highest percentage of Protestants is Laggan area of East Donegal around Raphoe, the Finn Valley and areas around Ramelton, Milford and Dunfanaghy – where their share reach 30-45 percent. There is also a large Protestant population between Donegal Town and Ballyshannon in the southern part of the county. In absolute terms, Letter has the largest number of Protestants (over 1000) and is the most Presbyterian city (among these settlements with more than 3000 people) in Ireland. [ Citation needed ]

The Earagail Arts Festival held in the county each July.

People from Donegal have also contributed to the culture elsewhere. Francis Alison was one of the founders of the College of Philadelphia , who would later become the University of Pennsylvania. [30] Francis Makemie (originally from Ramelton) founded the Presbyterian Church in America.David Steele, from Upper Creevaugh, was a prominent Reformed Presbyterian ellerCovenanter, the minister who emigrated to the US in 1824. Right Reverend Dr. Charles Inglis, who was the first Church of England bishop of the diocese of Nova Scotia, was the third son of the Reverend Archibald Inglis, the Rector of Glencolumbkille.

Tourist attractions

County Donegal is a favored destination for many travelers. [ Citation needed ] One of the attractions is the Glenveagh National Park (formerly part of Glenveagh Estate), yet (March 2012) the only official national parksomewhere in the province of Ulster. [ Citation needed ] park is a 140 sq km (about 35,000 acres) nature reserve with landscapes of mountains, raised bogs, lakes and forests. At its heart is Glenveagh Castle, a late Victorian “folly” which was originally built as a summer residence.

Fintown Railway on track avCounty Donegal Railways Joint Committee bredvidLough Finn Fintown near the railway station.

Donegal Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking district) also attracts young people to County Donegal each year during the school summer holidays. The three-week long summer Gaeltacht courses give young Irish people from other parts of the country a chance to learn the Irish language and traditional Irish cultural traditions that are still prevalent in parts of Donegal. Donegal Gaeltacht has traditionally been a very popular destination every summer for young people from Northern Ireland. [ Citation needed ] Diving is also very popular with a club located in Donegal Town.


Doctoral education in the county is provided by Letterkenny Institute of Technology (LYIT, popularly known locally as “the regional), established in the 1970s in Letterkenny. In addition, many young people from the county attend third-level institutions elsewhere in Ireland, particularly in Derry and also at the University of Ulster in Coleraine (UUC), the University of Ulster in Jordan (UUJ), Queen University of Belfast ( “Queen” ), and NUI Galway. Many Donegal students also participate Limavady Campus of the North West Regional College (popularly known Limavady Tech) ochOmagh Campus Southwest College (popularly known as Tech Omagh Omagh College).


Gweedore GAA grounds.

Gaelic football and hurling

The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) sport of Gaelic football is very popular in County Donegal. Donegal inter-county football team has won the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship title twice (1992 and 2012).Donegal victorious from the 2012 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final September 23, 2012 to take Sam Maguire Cup for only the second time, with early goals from Michael Murphy and Colm McFadden set up victory 2-11 to 0-13 of Mayo. In 2007, Donegal just won their second national title by winning the National Football League. On April 24, 2011 Donegal added his third national title when they defeated Laois capturing the National Football League Division Two. There are 16 clubs in the Football Championship Donegal senior, with many others who play at a lower level. [31]

Hurling (often referred to as “Hurley” in County Donegal), handball and rounders played well but is less widespread as in other parts of western Ulster. Donegal county senior hurling team won the Lory Meagher Cup 2011 and Nicky Rackard Cup 2013

Rugby Union

There are several rugby teams in the county. These include Ulster Qualifying League Two side Letterkenny RFC, whose land is named after Dave Gallaher, captain of the 1905 New Zealand All Blacks touring team, which has since become known as the originals. He was born near Ramelton.

Ulster Qualifying League Three pages include Ballymena RFC, Donegal Town Inishowen RFC and the RFC. Finn Valley RFC and Tir Chonaill RFC competes in both the Ulster Minor League North.

Association football

Finn Harps play in the League of Ireland and won promotion to the Premier Division in 2007 after a 6-3 aggregate win in the playoffs final. They are now back with their arch rivals Derry City FC, with whom they contest the IrelandNorth West Derby . There are many other clubs in Donegal, but none has achieved the status of Finn Harps.


There are a number of golf courses that Ballyliffin (Glashedy) Ballyliffin (Old), both of which are located in the Inishowen peninsula. Other courses of note are Murvagh (available outside Donegal Town) and Rosapenna (Sandy Hills) is located in Downings (near Carrigart). The Glashedy links have ranked 6th in a new ranking by Golf Digest is the best courses in Ireland. Old Links was ranked 28 Murvagh 36th and Sandy Hills 38th.

Bundoran regarded as one of the best surfing locations in Ireland and Europe.


Cricket is essentially limited to the Laggan district and Finn Valley in the eastern part of the county. The town of Raphoe and the nearby village of St Johnston, both in The Laggan, are the traditional strongholds of cricket in the county. The game is primarily played and followed by members of County Donegal’s Protestant community.

Other sports

Donegal rugged landscape and the coastline is suitable for active sports such as climbing, mountain biking, mountain hiking, surfing and kite flying.

Panoramic views of Mount Errigal summit.


See also: Category: People from County Donegal.

Main article: List of Donegal people


  • Adomnán – or Saint Eunan , Abbot of Iona 679-704.
  • Pastor Dr. Francis Alison – prominent Presbyterian minister in the thirteen colonies and a leading member of the Synod of Philadelphia. At least three of the signers of the American Declaration of Independence were former students of Dr. Alison, who was born and raised in the parish of Leck, on the outskirts of Letterkenny.
  • William Allingham – Victorian poet from Bally.
  • Terrace – folk group.
  • Ian Anderson – Manx prominent politician who was a longstanding member of Tynwald. From Rathmullan.
  • Kay Maunchly Antonelli (born McNulty) – one of the original programmers of ENIAC during World War II. Born in Creeslough and raised in Philadelphia.
  • Alexander Armstrong – Arctic Explorer.


  • General Andrew Barnard – known senior British army commander, in particular in connection with the Napoleonic Wars. Born at Fahan Inishowen.
  • Bibi Baskin – former TV presenter with RTÉ. Now a business and practitioners of Ayurveda in Kerala. Born and raised in Ardara.
  • Neil Blaney – formerly a longstanding TD for the county and a former Irish Government Minister. Founder of Independent Fianna Fáil.
  • Oliver Bond (died 1796) – a possible St Johnston native who was the Dublin-based member of the United Irishmen.
  • Packie Bonner – former goalkeeper for both Ireland and Celtic Football Club.
  • Ed Boyce – former trade unionist and former radical socialist in Idaho and Montana, which later became a wealthy businessman. Helped form the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) 1893rd
  • Rev. Stopford Brooke – Anglican and later Unitarian clergyman and literary historian. He served as chaplain to Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, 1863-1865, and later served as chaplain-in-ordinary to his mother, Queen Victoria, 1875-1880. Born and raised in Glendowan, just west of Letterkenny.
  • Isaac Butt – lawyer, MP and founder of the Irish Home Rule movement.Born and raised in Glenfin, a district near Ballybofey.


  • William C. Campbell – winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, born in Ramelton.
  • Clannad – folk group from Gweedore.
  • Séamus Coleman – football player for both Ireland and Everton Football Club. He is from Killybegs.
  • Columba – or Saint Colmcille , one of the three patron saints of Ireland.
  • Bob Cooper – a former vice president of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland and former long-standing director of the Fair Employment Commission for Northern Ireland. Born and raised in East Donegal.
  • Mary Coughlan – former Tánaiste and former TD for Donegal South-West. The first woman to be appointed agriculture minister in the Irish government.
  • Eithne Coyle – known Irish republican and socialist. Was a prominent member of both the Gaelic League and Cumann na mBan. From Killult, near Falcarragh.


  • Breandán de Gallai – actor, TV host and dancers from Gweedore. Former lead dancer with Riverdance .
  • John Doherty – famous Manchester-based Victorian trade unionist.From Buncrana.
  • Michelle Doherty – Dublin-based model and radio / television presenter from Northern Inishowen.
  • Moya Doherty – producer and co-founder of Riverdance , born in Pettigoe but grew up in Dublin.
  • Pearse Doherty TD – currently a TD for Donegal Sinn Féin spokesperson finance the Oireachtas. Born in Glasgow, but grew up and currently resides in Gweedore.


  • Felim Egan – artist based in Sandymount. Was born in County Donegal, but grew up in Strabane.
  • Enya – musicians and singers from Gweedore.
  • E. Rentoul Esler – Late Victorian and Edwardian writers. Born in Manorcunningham.


  • Patsy Gallacher (or Patsy Gallagher) – famous soccer player popularly known as the “Mighty Atom”. Played for both Ireland and Celtic FC. Born in Milford and raised in Glasgow.
  • Bridie Gallagher – singer known as the “Girl from Donegal ‘. Born and raised in Creeslough, she spent most of her adult life in Belfast.
  • Conrad Gallagher – chef and businessman from Letterkenny. Especially known for his work as a young chef at Peacock Alley in the center of Dublin.
  • Paddy “the Cope” Gallagher – businessman, author and champion of West Donegal. Founder of The Cope. He celebrated by An Post with a stamp in the beginning of 2006.
  • Pat “the Cope” Gallagher, TD – businessman who is a Fianna Fáil TD for Donegal. He was previously a Fianna Fáil MEP for the North West of Ireland. Grandson of Paddy “the Cope”.
  • Rory Gallagher – guitarist and singer. Born in Donegal family in Bally, he was up in Cork.
  • Tommy Gallagher – an SDLP politician who previously was an MLA for Fermanagh and South Tyrone
  • Dave Gallaher – the first All Blacks rugby captain. He was from Ramelton.
  • Conal Gallen – stand-up comedian from Ballybofey.
  • Shay Given – former goalkeeper for both Ireland and Newcastle United Football Club.


  • Paddy Harte – earlier years of the Fine Gael TD for Donegal North East and a former Irish Government Minister. Lifford but based on Raphoe.
  • Baron Hay of Ballyore – As Willie Hay, he served as Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly, 2007-2014. Lord Hay of Ballyore also served as an MLA for Foyle until 2014.
  • Cahir Healy – a journalist who was a very prominent Irish nationalist politician and who was a long-standing MP for County Fermanagh.Born and raised near Mount Charles


  • Professor John Kells Ingram – economist, Irish patriot and poet who was based at Trinity College.
  • Major General James Murray Irwin – leading senior physician in the British Army. From Manorcunningham.


  • Major Robert Johnston – recipient of the Victoria Cross and the rugby union international


  • Brigadier Andrew Lewis – military commanders, on the American side in the Revolutionary War. Born in County Donegal and raised in Virginia colony.
  • The 4th Viscount Lifford – a peer who once served as Deputy Lieutenant of County Donegal. He also served as High Sheriff of Donegal, 1841-1845. Lord Lifford was also a prominent businessman in the county, which serves as chairman of the Finn Valley Railway c. 1860. [32] He also served as president of the West Donegal Railway. He sat as an Irish Representative Peer in the House of Lords, 1856-1887.
  • Dr. Michael Logue – Cardinal who served as the Catholic Primate of all Ireland and archbishop of Armagh.
  • Professor Pat Loughrey – current warden of Goldsmith College, part of the University of London. Former Controller (or manager) of BBC Northern Ireland, from 1994 to 2000, and former head of the BBC and Regions, 2000-2009. From Ray, near Ramelton.

Mac / Mc

  • Mici Mac Gabhann – author, farmer and businessman from Cloughaneely. Known for writing Rotha Mór an tSaoil , which is mainly the story of his life as a miner in Butte and the Klondike in the 1880s and 1890s.
  • Patrick MacGill – author.
  • Mr MacLochlainn – formerly a Sinn Féin TD for Donegal North East.
  • Ray McAnally – actor and theater director.
  • Frank McBrearty, Sr. – The tax collector and businessman from Raphoe, where his company is based. Famously, he and his family were victims of police harassment by the Garda Síochána in the 1990s. His experiences, and those of some other people, led to the establishment of the Morris Tribunal in March 2002 that investigated widespread corruption Garda in County Donegal.
  • Neil McBride, Poet, author and farmer from Creeslough, who also became infamous in a court case in which he was defended by Patrick Pearse, in 1905.
  • Frankie McCafferty – Belfast-based actor, best known for his role as Donal Docherty in Ballykissangel the end of 1990.
  • Only McCallion – film director and producer. Especially known for directing Forrest advertising done Metz alcopop 2001. The ad is best known for featuring a character called “Judderman”.
  • Colonel Michael McCorkell – British Army soldier who became a prominent UUP politicians in Derry. He served as Lord Lieutenant of County Londonderry, 1975-2000. Born in Buncrana.
  • Basil McCrea, MLA – prominent Unionist politician in Northern Ireland Assembly. Now leaders NI21, he was a former member of the UUP. He was born in Ramelton.
  • Columba McDyer – the first person from County Donegal to win the All-Ireland senior medal when he played for Cavan in the 1947 All Ireland finals at the Polo Grounds in upper Manhattan, New York City. He later managed to Donegal team.
  • The Very Reverend Canon James McDyer – Catholic priest who was a champion of the rights of people in southwest County Donegal in the mid to late twentieth century, especially during his time as a parish priest in Glencolumbkille.
  • Brian McEniff – Businessman previously many years head of the Donegal senior football team, a team that won the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in, 1992. Head of Ireland Compromise Rules team, 2000-2001.
  • Keith McErlean – Dublin-based actor. Known in Ireland for their parts as Barry in Bachelors Walk , Adam Duffy in Trivia , and Shane Harte Raw , all television programs made for RTÉ. Born and raised in Carndonagh.
  • Dr. Daniel McGettigan – Catholic Primate of all Ireland and archbishop of Armagh.
  • Dinny McGinley – earlier years of the Fine Gael TD for Donegal South-West. He served as Minister for the Gaeltacht at the Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, 2011-2014.
  • Patrick McGinley – author, from Glencolumbkille.
  • Seán McGinley – actor. Born in Pettigoe but grew up near Ballycastle.
  • Frank McGuinness – playwrights, especially known for writing both theFactory Girls and observe the Sons of Ulster marching towards the Somme . Born and raised in Buncrana, he has been based at University College Dublin (UCD), as writer-in-residence for many years now. He has lectured at the University of Ulster.
  • Jim McGuinness – head of the Donegal senior football team, 2010-2014, a team that won the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in 2012.Has also been, since November 2012, as the Performance Consultant at Celtic FC in Glasgow.
  • Joe McHugh TD – currently a Fine Gael TD for Donegal. Married to Olwyn Enright, a business and former TD for Laois-Offaly. Deputy McHugh is from Carrigart.
  • Martin McHugh – businessman and commentator on Gaelic football for BBC Northern Ireland. Was a member of the Donegal senior football team that won the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in the 1992 final.
  • Fr. Ernan McMullin – philosopher priest who was based at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana for many years. He was from Ballybofey.
  • James McNulty activist for Irish independence in Creeslough during the Easter Rising.
  • Roy McNulty – former president of Short Brothers of Belfast. Born and raised in Raphoe.


  • Charles Macklin – London-based actor, director and writer of the eighteenth century from Northern Inishowen. Especially in connection with the Theatre Royal Drury Lane.
  • Pastor Francis Makemie – founder of Presbyterianism in what became the United States. He was from Ramelton.
  • Margo – singer from The Rosses. Older sister Daniel O’Donnell.
  • Anthony Molloy – captain of the Donegal team that won the All-Ireland, 1992. He is from Ardara.
  • General Robert Montgomery – proconsul and military commanders in British India. From Moville Inishowen.
  • Michael Murphy – captain of the Donegal team that won the All-Ireland in 2012. He is from Glen Willy, a small town close to Letterkenny.
  • Henry Musgrave, DL – was a Northern Irish businessman and philanthropist. Involved in many business concerns, including Donegal Railway Company. [33] [34] In 1913, Henry Musgrave paid for a tower to be built in the Church of Ireland church påGlencolumbkille, near the family’s country estate. He also left the legacy to this church and Kilcar Parish Church in his will. On 1 March 1917, Musgrave made an honorary burgess of the city of Belfast. He was also a great juror ochhög Sheriff Donegal for 1909-1910 and became Deputy Lieutenant of both the city of Belfast and Donegal.


  • Conor O’Devany – Martyr. Born near Raphoe.
  • Cahir O ‘Doherty (Cahir O’Dougherty or Cahir O’Doherty) – last reigning Gaelic Lord Inishowen. Originally an ally of the English, led the young Chieftain a rebellion against the English crown in the 1608th
  • Malachi O’Doherty – Belfast-based author and journalist who writes forthe Belfast Telegraph, and is a regular contributor to the Sunday Sequence on BBC Radio Ulster. Married to Maureen Boyle, a poet from Sion Mills, he was born iMuff in Inishowen.
  • Aodh Ruadh Ó Domhnaill (Red Hugh O’Donnell) – second last king of Tír Chonaill. Known Gaelic prince in the 1590s and early 1600s. Known for his part in the nine-year war. The film The Fighting Prince of Donegal , was released in 1966, was made about him.
  • Maghnus Ó Domhnaill (Manus O’Donnell) – King of Tír Chonaill for much of the first half of the sixteenth century and taught Irish Renaissance prince. Ordered life Columba to be printed.
  • Daniel O’Donnell – singers.
  • Dr. Patrick O’Donnell – Cardinal who served as the Catholic Primate of all Ireland and archbishop of Armagh.
  • Peadar O’Donnell – Irish revolutionary and socialist.
  • Gavin Ó Fearraigh – model and actor from Gweedore. Best known in Ireland to play Conal Daly in Ros na run on TG4. He also appeared onCelebrity Jigs ‘n’ Reels in 2007 on RTÉ first
  • Séamus Ó Grianna – Irish language writers.
  • Cathal Ó Searcaigh – Irish language poet of Cloughaneely.


  • Thomas Pringle TD – former trawlerman now an independent TD for Donegal. Killybegs.
  • The Patterson people group


  • Gerry Robinson – businessman and former head of Granada Television
  • Brid Rodgers – a former MLA who was former SDLP deputy leader and former Northern Ireland Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development. Born and raised in Gweedore.
  • John D Ruddy – actor and performer best. Born and raised in the letter.


  • Kevin Sharkey – Dublin-based actor, artist, businessman and former model. Where a television presenter at The Roxy on ITV in the late 1980s. Raised and educated in Killybegs.
  • Kevin Sharkey – currently a broadcast journalist with BBC Northern Ireland.
  • Dr. George Otto Simms – Church of Ireland Primate of All Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh. A well-known historian, he was Lifford.
  • Ricky Simms – London-based manager of Usain Bolt. Simms was born in Milford.
  • Andrew Simpson – Actor who played in both song for a Raggy Boy andNotes on a Scandal . Born in Altnagelvin hospital but raised in Inishowen.
  • James Star Ride – deputy head of the Metropolitan Police in London in the early 1970s. Born in Carrigans but grew up in Magherafelt.
  • Major General Joe Sweeney – leading Irish Republican Army commander during the Revolutionary War. He later served as a leading Irish Army commander during the Irish Civil War. In the early 1920s he served as a TD MPoch West Donegal in the 1st Dáil and later as Pro-Treaty TD for Donegal. From Burton.
  • Pauric Sweeney – London-based luxury handbag designer. Born in County Donegal and educated at Blackrock College and Temple University.


  • John Toland – Protestant philosopher of the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century. He was of Ardagh, a townland near Ballyliffin.


The most common surnames in County Donegal at the time of the United Kingdom Census 1901: [35]

  1. Gallagher
  2. Doherty
  3. O’Donnell
  4. Boyle
  5. McLaughlin
  6. Sweeney
  7. kelly
  8. McGinley
  9. McFadden
  10. Section

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Donegal)
  • People from County Donegal
  • Donegal County (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Earagail Arts Festival
  • High Sheriff Donegal
  • Lord Lieutenant of Donegal
  • SS Donegal
  • troubles
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “County Donegal”. Central Bureau of Statistics . In 2016.
  2. Jump up ^ “2006 Annual Report of the Ulster Scots” (PDF). North-South Ministerial Council.
  3. Jump up ^ “2002 Annual Report of the Ulster Scots” (PDF). North-South Ministerial Council.
  4. Jump up ^ Tourism Ireland – Yeirly Report 2009
  5. Jump up ^ “Donegal Library Services”. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ North West Ireland.
  7. Jump up ^ “Derry and Donegal Sinn Féin Councillors join forces to push the North West tourism”. 16 February 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab Brian Lacy (Editor), archaeological survey County Donegal , P. 1. Donegal County Council, Lifford, 1983rd
  9. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  10. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  11. Jump up ^ “A collection of British Historical Population Reports”.University of Essex. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  12. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘ 27 September 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  13. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  14. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. Economic history eView. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  15. Jump up ^ Patterson, Edward M (1962). The County Donegal Railway.Dawlish: David and Charles. pp. 9-10.
  16. Jump up ^ Morton, O. 2003. The marine macroalgae in County Donegal, Ireland. Bull.Ir. Biogeog. Soc., 27: 3-164
  17. Jump up ^ Ennis, T. 2014. The presence of Dactylorhiza purple(T.Stephenson and TSStephenson) soo Ir Nat. J. 33 : 128
  18. Jump up ^ Sleeman, PD et al in 2009. The small-bodied Badgers ( Meles meles (L.) in Rutland Island, Co. Donegal. Ir Nat J. 30: 1-6 ..
  19. Jump up ^ “Crex Crex corncrake, priority species Northern Ireland”.
  20. Jump up ^ “Dolmen Centre, Kilclooney, Portnoo, Co.Donegal” Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  21. Jump up ^ Renamed “County Tirconaill” in 1922 by resolution of the County Council (. Place Name Confusion – Donegal or Tirconaill , The Irish Times, April 24, 1924). After historians and Gaelic scholars pointed out that the historical territory Tirconaill did not include the entire county, Donegal name again adopted in 1927 ( Back to “Donegal” , The Irish Times November 22, 1927).
  22. Jump up ^ Connolly, SJ, Oxford Companion to Irish History , page 129. Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-923483-7
  23. Jump up ^ County “wiped off crisis HQ maps.” The Belfast Telegraph .21 April 2010.
  24. Jump up ^ Donegal “disappear” from the crisis maps. Ocean FM. 21 April 2010.
  25. Jump up ^ Donegal Gaeltacht statistics
  26. Jump up ^
  27. Jump up ^ “Even Donegal voted YES in the marriage referendum”.February 23, 2015. Archived from the original February 24, 2016.
  28. Jump up ^ “Closing” Derry Road “a great loss to Ireland – Derry Journal” .Hämtad 20 August, 2013.
  29. ^ Jump up to: ab Willie Cumming, Duncan McLaren and TJ O’Meara, An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of County Donegal , p. 96. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (Niah), Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Dublin, 2014.
  30. Jump up ^ who was who in America historical volume, 1607-1896.Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who. In 1963.
  31. Jump up ^ “Donegal Gaelic football and hurling clubs.”
  32. Jump up ^ Bradshaw’s Guide. WJ Adams, 1864
  33. Jump up ^ Bloomfield Land and Building Company
  34. Jump up ^ BBC Your Paintings, Henry Musgrave Henrietta Rae
  35. Jump up ^ “Donegal Genealogy resources and Parish Register – Ulster”

University College Cork

University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork  (  UCC )  [2]  (Irish:  Coláiste na hOllscoile Corcaigh  ) is a  constituent university  of the National University of Ireland .Universitetet located in Cork.

The University was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges in Belfast, Cork and Galway.  [3]  It became University College, Cork, under the law Irish universities by 1908. University Act in 1997 was named the university as the National University of Ireland, Cork, and a ministerial decree of 1998, was named the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork,  [4]  although there continues to be almost universally known as University College Cork.

Among other rankings and honors, received the university named Irish University of the Year by  the Sunday Times  on four occasions; latest 2015/2016.  [5]  In 2015, the UCC was also named as the most successful universities of the European Commission-funded U-Multirank, which is based on getting the highest number of “A”, (21 of 28 points) among a field of 1200 to some universities.  [6] the  UCC also became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy conservation in 2011.

Dr. Michael B. Murphy has been the president of the university since February 2007.  [7]


“Long Hall” and the bell tower of the UCC quadrangle

Queen’s College, Cork, founded by the provisions of an act that enabled Queen Victoria to provide new schools for the “Advancement of Learning in Ireland”. According to the authority of this Act, the three schools in Belfast, Cork and Galway were incorporated on December 30 1845. The college opened in 1849 with 23 professors and 181 students and a year later became part of the Queen’s University of Ireland.

The original site chosen for the college was appropriate because it is believed to have been related to the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close to Gill Abbey Rock and mill attached to the monastery is believed to have stood on the shore of the southern channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds. This compound is also reflected in the College’s motto “Where Finbarr taught Let Munster Learn” which is also the motto of the University.

The site, adjacent to the Abbey Gill, overlooked the valley of the River Lee. It was bought for £ 2,560 in 1846.  citation needed  ]  The Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane (1792-1871) and Benjamin Woodward (1816-1861).

Queen’s College Cork officially opened its doors in 1849. In the coming years, “College” acquired a reputation for excellence in various fields, including mathematics, medicine and the humanities.  Citation needed  ]  Additional buildings were added later, including the medical / Windle Construction .

In the following century, the Irish Universities Act (1908) formed the National University of Ireland, which is composed of three constituent colleges of Dublin, Cork and Galway, and the University was given the status of a college  College, Cork  . Universities Act, 1997, made the college a constituent University of the National University and made the inaugural university a university for all purposes except the award of diplomas which remains the sole responsibility of the National University.


Today the university has over 18,000 students, of which there are over 12,000 undergraduate degree candidates.  [1]  The student base is supported by 2747 employees, of which 762 are teachers. There are 1153 non academic staff and 832 researchers.  [1]

The university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with the highest research income in the state.  [8]  The university’s internal research reputation spans all their faculties where it offers over 120 degree and professional programs through seven schools and 27 departments. The university had seven faculties in Arts and Celtic Studies, Commerce, Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Law, Medicine and Science. In recent years,  ? When  ]  the university has been restructured so that it now has four colleges: Arts, Celtic Studies and Social Sciences; Business and Law;Medicine and health; and science, technology and food science.

UCC is home to the Irish Institute of Chinese Studies, which enables students to study Chinese culture and language through art and commerce. The department won the European Award for Languages, 2008.  [9]

The number of students, over 18,000 in 2012, increased significantly from the end of the 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus through the acquisition of adjacent land and buildings. The expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O’Rahilly building at the end of 1990, Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences center, the extended Áras na MacLéinn  (Devere Hall), the Lewis Glucksman Gallery 2004 Experience UCC  (Visitors’ Centre) and an extension the  Boole Library  – named after the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed algebra that would later make computer programming possible.The university also closed Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the western route as well as major renovations to the Tyndall Institute buildings at Lee Maltings Complex.

The University has a number of related companies including: Cytrea,  [10]  , which is involved in pharmaceutical formulations, Firecomms,  [11]  an ICT company focusing on optical communications; Digestive Health  [12]  a biotechnology healthcare companies; Biosensia  [13]  which is developing integrated microsystems analytical chips, Sensl developer of low light sensors and imaging systems; Luxcel  [14] involved in the development of probes and sensors for the pharmaceutical and food industries; and Optical Metrology Innovations  [15]  , which develops laser metrology systems.

The college was involved in some controversy in 2006 when an academic, Professor Des Clarke argued that the university authorities were guilty of financial mismanagement, and called for a full independent inquiry into governance. The subsequent investigation found that there was no evidence of financial mismanagement.

Also in 2006, the university reopened Observatory Crawford, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the University of Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed and built the observatory astronomical instruments for the structure. The university paid for an extensive restoration and conservation program of the building and the three main telescope, Equatorial, and Sidereostatic Transit Circle telescope.  [16]

In October 2008, the governing body of the University announced that the UCC would be the first institution in Ireland to use embryonic stem cells in research.  [17]

In November 2009, the UCC many buildings damaged by unprecedented floods.  [18]  The floods also affected other parts of Cork city, with many students evacuated from the accommodation. College authorities postponed academic activities for a week,  [18]  and announced that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. A great scene of the injury was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, the main auditorium will require a complete rebuild just a few months after the opening of classes.  [19]

From 2015, the university has planned a number of celebrated designer of the mathematician, philosopher and logician George Boole -. UCC’s first professor of mathematics  [20] [21]

University College Cork has been ranked by several assessment bodies, including as “Irish University of the Year” by  the Sunday Times  2003, 2005, 2011 and 2016,  [5]  and was named a runner-up in the 2015 edition.  [22]  In 2015, the UCC also named as the most successful universities of the European Commission-funded U-Multirank system, based on a large number of “a” points (21 of 28 points) among a field of 1,200 to take part universities. [6]  also 2015CWTS Leiden Ranking placed UCC 1 in Ireland, 16 in Europe and 52 th globally from a field of 750 universities.  [23]  the 2011 QS world University Rankings awarded a 5 stars to UCC,  [24]  and ranked the university among the top 2% of universities worldwide. UCC was ranked 230 th in the 2014 QS World University Rankings.  [25]  13 of its subject matter presented in the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2015 (an increase from 10 disciplines 2014), including pharmacies and Pharmacology disciplines, as noted by state 50 in the world.  [26]  the Universitas Indonesia (UI) Green Metric world University rankings assigned UCC a second in the world ranking for the second year in a row in 2015 for its efforts in the area of sustainability, with 360 universities from 62 countries are ranked in total.  [27]

UCC has also been known for its digital and social media presence, including for “Best Social Media Engagement” category at the 2014 Social Media Awards,  [28]  and as a finalist for “Best use of social media by a governmental body” and ” best non-profit / Organization Twitter account “2015 Social Media Awards.  [28]  A former finalist in 2013 and 2014 Web Awards, the UCC also did the 2015 finals in two categories,  [29]  the” most influential Irish website ever “and the” best education and the third level website “. University College Cork was the first site in Ireland in 1991  [29]  (only the ninth website in the world at the time), serving transcriptions of Irish historical and literary documents for CELT project converted from SGML to HTML.

College of Medicine and Health

Medicine, art, and law were the three founding faculties when Queen College Cork opened its doors to students in 1849. The medical buildings was built in stages between 1860 and 1880, and faculty quickly gained a reputation for the quality of its students. The first two women to graduate in medicine in Ireland did it in 1898 (this was notable because it was more than 20 years before women were allowed to sit for medicine at the University of Oxford). [30]  UCC School of Medicine is part of the College of Medicine and Health, and is based on the Brookfield Health Sciences Centre on the main campus of UCC and is connected with the 880-bed University College Cork Teaching Hospital, the largest medical center in Ireland. UCC School of Pharmacy is based in Cavanagh Pharmacy Building.  [30]


According to UCC Strategic plan 2009-2012, [31] UCC aims to improve research and innovation. In 2009, the university was ranked in the top 3% of universities worldwide for research. [32]

UCC’s published research strategy proposed to create “Centres of Excellence” for “world-class research,” where researchers and research would be given “freedom and flexibility to pursue their research.” [31] research UCC covers a range of areas including: nanoelectronics Tyndall Institute; Food and Health with digestive Pharmabiotic Centre, [33] NutraMara, [34] food for Health Ireland Research Centre, [35] and cereals Science Cork [36] (Food Research at UCC ranks 4th in the world), [ citation needed ] Environmental ~~ POS = TRUNC environmental ~~ POS = TRUNC [37] (with biodiversity research, aquaculture, energy efficiency and offshore energy); and Business Information Systems.[38]

The Sunday Times ‘ Good University Guide 2015 “, put the UCC at the top of its rankings for” research income per academic “. [22]

Knowledge transfer

Innovation and knowledge driven by the UCC’s Office of Technology Transfer, [39] an office at the university dedicated to commercializing aspects of UCC’s research and connect researchers with industry. Recent spin-outs from college include pharmaceutical company Glantreo, [40] Luxcel Biosciences, [41] Digestive Health, Biosensia, Firecoms, Gourmet Marine, Keelvar, Lee Oncology, and Sensl. [42]

Student life and societies

University College Cork has over 80 active communities [43] and 50 different sports clubs. [44] [45] There are academic, charity, creative, gaming / roleplaying, political, religious and social communities and clubs that include field sports, martial arts, water sports as well as outdoor and indoor team and individual sports. UCC clubs are sponsored by Bank of Ireland, with UCC Skull and Cross as the mascot for all UCC sports teams. 100 students received scholarships in 26 different sports in 2010. [44]

The regular activities of the UCC communities include charity work; with over 100,000 € annually by the surgeon Noonan society, € 10,000 raised by the war games and role-playing Society (warps) through its international gaming convention WARPCON, € 10,000 raised by UCC Law Society of Cambodia orphanage and UCC Pharmacy Society supports Cork Hospital Kids Club Club ~ ~ POS = HEAD COMP each year with a number of events. [46]UCC communities also sometimes attract high-profile speakers like Robert Fisk, who directs the Law Society, Nick Leeson [46] and Senator David Norris, who was 2009/2010 honorary president of the UCC Philosophical Society. [47]

The UCC Student Union (UCCSU) serves as a representative body of 17,000 students UCC. Each student is automatically a member by a student fee.

A Chuallacht

A Chuallacht (Irish pronunciation: [a xuɐl̪ˠaxt̪ˠ], which means “Lord”) is UCC’s Irish language and culture society. Founded in 1912, the society’s stated aim of promoting the Irish language on campus and around Cork. Included in the calendar of events is a Chuallacht “Chultúir Seachtain na hÉireann” (Irish Cultural Week), an annual festival held in October. Among the events held during the week’s competitions, debates, parades, games and Irish ball, “BAL na Gaeilge ‘, with guests that have included Des Bishop, Seán og Ó hAilpín, Micheal Ó Muircheartaigh, and Seán Bán Breathnach. [ Citation needed ] society was awarded Glor na nGael Irish society of the Year Award in 2009 and 2010, and the best cross-border society in 2013. [ citation needed ]

student Housing

Students UCC occupying a variety of different types of accommodation, with some choosing to live with the family while others live in rented accommodation. UCC’s campus housing company manages more than 1,000 beds in several apartment complexes within 1.5 km from the UCC campus,[48] and provides a search service for students seeking private accommodation near the UCC. [49]

International students

The largest number of 2,400 international students at UCC in 2010 came from the US, followed by China, France and Malaysia. [50] UCC participating in the Erasmus program with 439 students visiting UCC 2009-2010. [50] 201 UCC students studied at institutions in the United States, China and Europe during the same period. [50]

UCC was rated highly in the International Student Barometer Report 2008. [51]This study surveyed 67,000 international students at 84 institutions, and implemented by the International Insight Group. [51] The report considered that 98% of UCC’s international students (who participated in the survey) said they had “Expert lecturers”. And over 90% of these students said they had “good teacher”. [51] In the three categories of the survey, “sports facilities”, “social institutions” and “University associations”, UCC was in the top three of the 84 schools that participated in the survey. UCC’s International Education Office received a 93% customer satisfaction and UCC’s IT support is given a 92% customer satisfaction. [51]


Notable alumni of the University includes students from various disciplines.

George Boole (not an alumnus) was the first professor of mathematics at UCC. He developed the Boolean algebra that would later make computer programming possible. [52]

In art and literature, [53] alumni include: author Seán Ó Faoláin, short story writer Daniel Corkery, composer Seán Ó Riada, writers, academics and critics Robert Anthony Welch, actress Fiona Shaw, novelist William Wall, poets Paul Durcan, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill Trevor Joyce, Thomas McCarthy and Greg Delanty, comedian Des Bishop, and journalists Brendan O’Connor and Eoghan Harris. [54] Starring Cillian Murphy and BBC presenter Graham Norton both UCC attended but did not graduate. [55] [56]

From the business community, alumni include: Kerry Group’s Denis Brosnan, Kingfisher plc, former CEO Gerry Murphy, former director of CRH Anthony Barry, and the current president, Myles Lee. [57]

In medicine alumni include: Sir Edwin John Butler, Charles Donovan, Sir Bertram Windle, Dr. Paul Whelton, President Loyola University Health System, Dr. Barry O’Donnell, former president of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland; Dr. Colm Quigley, president of the Medical Council of Ireland, Dr. Pixie McKenna, doctors and TV presenter and Dr. Eamonn MM Quigley, president of the World Gastroenterology Organization, and vice president of the American College of Gastroenterology. [58] In physics, the alumni included: Professor Richard Milner of the Laboratory of Nuclear Science at MIT, Professor Margaret Murnane of the University of Colorado, Professor Patrick G . O’Shea of the University of Maryland, and Professor Séamus Davis of Cornell. [59]

Politicians and officials who attended UCC, include former Taoiseach Jack Lynch, leader of Fianna Fáil and former Foreign Minister Micheál Martin, [60]the Supreme Court Justice Liam McKechnie and High Court Judge Bryan MacMahon. [61]

In sport, rugby coach Declan Kidney, [62] Gaelic football player Séamus Moynihan, Maurice Fitzgerald and Billy Morgan, hurlers Pat Heffernan, Joe Deane, James “Cha” Fitzpatrick and Ray Cummins, rugby player Moss Keane, Ronan O’Gara and Donnacha Ryan and Olympian Lizzie Lee have all attended UCC. [63]

See also

  • Education in Ireland
  • List of Irish organizations with royal patronage
  • List of Universities in Ireland
  • UCC Student
  • Intel Outstanding Researchers Award


  1. ^ Jump up to: abcde “University College Cork (UCC) – About UCC – UCC Facts & Figures”. from the original on March 10, 2012.Taken 11/28/2012.
  2. Jump up ^ “History of the NUI.”
  3. Jump up ^ “University College Cork – History”. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  4. Jump up ^ About NUI – Opening University Archives October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC called The Sunday Times University of the Year ‘.UCC. UCC.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC News> UCC leads international rankings …” Hämtad14 September 2015.
  7. Jump up ^ “UCC Biography-” President Biography “- February 2007” 02.01.2007. Hämtas2015 / 09/14.
  8. Jump up ^ Higher Education R & D Survey 2006 (PDF) (Report).Ireland’s national policy advisory body for enterprise and science – Forfás.Page 3
  9. Jump up ^ – IICs wins European Award for Languages [ dead link ]
  10. Jump up ^
  11. Jump up ^ “Firecomms – Fiber Optic Solutions and optical transceivers.”
  12. Jump up ^ “Digestive Health • Home.”
  13. Jump up ^ “Biosensia – cutting edge care in vitro diagnostics” Hämtas2012 / 11 / 28th
  14. Jump up ^ “Luxcel Biosciences website”. Luxcel.
  15. Jump up ^
  16. Jump up ^ – Crawford Observatory reopens at University College Cork [ dead link ]
  17. Jump up ^ “UCC gives go-ahead for embryonic stem cell research – 10 October 2008”. Irish Times.2008 / 10/10. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC welcomes 18,000 back after closure – 1 December 2009”. Irish Times.2009 / 12 / 12th Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  19. Jump up ^ “ – revised report on Major Flood Damage” (PDF).Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  20. Jump up ^ “Two hundred of the mathematician George Boole be celebrated.” Irish Times. Irish times .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  21. Jump up ^ “If George Boole”. George Boole. UCC. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  22. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC News> Press releases> UCC thrives in University Guide”. .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  23. Jump up ^ “UCC News> UCC stands out in the global ranking.”ämtad14 September 2015.
  24. Jump up ^ “UCC Press release -” Ireland’s first five-star university “- September 2011” 2011-09-05. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  25. Jump up ^ “University College Cork QS Ranking and Statistics”. Top University. Top Universities .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  26. Jump up ^ “QS Top 50 of Pharmacy and Pharmacology”. University College Cork. UCC.
  27. Jump up ^ “UCC News> Green thumbs up for UCC”. Hämtad14 September 2015.
  28. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC among leading social media influencers.” UCC.UCC. Hämtad21 October 2015.
  29. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC make the final of the Web Awards 2015”. UCC. UCC.Retrieved 21 August oktober2015.
  30. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC School of Medicine’s history.” Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  31. ^ Jump up to: ab strategic plan 2009-2012 pg20-22
  32. Jump up ^ Times Higher Education Supplement ranking of universities 2009 – rank 207 of 9000Arkiv January 31, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. Jump up ^ “APC website”.
  34. Jump up ^ “Home.” 08.19.2009. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  35. Jump up ^ “FHI website”.
  36. Jump up ^ “UCC Cereal & Drink Science”. 2012-06-27.
  37. Jump up ^ “University College Cork (UCC): Environmental Institute.” Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  38. Jump up ^ “Business Information Systems – Research and Development”. Archived from originaletden 22 January 2010.
  39. Jump up ^ Insight Multimedia. “Office of Technology Transfer.” 2012-06-27.
  40. Jump up ^ “Glantreo Ireland”. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  41. Jump up ^ “Luxcel Biosciences – Company”. Archived from the original February 1, 2010.
  42. Jump up ^ Insight Multimedia. “Organizational Overview – Office of Technology Transfer” Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  43. Jump up ^ “information societies”. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  44. ^ Jump up to: ab – Facts and figures about the UCC – Sport 2010 [dead link ]
  45. Jump up ^ “Where UCC played and played.”
  46. ^ Jump up to: ab – facts and figures Societies Archive March 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  47. Jump up ^ “UCC Philosoph”. UCC Philosoph. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  48. Jump up ^ “Students get a lesson in the rental market.” Evening Echo.June 23, 2015.
  49. Jump up ^ “Finding accommodation”. Pulled 06/13/2016.
  50. ^ Jump up to: abc – Facts and figures about the UCC – Student numbers 2010 Archive March 5, 2009, vidWayback Machine.
  51. ^ Jump up to: abcd – UCC best in class for international students filed December 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  52. Jump up ^ “George Boole”. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  53. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Arts Archive September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  54. Jump up ^ Shoot … and you can be a winner. “Exorcism dark, bloody secrets IRA in West Cork – Eoghan Harris”. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  55. Jump up ^ Jackson, Joe (02.08.2004). “Sunday Independent Life Magazine -” from Cork to Gotham “- Jackson, Joe, February 8, 2004.” Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  56. Jump up ^ – 00:57 (02.05.2004). “BBC Radio 4 – Actual – Desert Island Discs -Graham Norton” Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  57. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Business Archives September 17, 2008, påWayback Machine.
  58. Jump up ^ “Alumni – Who’s been here? – Medicine “. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  59. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Science Archive September 17, 2008, påWayback Machine.
  60. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Public Service Archive September 17, 2008, påWayback Machine.
  61. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Law Archive September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  62. Jump up ^ – 2008 Alumni Achievements Awards archived March 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  63. Jump up ^ – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Sports Archive September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

Mouth of Flower

Michael Collins

On August 22.1922, during the Irish Civil War, Michael Collins, chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the national army, was killed in an ambush here by anti-Treaty IRA forces while traveling in convoy towards Bandon. The ambush was planned on a farm in Béal na Bláth near The Diamond Bar.  [2] The  commemoration is held on the nearest Sunday to the anniversary of his death. A memorial stands at the site of the shooting of a local road 1 km south of the village which was a dirt road when Collins was shot. A small white cross marks the spot where he fell.


The original version of the village’s name has been obscured by the passage of time. The spelling  Béal na Bláth  (translated as “mouth of the flowers / flowers”) is widely used, but this does not spell the placename spoken by the last native Irish language in the area (which survived until the 1940s). This version of the name, and the associated translation, probably arose from folk etymology among other speakers.  [3]

A proposed reconstruction of the original name is  Béal Átha na Bláiche  , which means “mouth of the ford of the core”, by analogy with a similar place name in County Limerick; Another version is attested in the literature is Béal na Bláth  (Anglicized as  Bealnablath  ) that can either mean “mouth flower” or “mouth of buttermilk.”  [3]  As of 2012, believes the Irish placental Commission  Béal na BLA  to be the most accurate version of the original placename. The meaning of “blah” is unclear in this context, but it can mean “green” or “lawn”.  [1]


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b placental Database of Ireland. Accessed August 16, 2012
  2. Jump up ^ Hopkinson, Michael. 1988. Green to Green: the Irish Civil War. The 177th
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b Ó hÚrdail, Roibeard (1999), “The Place Name Béal na blah”, Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society,  104 : 111-116

Michael Collins (Irish Leader)

Michael Collins (Irish: Micheal Ó Coileáin, [2] [3] October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922) was a soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the fight for Irish independence in the early 20th century. Collins was an Irish revolutionary leader, politician, Minister of Finance, Director, and Teachta Dala (TD) for Cork South in the first Dáil in 1919, Adjutant General, Head förunderrättelsetjänsten, and Director of the organization and arms supplies to the IRA, President of the Irish Republican Brotherhood from November 1920 until his death, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Subsequently, he was both president of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the national army. [1]Collins was shot and killed in an ambush in August 1922 during the Irish Civil War.

early years

Born in Sam’s Cross, near Clonakilty, County Cork, Collins was the third son and youngest of eight children. Most biographies gives his date of birth as October 16, 1890, but his tombstone quote 12 October 1890 cited in a British intelligence report as “brainy,” Collins family was part of an ancient clan, scattered across the county Cork. They had Republican connections that can be traced back to the 1798 uprising. [4]

Collins’s father, Michael John (1816-1897), was a farmer by profession. A mathematician in his spare time, he had been a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) movement. The elder Collins was 60 [5] years old when he married Mary Anne O’Brien, then 23, [6] in 1876. [7] The marriage was apparently happy. They raised eight children on a 90-acre (36 hectare) farm called Woodfield, Collins held as tenants in several generations.

On his deathbed, his father (who was the seventh son of a seventh son) predicted that his daughter Helena (one of Michael’s older sisters) would become a nun. She was later known as Sister Mary Celestine, based in Whitby. [8] He then turned to the family and told them to take care of Michael, because “One day he will be a great man. He will do great work for Ireland. “Michael was six years old when his father died. [9]

Michael Collins at age 8 with his family.

Collins was a bright and precocious child with a fiery temper and a passionate sense of Irish nationalism. He named a local blacksmith, James Santry, and his principal at Lisavaird National School, Denis Lyons, as the first nationalists to personally inspire his “pride Irishness.” Lyon was a member of the IRB, while Santry family had participated in, and forged weapons the uprising in 1798, 1848 and 1867. [4] [10]

There are a number of anecdotal explanations for the rise of his nickname, “The Big Fellow”. The most authoritative comes from his family, that he was so called by them while still a child. It had been a term of endearment for his youngest brother, who was always keen to take on tasks beyond his years. It was probably already down by a teenager, long before he emerged as a political or military leaders. [11]

At the age of thirteen he boarded in Clonakilty National School. During the week he stayed with his sister Margaret Collins O’Driscoll and her husband Patrick O’Driscoll, while the weekends, he returned to the family farm.Patrick O’Driscoll founded the newspaper the West Cork People and Collins helped with general reporting job and prepare questions about the newspaper. [12]

Collins, a young recruit.

After leaving school at fifteen took Collins British personnel survey in Cork in February 1906, [13] and subsequently employed by the Royal Mail. [14] In 1906, he moved home to his older sister Hannie (Johanna) in London, where he became a messenger at the London firm of stockbrokers, Horne and Company. [13] While living in London, he studied law at Kings College London. [15] he joined the London GAA and through this, the IRB. Sam Maguire, a Republican from Dunmanway, County Cork, introduced the 19-year-old Collins into the IRB. [16] In 1915, he moved to Guaranty Trust Company of New York, where he stayed until he returned to Ireland the following year [17] to go part-time Craig curtains & Co. , an accounting firm in Dawson Street, Dublin. [18]

Easter Rising

The struggle for Greenland, along with labor unrest, led to the formation in 1913 of two major nationalist paramilitary groups that would start the Easter Rising: the Irish National Army founded by James Connolly and the Irish Transport and General Workers Union (ITGWU), to protect strikers from Dublin Metropolitan Police during the 1913 Dublin Lockout. The Irish Volunteers was created in the same year by the IRB and other nationalists in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers (UVF), a loyalist Ulster subordinated body to resist Home Rule by force.

Organizer of significant intelligence Collins had become highly respected in the IRB. This led to his appointment as financial advisor to Count Plunkett, father of one of the Easter Rising’s organizers, Joseph Plunkett. Collins took part in the preparations arms and drilling troops for rebellion.

The Rising would be Collins’s first appearance in the national events. When it began on Easter Monday in 1916, Collins served as Plunkett aide-de-camp at the uprising’s headquarters in the General Post Office (GPO) in Dublin.There he fought with Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and other members of the Rising leadership. The Rising is generally acknowledged to have been a military disaster, but the rebels achieved their goal to keep their positions for the minimum time necessary to justify claims for independence according to international criteria. [19]

Caught Irish soldiers in Stafford Gaol following the failed Easter Rising.Collins is fifth from the right with an “x” over his head.

Was arrested along with thousands of other participants, Collins was later imprisoned at Frongoch internment camp in Wales.

Collins first started to emerge as a key figure in the vacuum created by the 1916 executions of leadership. He began to hatch plans for “next time” before the prison ship left Dublin. [20]

On Frongoch he was one of the organizers of a program of protest and lack of cooperation with the authorities, similar to that later carried out by the IRA interned 1980s. The camp proved to be an excellent opportunity for networking with physical strength Republicans from across the country, where he became a key organizer. [21] [22]

While some celebrated the fact that a rising had happened at all believing in Pearse’s theory of “blood sacrifice” (that is to say that the deaths of the Rising leaders would inspire others), Collins railed against the military mistakes made, such as the seizure of indefensible and very vulnerable positions such as St. Stephen’s Green, which was impossible to escape from and difficult to leverera.Folkstorm put pressure on the British government to end the detention insertion. In December 1916 the Frongoch prisoners sent home.


Before his death, Tom Clarke, the first signatory of the 1916 notice and generally considered Rising main organizer, had appointed his wife Kathleen (Daly) Clarke as official caretaker Rising public sector, in the event that management can not survive. In June 1916, Mrs. Clarke sent out the first after the Rising communiqué to the IRB, declares Rising to be just the beginning and control the nationalists to prepare for “the next battle.” Shortly after his release Mrs. Clarke appointed Collins secretary of the national support and volunteers Dependents Fund (NAVDF ) and then on to him confidential organizational information and contacts that she had held in trust for the independence movement.

Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith

Collins became one of the leading figures in the rising independence movement tip of Arthur Griffith, editor / publisher of the most important nationalist magazine United Irishman, (which Collins had read avidly as a boy.) [21] Griffiths organization Sinn Féin was founded in 1905 as a umbrella organization to unite all the different factions within the nationalist movement.

According to Griffiths politics, Collins and other advocates of “physical force” approach to the independence gained in cooperation with non-violent Sinn Féin, while agree to disagree with Griffiths moderate ideas of a dual monarchy solution based on the Hungarian model. [23] the British government and traditional Irish media had mistakenly blame Sinn Féin Rising. This attracted Ascending participants to join the organization to take advantage of the reputation of such a British propaganda had permeated the organization. By October 1917 Collins had risen to become a member of the executive of Sinn Féin and director of organization for the Irish Volunteers.Éamon de Valera, another veteran of 1916, accounted for the presidency of Sinn Fein to Griffith, who stepped aside and supported de Valera presidency.[23]

First Dáil

Members of the First Dáil
First row from left to right: Laurence Ginnell, Michael Collins, Cathal Brugha, Arthur Griffith, Éamon de Valera, Count Plunkett, Eoin MacNeill, WT Cosgrave, Kevin O’Higgins (third row, right)

In the 1918 general election, Sinn Fein swept the polls in large parts of Ireland, with many seats uncontested, and formed an overwhelming parliamentary majority in Ireland. Like many leading representatives of Sinn Féin Collins was elected an MP (Cork South) with the right to sit in the British House of Commons in London. Unlike its competitors in the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), Sinn Féin MPs had announced that they would not take their seats in Westminster, but instead would set up an Irish Parliament in Dublin. [24]

Before the new body’s first meeting, Collins, tipped off by his network of spies, warned his colleagues plan to arrest all members of the night raids. De Valera and others ignored warnings on the argument that, if the arrests happened, they would constitute a propaganda coup. The intelligence proved correct, and de Valera, along with Sinn Féin MPs who followed his advice, were arrested; Collins and other circumvented captivating.

The new parliament, called Dáil Éireann (meaning “Assembly of Ireland”, see First Dáil) met in the Mansion House, Dublin in January 1919. In de Valera’s absence, Cathal Brugha valdesPríomh Aire ( “first” or “Prime” Minister but often translated as “President of Dáil Éireann). The following April Collins constructed de Valera escape from Lincoln Prison in England, after which Brugha was replaced by de Valera.

No state gave diplomatic recognition to the Republic in 1919, despite persistent lobbying in Washington by de Valera and prominent Irish-Americans and at the Paris Peace Conference. In January 1919, the Dáil ratified the Irish Republican Army’s (IRA) claims to be the army of the Irish Republic. IRA had begun a military campaign coincidentally on the same day as the first Dáil sitting with Soloheadbeg ambushes and IRA’s respect for the authority of the Dáil was very conditional. (The Irish Volunteers became known as the IRA because their inmates insertion of Frongach. Until the Civil War, the two terms are used interchangeably.)

Minister of Finance

Michael Collins as finance minister.

In 1919, already busy Collins yet another responsibility when de Valera appointed him Aireacht (ministry) as Minister of Finance. [25] Most of the ministries existed only on paper or as one or two people working in a room of a private house, with given the circumstances of a brutal war in which the ministers risked being arrested or killed by the Royal Irish Constabulary, the British army, the Black and Tans or assistants at a moment’s notice.

Despite this, Collins managed to produce a Finance Ministry that was able to organize a large bond issue in the form of a “National Loan” to fund the new Irish Republic. [26] According to Batt O’Connor, Dáil loans raised almost £ 400,000, of which £ 25,000 was in gold . The loan, which was declared illegal by the British, was lodged in individual bank accounts managers. The gold held under the floor of the O’Connor house until 1922. [27] The Russian Republic, in the middle of its own civil war, ordered Ludwig Martens, head of the Soviet Bureau in New York to get a “national loan” from the Irish Republic through Harry Boland , offers some jewels as collateral. Jewel remained in a Dublin safe, forgotten by all sides, until the 1930s, when they were found by chance.

The war

The Irish War of Independence in fact started the day on which the first Dáil took office on January 21, 1919. At this time, an ambush party IRA volunteers from 3rd Tipperary Brigade including Séamus Robinson, Dan Breen, Seán Treacy and Seán Hogan, Attacke a pair of Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men who Eskorte a party gelignite to a quarry in Soloheadbeg, County Tipperary.The two police officers were shot to death during surgery. This ambush is considered the first action in the Irish War of Independence. [28] The commitment had no prior authorization from the emerging government. But Collins in the Dáil discussion of the event implicitly accepted responsibility on behalf of the IRB. The legislator support for the armed struggle soon after became official. [21] [29]

Harry Boland ( left ), Michael Collins ( middle ), and Éamon de Valera ( right ).

From the time Collins filled a number of roles in addition to their legislative duties. That summer he was elected chairman of the IRB (and therefore, the doctrine of this organization, de jure President of the Irish Republic). In September he was made head of intelligence for the Irish Republican Army, which now had the task of conducting an armed campaign, as the official army of the Irish nation. With Cathal Brugha as defense minister, was Collins, director of the organization and the Adjutant General of the volunteers.

Collins had spent much of this period to help organize the volunteers as an effective military force, particularly concentrating on driving RIC isolated barracks and seizing their weapons. In the early 20th century, in fact, the main representation of the British state in large parts of rural Munster and Connaught, and with their withdrawal, felt able to establish their own institutions that permanently armed police force Republicans. In turn, but the retreat of RIC drove the British against the more radical and violent reactions: while alienating the already weak support for British rule in the population but also increase the military pressure on the volunteers.

Collins was determined to avoid the massive destruction, military and civilian losses to only symbolic victories that had characterized the 1916 Rising. Instead, he directed a guerilla war against the British, suddenly attacking then just as quickly withdraw minimize losses and maximize efficiency. [30] [31]

When the war began in earnest, de Valera traveled to the US for a long speaking tour to raise funds for the outlawed republican government. It was in publicity for this tour de Valera (who had been Príomh Aire TD) was first called “President”. Although financially successful, serious political conflict followed in the wake of Valera which threatened unity Irish-American support for the rebels. Some members of the IRB also opposed to the use of the presidential title because their organization Constitution had a different definition of the title. [21] [23] [32]

Back in Ireland, Collins organized the “National Loan”, organized IRA effectively led government, and managed to arms smuggling. Local guerillas received supplies, education and had virtually a free hand to develop the war in their own region. These were the “flying columns” that constituted the bulk of the war the grass roots in the southwest. Collins, Dick McKee and regional commander Dan Breen and Tom Barry supervised tactics and general strategi.Det were also regional organizers, such as Ernie O’Malley and Liam matures, who reported directly to Collins at St Ita’s secret basement GHQ in central Dublin. [ 33] They were supported by a large intelligence network of men and women in all walks of life that reached deep into the British administration in Ireland. [34] [35]

Collins inspects a soldier.

It was at this time that Collins created a special unit called the murder squad specifically to kill British agents and informers. Collins criticized this tactic, but refers to the universal wartime practice performing enemy spies who were, in his words, “hunting victims of execution.” Campaign for Irish independence, even non-violence, is still directed both prosecution under British law is punishable by death and also of extrajudicial killings such as that of Tomas MacCurtain, nationalist Mayor of Cork city.

In 1920, the British offered a reward of £ 10,000 (equivalent to GB £ 300,000 / € 360,000 in 2010) for information leading to the capture or death of Collins.He and the national forces continued to avoid capture and implemented blow to British forces, often operating safe house near government buildings, as Vaughan’s and a city.

The crown responded with escalation of the war, with the import of special forces, such as the “Utilities”, the “Black and Tans”, the “Cairo Gang” and others. Officially or unofficially, many of these groups had a free hand to impose a reign of terror, shooting Irish people indiscriminately, invading homes, looting and burning. [21] [36]

In 1920, after the Westminster prominent messages that had the Irish rebels on the run, Collins and his squad killed several British secret agents in a series of coordinated raids. In retaliation, members of the Royal Irish Constabulary went to Croke Park, where a GAA football match took place between Dublin and Tipperary. The police opened fire on the crowd and as a result, killed twelve and injured sixty. This event became known as Bloody Sunday. A stampede of panicked British agents sought shelter in Dublin Castle the next day. About the same time Tom Barry 3rd Cork Brigade no prisoners in a bitter struggle with the British forces in Kilmichael. In many regions, the RIC and other crown forces were all but limited to the strongest barracks in the larger cities of the countryside was increasing insurgent control. [37] [38]

These Republican victories would have been impossible without the broad support of the Irish population, which included all levels of society, reaching deep into the British administration in Ireland. This pattern of guerrilla success against sophisticated imperialist powers would be repeated around the world in the early 20th century. [39]

At the time of the ceasefire in July 1921 a major operation was allegedly planning to carry out all the British secret agent in Dublin, while a larger ambush covers eighty officers and men were also scheduled to Templeglantine, County Limerick. [21] [40]

The peace

In 1921, General Macready, commander of the British forces in Ireland, reported to his government that the Empire’s only hope to keep Ireland the laws of war, including the withdrawal of “all normal life”. [41]

Political considerations about Westminster global foreign policy ruled out this option: Irish-American public opinion was important that US support for British agendas in Asia. At home, had Britain’s efforts on a military solution already given rise to a powerful peace movement, demanded an end to the slaughter in Ireland. Prominent voices calling for negotiations included Labour, the London Times and other leading journals, members of the upper house, the English Catholics, and famous writers such as George Bernard Shaw. [42] [43]

Yet it was not the British government began negotiations. Individual English activists, including clerics, made private overtures that reached Arthur Griffith. Griffith expressed his welcome for dialogue. The British MP Brigadier Cockerill sent an open letter to Prime Minister Lloyd George, which was printed in the Times describes how a peace conference with the Irish should be organized. The Pope made an urgent public appeal for negotiating an end to the violence. Whether Lloyd George welcomed such advisers, he could no longer hold out against the tide. [21]

In July, Lloyd George government offered a ceasefire. Arrangements were made for a conference between the British Government and the leaders of the yet-unknown Republic.

There is still considerable disagreement about the two sides’ ability to have engaged in conflict for much longer. Collins said Hamar Greenwood after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty: “You had us dead tired, we could not have lasted another three weeks when we were told by the offer of a ceasefire, we were surprised, we thought you must have gone mad …”. [44 ] But he said for the record that “there will be no compromise and no negotiations with any British government until Ireland is recognized as an independent republic.the same bet that would get us the Dominion Lands makes us a republic. ” [45]at no time had the Dáil or IRA asked for a conference or a truce. [46]

Dáil as a whole was less uncompromising. It decided to move on to a peace conference, but was found in the initial stages as a completely independent republic would not be on the table and that the loss of some northeastern counties were granted. [47]

Many of the rebel forces on the ground first heard about peace when it was announced in the newspapers and this gave rise to the first cracks in the nationalist entity, which would have serious consequences later. They felt that they had not been included in the consultation on its terms. [48] [49]

De Valera was widely recognized as the most skillful negotiator at Dáil government side and he participated in the initial parlays, agreed basis for the talks could begin. The first meetings were held in strict secrecy shortly after the Customs House battle, with Andrew Cope represents the Dublin Castle British authorities. Later they traveled Valera to London for the first official contact with Lloyd George. The two met one-on-one in a private meeting, work has never been revealed. [21] [50]

During this peace period, de Valera sued for official designation as President of the Irish Republic and received from the Dáil in August 1921. [51] Not long after the government was forced to choose the delegation would travel to London Peace Conference and negotiate an agreement . In an extraordinary departure from his usual role, de Valera adamantly declined to participate, insisting instead that Collins would take his place there, along with Arthur Griffith. [52] [53]

Collins steadfastly resisted this appointment, protesting that he was “a soldier, not a politician” and that his exposure to the London authorities would reduce its effectiveness as a guerrilla leader should hostilities resume.(He had kept his public visibility to a minimum during the war, up to this time the British were still very few reliable photographs of him.) [54]

Cabinet seven split on the issue, with de Valera casting the deciding vote.Many of Collins associates warned him not to go, that he was being set up as a political scapegoat. After intense soul-searching and all night consultations with his most trusted advisers, he decided to participate “in the spirit of a soldier obeying orders.” In private correspondence he foresaw the disaster ahead: “Let them make a scapegoat or whatever they want about me Someone must go..”

Anglo-Irish Treaty

Collins London as delegate to the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations.

The Irish delegates to London where, when de Valera’s insistence, designated as “authorized”, meaning that they had the right to sign an agreement on behalf of Dáil government. The Treaty would then be subject to approval by a vote of the whole Dáil.

The majority of the Irish Treaty delegates, including Arthur Griffith (leader), Robert Barton and Eamonn Duggan (with Robert Erskine Childers as Secretary General of the Delegation) set up headquarters at 22 His place in Knightsbridge October 11, 1921 and resided there until the conclusion of the negotiations in December . Collins shared fourth at 15 Cadogan Gardens with the delegation publicity department, secretary Diarmuid O’Hegarty, Joseph McGrath, as well as significant intelligence and bodyguard personnel including Liam Tobin, Tom Cullen, Ned Broy, Emmet Dalton and Joseph Dolan of the squad. [55]

The British side was represented by PM Lloyd George, Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill and FE Smith, among others. Two months of hard quarrel followed. The Irish delegation made frequent crossings back to Dublin to make progress reports and discuss with their colleagues Dail. But Collins, in his correspondence and subsequent Dáil debates, delegates expressed frustration at not being able to get clear instructions on whether they should accept the terms offered and sign the treaty. [21] [56]

In November, the London peace talks still underway, Collins attended a large meeting of regional IRA commander on Parnell Place in Dublin. In a private meeting, he informed Liam Deasy, Florence O’Donoghue and Liam Lynch that “there must be no compromise in the ongoing negotiations in London.There was no question of our getting all the demands we made. “He was designed by Lynch does not take this in the full assembly. After a review of recent events, Deasy later doubted the wisdom of that advice. [57]

The negotiations eventually led to the Anglo-Irish Agreement signed on 6 December 1921. The agreement provides for a Dominion status “Irish Free State” whose relationship with the Commonwealth would be modeled after Canada. This was a compromise, midway between an independent republic and a province of the empire.

The deal essentially emptied the Treaty of Limerick in 1688 and repealed the Act of Union by recognizing the native Irish regulator’s independence.During a bicameral executive authority would remain with the king but exercised by an Irish government elected by Dáil Éireann as a “lower house”.British forces would depart Free State right away and replaced by an Irish army. Together with an independent judiciary Treaty granted a level of internal independence that far exceeded any of Greenland, which had been sought by Charles Stewart Parnell and his Irish parliamentary party successor, John Redmond and John Dillon.

It was agreed that counties with a large union population, concentrated in a relatively small area in eastern Ulster, would have a chance to opt out of the Free State and remain under the crown. An Irish Boundary Commission was set up to draw a line (which eventually came to include a six county region.) Inclusion in the Free State would be subject to a vote of the majority population in each county. Collins waited more than four counties would join the northeastern statelet, which makes it economically un-viable, and that this would facilitate the reunification of all 32 counties in the foreseeable future. [58]

Although it fell short of the republic that he’d struggled to create noted Collins to the Treaty offered Ireland “freedom to achieve freedom.” It offered mainly a chance to take the gun from Irish politics and to seek more independence through a native government and legislature Township. [59] Yet he knew parts of the Treaty would cause controversy in Ireland. By signing the Treaty, Birkenhead remarked, “I may have signed my political death warrant tonight.” Collins replied, “I may have signed my actual death sentence”. [40]

Treaty debates

This remark encapsulated his recognition that the treaty was a compromise that would be vulnerable to accusations of “sell-out” from the purist Republicans. It did not identify fully independent republic that Collins himself had shortly before called as a non-negotiable condition. The “physical force Republicans” who constituted the bulk of the army who had fought the British to a draw would be reluctant to accept dominion status within the British Empire, or an oath of allegiance to the king mentioned.Also controversial was the British retention of Treaty Ports on the south coast of Ireland for the Royal Navy. These factors reduced Irish sovereignty and threatened to let the British involvement in Ireland’s foreign policy.

Collins and Griffith were well aware of these issues and strove tenaciously against British resistance, to achieve language that is acceptable to all constituents. They managed to get an oath to the Irish Free State, with a subsidiary oath of allegiance to the king, rather than to the king unilaterally.

It is now widely believed that had the nationalist leadership united behind the Treaty, there would have been no split in the army who shed civil war.But immediately the delegation’s return from London, de Valera led a loud indictment of the delegates, which he called “traitors”.

This is despite the fact that de Valera, the Nationalists’ most suitable negotiator, who had refused exhausting grounds of Collins, Griffith and others to lead the London negotiations in person, had been fully informed of the process every step. He had also refused Delegates constant requests for instruction, and in fact had been the focus of the initial decision to start negotiations without the possibility of an independent republic on the table.[21] [60]

However, there is still a school of thought that believes the Valera protests have been reasonable and motivated by deep moral objections and that looks Collins in a negative light, have irresponsibly signed away the nation’s interests because of incompetence or a self-serving agenda. The controversy Treaty share the entire nationalist movement. Sinn Féin, the Dáil, the IRB and the army split into pro- and anti-Treaty factions. Supreme Council of the IRB had been informed in detail about every aspect of the negotiations on the Treaty and had approved many of its provisions, and they voted unanimously to approve the treaty only notable exception of Liam Lynch, later the COS of the anti-Treaty IRA. [61]

Dáil debated the Treaty bitterly for ten days until it was approved by a vote of 64 to 57. [62] After losing the vote, de Valera announced its intention to withdraw its participation from the Dáil and urged all deputies who had voted against the Treaty follow him. A large number made it official sharing government. This set the stage for civil war.

A large part of the Irish Republican Army opposed the Treaty. Some followed the political leadership of the anti-Treaty TDs, others were acting on their own beliefs, with more or less equal suspicion of politicians in general. Anti-Treaty IRA units began to seize the building and take other guerrilla actions against the Provisional Government. On April 14, 1922 a group of 200 anti-Treaty IRA men occupied the Four Courts in Dublin according to Rory O’Connor, a hero of the Revolutionary War. The four courts was the center of the Irish court system, originally under the British and then the Free State.Collins is charged by his Free State colleagues to put down the rebels, however, he resisted firing on former comrades and averted a shooting war during this period. [63] [64]

While the country was on the edge of civil war, have regular meetings are conducted among the different factions from January to June 1922. In these discussions nationalists strove to solve the problem without armed conflict.Collins and his close associates, TD Harry Boland was among those who worked desperately to heal the rift. [21] [65]

To promote the military unit, Collins and IRB established an “army reunification committee”, including delegates from pro- and anti-Treaty factions. The still secret Irish Republican Brotherhood continued to meet, to promote dialogue between the pro- and anti-Treaty IRA officers. The IRB’s stormy debates on the subject, Collins held out the constitution of the new Free State as a possible solution. Collins then in the process of co-writing this document, and strive to make it a republican constitution contained provisions that would allow the anti-Treaty TD to take their places in good conscience, with no oath of the Crown. [66]

Northern Ireland

After the treaty was signed loyalist conservative combined to bring a violent campaign against the Irish nationalist revolt in northeastern counties comprising Northern Ireland. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was created at this time, along with the infamous “Specials”: a. Power amateurs and retired soldiers, as some have claimed was given free rein to terrorize and kill Catholics [67] [68]

In Northern Ireland, there were constant violations of the ceasefire by “unauthorized loyalist paramilitaries”. The predominantly Protestant, unionists government in Northern Ireland support policies which discriminated against Catholics, which, together with violence against Catholics, led many to suggest the presence of an agenda with an Anglo-dominance to push the domestic Irish descent from the northeast county. [21] [69]

While London stepping up pressure on the provisional government to take aggressive military action against anti-Treaty units in the south.

In March, Collins, Sir James Craig, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, in London. They signed an agreement declaring peace in the north that promised cooperation between Catholics and Protestants in the police and security, a generous budget to restore Catholics to homes that had been destroyed, and many other measures. [70]

The day after the agreement was announced, violence erupted again. A police officer was shot dead in Belfast and in retaliation, the police in Catholic homes nearby and residents shot in their beds, including children.There was no response to Collins demands for an investigation. He and his cabinet warned that they would consider the contract broken Craig acted. [71]

In its constant correspondence with Churchill over violence in the north, Collins protested repeatedly that such breaches of the peace threatened to annul the Treaty of all. [72] The prospect of an extension of the war with England was imminent. The outlook was real enough to June 3, 1922 Churchill presented to the Committee of Imperial Defence plans “to protect Ulster from the invasion of the South”. [73]

Throughout the first months of 1922, Collins has been sending IRA units to the border and sending arms and money to the northern units IRA. Collins went with other IRB and IRA leadership to develop secret plans to launch a clandestine guerrilla war in the northeast. Some British arms had been handed over to the interim government in Dublin was presented by Collins to IRA units in the north. In May-June 1922 Collins and the IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch organized an offensive, including both pro- and anti-Treaty IRA units along the border area. Because of this, most northern IRA units supported Collins and 524 individual volunteers came south to join the national army in the Irish Civil War.

Collins, supported by Griffith and Government, held up a “three-step strategy for public, political and military pressure” relating to northern abuse. [21]Negotiations with the London and Belfast governments continued with many promises and broken along the lines of the March 1922 agreement.Within a few days after a public commitment from Dublin not to send troops to the northeast, Churchill sent 1000 British soldiers in a village called Pettigo that straddled the border between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. The troops shelled the village and shot at Free State soldiers and killed three. On June 5, a group of B-Specials sprayed Mater Hospital in Belfast with machine gun fire. Collins demands a full, joint investigation was flatly refused by Churchill. [74]

Amidst all this, the civil war in the south erupted and put Collins plans for northern parked. He was killed before he was able to pursue them further.

provisional Government

Michael Collins turns to an audience iCork on Saint Patrick’s Day, 1922nd

De Valera resigned the presidency and sought re-election but Arthur Griffith replaced him after a close vote on January 9, 1922. Griffith chose as his title “President of Dáil Éireann” (rather than “president” as de Valera had favored.)[75]

Dáil government still had no legal status in British constitutional law. The provisions of the Treaty requires the formation of a new government that would be recognized by Westminster related to Free State dominion which had been introduced by the Treaty.

Despite the resignation of a large part of the Dáil, the Provisional Government (Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann) was the new Free State formed with Arthur Griffith as President of Dáil and Michael Collins, chairman of the interim government cabinet (effectively the prime minister). Collins also retained its position as finance minister. [76]

In the British legal theory Collins was now a dime appointed Prime Minister of the Commonwealth government, installed under the royal prerogative. To be installed, he had to formally meet the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Viscount FitzAlan head of the British administration in Ireland. The Republican view of the meeting is that Collins met FitzAlan to accept the surrender of Dublin Castle, the official seat of the British government in Ireland. After having surrendered, FitzAlan still in place as viceroy until December 1922.

The Provisional Government’s first duty was to create a constitution for the Free State. This was done by Collins and a team of lawyers. The result of their work was the Irish Constitution in 1922. [77] Although revised in 1930, the current Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann [78] ) is roughly Collins work.

Collins drew up a republican constitution, but reject the Treaty would include nothing about the British king. His goal was that the Constitution would make it possible to participate in the Dáil by aberrant TDs who opposed the Treaty and refused to take any oath mention the crown.

The Treaty was the Free State is obliged to present its new constitution Westminster for approval. In doing so, in June 1922, Collins and Griffith found Lloyd George decided to veto the provisions that they had fashioned to prevent civil war. [79]

These meetings with Lloyd George and Churchill was bitterly disputed.Collins, albeit less diplomatic than Griffith, de Valera had no less penetrating understanding of policy issues. He complained that he was being manipulated to “make Churchill’s dirty work” of a potential civil war with their own former soldiers. [80] [81]

Val pact

Negotiations to prevent civil war resulted, inter alia, “The Army Documents” published in May 1922, signed by an equal number of pro- and anti-Treaty IRA officers including Collins, Dan Breen and Gearóid O’Sullivan. This manifesto declared that “closing of ranks around is necessary” to prevent “the greatest disaster in Irish history.” It called for new elections, to be followed by the reunion of the government and the army, whatever the outcome.

In this spirit and with the organizing efforts of the moderates on both sides Collins-de Valera “pact” was created. This pact agreed to new elections to Dáil would be held with each candidate running as expressly pro- or anti-Treaty and that, regardless of which side obtained a majority the two factions would join to form a coalition government of national unity.

A referendum on the Treaty also planned but it never took place. Valentina Pact on June 16, 1922 therefore includes the best quantitative data on the Irish public in direct response to the Treaty. The results were the pro-Treaty 58 seats, the anti-Treaty 35, the Labour Party 17, independent 7, Farmers Party 7, plus 4 active from Trinity College. [82]

The assassination of Sir Henry Wilson

This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged ochtas removed. (March 2016) (Read more about how and when to remove this template message)

Six days after the election of the Pact, Sir Henry Wilson was murdered June 22, 1922 in broad daylight on the stairs in his London home of a couple of London IRA men. A British army field marshal, Wilson had recently resigned his commission and been an MP for Northern Ireland. He had a long history as one of the top British leaders oppose Collins in the Irish conflict. At the time, Wilson had served as military adviser to the Northern Ireland government led avJames Craig, in which role he was considered responsible for the B Specials and other sources of loyalist violence in the north.

The order to shoot Wilson has been attributed to Irish leaders including Collins and Rory O’Connor, but with questionable authority. Although undoubtedly killed by two IRA men-who were captured and confessed-no one has ever taken responsibility for ordering the shooting. While Wilson had really been a potential target for Collins’ Squad “during the war of independence, all outstanding orders had summarily canceled when these forces stood down at the peace. O’Connor explicitly denied any involvement, as did the IRB on behalf of Collins and Arthur Griffith on behalf of the Provisional Government. No direct explanation seems to have been made on the subject by Collins during the two months he survived Wilson.

The debate on Collins commitment continued in the 1950s, when a number of statements and rebuttals on the subject were published in journals. These can be printed with the addition of Rex Taylor’s 1961 book, assassination, death, Sir Henry Wilson and tragedy in Ireland . The participants in the discussion was Joe Dolan, Florence O’Donoghue, Denis P. Kelleher, Patrick O’Sullivan and others. [83] [84]

civil War

Main article: Irish Civil War

Michael Collins gave the order to bomb the four courts with artillery shells in an attempt to remove Anti-treaty IRA. This would be the beginning of denirländska Civil War.

Death Sir Henry Wilson caused a furor in London. Powerful conservative voices who opposed any deal with the Irish rebels drowned out the moderates, with calls for a violent reaction. Under this pressure, Churchill issued an ultimatum demanding that the interim government quit the anti-Treaty occupation of the Four Courts or before a full-scale military invasion.[85]

A few days later, the anti-Treaty IRA men kidnapped JJ “Ginger” O’Connell, a Free State general. These two developments led to the Provisional Government June 27, 1922 for serving notice of the Four Courts garrison to surrender the building at night or face military action “at once”. [86]

Collins’ position in this conflict was really extraordinary. “A majority might” of the army he led the war was now ranged against the Free State, which he represented. In addition, the force of will of the voters, he had to lead had been reorganized since the peace. Formed by a core of pro-Treaty IRA men, it had evolved into a more formal, structured, uniformed national army that was armed and funded by the UK. Many of the new members were World War I veterans and others who had not fought on the Nationalist side before. It was now ten times greater than the force that had won independence, but populated with former British Army personnel. Collins deeply mixed feelings about this situation is recorded in his private and official correspondence. [87] [88] [88] [89] [90] [91]

Michael Collins, as Commander-in-Chief of deirländska national forces.

Artillery was submitted to Mulcahy and the Free State Army by the British in anticipation of a siege. Emmet Dalton, a former British officer Irish origin who was now a senior Free State captain and close associate of Collins, was placed in charge of it.

There is no definite record of who gave the order to begin shelling the Four Courts. Historians have simply assumed that it was Collins. There is only anecdotal evidence of how and when the ultimatum was served on the anti-Treaty garrison, if sufficient time were the four Courts men to surrender, or whether the shelling began rash while Garrison was read out his arms to leave the building. Further studies remains at this most critical event of 1922, which actually started the civil war in earnest. [91] [92]

Fierce fighting broke out in Dublin between the anti-Treaty IRA and the Free State troops. A large part of O’Connell Street suffered severe damage, were Gresham Hotel burned and Four Courts is reduced to a ruin. Still under the direction of Collins, Free State quickly took control of the capital. In July 1922 anti-Treaty forces held much of the southern province of Munster and several other parts of the country. At the height of his success administered the local authorities and the police in large areas. [93] Collins, Richard Mulcahy and Eoin O’Duffy decided on a series of seaborne landings in the Republican held areas, which again took Munster and the West in July August.

Also in July, Collins dedicate his title as President of the Provisional Government to become Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. [94]There is controversy about this change, especially considering the upcoming events: what, if anything, it said about his relationship with the government;what role, if any, change in government may have played in it; what context had any tragedy that followed. [91] [92]

Civil War peace initiative

There is much to suggest that Collins trip to Cork in August 1922 was made to meet Republican leaders in order to end the war. [95] [96] [97] In this case, it would explain a lot that remains mysterious journey .

The question of his participation in peace talks is debated by historians. It has ramifications for opposing political views about him and especially for his death. If this was a peace mission, it was without any record of official interference and sanctions from the Provisional Government Cabinet. But this is not necessarily in harmony with the general character of the peace negotiations in wartime. The first contacts with British negotiators had been “a dead secret,” even from many of his colleagues. [98] It was not unknown for Collins to make bold, controversial move at its own initiative. Private and personal correspondence shows that it was less than perfect confidence and friendliness between Collins and some members of the Dáil. There was considerable friction between the ministers of war and the treatment of anti-Treaty fighters. [99]

A remarkable number of meetings that included leading figures on both sides took place in Cork on 21 to 22 August 1922. [100] In Cork City, hit neutral IRA men Seán Collins O’Hegarty and Florence O’Donoghue in order to contact the anti-Treaty IRA leader Tom Barry and Tom Hales to propose a truce.Lateral anti-Treaty had called a large gathering of officers at Béal na Bláth, a remote crossroads, with the end of the war on the agenda. [101]

Michael Collins and Richard Mulcahy påArthur Griffith’s funeral, a few days before Collins own death.

De Valera was there, and his assistant reported that a meeting between him and Collins were planned. People’s Rights Association, a local initiative in Cork City had been mediating a discussion of terms between the interim government and the anti-Treaty side for a few weeks. [21] [102]

Fred Conditions were described in Collins correspondence and diary.Republicans would have to “accept the people’s verdict” on the Treaty but may then “go home without their weapons. We do not ask any surrender of their principles. “This suggests that Collins favored a policy of amnesty, without penalties. It is alleged that the anti-Treaty veterans of the Revolutionary War may be offered a choice to take their place either in the Free State army, the civil service, or even in covert operations against the para-militaries in the north. [103]

This is significant given the draconian policies, including execution without trial, sought by the Free State government following the death of Collins and Arthur Griffith within days of each other. The deaths of Collins and Griffith marked the end of the Free State efforts to reunify the victory of the War of Independence strengths through a negotiated settlement. [104]


Michael Collins’s body is in the hospital after he was shot to death at Béal na Bláth.

Collins’s death remain a mystery for a number of reasons. The only witnesses were the Free State Army members of his convoy ambushes and anti-Treaty. Since all these, the participants get their accounts not to be objective. No two witness match and many are contradictory. [105] There is no complete list of the persons involved and none of the witnesses were ever questioned by authorities. Their accounts have been passed down through newspapers, cinemas, private documents and personal contacts. One version suggests Collins was to meet De Valera and discuss ways to end the conflict. [Citation needed ]

The rest of this section shows only those facts most generally agree.Although some of these disputed in some sources.

In August 1922 appeared the Civil War to liquidate. Free State had regained control over most of the country and Collins made frequent trips to inspect the areas recently recovered from the anti-Treaty forces. [106]

Collins grave, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin

His plan to travel to his native Cork August 20 was considered particularly dangerous and he steadfastly advised against it by several trusted employees.County Cork was an IRA stronghold, much of it still held by anti-Treaty forces. But he seemed determined to make the journey without delay. He had fended of a number of attempts on his life in the previous weeks and had admitted more than once, in private conversation, that the civil war could end his life at any time. On several occasions, Collins assured his advisors “they will not shoot me in my own county,” or words to that effect.

On August 22, 1922 Collins indicated from Cork City on a meandering tour of West Cork. He passed first through Macroom then took Bandon road via Crooks. This led to Béal na Bláth an isolated crossroads. There ended up at a local pub, now known as The Diamond Bar, [107] to ask a question about a man who was standing in the intersection. The man turned out to be an anti-Treaty vaktpost.Han and an associate are recognized Collins in the back of the open car. [108]

As a result, it was an ambush through a column anti-Treaty at this time, on the chance that the convoy can come through again on his return. [109]

Between 07:30 and 08:00, Collins convoy approached Béal na Bláth for the second time. Since most of the ambush party had dispersed and gone for the day, leaving only five or six men on stage. Two were disarming a mine in the road, while three in a laneway with a view of them as a cover. A dray wagon, located across the street, remained at the far end of the ambush site.

Shot exchanged. Collins, who suffered a head wound, was the only fatality.Almost every detail of what happened in doubt due to conflicting reports from participants and other deficiencies in the record.

A copy of Crossley Tender Collins convoy on the day of his death in a replica of the road where it happened on display at the Michael Collins Centre, Clonakilty [110]

Some of the details most contentious among the witnesses are: the shooting started, what kind of fire convoy came under where ambushes “first shots hit where Collins was and what he did when he was hit, if anyone else was hurt, if the armored car’s machine gun were fully functional throughout the procedure, which moved Collins’s body, which was nearby when Collins fell.

Many questions have been raised regarding the handling of Collins remains immediately after his death. Among them are excessively long convoy took to cover the twenty miles back to Cork City, who searched his clothes, and what became of the document, he was known to have carried on his person (as his field diary, which did not appear up until decades later).

The medical evidence is also missing. There is imperfect records about which doctors examined the body; if an autopsy was performed, and if so, by whom; which hospital his body was transferred to, and why; and, most importantly, what was the exact number and nature of their injuries.

Author on the subject such as J. Feehan and SM Sigerson has demanded a full forensic examination of Collins’s remains to try to solve at least some of these controversies about its end. [111] [112]


Sean Collins behind the coffin of his brother Michael.

Collins’s body was transported by sea from Cork to Dublin. He lay in state for three days in Dublin City Hall where tens of thousands of mourners filed past his coffin to pay their respects, including the many British soldiers departing Ireland who had fought against him. His funeral mass took place at Dublin’s Pro Cathedral where a number of foreign and Irish dignitaries were present.Some 500,000 people attended his funeral, nearly a fifth of the country’s population at the time. [21]

No official inquiry ever undertaken in Collins’s death and therefore there is no official version of what happened, nor are there any authoritative, detailed contemporary records. [113]

Funeral of Michael Collins in the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin (contemporary newspaper’s depiction of the state funeral)

In this vacuum is independent investigations, and conspiracy theorists put forward a number of suspects have been carried out or ordered his death, including an anti-Treaty sharpshooter, members of his own escort, the British intelligence, or de Valera himself.

De Valera allegedly stated in 1966, “It is my considered opinion that in due course, history will record the greatness of Michael Collins ,. And it will be recorded at my expense ” [114]

A number of books have been devoted entirely to the study of Collins’s death (in chronological order): The day Michael was shot by Meda Ryan, shooting of Michael Collins: Murder or accident by John M. Feehan, the dark secret of Béal na Bláth by Patrick Twohig and murder of Michael Collins: What happened at Béal na Bláth? SM Sigerson.

Personal life

Collins on his bike.

Collins elderly father inspired his love and respect for older people. His mother, who had spent his youth to take care of their own invalid mother and raise their own brothers and sisters, was a strong influence. The entire management of the Collins estate fell to her that her husband succumbed to old age and died. In a society that honored hospitality prime virtue, Mrs. Collins was eulogized as “a hostess in ten thousand.” Her five daughters avowedly doted on his youngest brother. [9] [21]

Collins home the spirit of self-sacrifice, welcome and inclusion later turned the key in its ability to unite people of all genders and walks of life and orchestrate them in an effective, enthusiastic, cooperative force for Irish self-determination. [115] Collins revolution was also a family affair. He continued to work in close collaboration with his brothers throughout the struggle for independence and cousins Nancy O’Brien, one of his most important mole in the British administration. [21]

He was very much a “man’s man”, fond of rough housing and outdoor sports.After winning a local wrestling championship, while a boy, he is said to have made a pastime to challenge larger, older opponents, with frequent success.A very fit, active man throughout life, in the most stressful times, he continued to enjoy wrestling as a form of relaxation and valued friendship that provided opportunities to share athletic pursuits. [21]

Intense hard working, Collins could be abrasive, demanding and sometimes inconsiderate of those around him. But he often apologized for his own temperament, with gestures such as confectionery and other small gifts, sometimes delivered with great personal risk in Dublin wartime environment. [116] [117]

Unlike some of his political opponents, he is characterized by many close personal friends in the movement. It has been rightly said that while some were devoted to “the idea of Ireland”, Collins was a person whose patriotism was rooted in the love and respect of the people of Ireland around him.Among his famous last words, the last entry in his pocket diary, written in the trip that ended his life, “The people are brilliant.” [118] [119] [120]

His personal warmth and charm combined with an uncanny ability to create confidence in a wide range of people. No other Irish leaders of the time, matched his remarkable ability to recruit people of all kinds to movement, gaining their trust and loyalty, refining capacity and unite them in a coordinated effort which was the maximum value to the cause. [121]

Collins was a complex man whose character abounded in contradictions.The Minister of Finance and the auditor before the war occupation, he seems never to have exercised personal gain; indeed sometimes during the war all but hemlösa.Medan clearly fond of command and keen to take responsibility, he had a similar appetite for input and advice from people at all levels of the organization, which led to the comment that “he took advice from his driver . ” [122] Although acknowledged by friends and foes as” head center “of the movement, he chose constantly a title only briefly actual head of state; becomes president of the provisional government after the resignation of half the Dáil forced him to do it. While his official and personal correspondence register their anxious care for the wishes of the rebels in need, during the war, he showed no hesitation to order the death of opponents who threatened nationalist life. [123]

Surely a man of fierce pride, his pride is tempered by a sense of humor that included a strong sense of the absurdity of their situation. [124] Although the mastermind behind a secret military, he remained a public figure. When the official head of the Free State government, he continued to work in the IRA’s secret operations. He could bold, decisive action on its own initiative, which caused friction with his colleagues, his falling out with Cathal Brugha, for example; but at critical times, he may also bow to the majority who were deeply disadvantageous and dangerous to their interests (such as his appointment to the Treaty negotiating team.)

These can be contradictions in his character. But they are also contradictions unique position he held, in a time of social unrest, when the usual parameters and paradigms of society is in a state of change.

Relationships with women

Kitty Kiernan

Formative role of many strong, competent, loving women around him until a man who deeply respected women and thrived on the female companion of all ages. It is also manifested in sensitive, nurturing care to those he was responsible for. His appointment as aide-de-camp to the 1916 Rising organizer Joseph Plunkett, whose chronic health problems was a challenge to his presence at the GPO HQ, is a sign of these properties. Both his official correspondence, and countless personal memoirs record empathy and sensitivity in his personal account of the needs and hardships volunteers and their families. [21]

Collins lifetime coincides exactly with a period of aggressive, mass agitation for women’s rights. The women’s suffrage movement in Ireland was often closely associated with the campaign for Irish independence. Many proponents belonged to both camps. Full suffrage for women was enshrined in the 1916 notice, the legal foundation documents of the Republic of Ireland. This was the political climate Collins grew up and flourished. But he remained one of the few speakers of the time used the language gender inclusive in their speech and explicitly recognized women’s contributions and problems on a regular basis there. [125] [126]

Collins pioneer in the independence movement, Charles Stewart Parnell, was defeated by a sexual scandal. Collins detractors have sometimes tried to raise similar issues. He is reported to have sowed some wild oats during his teenage career in London [127] (albeit while living under the roof of an older sister) but no scandal about his sexual life has ever been substantiated.

Collins intimate relationship seems to have been no less healthy, powerful and well executed than other aspects of his life. His relationships with women were affectionate and gave no evidence either inexperience, excess or aberration. [128] [129]

At the same time, he said that never have been without female companionship. He carried on relationships and written correspondence with a number of women like Susan Killeen and “Dilly” Dicker, who also worked with him in positions of great trust in the struggle for independence.Their correspondence shows that they remained on friendly terms until the end of his life.

In 1921-1922, he became engaged to Kitty Kiernan and made plans for a normal family life after the war. 241 letters in their extensive correspondence survive. These are an important record not only of their intimacy, but also of his daily life. [130]

The letters detail his exhausting schedule during simultaneous national crisis and also document the challenges facing the couple to find time together under the circumstances. That way they do it is quite doubtful that he could have also paid great attention to additional links. Allegations of the deal (s) with English society women at the same time are unfounded, and filled with suspected political connotations. The related Hazel Lavery derives mainly to the lady herself, and not supported by evidence. [131]


Memorial cross at Béal na Bláth.

An annual memorial ceremony takes place every year in August at the ambush site at Béal na Bláth, County Cork, organized by Béal na Bláth brandsorted Committee. In 2009, former President of Ireland, Mary Robinson gave the oration. In 2010, Finance Minister Brian Lenihan, Jnr became the first Fianna Fáil person to give the oration. 2012 on the 90th anniversary of the death of Collins, the Prime Minister Enda Kenny gave the oration, the first serving head of government to do so.

There is also a memorial ceremony in Glasnevin cemetery at Collins’s grave on the anniversary of his death.

The Irish central bank released the gold and silver commemorative coins August 15, 2012, which is a portrait of Michael Collins designed by Thomas Ryan, based on a photograph taken not long before his death. [132]


Love Ireland by John Lavery.

Collins bequeathed to posterity the subject of extensive writing: essays, speeches and writings, articles and official documents in which he skisse plans for Ireland’s economic and cultural revival, and an extensive correspondence, both public and personal. Elections have been published inThe Road to Freedom (Mercier, 1968) and Michael Collins in his own words(Gill & Macmillan, 1997). In the 1960s, Prime Minister Seán Lemass, himself a veteran of the 1916 Rising and the war, the credit Collins ideas that form the basis for his success in revitalizing the Irish economy.


Collins 22 Society was founded in 2002 is an international organization to keep the name and legacy of Michael Collins in living memory. Patron of the Society is Ireland’s former Justice Minister Nora Owen and TD, grand-niece of Michael Collins.

In popular culture


Bust of Michael Collins at Merrion Square Park, Dublin, Ireland.

1936 The film beloved enemy is a fictional account of Collins lives. Unlike the real Michael Collins, the fictional “Dennis Riordan” (played by Brian Aherne) is shot, but recovers. Hang Up Your Brightest Colours , a British documentary by Kenneth Griffith, made for ITV in 1973, but refused transmission. It was finally screened by the BBC in Wales in 1993 and the UK the following year.

1969, Dominic Behan wrote an episode of the British TV series Play today entitled “Michael Collins. The play dealt Collins attempt to take the gun out of Irish politics and took the perspective Republican arguments. At the time of writing the script, the troubles had just begun in Northern Ireland and BBC were reluctant to broadcast production. An appeal by the author of David Attenborough (head of programming for the BBC at the time) resulted in the play finally sent; Attenborough considered the requirements of freedom of expression can not be compromised in the cause of political considerations.

An Irish documentary made by Colm Connolly for RTÉ Television in 1989 called The Shadow of Béal na Bláth covered Collins dead. A made for TV movie, The Treaty , was produced in 1991 and played Brendan Gleeson as Collins and Ian Bannen as David Lloyd George. In 2007 RTÉ produced a documentary titled Get Collins , intelligence war that took place in Dublin.[133] [134]

Collins was the subject of director Neil Jordan’s 1996 film Michael Collinswith Liam Neeson in the title role. Collins great-GRANDNEPHEW, Aengus O’Malley, played a student in a scene filmed in Marsh library.

In 2005 Cork Opera House commissioned a musical drama about Collins. [135]“Michael Collins” by Brian Flynn had a successful run in 2009, Cork Opera House and later at the Olympia Theatre in Dublin.

Infamous assassinations , a 2007 British documentary television series, devoted his third episode of the death of Collins.


Wax figure of Michael Collins at the National Wax Museum Plus, Dublin, Ireland.

Irish-American folk rock band Black 47 recorded a song titled “The Big Fellah” which was the first track on their 1994 album Home of the Brave . The details Collins’s career, from the Easter Rising to his death at Béal na Bláth.Irish folk band the Wolfe Tones recorded a song titled “Michael Collins” Collins life and death, even if it starts when he was about 16 and took a job in London. Celtic metal band Cruachan recorded a song also titled “Michael Collins” on their 2004 album Pagan dealt with his role in the Civil War, the Treaty and his eventual death. Also a song by Johnny McEvoy, simply named “Michael”, depicts Collins’s death and sadness surrounding his funeral.

The poem “laughing boy” by Brendan Behan lamenting the death of Collins was translated into Greek in 1961 by Vasilis Rotas. In October the same year, Mikis Theodorakis composed the song “To γελαστό παιδί” ( “The Laughing Boy”) by Rota’s “translation. The song was recorded by Maria Farantouri 1966 album “Ένας όμηρος” ( “The hostage”) and became an instant success. It was the soundtrack to the film Z (1969). “Laughing Boy” became the song of protest against the dictatorship in Greece (1967-1974) and is so far one of the most popular songs in the Greek popular culture.


Mary Kenny wrote a play Allegiance , a meeting between Winston Churchill and Michael Collins. The play was adapted for the stage in 2006 for the Edinburgh Festival Fringe with Mel Smith plays Winston Churchill and Michael Fassbender, a very large GRANDNEPHEW by Michael Collins, Michael Collins plays. [136] [137]


Collins appears as president and dictator of Ireland in the alternate history game modification “Kaiserreich: Legacy of Weltrieg” for Darkest Hour: A Hearts of Iron Game .

See also

  • F. Digby Hardy
  • Families in the Oireachtas
  • List of members of the Oireachtas imprisoned during the Irish revolutionary period
  • List of people on stamps of Ireland


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Michael Collins”. Oireachtas members Database.Hämtad1 June 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ “Evidence of an Irish politicians scruples on expenses … 1922” .The Irish Times. 8 November 2010. Archived from the original 14 November 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ Michael Collins: A Life , p.18, Mainstream Publishing (10 March 1997), ISBN 978-1851589494, [1]
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab Coogan, TP “Michael Collins” London; Arrow Books, 1991
  5. Jump up ^ “July 17, 1815 – Baptism of Father Michael Collins” (PDF).The church books on Irish Genealogy Site. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ “August 3, 1852 – Baptism of Michael Collins mother” (PDF) .Kyrkböcker on Irish Genealogy Site. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  7. Jump up ^ “February 26, 1876 – Marriage of Michael Collins parents” (PDF) .Kyrkböcker on Irish Genealogy Site. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  8. Jump up ^
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab memoires by Mary Collins-Powell and Sister Celestine (Helena Collins)
  10. Jump up ^ Michael Collins, personal correspondence October 1916
  11. Jump up ^ memoires by Mary Collins-Powell and Sister Celestine (Helena Collins); family correspondence, cousin Michael O’Brien in 1922
  12. Jump up ^ West Cork People issue August 22, 2002 p. 3
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Exploring Irish leaders youthful past – from the BBC
  14. Jump up ^ British Postal service Books, 1737-1969 Michael J Collins
  15. Jump up ^ Kings College London list of notable alumni
  16. Jump up ^ Mackay, James. Michael Collins: A Life . p. 38
  17. Jump up ^ Stewart, Anthony Terence Quincey. Michael Collins: The Secret File . p. 8
  18. Jump up ^ P46 James Alexander Mackay Michael Collins: A LifeMainstream Publishing, 1996
  19. Jump up ^ Clarke, Kathleen, “Kathleen Clarke: Revolutionary Woman” Dublin: O’Brien Press Ltd. 2008
  20. Jump up ^ Nancy O’Brien, cousin Michael Collins, quoted in Forester, Margery “The Lost Leader” London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1971
  21. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnopqrs Coogan, TP “Michael Collins” in 1990
  22. Jump up ^ Teiliflís Gaeltachta / Radio Éireann Teiliflía “An gCoilaiste Réabhloid” 2010
  23. ^ Jump up to: abc Feeney, Brian “Sinn Fein: a hundred turbulent years” Dublin; O’Brien Press Ltd., 2002
  24. Jump up ^ “Michael Collins”. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  25. Jump up ^ Mackay, p. 116
  26. Jump up ^ [2] Collins 22 Society Page on “The National Loan 1920”
  27. Jump up ^ [3] O’Connor, Batt “With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence” 2nd ed, Millstreet. Aubane Historical Society. (S87)
  28. Jump up ^ Breen, Dan “My struggle for Irish freedom” Dublin, Talbot Press 1924
  29. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  30. Jump up ^ Michael Collins, personal correspondence 1916-1917
  31. Jump up ^ Barry, Tom “Guerrilla Days in Ireland” Dublin, Irish Press 1949
  32. Jump up ^ Clarke, Kathleen “Kathleen Clarke: Revolutionary Woman” Dublin O’Brien Press Ltd. 2008
  33. Jump up ^ E O’Malley, “On another man’s wounds” (Dublin 1937)
  34. Jump up ^ Barry, Tom “Guerrilla Days in Ireland” Dublin, Irish Press 1949
  35. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence and Josephine “Florence and Josephine O’Donoghue’s War of Independence” Dublin, Irish Academic Press, 2006
  36. Jump up ^ Clarke, Kathleen “Kathleen Clarke: Revolutionary Woman” O’Brien Press 2008
  37. Jump up ^ Barry, Tom “Guerrilla Days in Ireland” Dublin, Irish Press 1949
  38. Jump up ^ Neligan, David “The Spy in the castle” London, Prendeville Publishing 1999
  39. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother against brother” Cork, Mercier 1982
  40. ^ Jump up to: ab Page at
  41. Jump up ^ Wilson Diaries, Vol II, p 293
  42. Jump up ^ Cabinet Office, (Westminster Government) London
  43. Jump up ^ British Cabinet minutes, 1921
  44. Jump up ^ LS Amery, my political life. Volume Two: War and Peace 1914-1929 (London: Hutchinson, 1953), p. 230.
  45. Jump up ^ Michael Collins, quoted by columnist CW Ackerman August 1920
  46. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  47. Jump up ^ Phoenix, Eamonn “Michael Collins – North Question 1916-1922” in “Michael Collins and The Making of the Irish State” (Doherty & Keogh, editors)
  48. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  49. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence “any other Act” Dublin, Irish Press 1954
  50. Jump up ^ Neligan, David “The Spy in the castle” London, Prendeville Publishing 1999
  51. Jump up ^ Coogan, Tim Pat. IRA: A History , p. 76
  52. Jump up ^ British cabinet minutes, memoranda
  53. Jump up ^ De Valera, Eamonn, equivalent to Michael Collins, 13 July 1921
  54. Jump up ^ O’Connor, Batt “With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence” in 1929
  55. Jump up ^ Mackay, p. 217
  56. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon “Michael Collins”
  57. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  58. Jump up ^ Phoenix, Eamonn “Michael Collins – North Question 1916-1922”, in “Michael Collins and The Making of the Irish State” (Doherty & Keogh, editors)
  59. Jump up ^ Collins, Michael “Road to Freedom” Cork, Mercier 1968
  60. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon “Michael Collins” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1980
  61. Jump up ^ Coogan, Michael Collins , pp. 236-276.
  62. Jump up ^ Debate on the treaty between the UK and Ireland … from University College Cork
  63. Jump up ^ provisional government minutes, the Public Records Office, Dublin
  64. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence “any other Act” Dublin, Irish Press, 1954
  65. Jump up ^ Fitzpatrick, David “Harry Boland Irish revolution” Cork, Cork University Press, 2003
  66. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence “any other Act” Dublin, Irish Press, 1954
  67. Jump up ^ Mulcahy paper UCD, Northern Division Intelligence Report October 26, 1921
  68. Jump up ^ Macready personal correspondence December 10, 1920
  69. Jump up ^ Taylor, Rex “Assassination” London; Hutchinson 1961
  70. Jump up ^ British Government Offices
  71. Jump up ^ MC official correspondence, 5 and 10 April 1922
  72. Jump up ^ Michael Collins letter to Churchill, June 6, 1922
  73. Jump up ^ British Cabinet minutes 16/42 Public Records Office, London
  74. Jump up ^ correspondence between Michael Collins and Winston Churchill in June 1922
  75. Jump up ^ Younger, Calton “Arthur Griffith” Dublin, Gill & Macmillan 1981
  76. Jump up ^ provisional government minutes, the Public Records Office, Dublin
  77. Jump up ^ The Constitution of the Irish Free State 1922http: //
  78. Jump up ^
  79. Jump up ^ Coogan, TP “Michael Collins”
  80. Jump up ^ provisional government minutes, the Public Records Office, Dublin
  81. Jump up ^ Michael Collins – Winsonn Churchill correspondence June 1922
  82. Jump up ^ Public Records Office, Dublin
  83. Jump up ^ Taylor, Rex “The murder: the death of Sir Henry Wilson and the tragedy of Ireland” (London 1961)
  84. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  85. Jump up ^ Taylor, Rex. Assassination London, Hutchinson, 1961
  86. Jump up ^ provisional government minutes, June 27, 1922, the Public Records Office, Dublin
  87. Jump up ^ Kissane, Bill. The Politics of Irish civil war ISBN 978-0-19-927355-3. page 77
  88. ^ Jump up to: ab Kee, Robert. The Green Flag: the turbulent history of the Irish national movement . ISBN 978-0-14-029165-0. p. 739
  89. Jump up ^ Garvin, Tom (2005) 1922: the birth of Irish democracy . Gill & Macmillan Ltd. p. 12
  90. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon. Michael Collins Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1980
  91. ^ Jump up to: abc Feehan, John M. shooting of Michael Collins: Murder or accident? Cork, Mercier 1981
  92. ^ Jump up to: ab Sigerson, SM assassination of Michael Collins: What happened at Béal na Bláth? Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  93. Jump up ^ Clarke, Kathleen. Kathleen Clarke: Revolutionary womanO’Brien Press, 2008
  94. Jump up ^ provisional government minutes, in July 1922, MC official and private correspondence, July 1922
  95. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  96. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  97. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Create Space / KDP 2013
  98. Jump up ^ Neligan, David “The Spy in the castle” London, Prendeville Publishing 1999
  99. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  100. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  101. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  102. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence “any other Act” Dublin, Irish Press, 1954
  103. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  104. Jump up ^ O’Donoghue, Florence “any other Act” Dublin, Irish Press, 1954
  105. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  106. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon “Michael Collins” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1980
  107. Jump up ^
  108. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  109. Jump up ^ Deasy, Liam “Brother to Brother”
  110. Jump up ^ Michael Collins Centre, Clonakilty
  111. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “KDP / create space in 2013
  112. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  113. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  114. Jump up ^ Dolan, Anne (2006). In memory of the Irish Civil War: History and Memory, 1923-2000. Studies in the social and cultural history of modern warfare. 13 . Cambridge University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-521-02698-7.
  115. Jump up ^ Osborne, Chrissy “Michael Collins himself” Cork, Mercier 2003
  116. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon “Michael Collins” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1980
  117. Jump up ^ Michael Collins personal correspondence
  118. Jump up ^ Michael Collins field diary, August 22, 1922
  119. Jump up ^ Barry, Tom “Guerrilla Days in Ireland” Dublin, Irish Press 1949
  120. Jump up ^ O’Connor, Batt “With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence” in 1929
  121. Jump up ^ Osborne, Chrissy “Michael Collins himself” Cork, Mercier 2003
  122. Jump up ^ Neligan, David “The Spy in the castle” London, Prendeville Publishing 1999
  123. Jump up ^ Collins, Michael (Costello, Francis J., ed.) “Michael Collins, in his own words,” Dublin, Gill & Macmillan, 1997
  124. Jump up ^ Michael Collins personal correspondence
  125. Jump up ^ McCoole, Sinead “no ordinary women: Irish women activists in the revolutionary years 1900-1923” Dublin, O’Brien Press 2008
  126. Jump up ^ Collins, Michael (Costello, Francis J., ed.) “Michael Collins, in his own words,” Dublin, Gill & Macmillan, 1997
  127. Jump up ^ Coogan, Tim Pat, Michael Collins
  128. Jump up ^ Ryan, MEDA “Michael Collins and the women in his life” Cork, Mercier Press 1996
  129. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  130. Jump up ^ O’Bróin, Leon “in haste: the letters of Michael Collins and Kitty Kiernan” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1996
  131. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  132. Jump up ^
  133. Jump up ^, “Get Collins”
  134. Jump up ^, “Get Collins”
  135. Jump up ^ Cork Opera House
  136. Jump up ^ Interview with Fassbender
  137. Jump up ^ OnstageScotland “Allegiance”


  • Llewellyn, Morgan (2001). In 1921. Thomas Doherty Press.
  • Beaslai, Piaras (1926). Michael Collins and The Making of New Ireland.Dublin Phoenix.
  • Bradford, Martin J. (2003). “The Charity of Silence”. AuthorHouse.Historical / fictional account of the life and times of Michael Collins.ISBN 1-4107-0641-9.
  • Collins, Michael (1922). The road to freedom. Dublin: Talbot Press.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1990). Michael Collins: A Biography.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (2002). Michael Collins: The man who made Ireland.Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29511-1.
  • Deasy, Liam (1992). Brother against brother. Mercier.
  • Doherty, Gabriel (1998). Michael Collins and The Making of the Irish State. Mercier.
  • Dwyer, T. Ryle (1999). Big Fellow, Longfellow: A joint biography of Collins and De Valera. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 0-7171-4084-9.
  • Dwyer, T. Ryle (2005). The squad and intelligence operations by Michael Collins. Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-469-5.
  • Feehan, John M. (1981). The recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident? . Mercier.
  • Feeney, Brian (2002). Sinn Féin: A hundred turbulent years. O’Brien Press.
  • . Hart, Peter (2007) Mick: The Real Michael Collins. Penguin.
  • McDonnell, Kathleen Keyes (1972). “There is a bridge in Bandon: a personal account of the Irish War of Independence”. Cork and Dublin.
  • Mackay, James (1997). Michael Collins: A Life. Mainstream Publishing.ISBN 1-85158-857-4.
  • Neligan, David (1999). The spy in the castle. Prendeville Publishing Ltd.
  • Neeson, Eoin (1968). The Life and Death of Michael Collins. Cork.
  • O’Broin, Leon (1983). In great haste: The letters of Michael Collins and Kitty Kiernan. Gill and MacMillan.
  • O’Connor, Batt (1929). With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence. London: Peter Davies.
  • O’Connor, Frank (1965). The Big Fellow Michael Collins and the Irish Revolution. Clonmore & Reynolds.
  • O’Donoghue, Florence (1954). No other law. Irish Press.
  • O’Donoghue, Florence (2006). Florence and Josephine O’Donoghue Irish revolution. Irish Academic Press.
  • Osborne, Chrissy (2003). Michael Collins himself. Mercier.
  • Regan, John M. (2012). “The” Bandon Valley Massacre “as a historical problem.” History 97th
  • Sigerson, SM (2013). The assassination of Michael Collins: What happened at Béal na Bláth? . Kindle Direct Publishing.
  • Stewart, Anthony Terence Quincey (1997). Michael Collins: The Secret File. The University of Michigan. ISBN 0-85640-614-7.
  • Talbot, Hayden (1923). Michael Collins own history. London: Hutchinson.
  • Taylor, Rex (1958). Michael Collins. Hutchinson.
  • Young, Calton (1968). Ireland Civil War. London.


Kinsale (/ k ɪ ns eɪ l /; Irish: Cionn tSáile ) is a historic port and fishing village in County Cork, Ireland, which also has significant military history. Located about 25 km south of Cork Cityvid coast near the Old Head of Kinsale, it sits at the mouth of the River Bandon and has a population of 2257, [ citation needed ] , which increases significantly during the summer months when the tourist season is at its peak and when the boating fraternity arrives in large amount.Kinsale in Cork South-West (Dáil Éireann) constituency, which has five seats.

Kinsale is a popular holiday resort for Irish and foreign tourists. [1] Leisure activities include sailing, sea fishing and golf. The city also has several art galleries and a school in English. The city is compact with a quaint air antiquity in the narrow streets. There is a large marina close to the center.

The city is known for its restaurants, and has an annual “Gourmet Festival”.Chef Keith Floyd was a former resident of Kinsale. [2]

The cities of Community School has been awarded “Best school in Ireland” twice. [ Citation needed ]

Prominent historical buildings in the city include St. Multose Church (Church of Ireland) in 1190, John the Baptist (Catholic) in 1839, the market house c. 1600 and the so-called French Prison (or Desmond Castle – see the Earls of Desmond, prominent in the history of Munster) in c. 1500. Charles Fort, a partially restored star fort in 1677, is near Summercove. See also

On 8 October 2005, Kinsale Ireland second Fairtrade Town of Clonakilty is the first.


1333, under a charter granted by King Edward III of England, the Corporation was Kinsale established to implement the local authorities in the city. [7] The company existed for over 500 years until the passing of municipal corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 when the municipalities in Kinsale was transferred to the town Commissioners who had been in the city since 1828. the town Commission became Kinsale Council under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Kinsale town Council existed until 2014, when this layer of the municipalities were abolished in Ireland as part of measures to reduce Ireland budget deficits as a result of the financial crisis 2008-2010 (see Post-2008 Irish economic downturn). There were two members of the Irish house before its abolition in 1800.

Kinsale had important links with Spain. In 1518 Archduke Ferdinand, later Emperor Ferdinand I, paid an unscheduled visit to the city, when one of his staff wrote a remarkable due to its inhabitants. In 1601 a Spanish military expedition – the last of Armada – landed in Kinsale. As a result of the Battle of Kinsale took place at the end of nine years of war in which the English forces led by Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy defeated a rebel Irish force, led by Prince Hugh Roe O’Donnell and Hugh O’Neill, who was allied with the forces of the Spanish Empire of Philip III of Spain and Portugal. [8] After this battle Flight of the Earls occurred where a number of the native Irish aristocrats, including the Earls of Tyrone and Tir Conaill, abandoned his country and fled to the European mainland. Shortly after the battle, James Fort was built to protect the harbor.

In 1649 Prince Rupert of the Rhine explained Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland on St. Multose Church in Kinsale at the hearing of the execution of Charles I in London by the Honourable forces during the English Civil War (see also http: // bcw- / third-civil-war / Prince Rupert-voyages / Kinsale ~~ V about Prince Rupert and his fleet of Kinsale).

Charles Fort, located at Summer Cove and dating from 1677 in the reign of Charles II, is a bastion -Fort which guards the entrance to Kinsale Harbor. It was built to protect the area and especially the port from the use of the French and Spanish in the event of a landing in Ireland. James Fort, which dates from the reign of James I, is on the other side of the bay, the castle peninsula. An underwater chain used to be strung between the two forts over the harbor mouth during times of war to rush the enemy shipping by tore the bottoms of the incoming ships.

1690, James II of England (James VII of Scotland) and Ireland resigned to France from Kinsale, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne by William III of England (also governor William III of the House of Orange-Nassau) efterärorika Revolution (or Revolution of 1688 ) in England against the background of the war involving France under Louis XIV.

From 1694 Kinsale served as a supply base for the Royal Navy ship in the South of Ireland, and a number of warehouses were built; it was limited to smaller vessels, however, because of the sandbar at the mouth of the river. [9] The English privateer Captain Woodes Roger mentions Kinsale in the memoirs of his 1708 expedition; In particular, he mentions a couple of blocks called “the Sovereigne’s Bollacks”. He does not mention if it is a local name or application of the maritime community. [10] Kinsale’s marina importance declined after the Royal Navy moved its provisioning center from Kinsale to Cork Harbour in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars between France First Empire.

When the RMS Lusitania was sunk by a U-boat in the German Empire May 7, 1915 during the First World War, some of the bodies and survivors were transferred to Kinsale and the subsequent inquest on the bodies recovered was held in the city’s courthouse. [11] A statue in the harbor in memory of effort. Lusitania Memorial is Casement Square Cobh, east of Cork city.


Bus Eireann provides Kinsale main means of public transport. Buses run regularly from Kinsale to Cork City, with most of these stops at Cork Airport on the way. Kinsale and Bandon connected by public transport with a bus provided by the East Cork rural transport.

Transition movement

Kinsale is the first Transition Town in Ireland. It is a community-based group, supported by Kinsale Town Council. It looks for sustainable solutions to the challenges of peak oil and climate change. Public meetings are held the third Thursday of each month. It has taken a lot of guidance from the Kinsale Energy Descent Action Plan 2021, which has given rise to additional transition movement worldwide. [12]

Sports and community groups

The Saile sports and leisure center is located opposite the Kinsale Community School overlooking the Bandon River. The Saile Sports & Community Centre Project is an initiative of KRD Community Association, a nonprofit athletic body composed of local activists committed to improving the lives of residents in Kinsale and its surroundings. [13]

Phase 1 includes four x 5-a-side all-weather places, tennis court, basketball court and community garden opened by President Mary McAleese in October 2010.

Phase two will be the Sport and Community Centre. This will include an indoor sports / community center, locker rooms and community meeting room with a kitchenette.

Kinsale Yacht Club (KYC) opened in 1950 and today has become a lively sailing club with events for all ages of sailors and social activities throughout the year. Junior sailing includes Optimists, Lasers and 420s. There squib, International Dragon and A-Class catamarans and Cruiser three classes (class I, II and III). [14]

Kinsale Rugby Football Club recently celebrated its 25th anniversary. [15] It has a strong minor system [ citation needed ] , a women’s team and competitive squad of players in both the first and second junior male team. [ Citation needed ]

Kinsale GAA club plays in Carrigdhoun division of Cork GAA. [16] They won the Cork County Intermediate Football Championship 2011, the first time since 1915.

Kinsale Badminton [17] club affiliated with Badminton Ireland is based in St. Multose Hall Kinsale. It caters to both adults and young players and teams in Cork county leagues and cups.

Kinsale branch of the Red Cross has been around since 1939 and is staffed by volunteers, who are present at local events and activities – including the annual Kinsale Sevens by the Sea. Rugby event [18] The office has two ambulances that are housed in a purpose-built building in Church Lane and staffed by trained volunteers.

Kinsale regularly does well in the Irish Tidy Towns competition and was the overall winner of the 1986th


Kinsale hosts an annual jazz festival, which takes place during the last weekend of October. Many pubs and hotels in the city hosting concerts with jazz and blues groups throughout the weekend, including Monday (which is a holiday in Ireland). [19] [20]

Government and politics

The city is governed by nine member Kinsale Town Council. As of the 2009 elections, the Council had two members each from the Fianna Fáil (center right), Fine Gael (center right), and the Workers Party (center left) and a member of Sinn Fein (left side), the Green Party (center left) and a independent . The current mayor is Tony Cierans (Labour). The town is part of the Bandon constituency of Cork County Council and is part of the Cork South-West constituency for Dáil elections.

Twin towns – Sister cities

Kinsale is twinned with:

  • Newport, Rhode Island, United States [21]
  • Mumbles, Wales, United Kingdom [22]
  • Portofino, Italy
  • Antibes, France


The largest planned development of 2.9 hectares, close to the historic center is restarted Convent Garden schemes promoted by Cumnor Construction since the early 2000s (Cork County Council planning application 04/53026 see /211819.htm). This means a combination of conversion of austere gray rendered concrete former St. Joseph’s convent of the Sisters of Mercy on the Ramparts Lane in 79 apartments and build on the land 94 new build houses, with 295 car spaces, according to Bord Pleanála inspectors report in 2005. After several years of inactivity, work to build more of the new units was resumed in 2015, after a planning site communication of December 2014. [23] See also Ud3TvygE, a YouTube presentation system, developer and construction company.

During a period in 2007-9, an approximately 18,000 square meters of hotel, apartment and retail development promoted by Fuschia Investments Limited, a company linked to the Howard Holdings plc for prominent place near the tourist office between Pier Road and Long Quay (planning register reference number: 04/53030) – see Scott Tallon Walker Architects carried out a design study for the development < /project-information.php?p=04098&t=i>.But by 2011 the place had returned to its use as a surface parking lot. The potential system now seems to be controlled by Clowater Asset Management Limited, Cork.

People from or in connection with Kinsale

  • Jack Barrett (1910-1979), All-Ireland winning hurler; Born in Kinsale
  • Margaret Barrington (1896-1982), writer and journalist; lived in Kinsale
  • Anne Bonny (1702-1782), female pirate; born near Kinsale
  • Edward Bowen (1780-1866), Canadian judges and lawyers; Born in Kinsale
  • Sister Mary Francis (Joanna Bridgeman) (1813-1888), a nun and nursing pioneer; lived in Kinsale
  • Paddy Collins (1903-1995), All-Ireland winning Hurler; Born in Kinsale
  • Patrick Cotter O’Brien (1760-1806), checked the first man to have reached over eight feet in height; Born in Kinsale
  • John Duncan Craig (1830-1909), poet and Church of Ireland clergyman;lived in Kinsale
  • Ray Cummins (1948-present), All-Ireland winning Hurler; lives in Kinsale
  • Achilles Daunt (1832-1878), Church of Ireland clergyman; Born in Kinsale
  • Moira Deady (1922-2010), actor; lived in Kinsale
  • James Dennis, 1st Baron Tracton (1721-1782), Irish judges and politicians; born near Kinsale
  • Eileen Desmond (1932-2005), TD, Senator and State Council; Born in Kinsale
  • Conor Fallon (1939-2007), sculptor and son Padraic; lived in Kinsale
  • Padraic Fallon (1905-1974), poet; lived in Kinsale
  • John William Fenton (1828-1890), musician; Born in Kinsale
  • Keith Floyd (1943-2009), President; lived near Kinsale
  • John FOLLIOT (1691-1762), British army officer; Deputy Governor in Kinsale
  • Robert Gibbings (1889-1958), artist and writer; lived in Kinsale
  • Sister Mary Scholastica (Geraldine Gibbons) (c. 1817-1901), the founder of the Sisters of the Good Samaritan, born in Kinsale
  • John Handcock (1755-1786), British army officer; Deputy Governor in Kinsale
  • Aidan Higgins (1927-2015), poet; lived in Kinsale
  • Ron Holland (1947-present), yacht designer; lives in Kinsale
  • Thomas Johnson (1872-1963), the first leader of the Irish Labour Party in Dáil Éireann, lived in Kinsale
  • Ciara judges, Emer Hickey, and Sophie Healy-Thow (1998 -) All at the age of 16 -. 2014 Grand Prix Winner of the Google Science Fair, the first ever major prize winners from a lower age group [24]
  • John-Edward Kelly (1840-1884), Protestant nationalist and Fenian; Born in Kinsale
  • Reef. Patrick MacSwiney (1885-1940), Catholic lecturer in Kinsale 1927-1940, founder of Kinsale Museum, vocational school, Development Association, Fisheries Association, the National Monuments Committee, Kinsale Historical Society
  • Derek Mahon (1941-present), Northern Irish poet; lives in Kinsale
  • Mortimer and Timothy McCarthy (c 1878-1967 and 1888-1917.), Antarctic explorers on Scott’s 1911 expedition; Born in Kinsale
  • Peter McDermott (1918-2011), All-Ireland winning footballer County Meath; born near Kinsale
  • Cormac Ó Cadhlaigh (1884-1960), Celticist; Born in Kinsale
  • Arthur O’Connor (1763-1852), President of the United Irishmen and a general in Napoleon’s armies; lived near Kinsale
  • Desmond O’Grady (1935-2014), poet; lives in Kinsale
  • John Fergus O’Hea (c 1838-1922.); political cartoonist aka “Spex”; Born in Kinsale
  • Timothy O’Keeffe (1926-1994), publisher who worked with Flann O’Brien; Born in Kinsale
  • Eamonn O’Neill (1882-1954) Kinsale businessman and politician
  • Gervais Parker (1695-1750), British army officer; Governor in Kinsale
  • William Penn (1644-1718), the founder of Pennsylvania, was clerk of the Admiralty Court in Kinsale
  • Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), poet and playwright; lived in Kinsale
  • Sir Robert South (1635-1702), diplomat, Secretary of State for Ireland and President of the Royal Society, was born near Kinsale
  • John Sullivan (1830-1884), recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Joseph Ward (1832-1872), British soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross; Born in Kinsale
  • Finbar Wright (1957-present), tenor; born near Kinsale
  • Nancy Wynne-Jones (1922-2006), painter; lived in Kinsale


  • on the quay
  • port
  • Market House (around 1600)

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Kinsale (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Old Head of Kinsale


  1. Jump up ^ “On Census Day, April 23, 2006”. Ireland News: Top Story.Irish Times. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009. Irish Times, July 1, 2008
  2. Jump up ^ Davenport, F.; Charlotte, Beech; Downs, T; Hannigan, D;Parnell, F; Wilson, N (2006). Lonely Planet Ireland. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74059-968-3.
  3. Jump up ^ “Online Historical Population Reports website.” University of Essex. In 2007. Taken 28/04/2014.
  4. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘. 2010-09-27. Pulled 04/28/2014.
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ addition to the first report …: Southern, Midland, Western and Southern … – Great Britain. Commission of the municipal companies in Ireland. Google Books. Pulled 04/28/2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “Kinsale then and now.” West Cork Travel. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  9. Jump up ^ Coad, Jonathan (2013). Support for Fleet Engineering and Architecture of the Royal Navy bases 1700-1914. Swindon, UK: English Heritage.
  10. Jump up ^ “Privateer: Life aboard a British privateer in the time of Queen Anne 1708-1711”.
  11. Jump up ^ “Kinsale”. Eircom. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  12. Jump up ^ Lawrence, Felicity (7 April 2007). “Article on transitional movement.” London: The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ “Saile Sport and leisure”. Saile sport and leisure. Retrieved 29 October, 2013.
  14. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Yacht Club.” Retrieved 29 October, 2013.
  15. Jump up ^ “Kinsale RFC”. Kinsale RFC. January 18, 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ “Kinsale GAA Club ‘. Kinsale GAA. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  17. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Badminton Club ‘. Pulled nine September 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Red Cross – About us”. Kinsale Red Cross. Archived from the original January 16, 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  19. Jump up ^ “Something for the weekend – Kinsale”. The Independent.October 22, 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  20. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Jazz Festival”. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  21. Jump up ^ “Useful Links for Visitors: Sister Cities”. City of Newport.Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  22. Jump up ^ “The Mumbles Reporter”. February 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  23. Jump up ^ “Kinsale monasteries systems reduced to 96 homes.” Irish Examiner. 23 April 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  24. Jump up ^
  25. Jump up ^ Hiram Morgan, Ireland 1518: Archduke Ferdinand visit to Kinsale and Dürer Connection (Cork, 2016)

Mizen Head

Mizen Head (Irish: Carn Uí Neid ), located on the end of a peninsula in the district of Carbery in County Cork, Ireland. It is one of the extreme points on the island of Ireland and is a major tourist attraction, known for its dramatic rocky landscape. One of the main transatlantic shipping lanes pass close to the south, and the Mizen Head was for many sailors, the first (or last) view of Europa.Spetsen on the peninsula is almost an island, cut off by a deep gorge, now spanned by a bridge; This gives access to an old signaling station, a weather station and a lighthouse. The signal station, once permanently manned, is now a museum housing displays relating to the site’s strategic importance to transatlantic shipping and communications, including pioneering efforts of Guglielmo Marconi. The “99 steps”, which was included in the original access road has been supplemented by a series of paths and viewing platforms, and a full range of visitor facilities available at the entrance to the site. The villages of Ballydehob, Crookhaven, Goleen, Schull and located on the peninsula in the east.

Mizen Head is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland; nearby Brow Head holds that title. Nevertheless, geography books long measured the length of Ireland “from Fair Head to Mizen Head” [1] or “from Malin Head to Mizen Head. [2]



  • 1See also
  • 2Hänvisar to
  • 3Källor
  • 4Externa links

See also 

  • Malin to Miz
  • Carbery’s Hundred Isles
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ Robert Johnson, the competitive Geography (1877), p. 170
  2. Jump up ^ William Hughes and John Williams, “A Class-Book of Modern Geography” (1885), p. 78


Trading in Youghal varied considerably. In 1753 no imported corn, flour, salt or flour in Youghal from March to November of the same year. In 1754, exports were 65 quarters of beans. 1755 saw the export of 214 quarters of barley and 70 quarters of beans. Exports in 1756 were 450 quarters of barley, 45 barrels of oatmeal and imports were 6 barrels of beer. In 1757, exports were 495 quarters of oats, 20 barrels of oatmeal and imports were 11.25 barrels of beer. Works had begun at this time to improve navigation on the Blackwater (1755) and a petition had been sent to the Parliament to open routes from Lismore, Cappoquin and Youghal Clogheen.

In 1762, a French privateer six ships near the port. The commander landed 24 passengers on the island of Bally and took the rest with him as recruits for the Colonel Owens regiment. The cutter Expedition was sent in pursuit, but did not come up with them. By 1780 wool combine the operations are conducted with great spirit in Youghal, where the Annals [ citation needed ] tell “great fortunes were realized.” Exports from Youghal was extensive in 1781, with more than oats exported from any other port in Ireland. Nealson Quay was built and launched the following year. Grattan Street was opened along the quay that had embanked.

In 1833, nine vessels and 440 colliers into the harbor. In 1834 there were 250 fishing boats in the harbor employs 2,500 men. The salmon was plentiful and sold for 1½d per pound weight. After many years of discussion and feasibility testing, the steamer Star started operating on the Blackwater in June 1843. It was hoped to open Blackwater would reduce trade costs by Lismore, Fermoy, Mallow and Mitchelstown. On an objection by the Duke of Devonshire – who owned dam at Lismore – and a few other men, the river was not open outside of Lismore, and so steamer service ceased in 1850. The following year Youghal Fisheries District had 574 registered vessels employing 2,786 men. This was a decrease of 112 boats and 532 men since in 1845.

From the 18th century onwards, Youghal suffered much the same fate as near Ardmore as ships became larger, they could not enter in Youghal Harbour because of a shallow sandbar at its mouth.

A cross-river passenger ferry went from Youghal to the opposite side of the harbor. The ferry capsized September 30, 1876 and 14 people died. 1882 decision of the House of Lords established claims to the Duke of Devonshire to exclusive fishing rights to the River Blackwater and Youghal Bay out to Capel Island. Duke’s claim was based on a grant awarded to Sir Walter Raleigh Elizabeth I, which he sold shortly thereafter to the Boyle family.

In the 1950s, most of the exterior shots of the “New Bedford” in John Huston’s film adaptation of Moby Dick was filmed in Youghal, like New Bedford itself had changed too much in the intervening century to be used for this purpose.

21st Century

Youghal was previously a strong manufacturing town, but Ireland’s economic success since the mid-1990s, largely bypassing the city and the infrastructure deficit is a major obstacle to its growth. [5] In April 2011 it was reported that all the city’s major factories had closed during the last decade, at least 2,000 people unemployed and the unemployment rate is approaching 20% were young people who leave in search of work and workers commuting long distances from Youghal to Cork and Waterford. [6]with revenues and service jobs away from the city center shops. [7]

The focus of the volunteers, companies and statutory bodies in the city were put into promoting Youghal as a tourist destination, with emphasis on the three sandy Blue Flag beaches, its history and its natural resources, [5] which makes it a beloved place for family holidays.

Youghal declared Cork’s tidiest town in 2011 IBAL anti-litter league (run in conjunction with the Ministry of the Environment) and the 7th cleanest city in Ireland. [8]

Government and politics

The city is governed by nine members Youghal Town Council. As of the 2009 elections, the Council had three members from Fianna Fáil, two each from Sinn Féin and Fine Gael and one each from the Labour Party and the Green Party. The current mayor is Eoin Coyne from Fianna Fáil. The city is part of Midleton constituency of Cork County Council and is part of the Cork East constituency for Dáil elections.

Notable people

Walter Raleigh, Mayor of Youghal, avNicholas Hilliard, c.1585.

  • Sir Walter Raleigh was the mayor of Youghal in 1588 and 1599 and lived at Myrtle Grove, Warden’s residence in the Collegiate Church. “As part of a group of entrepreneurial soldiers and administrators to form the new British government in Munster. These men arrive in Ireland at a time when the English royal administration reasserting its power in Munster efterdesmondupproren. A great sea change took place with the exchange of the Gaelic dominion economy with a market-style English economy. ” [9]
  • Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, 1st Viscount Dungarvan, 1st Baron Boyle of Youghal, Lord High Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland (but only known as the Great Earl of Cork). (1566-1643) “Boyle is closely associated with the history of Youghal, buy the city as part of its acquisition of Munster estate of Sir Walter Raleigh” [9] had a substantial residence at Youghal, known today as “The College”, near St Mary’s Collegiate Church.
  • The Countess of Desmond (died 1604), who lived nearby Finisk Castle is said to have fallen to her death at the age of 140, while the harvest cherries from a tree. She is said to be buried with her husband in a Franciscan Friary in Youghal.
  • Florence Newton (fl. 1661) was an alleged witch, known as the “Witch of Youghal.” Her study is described as one of the most important examples of Irish witch trials.
  • William Cooke Taylor (16 April 1800 – 12 September 1849), writer, journalist, historian and anti-Corn Law propagandist. Born in Youghal, died at 20 Herbert Street, Dublin.
  • Abraham Dowdney (1841-1886), a US Representative from New York, as well as an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War was born in Youghal.
  • William Spotswood Green (1847-1919), naturalist.
  • Journalist Claud Cockburn and his wife Patricia, artist, conchologist and travelers, lived in Raleigh house in the city, Myrtle Grove, for many years. He described Youghal memorably as “standing on a slight angle to the universe.”
  • The author William Trevor spent part of his early years in Youghal, and presented the city in his novel Memories from Youghal .
  • In 1954, director John Huston filmed part of Moby Dick which, with the city which is in New Bedford. A pub in the town bears the name of the movie. [10]
  • Eddie O’Sullivan was Ireland rugby coach in December 2001, replacing Warren Gatland and resigned in March 2008. He had previously coached Connacht, and was involved in the American Eagles coaching set up medGeorge Hook in the early 1990s, and returned as Head Coach in 2008.
  • Christy Cooney was appointed Chairman of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in in 2009.
  • Davy Russell – National Hunt racing jockey.
  • Will Hanafin – journalist, radio personality.


Youghal adjoins a number of fine beaches, including the famous 5km long beach west of the city. In 2011 Youghal three beaches, Front Beach, Clay Castle and Redbarn, awarded blue flags for water cleanliness and availability of facilities. [11] Ballyvergan Marsh, the largest freshwater coastal marshes in County Cork who hold important plant and bird species, extends along the Clay Castle Beach and on to Redbarn Beach.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Youghal a popular seaside resort, with thousands taking the train to the beach. Many tourists are attracted by its historic buildings and nature. The city is rich in history and was once one of the busiest ports in the country, even more important than Cork and Dublin at once. With the closure of the railway in the 1970s (see Irish railway history), Youghal went into a period of decline, exacerbated by the difficulties that its textile industry. Since the 1990s, with the help of favorable property tax relief, there has been a significant re-investment and construction to restore Youghal facilities and popularity.

Amenities in Youghal include an 18 hole golf course, lighted tennis courts, GAA locations, football fields, 18-hole short course, rugby seats, greyhound racing, indoor family entertainment center with bowling, laser and a soft play area for children, squash and badminton courts, a leisure center with pool , gym, art galleries, a snooker club, a birdwatching hide on Ballyvergan Marsh, and a museum.

According to an A to Z Youghal: history and people Eochaill , Sir Arthur Conan Doyle vacationed in Youghal with his wife and created the character of Inspector Youghal of the CID The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone. [12]


  • Cork Airport is the nearest airport in the region and is located 54 km from Youghal.
  • Bus Eireann operate a regular service from Youghal to Cork and Cork to Youghal (timetable on Bus Eireann – Youghal – Cork – Youghal timetable)
  • Youghal railway station opened on 1 May 1860 and closed to passenger 4 February 1963 for goods August 30, 1982. [13]


Youghal International College is located in Youghal.

Photo Gallery

  • Tynte castle
  • Youghal Town Walls
  • Myrtle Grove
  • Clock Gate from Barry Lane
  • St Marys Collegiate Church
  • Collegiate Church behind
  • Water Gate, also known as Cromwell’s Arch
  • city Hall

See also

  • Cork
  • Strancally Castle
  • Youghal lace
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Youghal (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Youghal Priory
  • North Abbey, Youghal
  • South Abbey, Youghal


  1. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  2. Jump up ^
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^ Flood, William H. Grattan (1899). “The University of Lismore” (PDF) .Tidning Waterford and the South East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Waterford. V 12. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “an integrated approach to Youghal 2008-2012 development”. Youghal Socio-Economic Development Group Ltd. Archives from the original (PDF) of 25 October 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ Carl O’Brien (2 April 2011). “How do you fix a broken city?”.The Irish Times.
  7. Jump up ^ Siobhan Tanner (3 June 2008). “Youghal struggling with globalization” Archived from the original October 25, 2011.
  8. Jump up ^
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab “The families of Tynte castle”. Daniel McCarthy and family. Hämtad26 October 2011.
  10. Jump up ^
  11. Jump up ^
  12. Jump up ^ “Youghal of the CID”
  13. Jump up ^ “Youghal station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad25 November 2007.

Saint Fin Barre ‘s Cathedral

St Fin Barre’s Cathedral  (Irish:  Ardeaglais Naomh Fionnbarra  ) is a cathedral of the Church of Ireland in Cork City, Ireland. It is in the ecclesiastical province of Dublin. Begun in 1863, the cathedral was the first major work of Victorian architect William Burges. Former Cathedral of the Diocese of Cork, it is now one of three cathedrals in the Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross.

History and architecture

The current cathedral was built on the site of at least two earlier structures intended for Finbarr of Cork.  [1]  The first dated from the 7th century,  [2] [3] with works continuing through the 12th century.  [4]  This building was damaged during the siege of Cork (1690),  [5]  and a new structure was built in 1735 -. even if parts of the former spire was kept  [6] 

This structure remained until 1860, when a competition to build a new larger cathedral was held in 1862. In February 1863, the design of architect William Burges was declared the winner of the competition to build a new Cathedral of St Fin Barre.  [7]  His diary records his reaction –  “! Got Cork “  – while the cathedral accounts register payment of the winning prize of £ 100  [7] Construction work took seven years before the first service was held in the cathedral in 1870th Building, carving and decoration continued into the 20th century, long after Burges death in 1881.  [7]

The style of the building is an early French, Burges’s favored period and a style he continued to favor all his life, choosing it for their own home, The Tower House in Kensington. The fixed price for construction would be £ 15,000,  [8]  a sum far exceeded. The total cost came to well over £ 100,000.  [9] Burges was “indifferent” (his own words) in his letter of January 1877 to the Bishop of Cork:  “(in the future), all of it will be on its own and parts of the time and cost is forgotten, the result will only be reviewed. the big questions will then be the first this work is beautiful, and have them as it was entrusted, did it with all his heart and all his abilities. ”  [10]

Burges oversaw all aspects of design, including architecture of the building, statues, stained glass and interior decoration. The result is  “undoubtedly Burges greatest works of ecclesiastical architecture”  .  [7]

List of Deans Cork

The deans in Cork include the following, with a number of deans raised to the episcopate.  [ Citation needed ]  

  • 1582 – Thomas Long
  • 1590-1600 – Robert Graves (afterwards Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, 1600)
  • 1600-1604 – Thomas frame (afterwards Dean ferns, 1604 and then Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, 1605)
  • 1605 – George Ley or Lee
  • 1627 / 8-1641 – John Fitzgerald
  • 1642 – Henry Hall (later Bishop of Killala and Achonry, 1661)
  • 1645-1661 – Edward Worth (later Bishop of Killaloe, 1661)
  • 1661 – Thomas Hackett
  • 1662-1666 – Roger Boyle (later Bishop of Down and Connor, 1667)
  • 1666 / 7-1672 – John Vesey (afterwards Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe, 1672)
  • 1672 / 3-1708 – Arthur Pomeroy
  • 1709-1710 – Rowland Davies
  • 1721 / 2-1736 – Robert Carleton
  • 1736-1750 – William Meade
  • 1763-1779 – George Chinnery (afterwards Bishop Killaloe and Kilfenora, 1779)
  • 1779-1795 – John Erskine
  • 1796-1807 – She St. Thomas Lawrence (later Bishop of Cork, 1807)
  • 1807-1812 – John Powell Leslie (later Bishop of Dromore, 1812)
  • 1812-1813 – James Saurin (afterwards Archdeacon Dublin and then Bishop of Dromore, 1819)
  • 1813-1819 – William Magee (afterwards Bishop of Raphoe, 1819)
  • 1819-1841 – Robert Burrowes
  • 1841-1842 – James Thomas O’Brien (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1842)
  • 1842-1864 – Horatio Townsend Newman
  • 1864-1866 – William Connor Magee (afterwards Dean of the Chapel Royal, Dublin and then Bishop of Peterborough, 1868)
  • 1868-1874 – Arthur William Edward
  • 1874-1875 – Robert Samuel Gregg (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1875)
  • 1875-1878 – Achilles Daunt
  • 1878-1890 – Samuel Owen Madden
  • 1891-1894 – Thomas Brisbane Warren
  • 1894-1897 – Mervyn Archdall (later Bishop of Killaloe and Clonfert, 1897)
  • 1897- 1914 – Charles Saul Bruce
  • 1914-> 1944 – Richard Babington
  • 1952-1952 – George Otto Simms (afterwards Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, 1952)
  • ? 1952- 1962 – Henry Robert MacAdoo (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1962)
  • 1962- 1967 -? Ernest George Daunt
  • 1967- 1971 -? Frederick Mervyn Kieran Johnston
  • 1971-1993 – James Maurice George Carey
  • 1993-1996 – Richard Clarke (later Bishop of Meath and Kildare, 1996 then Archbishop of Armagh, 2012)
  • 1997-2002 – Michael Jackson (afterwards Bishop of Clogher, 2002, and then archbishop of Dublin, 2011)
  • 2002-2006 – Michael Burrows (afterwards Bishop of Cashel and Ossory, 2006)
  • 2008-present – Nigel Dunne


The organ was built in 1870 by William Hill & Sons, with three manuals and 40 stops. The action in Major was a form of pneumatic action (possibly barkermaskin) on the large, and tracker for the other two handböcker.Instrumentet was reformed in 1889 by Cork organ building firm, TW Magahy, which added three new stops. As part of these works was the organ moved from the western gallery (balcony) down to a pit in the north transept, where it sits today.

The next major revision was in 1906 by Hele & Company in Plymouth, who added a fourth manual (Solo). By now, the action of the organ was completely pneumatic.

Other work was completed on the organ in 1965-1966, when JW Walker & Sons Ltd in London reviewing the soundboards, installed a new console with electro-pneumatic action, and lowered the pitch. The organ then had four manuals, 56 stops and 3012 pipes.

From 2010 organ builder Trevor Crowe was hired to reconstruct and expand the body, when it was supplemented with a west gallery nave division and tonal improvements to the main instrument. This included a full-length 32 ‘extension of the pedal trombone. The work also meant a revised layout to enable earlier buried bodies to sing freely into the body of the cathedral.Crowe layout improvements intended to overcome obstacles to its underground location,  [ citation needed ]  and the western nave division improves complement to the church hymns.  [ Citation needed ]  Most of the choir organ is housed in a casing attached to the console, the lid of which can raised and lowered electrically by the organist. At 88 speaking stops, it is now the largest organ on the island of Ireland.  [ Citation needed ]      


  • 1677-1698 – William Love  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1698? -1703? – Thomas Hollister  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1703-1711 – William Toole  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1712-1720 – Edward Broadway  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1720-1777 – William Smyth  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1782-1796 – Henry De La Maine  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1797-1811 – James Roche  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1811-1860 – James Brealsford Stephens  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1860-1903 – John Christopher Mark
  • 1903-1922 – William George Everleigh  [11]
  • 1922-1977 – Jonathan Thomas Horne
  • 1977-1984 – Paul Andrew Padmore (afterwards organist at St. Anne’s Cathedral, Belfast)
  • 1984-2007 – Colin, Gerald Nicholls
  • 2007-2015 – Malcolm Wisener (formerly organist at St. Bartholomew’s Church, Dublin)
  • 2015-present – Peter Stobart


  • Richard Boyle (Archbishop)
  • William Lyons (bishop)

See also

  • Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Cork)


  1. Jump up ^  “Cork Heritage” Ode to St. Finbarre Cathedral “ 09.06.2009. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  2. Jump up ^  “Saint Finbarr | Cathedral, Cork, Ireland. ” 06/17/2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Richard Caulfield, ed. (1871). Annals of St. Fin Barre’s Cathedral, Cork. Purcell.
  4. Jump up ^  “History – Medieval cathedral”. Official website Cathedral.Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  5. Jump up ^  “St Fin Barre’s Cathedral.” Lonely Planet. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  6. Jump up ^  “Old St Fin Barre’s Cathedral (1735-1865) | Cork Past & Present “. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork, page 19
  8. Jump up ^ Cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork, page 28
  9. Jump up ^ Cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork
  10. Jump up ^ Burges letter to the Bishop of Cork: 8 January 1877 – reproduced as the preface to the Cathedral of Saint Finbarr of Cork
  11. Jump up ^ Dictionary of organs and organists. First edition. 1912. p.272


  • David Lawrence and Ann Wilson (2006). Cathedral of Saint Finbarr of Cork William Burges in Ireland. Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1846820236.
  • Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae: The consequence of prelates and members of the cathedral organs in Ireland Volume 1 by Henry Cotton
  • Coles registers pin Cork

English market

The  English market  (Irish:  An Margadh Sasa Nach  ),  [1]  include  Princes Street Market  and  Grand Parade market  , and is a local food market in central Cork, Ireland. The market is managed by Cork City Council.  [2]  The market is well supported locally and has become a tourist attraction – drawing visitors from around the world,  [3]  , including a visit avdrottning Elizabeth II during her 2011 state visit.  [4] The  term  English Market  coined in the 19th century to distinguish the market from the nearby Peters market (now the site of Bodega on Cornmarket Street), which was known as the Irish market  .  [5]

There has been a market at its current location since 1788  [6]  , but the current group of buildings was constructed in the mid 19th century with ornamental entrance on Princes Street, built in 1862 by Sir John Benson.  [7] The market changed little over the next century or so until it was severely damaged by fire June 19, 1980 and had to be extensively renovated by Cork City council. Renovation work was done in sympathy with the original Victorian building design  [ citation needed ]  and won a gold medal from Europa Nostra Heritage Foundation conservation shortly after completion.  [7]  The renovated market suffered a second fire in 1986 but the fire was less harmful than the first.  [8]  

Since the renovation market has become more multicultural and a variety of fresh produce from around the world can be bought there. The market is still best known but for its fresh fish and butcher, and it serves many of the city’s best restaurants.  [ Citation needed ]  It is a source of local specialties drisheen, seasoned beef, eggs and buttered.  [3]  


  1. Jump up ^ Official placental Database of Ireland – Swedish Market Entry
  2. Jump up ^ ie – About us
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b New York Times Travel – Cork – Old English Market
  4. Jump up ^ The Independent – Bowl as the Queen visits the market – May 20, 2011
  5. Jump up ^ The Heritage Council – A guide to Cork city’s historic plaques and signs – Page 10
  6. Jump up ^ ie – History – The establishment of the English market
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b Cork City Library – Cork Past & Present – English Market
  8. Jump up ^ Excerpts from Cork Examiner article of January 7, 1986 (published on

Church of St Anne (Shandon)

The  Church of St. Anne  is a Church of Ireland church located in the district of Shandon Cork in Ireland. It sits on top of a hill overlooking the River Lee and the church tower is a famous landmark and symbol of the city.The church bells popularized the song in the 19th century and remains a visitor attraction.


Shandon name comes from the Irish,  Sean Dun  , which means “old fortress”.Shandon was one of 28 settlements in and around the old Cork. A medieval church dedicated to St Mary were on this website and mentioned in the decretals of Innocent III in 1199 as “St. Mary on the hill.” This church stood until Williamite war when it was destroyed during the siege of Cork (1690). In 1693 this was replaced by a church, also dedicated to St. Mary, and at the bottom in Mallow Lane, modern Shandon Street. Because of population growth, it was decided to build new on this old place and so in 1722 the present church of St. Anne Shandon was constructed.

It is built with two types of rock, red sandstone from the original Shandon castle standing nearby, and limestone taken from the abandoned Franciscan Abbey which stood on the North Mall. If the strategy for Shandon, it is possible to see both red and white colored stone, and so is the affection that Shandon argue that citizens designated both colors to represent the city.  [Citation needed ]  

The Church of St. Anne reached full parish status in 1772 when Rev. Arthur Hyde (great grandfather of Dr. Douglas Hyde) was appointed its first principal.



The church is known for its eight bells (called via a Ellacombe)  [1]  because of the song “The Bells of Shandon” by Francis Sylvester Mahony.  [2]  The largest weighs about 1.5 tons and was originally cast by Abel Rudhäll Gloucester . To reduce vibration, they were placed in a fixed position. They called the first 7 December 1752. They have been revised twice, in 1865 and 1906.  [1]  . Today, visitors can climb to the first floor and ring the bells themselves  [3]

The original inscription retained on each watch:

  • When you call us, we sing sweetly
  • God preserve the Church and the King
  • Health and prosperity for all our benefactors
  • Peace and good neighborhood
  • Prosperity to the city and trade thereof
  • We were all cast in Gloucester in England by Abel Rudhäll 1750
  • Because generosity has opened our mouths, our tongues sing his praise
  • In the church’s live calls and to the grave does not call all


The walls of the building is 2 meters (7 feet) thick and the height of the tower is 36.5 meters (120 feet). This will be extended an additional 15 m (50 ft) for “pepper pot” ornament on the tower. The McOsterich family was involved in the design and construction of this tower and to this day a special privilege gave them. When a family member get married, anywhere in the world, bells ringing in their ära.Ovanpå this Pepper pot is a weather vane in the shape of a salmon, which represents the fishing of the River Lee. It is an apt symbol for the top of a church,  [ citation needed ]  as in the earliest Christian days the fish was used as a symbol for the name of the Lord.  


The clock of the tower is known to Corkonians as “The Four Faced Liar” because, depending on the angle of the viewer, and the effects of the wind on his hands on a given surface, the time does not appear to correspond perfectly on every surface.  [4 ]  due to maintenance issues, the clock stopped in 2013, but plans to finance the repair agreed May 2014  [5]  , and the clock is started in September 2014.  [4]


The baptismal font, dated 1629, is a relic of the church was destroyed in the siege of Cork in 1690 and bears the inscription,  “Walter Elinton and William Ring made this pant  (the Anglo-Saxon word for font)  when their fees”  .Within a tin bowl dated 1773rd


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b church of St. Anne – Home
  2. Jump up ^  “1726 – St. Anne’s, Shandon, Cork – Architecture of Cork City “. 2009-11-06. Pulled 04/22/2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Tours of the Bells of Shandon in Cork City, the Church of St. Anne’s in Cork City Guide Cork City”. 03.24.2012.Pulled 04/22/2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Eoin English (3 September 2014). “Shandon clock ticking again after expert spends time with” liar “”. Irish Examiner. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  5. Jump up ^  “Cork City Council to establish Shandon Clock”. Irish Examiner. May 22, 2014.

Cork City

Cork  (/ k ɔr k / Irish:  Corcaigh  , pronounced [koɾkɪɟ], from  corcach  , which means “swamp”) is a city in Ireland, which is located in South-West Region, in the province of Munster. It has a population of 119,230,  [6]  and is the second largest city in the state and the third most populous on the island of Ireland. The larger the Metropolitan Cork (which includes a number of satellite towns and suburbs) has a population exceeding 300,000.  [7]  In 2005, the city selected as the European Capital of Culture.

The city is built on the River Lee which divides into two channels in the western part of the city, the center is divided by these channels. The reconverge on the eastern side where ochbryggor quays along the riverbank leads outwards towards Lough Mahon to Cork Harbour, one of the world’s largest natural harbors.  [8] [9]

The city’s cognomen of “rebel city” has its origin in its support for the Yorkist cause during the English 15th century Wars of the Roses.  [10]  Corkonians often refer to the city as “real capital”  [11]  referring to the city’s role as the center of the anti- Treaty forces during the Irish Civil war.  [12]


Main article: History of Cork

Cork was originally a monastery settlement, said founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.  [13]  Cork achieved an urban character at some time between 915 and 922 närNorseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port.  [14]  It has been suggested that as Dublin Cork was an important trading center in the global Scandinavian trade network. [15]  ecclesiastical settlement continued with Viking  longphort  , the two develop a type of symbiotic relationship;Northmen provide otherwise unobtainable goods of the monastery, and perhaps also military support.  [16]

The corner of Grand Parade and South Mall, Cork, c.1830

The city charter was granted by King John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185.  [17] The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today.  [18]  For much of the Middle Ages, Cork was an outpost of the old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaeliclandsbygden and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin.Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno Norman lords pressed the “Black Pure” from citizens to keep them from attacking the city. The current extent of the city has exceeded the limits of medieval Barony of Cork City; now takes in large parts of neighboring Barony of Cork. Together, these baronies between the Barony of Barrymore in the east, Muskerry East to West and Kerrycurrihy in the south.

The city’s municipal government dominated by about 12-15 merchant families whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. The medieval population of Cork was approximately 2,100 people. It suffered a major blow in 1349 when almost half of the city residents died of the plague, when the Black Death arrived in the city. 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The then mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was founded by Royal Charter in 1318, and the title was changed to  mayor  in 1900 after the knighthood of the incumbent mayor of Queen Victoria on her royal visit to the city.  [19]

Patrick Street c.1890-1900.

Since the nineteenth century Cork had been a strong Irish nationalist city, with wide support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood firmly behind William O’Brien’s dissidents All-for-Ireland Party. O’Brien published a third local newspaper, Cork Free Press.

In the war, was the center of Cork was burned down by the British Black and Tans,  [20]  and the city saw fierce fighting between Irish rebels and British forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.


The climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is gentle sea and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of extreme temperatures. Cork is located in Plant Hardiness Zone 9b. Met Éireann has a climatological weather station at Cork Airport,  [21]  a few kilometers south of the city. It should be noted that the airport is at an elevation of 151 meters (495 feet) and temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill.  [21]

Temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F) or above 25 ° C (77 ° F) are rare. Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimeters (4.029 ft) of precipitation annually, most of which is rain.  [22] The airport registers an average of 7 days of hail and 11 days of snow or sleet per year; even if only registers lying snow for 2 days a year. The low height of the city, and the moderating influence of the port, means lying snow very rarely occur in the city itself. There are on average 204 “rainy” days a year (more than 0.2 millimeters (0.0079 in) of precipitation), of which there are 73 days with “rain” (more than 5 millimeters (0.20 inches)) .  [22]  Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog per year, most during the mornings and during the winter. Nevertheless, Cork is also one of Ireland’s sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine per day and only has 67 days where there is no “recordable sunshine”, mostly in and around the winter.  [22]


The Lewis Glucksman Gallery at UCC.

The Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design offers a throughput of new blood, as well as the active theater components of many courses at University College Cork (UCC). Highlights include: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a squad member  [26]  before the Hollywood fame; The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource,  [27]  the Triskel Arts Centre (capacity c.90), which includes Triskel Christchurch independent film; dance in place Firkin Crane (c.240 capacity); Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA) and graffiti Theatre Company,  [28]  and the Cork Jazz Festival, Cork Film Festival,  [29]  and Live at The Marquee events. The Everyman Palace Theatre (capacity c.650) and granary Theatre (capacity c.150) both play host to dramatic plays throughout the year.

Cork is home to RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet, and many musical acts, including John Spillane, Frank and Walters, Sultans of Ping, Simple Kid, Micro Disney, Fred, Mick Flannery and the late Rory Gallagher. Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan and Sean O’Hagan of the High Llamas also hails from Cork. The opera singer Cara O’Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. Ranging in capacity from 50 to 1000, the most important music venues in the city is Cork Opera House (capacity c.1000), Everyman, Cyprus Avenue, Triskel Christchurch, the Roundy, Savoy and Coughlan’s.  [30]

The city’s literary society revolves around the Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre.  [31]  short story writer Frank O’Connor and Seán Ó Faoláin came from Cork, and contemporary authors include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy, and novelist and poet William Wall.

The English marknadeni Cork.

Cork has been the cultural diversity for many years, from Huguenot communities 17th century, by Eastern European societies, and a small number of African and Asian countries in the 20th and 21st centuries.  [32] This is reflected in the multicultural restaurants and shops, including specialty stores for Eastern European or Middle Eastern food, Chinese and Thai restaurants, French patisseries, Indian buffets and Middle Eastern kebab houses. Cork saw some Jewish immigration from Lithuania and Russia in the late 19th century. Jewish citizens as Gerald Goldberg (several times Mayor), David Marcus (author) and Louis Marcus (documentary maker) played notable roles in 20th century Cork. Today, the Jewish community is relatively small population, although the city still has a Jewish quarter and synagogue. [33]  Cork also has various Christian churches and a mosque. Some Catholic masses around the city said in Polish, Filipino, Lithuanian, Romanian and other languages,  [34]  in addition to the traditional Latin and local Irish  [35] and English language services.

Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery. The Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the fall of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and the construction of a new € 60 million School of Music, was completed in September 2007.

Cork was the European Capital of Culture in 2005, and in 2009 was included in Lonely Planet’s top 10 “Best in Travel 2010 ‘. The guide described Cork as “at the top of its game: sophisticated, vibrant and diverse”.  [36]

There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between London and Manchester, Sydney and Melbourne or Madrid and Barcelona.Some Corkonians prove that differs from the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as “insurgents”; the county known as the Rebel County. This view has in recent years proved in humorous references to  the Real Capital and the sale of T-shirts with light-hearted banners celebrating the  People’s Republic of Cork  .


The city has many local traditions in food, including  crubeens  ,  stomachs and drisheen  . Cork English Market sells locally produced food, including fresh fish, meat, fruit and vegetables, eggs and artisan cheeses and breads.Under certain town festivals are also food stalls sometimes erected on city streets as St. Patrick Street and the Grand Parade.  [37]


Cork accent, part of Southwest dialect of Irish English, show different characteristics that distinguish it from other accents in Ireland. Pattern tone and intonation often rise and fall with the overall tone tends to be more high-pitched than the other Irish accents. English is spoken in Cork has a number of dialect words that are characteristic of the city and surroundings.Like the standard Irish English, some of these words comes from the Irish language, but other languages through other Cork residents encountered at home and abroad.  [38]  The Cork accent shows varying degrees of rhoticity, usually depending on the social class of the speaker.



The city’s FM radio band have RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2Fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, 4FM, Newstalk and religious station Radio Spirit. There are also local stations Cork’s 96FM, Cork Red FM, C103, CUH 102.0FM, 98.3FM UCC (former Cork Campus Radio 97.4fm)  [39]  and Christian radio station 93.1FM Life.  [40]  Cork also has a temporary licensed citywide Community station “Cork FM Community Radio ‘on 100.5FM, which is currently on air on Saturdays and Sundays only. Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, including South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s.Today some small pirates stations remain. A number of neighboring counties radio stations can be heard in parts of Cork City, including Radio Kerry at 97.0 and WLR FM on 95.1.

RTÉ Cork has TV and radio studios, and production facilities in the center of Father Matthew Street in the city center.


Cork is home to one of Ireland’s main national newspapers,  the Irish Examiner  (formerly the  Cork Examiner  ). It also writes  Evening Echo  , which for decades has been connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless children who sold the newspaper. Today, the cries of vendors selling the Echo can still be heard in various parts of the city center. One of the largest free newspaper in the city is  Cork Independent  .  [41]  The city’s universities publish  UCC Express  [42]  and Motley  magazine.  [43]

Tourist attractions 

Further information: List of public art in Cork City

The Angel of the Resurrection, St. Finbarre Cathedral.

Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Middle Ages to modern times.  [44]  The only notable remnant of the medieval era is the Red Abbey. There are two cathedrals in the city, St. Mary’s Cathedral and St Fin Barre’s Cathedral. St Mary’s Cathedral, often called the North Cathedral, the Catholic Cathedral in the city and was started in 1808. Its distinctive tower added in the 1860s. St Fin Barre’s Cathedral serves the Protestant faith, and is possibly the more famous of the two. It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges.

Patrick Street, the main street of the city built in the mid-2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along the pedestrian road and the main shopping street. It is dominated at its north end of the landmark statue of Father Mathew. The reason for its curved shape is that it was originally a channel of the River Lee, which was built over the vault.  [45] The main post office, with its limestone facade, located on Oliver Plunkett Street, on the site of the royal theater which was built in 1760 and burned down in 1840 . the English circus owner Pablo Fanqueåteruppbyggdes an amphitheater on the site in 1850, which was later converted into a theater and then into the current General Post office in 1877.  [46] [47]  the Grand Parade is an avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions . The old financial center is the South Mall, with several banks whose interior is derived from the 19th century, as Allied Irish Bank’s which was once an exchange.

Cork County Hall was Ireland’s tallest building for some time and is located on the western side of the city

Many of its buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County Hall tower, which was at one time the tallest building in Ireland  [48]  until they are replaced by another Cork City building: The Elysian. Outside County Hall is a landmark sculpture of two men, known locally as “Cha and Miah ‘. Across the river from County Hall is Ireland’s longest building; built in Victorian times Virgin psychiatric hospitals now restored and converted to a housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins.

Cork’s most famous building is the church tower Shandon, which dominates the north side of the city. It is widely regarded as a symbol of the city. The northern and eastern sides faced in red sandstone, and the western and southern sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. At the top is a vane in the form of an eleven foot salmon.  [49]

Cork City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one destroyed by the Black and Tans during the War of Independence in an event called “Burning of Cork”.  [20] The cost of this new building was provided by the British government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation.  [50]

St Finbarre cathedral

Other notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the Cork Opera House, Christchurch on South Main Street (now Triskel Arts Centre and original site of early Hiberno-Norse church), St. Mary’s Dominican Church of the Popes Quay and Fitzgerald Park to the west of the city, contains Cork Public Museum .Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Cork, through which the river Lee flows, the angling lake called the Lough, women’s Gaol at Sundays Well (now a heritage center) and English market. This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the current building dates from 1786.  [51]

Until April 2009, there were also two large commercial breweries in the city.The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street was closed in April 2009 and transferred production to Murphy’s brewery in Lady source. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market. There are also Franciscan Well Brewery, serving the local market with a variety of lagers, ales and stouts. In May 2008 it was awarded as “Best Microbrewery in Ireland” by Food and Wine Magazine.

Local governments and politics

Cork City Hall reflected the River Lee. Elysian Tower, Ireland’s tallest building, can be seen in the background.
With a population of 119,230, is Cork the second most populous city in the state and the 16th most populous area of the local authorities.  [58]  As of the Local Government Act 2001  , Cork City Council is a group -a unit of local government with the same legal status as a county.

While local authorities in Ireland have limited powers in comparison with other countries, the Council has responsibility for planning, roads, sewers, libraries, street lighting, parks, and a number of other important functions.Cork City Council has 31 elected members representing the six electoral avvärjer.Medlemmarna are connected to the following political parties: Fine Gael (5 members), Fianna Fáil (10 members), Sinn Féin (8 members), Anti-Austerity Alliance (3 members) , Labour party (1 member), Independents (4 members).  [59]  Certain Council co-opted to represent the city at the South-West Regional Authority. A new Mayor of Cork is chosen in a vote by the elected members of the Council under the D’Hondt system counts.  [60] [61]

The administrative offices for Cork County Council are also located within the city limits.  [62]

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of two constituencies: Cork North-Central and Cork South Central was back four TDs. After the 2016 general election, these constituencies together returned two TDs for the Fine Gael party, three for Fianna Fáil, two for Sinn Féin and the Anti-austerity Alliance-People before profit.


Winthrop Street in Cork city center


Main article: Economy of Cork

Castle Street

The retail trade in Cork include a mix of both modern, state of the art shopping centers and family owned local shops. Department stores cater to all budgets, with expensive boutiques for one end of the market and high street stores also available. Shopping can be found in many of Cork’s suburbs, including Blackpool, Ballincollig, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton and Mahon Point. Others are available in the center. These include the recently  when?  ]  Completed the development of two large department stores in Cornmarket Centre on Cornmarket Street, and new retail street called “Opera Lane” off St. Patrick Street / Academy Street.Grand Parade system, on the site of the former Capitol Cineplex plans approved for 60,000 square feet (5,600 m  2  ) of retail space, with work commencing in 2016. [63]  Cork’s main shopping street is St. Patrick Street and is the most expensive street in the country per square meter. Meters after Dublin’s Grafton Street. From 2015, this area has been affected by the post-2008 downturn, with many retail space available to let.  Citation needed  ]  Other shopping areas in the city center include Oliver Plunkett St. and the Grand Parade. Cork is also home to some of the country’s leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores placed in the city.Outside the city center, Mahon Point Shopping Centre.


Murphy’s Stout 1919 ad for the famous Cork brewery.

Cork City is the center of industry in southern Ireland. Its main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. and Swiss company Novartis is a major employer in the region. The most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc., where over 3,000 people are involved in manufacturing, research and development and customer support.  [64]  Logitech and EMC Corporation are also key IT employers in the area.  [65] [66]  Three hospitals also among the top ten employers in the city (see table below).

The city is also home to the Heineken brewery that brews Murphy’s Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (taken over by Heineken in 2008) that has been in the city for generations. 45% of the world’s Tic Tac sweets manufactured in the city Ferrero factory.  [67]  For many years, Cork was home to the Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the port area before the plant was closed in 1984. Henry Ford ‘grandfather was from west Cork, who was a of the main reasons for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork.  [68]  But technology has replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working in the many IT centers of such – the city of, the online retailer , established in Cork Airport Business Park.[69]

Cork’s deep harbor allows ships of all sizes to get in, which trade and easy import / export of products. Cork Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and Cork Kent railway station in the city center provides good rail links for domestic trade.


According to the survey 2011 2011 Cork City Employment and land use, the single largest employers in the city (each with over 1000 employees) include Cork University Hospital, Apple Inc, University College Cork, Boston Scientific, Cork City Council, Cork Institute of Technology, Bon Secours Hospital, Cork, retailer Supervalu and Centra, the Irish Defence forces at Collins Barracks, and Mercy University Hospital.  [70]



Cork Airport

Main article: Cork Airport

Cork Airport is one of Ireland’s main airports. It is located on the south side of Cork City in an area known as Ballygarvan. Over 15 airlines flying to over 68 destinations with over 60 flights per day. Regular airlines using Cork airport include Aer Lingus, Aer Lingus Regional operated by Stobart Air, CityJet, Flybe, Iberia Express and Ryanair.


The long-distance bus terminal at Parnell Place

Public bus transport in the city is provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. City routes are numbered from 201 to 219 and connect the center to the principal suburbs, schools, shopping centers and places of interest.  [71] Two of these bus lines provide orbital services in northern and southern districts respectively. Buses to the outer suburbs, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire, Midleton and Carrigaline are provided from the city’s bus terminal at Parnell Place in the center. Suburban includes transfer to Cork Airport, and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs only.

Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services go to Killarney / Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport / Limerick / Galway and there are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Wales and Bristol.

Private operators include Irish Citylink, Aircoach and Dublin coach. Irish Citylink earns Limerick and Galway. Aircoach runs a non-stop express service serving Dublin city center and Dublin Airport 18 times daily in each direction. Dublin Coach earn Dublin via Dungarvan, Waterford and Kilkenny.


See also: Port of Cork

Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrooke to Passage West, links R624 to R610.This service is useful when trying to avoid traffic congestion in the Jack Lynch Tunnel and Dunkettle area.  [72]  The port of Cork is påRingaskiddy, 16 kilometers (10 miles) SE via the N28. There are direct connections to France and Britain. A Water Taxi is also proposed to link the city with towns in the lower harbor.  [73] [74]


Patrick Bridge

Cork area has seen improvements in road infrastructure in recent years. For example, Cork South Link dual carriageway was built in the early 1980s, to link the Kinsale Road roundabout in the center. Shortly thereafter, the first parts of the southern ring two-lane opened. Work continued in the 1990s to extend the N25 South Ring Road, with the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee is a significant addition. Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a bottleneck for traffic heading to Cork Airport or Killarney. Other projects completed at this time include the N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork Mallow road projects. The N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the west of Cork Southern Ring Road was opened in September 2004. City Centre road improvements include the Patrick St. project – which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus.The M8 motorway links Cork to Dublin.

Cork City Council supports a carpool system operated by Mendes GoCar in partnership with Cambio Mobility Services. There are several bases in Cork. [75]

From 2012, the cycle paths and cycle stands placed in a number of areas, making the city more bicycle-friendly.  [76]  Then in 2014, a public bike rental system was launched. The system is powered by a Rothar Nua on behalf of the National Transport Authority, with funding supplemented by an advertising sponsor.  [77]


Railway and tramway heritage

Cork was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland, with eight stations at different times. The highway, still very same day, from Dublin Heuston.Originally completed on the city’s outskirts at Blackpool, the route now reaches the center terminal of the Kent Station via the Glanmire tunnel. Now a through station, line by Kent connects the towns of Cobh and Midleton east of the city. This is also linked to the coastal town of Youghal, until the 1980s.  Citation needed  ]

Other railroads terminating or serving Cork was  Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway  , a line Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarney, Coach Ford and Donoughmore, as well as Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork cities. West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (although a rail system in the street connecting the two rolling stock and cargo handling).

Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city’s railway terminals) conducted by the American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. But ceased now trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line, mainly because of objections from cab operators to the type of track – even if they were added to the Irish national gauge of 5ft 3in – stack from the road surface.  Needed citation  ]

In December 1898 in Cork electric tramways and Lighting Company began operations on the Blackpool-Douglas, Summer-Sunday’s Well and Tivoli -Blackrock roads. Increased use of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, as discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931.

Plans to build a type Luas tram in the city has been put on hold because of the 2008 Irish economic crisis, and sufficient funding is not expected to be available until at least 2017.  [78]

The wider urban area, including the city’s suburbs are served by three railway stations. These are Cork Kent Train Station, Little Island train station and Glounthaune railway station.

The usual

Cork Kent Station is the main station in the city. From here, services runs to destinations throughout Ireland. The main line from Cork to Dublin, has hourly departures on the half hour from Cork. InterCity services are also available förKilarney and Tralee, Limerick, Ennis, Athenry and Galway (via Limerick Junction Limerick to Galway rail line)  [79]

Cork is also linked from Limerick Junction with connections to the Clonmel and Waterford.

The Cork commuter rail system also differs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork. Stations include Little Island, Mallow, Midleton, Fota and Cobh. In July 2009 Glounthaune Midleton line was opened, with new stations at Carrigtwohill and Midleton (future stations planned for Kilbarry, Monard, Carrigtwohill West and Blarney).  [80]  Little Island train station serving Cork eastern suburbs, while the Kilbarry train station planned to serve the northern suburbs.


University College Cork

See also: Education in Cork and Category: secondary schools in County Cork

Cork is an important educational center in Ireland – there are over 30,000 third level students in the city, including 1200 graduate students, which is the highest rate per capita in Ireland. Citation needed  ]  Over 10% of the population in the metropolitan area are students of University College Cork (UCC) and Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), including nearly 3,000 international students from over 100 different countries.  [81]

UCC is a constituent of the University of the National University of Ireland, and offers courses in arts, commerce, engineering, law, medicine and science. The university was named “Irish University of the Year” four times since 2003, most recently in 2016.  [82]  Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish “Institute of Technology of the Year” 2007, 2010 and 2016 and offers three courses in Computing and IT, Business, aesthetic and engineering (mechanical, electronic, electrical and chemical).

The National Maritime College of Ireland are also in Cork and is the only college in Ireland where nautical studies and Marine Engineering can be implemented. CIT also contains the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design as opening schools. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest after the Leaving Certificate College in Ireland and is also the largest provider of vocational and training programs in the country. Citation needed  ]  Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork, a private institution, and various other colleges .

Research linked to the third level colleges in the city to support research and innovation capacity in the city and the region. For example, the Tyndall National Institute (hardware research ICT), IMERC (Marine Energy), Environment Institute, NIMBUS (Network Embedded Systems); and CREATE (Advanced Therapeutic Engineering).  [81]  UCC and CIT also has start-ups incubation centers. In the UCC, Ignite Graduate Business Innovation Centre aims to promote and support entrepreneurship.  [83]  In CIT, The Rubicon Centre is a business innovation hub that is home to 57 knowledge-based start-ups.  [84]


See also: List of Cork people – Sports

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastime for Corkonians.

Gaelic game 

Spectators watch Cork take on Kerry påPairc Uí Chaoimh in the city

Main article: Cork GAA

Hurling and football is the most popular spectator sports in the city. Hurling has a strong identity with the city and county – with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Championships. Gaelic football is also popular, and Cork have won seven All-Ireland Senior Football Championship titles. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including Blackrock National Hurling Club, St. Finbarr’s, Glen Rovers, Na Piarsaigh and Nemo Rangers.The main public places is Pairc Uí Chaoimh and Pairc Uí Rinn (named after the noted Glen Rovers Player Christy Ring). Camogie (sling for men) and women’s Gaelic football is gaining popularity.

Cork City FC line out against Red Star Belgrade in a 2006 Champions League qualifier

Association football 

Main article: League of Ireland in Cork

Cork City FC was founded in 1984 is the largest and most successful association football team in Cork, winning two League of Ireland titles, two FAI Cup titles and an “All Ireland” Setanta Sports Cup titel.De play their home matches on the south side of the city in Turner Cross. Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs around the city as well as in the “five-a-side” style leagues.


Rugby union is played at various levels, from school to higher league level.There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork Constitution (three-time All Ireland league champions) play their home games in Ballintemple and Dolphin RFC play at home in Musgrave Park. Other notable rugby clubs in the city include, Highfield, Sunday source and UCC. At school level, Christian Brothers College and Presentation Brothers College are two of the country’s more famous rugby nurseries.

Munster Rugby plays half of its home games in the Magners League at Musgrave Park in Ballyphehane. In recent Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park, but due to capacity issues, they are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick. In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup champions, with many players came from Cork city and county.

Cork’s rugby league team, Cork Bulls, was formed in 2010 and plays in Munster Conference for Irish Elite Series.

water sports 

There are a variety of water sports in Cork, including rowing and sailing.There are five rowing clubs train on the River Lee, including Shandon BC, RC UCC, Pres RC, RC Lee, Cork BC. Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members range of traditional naomhóga Lee in individual competitions.”Ocean City” race has been held annually since 2005 and attracts teams and boats from local and visiting clubs that line 24 kilometers (15 mi) from Crosshaven in Cork city center.  [85]  The decision to move the National Rowing center to Inniscarra  [86]  has increased numbers involved in the sport.  citation needed  ]  Cork’s maritime sailing heritage maintained by their yacht clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club is located in Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world’s oldest yacht clubs, and “Cork Week” is a remarkable sailing events.  [87]


Mardyke, home of Cork County Cricket Club

The most notable cricket club in Cork is Cork County Cricket Club, founded in 1874. Although located in Munster jurisdiction club playing in the Leinster Senior League.  [88]  The club plays at Mardyke, a foundation to host three first-class matches in 1947, in 1961 and 1973. All three involved Ireland play Scotland.  [89]  the Cork Cricket Academy operates within the city, with the express purpose of introducing the sport to schools in the city and county. [90]  Cork’s other main cricket club, Harlequins Cricket Club, playing close Cork Airport.  [91]

Other sports 

There Cork clubs active nationally in basketball (Neptune and UCC Demons) and golf, pitch and putt, ultimate frisbee, hockey, tennis and athletics clubs in the Cork area.

The city is also home to the road bowling, played in the north side and south suburbs. There are also boxing and martial arts clubs (including Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo) within the city. Cork Racing, a motorsports team in Cork,  [92]  has competed in the Irish Formula Ford Championship since 2005. Cork also hosts one of Ireland’s most successful Australian Rules Football team,  [93]  leeward Lions, who have won the Australian Rules Football League of Ireland Premier four times (2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007).  [93] [94]  there are also inline roller sports such as hockey and figure skating, which transfer to the ice during the winter season.  citation needed ]


Cork in the evenings

The population of Cork City and its immediate suburbs was 198,582 according to the census of 2011.  [95]

There were 119.230 people currently in Cork City Council administered area at the time of the census of 2011, 117,221 of these indicated that they were usually present in Cork.I like other Irish cities, the female population (50.67%) higher than the male population (49.33%), although the difference is slightly less than in other cities.

Main Immigrant Groups, 2011  [96]
Nationality Population
 Poland 6822
 UK 3075
 Lithuania 1126
 France 960
 Germany 866
 India 824
 Nigeria 640
 Hungary 543
 Slovakia 523
 Spain 520

Of the habitual residence, 110 192 (94.00%) said they were white, 2623 (2.24%) that they were Asian, 1104 (0.94%) that they were black, while the 3302 (2.82%) not indicate ethnicity. 100 901 (86.08%) were Irish citizens;10,295 (8.78%) were citizens of other EU countries; 4316 (3.68%) were citizens of countries elsewhere in the world; 1709 (1.46%) did not disclose their nationality.  [97]

In the 2006 census, has no separate figures indicated Cork City, but for the greater Cork, 94.51% identified as White, 1.13% is identified as black, 1.33% identified as Asian, 1.11% is identified as Other / Mixed, while 1.91% did not state the ethnicity. In terms of nationality, the figures were 88.78% Irish, was 6.56% other EU nationals, was 3.45% citizens of countries elsewhere in the world, and 1.20% did not state their nationality.  [98]

Although the Census of Ireland 2011 counted 119.230 people in Cork, there are more than 300,000 in the Metropolitan Cork area.  [99]  Total Cork is 86.1% White Irish, 8.8% Other White, 2.2% Asian and 0.9 % black.  Quote necessary  ]

Notable residents 

See also: List of Cork people

See also 

  • List of civil parishes in County Cork
  • List of townlands of the barony of Cork in Cork
  • List of twinning in Ireland
  • Sheriff of Cork City

further reading 

  • Merchants, mystics and philanthropists – 350 years of Cork Quakers Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), 2006 ISBN 978-0-9539542-1-6
  • Atlas of Cork City  , edited John Crowley, Robert Devoy, Denis Linehan and Patrick O’Flanagan. Illustrated by Michael Murphy. Cork University Press, 2005, ISBN 1-85918-380-8.
  • A new history of Cork  , Henry A. Jefferies. History Press Ireland, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84588-984-5.
  • Cork Rock: From Rory Gallagher Sultans of Ping  , Mark McAvoy.Published by Mercier Press (2009) ISBN 978-1-85635-655-8.
  • Where Bridges Stand: River Lee bridges of Cork City  , Antóin O’Callaghan. History Press Ireland, 2012, ISBN 978-1-84588-746-9.
  • Cork City Through Time  , Kieran McCarthy & Daniel Breen. Stroud Amberley, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4456-1142-6.


  1. Jump up ^ Or: a reliable anchorage for ships. Literally: “a good confidence station keels,” adapted by inversion from Virgil’s Aeneid (II 23:  Station male Fida carinis  , “unsafe port”). Sometimes corrupted to “fide”.
  2. Jump up ^  “Cork City Coat of Arms”. Cork City Council. Archived from the original on 15/09/2015. Pulled 02/21/2016.
  3. Jump up ^  “population of each county and city, 2011”. Census 2011.Central Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  4. Jump up ^  “population of each county and city, 2011”. Census 2011.Central Bureau of Statistics. In 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  5. Jump up ^  “Table 7” (PDF). Census 2011. Central Bureau of Statistics .Hämtad29 March 2015.
  6. Jump up ^ Census of Ireland, 2011.  Statistics Sweden  , “Real and the percentage change in the population by the Aggregate Town or Rural Area, Six, Province county or city, statistical indicator and Census”
  7. Jump up ^  Cork Strategic Plan – Strategy for the further economic and population growth – an update (PDF) (Report). Indecon International Economic Consultants. 2008. p. 2nd
  8. Jump up ^  “RTÉ Television – Port”. RTÉ.ie. Taken twelve August augusti2010.
  9. Jump up ^  “Coastal and Marine Resources Centre – Cork Harbour Marine Life Research Project Report”. Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  10. Jump up ^ John Paxton (2000), The Penguin Encyclopedia of Places (3 ed.), Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-051275-5
  11. Jump up ^  “Cork’s little problem: the real problem for real capital is its size.” 07.04.2015. Pulled 11/17/2015.
  12. Jump up ^  “Battle of Cork City, August 1922 – Interview with John Borgonovo” .The Irish Story. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
  13. Jump up ^ Ó Riain, Mr (1994). Beatha Bharra (Saint Finbarr Cork: Complete Life). Irish Texts Society. ISBN 1-870166-57-4.
  14. Jump up ^ Moody, TW; Martin, FX; Byrne, FJ; Cosgrove, A; Ó Cróinín, D (1976). A new history of Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821737-4.
  15. Jump up ^ Irish Civilization: An Introduction  , Arthur Aughey and John Oakland, Routledge, 2013, p. 69
  16. Jump up ^ Michael A. Monk; John Sheehan (1998). Early Medieval Munster: Archaeology, history and society. Cork University Press. p. 172nd
  17. Jump up ^  “Your Council” Charters “. Cork City Council hämtas.19 August 2012.
  18. Jump up ^  “Cork City Council website – History – Walls of Cork” Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  19. Jump up ^  “Charters issued to Cork city.” Cork City Council. Hämtad19 October of 2010.
  20. ^ Jump up to: ab “Cork City Library – History Cork – Burning of Cork” 11 December 1920. Hämtadskrevs August twelve in 2010.
  21. ^ Jump up to: ab “Met Éireann – Annual Report 2003” (PDF). Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  22. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Met Éireann – The Irish Weather Service – 30 years Mean – Cork Airport”. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  23. Jump up ^  “Cork 1981-2010 average.” Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  24. Jump up ^  “Absolute Maximum air temperature for each month at selected stations” (PDF). Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  25. Jump up ^  “absolute minimum air temperature of each month at selected stations” (PDF). Met Éireann. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  26. Jump up ^  “Cillian Murphy – Other works”. IMDb.
  27. Jump up ^  “Firkin Crane History”. Firkin Crane. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  28. Jump up ^  “About Graffiti Theatre Company”. Hämtad17 October of 2010.
  29. Jump up ^  “Cork Film Festival website.” Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  30. Jump up ^  “Cork: Traditional Irish Music Venues”. TripAdvisor.Hämtad22 June 2016.
  31. Jump up ^ Gilmartin, Sarah (25 September 2015), “An Evening for book lovers, Irish writer listed for $ 100,000 price, Cork stories,” The Irish Times, Dublin, retrieved June 22, 2016
  32. Jump up ^ Hayes, Brian. “Cork diversity a reason to celebrate – News”.Cork Independent. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  33. Jump up ^  “Information about the Jewish community in Cork” Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  34. Jump up ^ Ruth Egan. “- Mass Times for Polish Community pin Cork and Ross.” Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  35. Jump up ^ Mass bulletin, the Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Paul Street, Cork
  36. Jump up ^  “Cork in” Lonely Planet “guide to the top 10 place to visit.”Irish Times. 11 November 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  37. Jump up ^  “Cork Midsummer Festival 2010 – Feasta Food Fair” 27 June 2010. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  38. Jump up ^  “Dialect Profile: Cork accent”. Dialect blog. 21 February 2011. Hämtat26 March 2013.
  39. Jump up ^  “Cork Campus Radio”. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  40. Jump up ^  “Life 93.1 FM, Cork”. 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  41. Jump up ^  “Cork Independent”. Cork Independent.
  42. Jump up ^  “advertise the UCC Express”. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  43. Jump up ^ e
  44. Jump up ^  “Medieval Cork”. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
  45. Jump up ^  “Cork City Library – History Cork – St. Patrick Street – Historical Outline”. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  46. Jump up ^ JW Flynn (1890). The random memories of an old theater VISITORS: A sketch of some old Cork theaters. Guy & Co. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  47. Jump up ^ Cork City Council. “Cork Past & Present: Cork history, culture, places, people and events.” .Hämtad 28 June 2011.
  48. Jump up ^  “Cork County Council – If” County Hall “”. June 12, 1981. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
  49. Jump up ^  “Church of St. Anne Shandon.” Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  50. Jump up ^  “City Hall”. Mayor . Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  51. Jump up ^ Web Design and Development Tibus. “English Market – Activities – Shopping – Food Markets – All Ireland – Ireland – Cork – Cork City – Discover Ireland”.
  52. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  53. Jump up ^  “Census of record 1821 figures.” Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  54. Jump up ^  “Home.” Histpop.Org. 2 April 2007. Retrieved twelve August augusti2010.
  55. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census website.” Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  56. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  57. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review.  37  (4) :. 473-488 doi: 1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  58. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Irland.pp. 186-191.
  59. Jump up ^  “Cork City Council members elected – Elected in June 2014”.Cork City Council. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  60. Jump up ^  “New power-sharing” option to change “as Cllr Mary Shields selected” .Irish Examiner Newspaper. June 7, 2014.
  61. Jump up ^  “Cork City Council selects’ inclusive ‘d’Hondt system’ .Irish Times. 6 June 2014.
  62. Jump up ^  “County Hall (Cork County Council)”. June 12, 1981. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
  63. Jump up ^  “the last days of the Capitol cinema”. Evening Echo. January 26, 2016.
  64. Jump up ^ Barker, Tommy (19 July 2012). “Apple boost for the city.” Irish Examiner .Hämtad November 29, 2012.
  65. Jump up ^ Baker, Tommy (1 November 2012). “Logitech’s safe landing” .Kommersiella Estate. Irish Examiner. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  66. Jump up ^ Smith, Gordon (8 April 2011). “EMC is expanding its research Cork”. The Irish Times.
  67. Jump up ^  “Tic Tac in Ireland – Love Irish Food”. Love Irish food.
  68. Jump up ^ Nyhan, Miriam (2007). Are you still in?: Ford Marina Plant, Cork, 1917-1984. Collins Press. ISBN 1-905172-49-4.
  69. Jump up ^ NDA Press release (23 April 2007). “Minister Martin officially opens Amazon in Cork”. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  70. Jump up ^ Cork City Employment and Land Use Survey 2011 Summary Report-March 2012
  71. Jump up ^  “Cork Suburban Network Boundaries” (PDF). Bus Eireann.Hämtad5 February 2012.
  72. Jump up ^ Passage West Monkstown. July 23, 2013.
  73. Jump up ^  “Permission sought for water taxis Cork – December 2007”.Irish Times. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
  74. Jump up ^  “Decision on the Harbour Cat ferry terminals due soon – January 2009” Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  75. Jump up ^  “GoBases – Cork”. GoCar CarSharing. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  76. Jump up ^  “Cork City Cycling Strategy”. Cork City Council. Hämtad28 July 2013.
  77. Jump up ^  “Galway City Council – Latest News”.
  78. Jump up ^ Cork Luas plan derailed. (12 October 2011) .Hämtat July 23, 2013.
  79. Jump up ^  “Timetables”. Irish Rail.
  80. Jump up ^  “RTÉ News: Service begins on the Cork-Midleton line”.RTÉ.ie. 30 July 2009. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  81. ^ Jump up to: ab “Cork City Development Plan 2015-2021” (PDF). Cork City Council. 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  82. Jump up ^  “Sunday Times University of the Year ‘. In 2016. Taken 15 maj2016.
  83. Jump up ^  “IGNITE – What We Do”. 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  84. Jump up ^  “Rubicon Centre Overview”. 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  85. Jump up ^  “The Race – Map Route”. Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
  86. Jump up ^ RowingIreland (2 May 2007). “Press release of the National Rowing opening”. Taken twelve August augusti2010.
  87. Jump up ^  “Cork Week history.” 16 July 2010. Twelve Retrieved August of 2010.
  88. Jump up ^  “Cricket Leinster”. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  89. Jump up ^  “First class matches played Mardyke, Cork”. CricketArchive .Hämtad June 10, 2011.
  90. Jump up ^  “Cork Cricket Academy – About” .Hämtad June 10, 2011.
  91. Jump up ^  “Harlequins Cricket Club”. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  92. Jump up ^  “Sony teams up with Cork Racing ‘. Irish Examiner. 13 September 2006. Retrieved 13 September of 2006.
  93. ^ Jump up to: ab “ARFLI Premier – Roll of Honour”. Australian Rules Football League of Ireland. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  94. Jump up ^  “leeward Lions website – Club Honours”.ämtadsex April 2011.
  95. Jump up ^
  96. Jump up ^  “Census 2011 Profile 6 Migration and Diversity – a profile of diversity in Ireland.” Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  97. Jump up ^  “County Cork City (CSO area code CTY 17)”. Central Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  98. Jump up ^  “Census 2006 – Nationalities” (PDF). Statistics .Hämtad 4 October 2012.
  99. Jump up ^  Local Electoral Area Boundary Committee Report 2013 (PDF) (Report) .Regeringen Stationery Office. In 2013.


Blarney  (Irish:  an Bhlarna  , which means “little field”)  [2] [3]  is a town and townland in County Cork, Ireland. It is located 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of Cork and is famous as the site of Blarney Castle, home of the legendary Blarney Stone. 


Blarney town is a major tourist attraction in County Cork. Mostly people will see the castle to kiss the stone, and to shop at the Blarney Woolen Mills.

Blarney Stone

Main articles: Blarney Stone and Blarney Castle

By kissing the Blarney Stone at Blarney Castle, it is argued that one can receive the “gift of gab” (eloquence or skill at flattery and persuasion). Legend has several suggestions roots, which includes members of the MacCarthy dynasty – the builder and original owner of Blarney Castle.

Blarney Woollen Mills

Built in 1823, the Blarney Woollen Mills was originally known as Mahony’s Mills. It was a water-powered mill mainly produces tweeds and woollens.  [4] After closing in the early 1970s, the mills re-invented by the local contractor Christy Kelleher as a gift shop service tourists visiting the village.


In the middle of the village is dominated by  The Square  , a grass field where the Blarney locals and townspeople gathered at times during the summer.

Several attempts to develop the square, over the years has always been met with fierce opposition from the local population.  [ Citation needed ]  Previously, the square was used for the markets.  


Blarney previously had their own narrow gauge railway station. The Cork and Muskerry Light Railway linked Blarney (CMLR) railway station with the Cork;it opened in 1887 but terminated at December 29, 1934th

The city is served by a number of Bus Eireann services, including the number 215 bus  [5]  every half hour from Mahon Point through Cork city center and the number 235 bus from Cork City to a lower frequency.

The nearest airport is Cork Airport.

Business and Media

The Blarney economy is heavily dependent on the largely American tourism industry, with many hotels and apartments in the area to serve this demand.

The Muskerry News is the local newspaper for Blarney and surrounding areas and are written each month.  [6] The  local radio stations that can be picked up in the Blarney area is RedFM, C103 and 96FM.


There is a Roman Catholic boys’ primary school  Scoil an Chroi Naofa peace which caters for approximately 200 students and is located in the center of the village. A girls’ school,  Scoil na Íosagáin gCailíní  was built around 1974 to accommodate the girls in the congregation, while the boys got a new addition to their school, 1986.

Gaelscoil Mhuscrai, the Irish language primary school in the village. It caters to about 120 students  [ citation needed ]  and was founded in 2002.  [7]  

Blarney is also home to a secondary school called  Scoil Mhuire Gan narrow founded in the 1950s  [8]  and has about 500 students.  [ Citation needed ]  

Sports and leisure

In sport, the local football club, Blarney United FC has play facilities close to the village, with both a traditional green and an all-weather pitch.  [9]  The sites are supported by the dressing room, a meeting room and a hospitality room. The senior team will compete in the first division of Munster Senior League.  [10]  The city’s GAA club, Blarney GAA, was All-Ireland Intermediate Hurling Champions 2009 and the Cork County Intermediate Hurling Champions 2008  [11]  Blarney also field a Camogie team, which was formed again in 1999. the local bike club re-formed in 2010.  [12]

In music, the Blarney Brass and Reed Band was formed in 1981 by a group of locals who wanted to form a community music group spans multiple age groups.  [13]  The band has a musical education program and won the event at the South of Ireland Band Championships in 2010 and 2011.  [14]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^  “CD115: population density and the size of the Electoral Division, CensusYear and Statistics (080 Blarney, Co. Cork)”. Central Statistics Office. 2011. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ From  Blair  ,  Blar  , ie a standard.  Gilman, DC; Thurston, HT; Colby, FM, eds. (1905). “Blarney”. New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  3. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland – Blarney
  4. Jump up ^  “Our History”. Pulled 06/16/2014.
  5. Jump up ^  “Schedule” (PDF). Bus Éireann.  Archive August 13, 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Jump up ^  “Muskerry News | Muskerry News “. Pulled 04/25/2016.
  7. Jump up ^  “Countdown for Gaelscoil Mhuscraí opens its doors for the first time.” Cork. Blarney, Ireland: 07.12.2002.
  8. Jump up ^  “School History”. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  9. Jump up ^  “Opening of weather Facility in O’Shea Park – Charlie Hurley and Niall Quinn help make Blarney United Day”. July 2007.
  10. Jump up ^  “Blarney United FC”. Pulled 06/16/2014.
  11. Jump up ^  “Blarney GAA Club ‘. Pulled 04/25/2016.
  12. Jump up ^ Blarney Cycling Club
  13. Jump up ^  “History | Blarney Brass and Reed Band “ Pulled 06/16/2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “Blarney Brass and Reed Band take the honors in Clonakilty”. Cork Independent. 2011-07-07. Pulled 06/16/2014.

Beara Peninsula

Beara  (Irish:  Bearra  ) or  Beara Peninsula  is a peninsula on the south west coast of Ireland, bounded between the Kenmare “river” (actually a bay) to the north side and Bantry Bay to the south. It has two mountain ranges running along its center: the Caha Mountains and Slieve Miskish Mountains.The northern part of the peninsula from Kenmare to near Ardgroom is in County Kerry, while the rest utgörbarony of Bear in County Cork.


Beara was the traditional seat of power O’Sullivan Beare and was one of the last points of the native Irish resistance after the Battle of Kinsale. Allihies, at the tip of Beara, later became a major copper mines and the Daphne du Maurier novel “Hungry Hill” also made into a movie.

A plaque placed by the historic Society Beara offer the following to explain the origin of the name:

In the first centuries AD, Conn Céad Cathach (Con hundred kinds) fought a tough battle against Owen Mór, King of Ireland at Cloch Barraige. Owen was badly injured in the battle. Those of his followers who survived took him to Inis Greaghraighe (now known as Bere Island) as a safe place for him to recover.Where fairy Eadaoin took him to his Grianan (bower) where she nursed him back to full health. Nowadays, this place called Greenane.

Owen and his followers then sailed southwards until they reached Spain.There he met and married Beara, daughter of the King of Castile.

Later, Owen, Beara and a large army sailed from Spain and landed in Greenane. Owen took his wife to the highest hill on the Island and see the harbor he named the island and the peninsula “Winding Road” in honor of his hustru.Rossmacowen, Kilmacowen and Buaile Owen likely named after Owen Mór and his son. According to local tradition Owen’s wife, Princess Beara, died and was buried in Ballard Commons in the remote and peaceful valley between Maulin and Knocknagree Mountains.

tourist attractions

The view from Healy Pass looking north with heights of the Iveragh Peninsula on the horizon

The main traditional tourist attractions on the peninsula are the ruins of Dunboy Castle and Puxley Mansion, copper mines Museum  [1]  in Allihies, Garnish Island Glengarriff (maintained by the OPW) and Derreen Garden (privately owned but open to the public).

The “Ring of Beara” is a tourist trail for cars which follow the road for about 148 km (92 mi) circumnavigating the peninsula. It starts in Kenmare, passing Healy Pass through Adrigole, passing Castletownbere, Allihies and turn offs to Dursey Island, Eyeries and Ardgroom ended in Glengarriff. The area has had a long connection with the sea, Castletownbere is one of Ireland’s largest fishing ports and has diving, sailing and boating.

The Beara Way is a long distance walking route around the peninsula with several historical and archaeological sites along the way. The main cities on the road is Castletownbere, Glengarriff and Kenmare. There are a number of villages in between including Allihies, Ardgroom, Adrigole, and Eyeries. Bere Island and Dursey Island can be reached by a short ferry ride or the cable car respektive.Beara Way is part of the Beara-Breifne Way based on march O’Sullivan Beare in 1603. The highest Ogham stone in Europe, Ballycrovane Ogham Stone, is near Eyeries.  [2]

annalistic references

See Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI868.2 Dubthach of Berre, a scholar, rested.

See also

  • Dingle Peninsula
  • Iveragh Peninsula


  1. Jump up ^ The Copper Mines Museum
  2. Jump up ^

County Cork

County Cork  (Irish:  Contae Chorcaí  ) is the largest and southernmost county in Ireland. Located in the province of Munster, is named after the city of Cork (Irish:  Corcaigh  ). Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. The largest towns are Cork City, Carrigaline and Ballincollig. In 2016, the county’s population was 542,196, making it the second most populated counties of the Republic of Ireland.  [1]

Local authorities and political subdivisions

There are two local authorities whose responsibility collectively covers the geographical area of the county and the city of Cork. The county, excluding Cork, administered by Cork County Council, while the city is administered separately by Cork City Council. Both the city and county is part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank as the first level local administrative units NUTS 3 Southwest Region. There are 34 such LAU 1 units in Ireland.

Each municipality is responsible for certain local services within its jurisdiction, such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing.

For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies- Cork East, Cork North-Central, Cork North West, Cork South Central and Cork South-West. Together returned 19 deputies (TDs) to the Dáil. The county is part of the South constituency for the application of the EU elections.

For other than municipal purposes, such as formation of sports teams, the term “County Cork” is often considered to encompass both the city and county.

Geography and political subdivisions

County Cork is located in the province of Munster. It borders four other County Kerry in the west, Limerick in the north, to the northeast Tipperary and Waterford in the east. Cork is the largest county in the state by land area.It is the largest of Munster’s 6 counties of both population and area. The population of the city of Cork amounted to 125,622 in 2016. The population of the county is 542,196 making it the state’s second most populous province and the third most populous county in the island of Ireland. The mission Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city is not in the area of Cork City Council.


See also: List of baronies in Ireland

There are 24 historic baronies in the county, the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by the placenta Orders made since 2003, where the official Irish name baronies listed.

  • Bantry (Irish:  Beanntraí  )
  • Barrett (Irish:  Baróidigh  )
  • Barrymore (Irish:  Barraigh Mhóra  )
  • Bear (Irish:  Bearra  )
  • Carbery East, East Division (Irish:  Cairbrigh Thoir, an Roinn Thoir  )
  • Carbery East West Division (Irish:  Cairbrigh Thoir, an Roinn Thiar  )
  • Carbery West, East Division (Irish:  Cairbrigh Thiar, an Roinn Thoir  )
  • Carbery West, West Division (Irish:  Cairbrigh Thiar, an Roinn Thiar  )
  • Condon, Clan Gibbon (Irish:  Condúnaigh Agus Clann Ghiobúin  )
  • Cork City (Irish:  Cathair Chorcaí  )
  • Cork (Irish:  Corcaigh  )
  • Courceys (Irish:  Cúrsaigh  )
  • Duhallow (Irish:  Dúiche Ealla  )
  • Fermoy (Irish:  Fermoy  )
  • Ibane and Barryroe (Irish:  Uí Bhamhna Agus Barraigh Rua  )
  • Imokilly (Irish:  Uí Mhic coille  )
  • Kerrycurrihy (Irish:  Ciarrai Cuirche  )
  • Kinalea (Irish:  Cineál Aodha  )
  • Kinalmeaky (Irish:  Cineál mBéice  )
  • Kinnatalloon (Irish:  Coill na Talún  )
  • Kinsale (Irish:  Cionn tSáile  )
  • Muskerry East (Irish:  Múscraí Thoir  )
  • Muskerry West (Irish:  Múscraí Thiar  )
  • Orrery and Kilmore (Irish:  Orbhraí agus An Choill Mhor  )

Civil parishes and townlands

Main article: List of civil parishes in County Cork

See also: List of townlands in County Cork

There are 253 civil parishes in the county.  [2]

Town’s are the smallest, officially defined geographic divisions in Sweden;There are about 5447 townlands in the county.

Mountains and mountain environments

The county’s main mountain ranges include Slieve Miskish and Caha Mountains on the Beara Peninsula, the Ballyhoura Mountains on the border of Limerick and Shehybergen as innehållerKnockboy (706 m), the highest point in Cork. The Shehybergen is on the verge of Kerry and can be reached from the area known as Priest’s Leap, near the village Coomhola. The Galtee mountains above parts of Tipperary, Limerick and Cork and is Ireland’s highest inland mountain range. The mountain areas in Ballyhoura, Boggeragh, Derrynasaggart and Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the variety of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the highlands include blanket bog, heath, glacial lakes and mountain grasslands. Cork has 13 highest county peak in Ireland.

Rivers and Lakes

The three major rivers: Bandon, Blackwater and Lee and their valleys dominate the center of Cork. Habitat in Dalarna and floodplains includes forests, marshes, bogs and species-rich limestone grasslands. Bandon River flows through many towns, including Dunmanway in the west to the town of Bandon before draining into Kinsale Harbour on the south coast of Ireland.Cork has two well-known sea Lough, Lough Hyne and Lough Mahon, and also contains many small lakes. An area has been set up where the River Lee breaks into a network of canals weaving through a series of forest islands.There are 85 hectares of swamps around Cork wooded area. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey of surface waters in the county Cork, between 1995 and 1997 identified 125 rivers and 32 lakes that are covered by the rules.


Mizen Head, the most south-westerly point in both Cork and Ireland.

See also: List of islands in Ireland

Cork has a mountainous and flat landscape with many beaches and sea cliffs along the coast. Southwest Ireland is known for its peninsulas and some in Cork include the Beara Peninsula, the Sheep’s Head, Mizen Head and Brow Head. Brow Head is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland. There are many islands off the coast of the county, especially off West Cork. Carbery’s Hundred Isles, the islands in the vicinity of Long Island Bay and Roaringwater Bay. Fastnet Rock is located in the Atlantic Ocean 11.3 km south of Ireland mainland, making it the most southerly point of Ireland. Many famous islands lie outside Cork, including Bere, Large, Sherkin and Cape Clear. Cork is 1.094 km coastline, the second longest coastal any county after Mayo, which is 1.168 km.

Land and Forestry

Like many parts of Munster, Cork has rich fertile farmland and many bog and peatland. Cork has around 74,000 hectares of peatlands, which amounts to 9.8% of the county’s total land area. And the county contains approximately 79,188 hectares (195.680 acres) of forest and wooded area, or 10.5% of the land area of Cork, higher than the national average of 9%.


The hooded crow,  Corvus cornix  is a common bird, especially in areas closer to the coast. Because of this bird’s ability to (rarely) prey on small lambs, have gun clubs Cork County killed a large number of these birds in modern times.  [3]  A collection of marine algae are housed in the Herbarium of Botany Department of the University College Cork.  [4]  parts of the South West coastline are hotspots for sightings of rare birds, with Cape Clear is a great location for bird watching. The island is also home to one of only a few gannet colonies around Ireland and the UK. A major attraction to the coast of Cork is whale watching, with sightings of fin whales, basking sharks, pilot whales, minke whales, and other species be secure.


1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The cork of people struggled with Perkin because he was French and not English, they were the only county in Ireland to join the fight. The mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. Cork’s nickname of the “rebel city” has its origin in these händelser.Länet is colloquially called “The Rebel County”, but unique Cork does not have an official motto. This name has 15th Century origins, but from the 20th century, the name is more commonly attributed to the prominent role played Cork in the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) when it was the scene of major battles. Moreover, it was an anti-treaty stronghold during the Irish Civil War (1922-1923). Much of what is now County Cork was once part of the Kingdom  Deas Mumhan (South Munster), Anglicized as “Desmond”, controlled by the MacCarthy Mór dynasty. After the Norman invasion in the 12th century, was the McCarthy clan pushed west to what is now West Cork and County Kerry.Dunlough castle, standing just north of Mizen Head is one of the oldest castles in Ireland (AD 1207). North and east of Cork was taken by Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, who became the Earls of Desmond. Cork City received an English Royal Charter in 1318 and for many centuries was an outpost of the old English kultur.Fitzgerald Desmond dynasty was destroyed in the Desmond Rebellions of 1569-1573 and 1579-1583. A large part of County Cork was devastated in the fighting, especially in the second Desmond Rebellions. In the aftermath, much of Cork was colonized by English settlers in the Plantation of Munster.  [ Citation needed ]  

In 1601 the decisive Battle of Kinsale took place in County Cork, which would lead to English domination of Ireland for centuries. Kinsale had been the scene of a landing of Spanish troops to help the Irish rebels INIO-year war (1594-1603). When this force defeated the rebel hopes for victory in the war was all but finished. County Cork officially created by a division of the older County Desmond 1606th

In the 19th century, Cork was a center for the Fenians and for the constitutional nationalism of the Irish parliamentary party from 1910 as the All-for-Ireland Party. The county was a hotbed of guerrilla activity during the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921). Three Cork Brigades of the Irish Republican Army operated in the county and another in the city. Prominent actions included the Kilmichael Ambush in November 1920 and the Cross Barry Ambush in March 1921. The activity of IRA flying columns, such as the Tom Barry in west Cork, popularized in the Ken Loach film  The Price of Freedom  . On 11 December 1920 Cork City center was gutted by fires started by the Black and Tans in retaliation for IRA attacks. Destroyed over 300 buildings, many other towns and villages around the county suffered a similar fate, including Fermoy.  [6]

During the Irish Civil War (1922-1923), most of the IRA units in Cork sided against the Anglo-Irish Treaty. From July to August 1922 they held the city and county as part of the so-called Munster Republic. However, Cork was taken by troops of the Irish Free State in August 1922 in the Irish Free State offensive, that included both land and seaborne attacks. For the rest of the war, the county saw sporadic guerrilla fighting until the Anti-Treaty called a truce, and dumped their arms in May 1923. Michael Collins, a key figure in the Revolutionary War, was born near Clonakilty and murdered during the civil war in Béal na Bláth, both in West Cork.


County Cork has two Gaeltacht areas where Irish is the primary medium of everyday speech. These are Múscraí (Muskerry) in the northern part of the county, especially the villages of Cill Na Martra (Ballyvourney), Baile Bhúirne (Kilnamartyra), Cúil Aodha (Coolea), Béal Átha an Ghaorthaidh (Ballingeary), and Cape Clear Island (Cape Clear Island) an island in the West.

There are 14.829 Irish language speakers in County Cork with 3,660 native speakers in Cork Gaeltacht. Moreover, there are 6273 participating in 21 Gaelscoileanna and six Gaelcholáistí throughout the county.  [7]  According to the Irish census of 2006, there are 4,896 people in the county who identify themselves as daily Irish speakers outside the education system.

Ballingeary is a major center for Irish-language teaching, with an active summer school, Coláiste na Mumhan or College of Munster.


The song “The Banks of my own lovely Lee” is the song that traditionally associated with the county. It is often heard on the GAA and other sports equipment includes the county.  [8]


There are several media publications printed and distributed in County Cork.These include publications from Thomas Crosbie Holdings, most notably the Irish Examiner  (formerly the Cork Examiner) and its sister newspaper, the  Evening Echo . Local and regional newspapers include  Cork News  ,  [9]Carrigdhoun  , the  Cork Independent  ,  The Corkman  the  Mallow Star  , the Douglas Post  , the  East Cork newspaper  and  Southern Star  . 

Radio stations in the county include: Cork 96FM and dual-Series C103 (formerly 103FM County Sound), CRY 104.0FM, Red FM, and Life FM.

Tourist attractions

Attractions include the Blarney Stone and Cobh, the port where many Irish emigrants boarded for their trip to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa or the United States and also the last stop of  the Titanic  , before departing on their predetermined trip. It is home to the world’s oldest Yacht Club, Cork Yacht Club in Crosshaven Royal.

Fota Island is a tourist attraction due to Fota Wildlife Park is the only zoo in Ireland, Fota House and Gardens and Fota Golf Club and Resort; a European Tour standard golf course which has also hosted the Irish Open in recent times.

West Cork is a popular destination for British, German, French and Dutch tourists who visit the small villages and islands at Carbery’s Hundred Isles including Sherkin Island, Cape Clear Island or Cape Clear Island and Dursey Island. Mizen Head, the “south-westerly point of Ireland” is also in West Cork, as is Sheep’s Head. Lough Hyne (Irish:  Loch Oighinn  ) is a marine lake in West Cork, Ireland, about 5 km southwest of Skibbereen. West Cork is known for its rugged scenery, beautiful beaches and clear social atmosphere.

In 2010 Cork-Swansea route re-opened to allow tourists and visitors to travel from Cork to Swansea.  [10]


Main article: Economy of Cork

The South-West region includes the counties of Cork and Kerry contribute € million 24,877 ($ 39,300 million) (2005 values in 2008 currency) against the Irish GDP.  [11]  The port area to the immediate east of the city is home to a large number of pharmaceutical and medical business. Mahon Point Shopping Centre Cork is the largest and Munster’s second largest shopping center with over 75 stores including a retail park.


Cork’s main transport served from:

  • Air:  Cork International Airport.
  • Rail:  Iarnród Éireann’s InterCity, Commuter and freight train traffic.
  • Sea:  Port of Cork in Cork Harbour.


Cork City is the only city in the county and the second most populous city in Ireland, with a population of 125,622 according to the 2016 Census. Cork is the third most populous city on the island of Ireland. According to the 2006 census statistics, the county has 11 cities with a population of over 4000. County Cork has a population of 542,196 making it the second most populated county in Ireland and the third most populous county in the island of Ireland. The county has a population density of 72 people / km  2  . A large part of the population lives in urban areas.


Common surnames in the county include Buckley, Callaghan, Connell, Connolly, Connor Corcoran, Cotter, Crowley, Fleming, Hurley Lane, Lynch, McAuliffe, McCarthy, Moriarty, Murphy O’Connor, O’Leary, O’Sullivan, Sheehan Smith and Walsh. Norman’s name in connection with the county include Barry Keating, Fitzgerald and Savage.  [12] [13] 

See also

  • High Sheriff of County Cork
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (Cork)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Cork
  • Regional accents of English
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ [1] Statistics. Retrieved: 16 July, 2016.
  2. Jump up ^  “placental Database of Ireland. Retrieved January 21, 2012 “ 13 December 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ Michael Hogan. 2009.  Hooded Crow Corvus cornix  ,, oath, N. Stromberg
  4. Jump up ^ Cullinane, JP 1973  Phycology of the South Coast of Ireland. University College Cork
  5. Jump up ^ for post 1821 figures in 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years Paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865 for a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish bills “in the Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) and P54 in new development in the Irish population history from 1700 to 1850 by Joel Mokyr ochCormac Ó GRADA in the Economic history Review, new series vol. 37 No. 4, p. (1984 November), 473-488.
  6. Jump up ^  “”. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  7. Jump up ^  “Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn said Ghalltacht 2010-2011” (PDF) (in Irish). 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  8. Jump up ^  “”. August 27, 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  9. Jump up ^  “”. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  10. Jump up ^  “Cork to Swansea Ferry”. Fastnet Line. 16 February 2010.
  11. Jump up ^  Cork / Kerry GDP PDF (309 KB)
  12. Jump up ^  “Irish Ancestors / Co Cork “.
  13. Jump up ^  “Cork”.

Cliffs of Moher

The  Cliffs of Moher  (Irish:  Aillte a Mhothair  )  [1]  is located on the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland.  [2] [3]  The rising 120 meters (390 feet) above the Atlantic on HÅG’s head and reach its maximum height of 214 meters (702 ft) just north of O’Brien’s Tower, eight kilometers north.  [4]  A round stone tower near the midpoint of the cliffs built in 1835 avSir Cornelius O’Brien.  [2] [5]  from the cliffs and from the top of the tower, visitors can see the Aran Islands in Galway Bay, the Maumturks and the twelve Pins mountain ranges in the north in County Galway, and Loop Head to the south.  [5]  cliffs rank among the best visited tourist attractions in Ireland  [6]  and gets nearly a million visitors per year.  [4]  the nearest settlements are Liscannor (6 km south) and Doolin (7 km north).  


The cliffs take their name from an old fort called Moher, which once stood at Hag’s head, the southernmost point of the cliffs. The author Thomas Johnson Westropp referred to it in 1905 as  Moher Uí Ruis  or  Moher Uí Ruidhin  .  [7]  The fort stood still in 1780 and mentioned in an account of John Lloyd  a short tour in Clare  (1780).  [8]  It described 1808 to provide a basis for a new telegraph tower.  [7]  the present tower near the site of the old  Moher Uí Ruidhin  built as a lookout tower during the Napoleonic wars the wars ~~ POS = HEAD COMP.  [9]


The cliffs are one of the most popular tourist destinations in Ireland and topped the list of attractions in 2006 by drawing nearly a million visitors.  [10] Since 2011, they have formed part of the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark, one of a family of Geotourism destinations throughout European members of the European Geoparks network.  [11]

In the 1990s, Clare County Council has initiated development plans to allow visitors to experience the rocks without significant intrusive man-made amenities. In line with this strategy was the Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience, built on a slope approaching the cliffs. The center is also designed to be environmentally sensitive in their use of renewable energy, including geothermal heating and cooling, solar panels and gray water recycling.  [12]

The € 32 million plant was planned and built during a period of 17 years and inaugurated in February 2007. The facility exhibits include interactive media show covering geology, history, flora and fauna rocks. A large multimedia screen shows a bird’s eye view from the cliffs, as well as video from underwater caves in the rocks.  [13]

The visitor center will charge € 6 per adult, with children under 16 years liberation. This includes parking, access to the visitor center and the Atlantic Edge exhibition, and a contribution to the preservation and safety of the rocks.  [14]

Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience, won a prize in the Interpret Britain and Ireland Awards 2007 awarded by the Association of Heritage Interpretation (AHI). Although it was specifically for Atlantic Edge Exhibition, AHI assessed throughout the visitor center and place. The justification stated that the entire visitor center was “one of the best facilities that the judges had ever seen.”  [15]

Separate ferries also allow tourists to see the cliffs from the sea.  [16]

Geology and wildlife

The cliffs consist mainly of beds of Namurian shale and sandstone,  [17]  with the oldest rocks that are at the bottom of the cliffs. It is possible to see 300 million years old river channels cutting through the form unconformities at the foot of the cliffs.  [ Citation needed ]  

There are an estimated 30,000 birds that live on the rocks, representing more than 20 species.  [18]  These include Atlantic Puffins, which live in large colonies at isolated parts of the cliffs and the small Goat Island,  [18]  and razorbills. The site is an important bird area.  [19]

popular culture

Cliffs of Moher have appeared in the media. The cinema has rocks appeared in several films, including  The Princess Bride  (1987) (as the filming location for “The Cliffs of Insanity”),  Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince  (2009), [20]  and the  leap year  (2010). The cliffs mentioned in Martin Scorsese’s film bring out the dead  (1999) and noted in the 2008 documentary  Wave Riders  as the site for a big surfing called “Aileens”.  [21]

The music rocks have appeared in music videos, including Maroon 5’s “Runaway” video, Westlife’s “My Love”, and Rich Mullins’ “green color”. Most of singer Dusty Springfield’s ashes were spread on the rocks at his brother, Tom.  [22]  Gaelic Storm’s song “Green eyes red hair” refers rocks.  [23]

In television, the rocks is shown in episodes of  Father Ted  called “tentacles Doom” and “cigarettes and alcohol and Rollerblading” (1996).

In the literature, the cliffs are an important place in Anthony Trollope’s  eye for an eye  , and in Eoin Colfer’s  wish list  .


Bus Éireann route 350 links the Cliffs of Moher in several locations: Ennis, Ennistymon, Doolin, Lisdoonvarna, Kinvara and Galway. The service includes a number of trips each way daily. There is also a privately run bus service that serves the location of Doolin.  [24]


  • A broad perspective
  • A 200-meter drop
  • The rocks from the sea
  • Local wild blueberries goats
  • Branaunmore  sea stack
  • Looking south over the Cliffs of Moher
  • Panoramic bottom O’Brien Tower

See also

  • Wild Atlantic Way, a tourism trail
  • Slieve League, another Irish rock with sea cliffs
  • Croaghaun, another Irish rock with sea cliffs


  1. Jump up ^ Cliffs of Moher placental Database of Ireland. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Cliffs of Moher”.
  3. Jump up ^  Portraits of Ireland: Landscapes, Treasures, traditions.Dorling Kindersley Travel Guides. On August 1, 2000. ISBN 0-7894-6361-X.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Discover Ireland website (official tourism website) – Cliffs of Moher
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “O’Brien’s Tower.” (Official Site).Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  6. Jump up ^  “Ireland’s most popular tourist attractions for 2012 announced”. Fáilte Ireland (the National Tourism Development Authority of Ireland). July 26, 2013.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b archeology of the Burren ancient castles and dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp.  , Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland   . XXXV, Conveyor series; Vol. xv., fifth series (1905). Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  8. Jump up ^  “Lloyds Tour of Clare, 1780: Burren, Mohar, Liscannor Bay.”
  9. Jump up ^ Kelly, Eamonn (2009). The Cliffs of Moher. Matthew Kelly.ISBN 0-9561746-0-4.
  10. Jump up ^  “Failte Ireland – Tourism Facts 2006”. from the original October 1, 2011.
  11. Jump up ^ Burren & Cliffs of Moher Geopark Burren Connect Project.
  12. Jump up ^ Eco-technologies in the Cliffs of Moher underground center
  13. Jump up ^  “If Cliffs – Education”. (Official website).
  14. Jump up ^ Official website – tickets and prices
  15. Jump up ^ 2007 Awards – Atlantic Edge Exhibition – Cliffs Experience and Martello Media
  16. Jump up ^  “Doolin Ferry to the Cliffs of Moher and the Aran Islands.”
  17. Jump up ^ Rider, MH  The Namurian of West County Clare  . 1974
  18. ^ Jump up to: a b com – Official tourism site – Birdwatching at the Cliffs of Moher
  19. Jump up ^  “Important Bird Areas factsheet: Cliffs”. BirdLife International. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Downloaded from http: //
  20. Jump up ^  “Weekend Window: The Cliffs of Moher”. ABC News. 7 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  21. Jump up ^  “Film of the Week – Wave Riders”. Sunday Tribune. 5 April 2009. Archived from the original April 17, 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  22. Jump up ^  “Dusty Springfield Biography”. London: The Guardian. 8 July, 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  23. Jump up ^  “green eyes red hair.”
  24. Jump up ^  “Cliffs Coastal Walk Shuttle Bus” (PDF). Cliffs of Moher.Cliffs of Moher. Retrieved June 10, 2016.


Kilkee  (Irish:  Cill Chaoi  , which means “church Chaoineadh Ita – lamentation for Ita”) is a small coastal town in County Clare, Ireland. It is in the parish of Kilkee, former Kilfearagh. Clare is midway between Kilrush and Doonbeg on N67 road. The city is popular as a seaside resort. The horseshoe bay is protected from the Atlantic by Toss Islands Reef.


During the early part of the 19th century, Kilkee was just a small fishing village in the 1820s, when a paddle steamer service from Limerick to Kilrush launched, it began to attract visitors.  [6] It has been a resort since and was featured on front page of the  illustrated London news  as the premier swimming spot in the then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As the city was more available to the people of Limerick rather than Clare, holidaying in Kilkee became more of a limerick customizable, because of steamboats traveling daily up and down the River Shannon.  [7]  Eventually, the city grew rich merchants from Limerick wanted holiday home at sea, resulting in a building boom in the 1830s. As the demand for accommodation in Kilkee grew, several hotels are being built. Along with these three churches were built, a Roman Catholic church in 1831, a Protestant church in 1843 and a Methodist church in 1900, reflecting the cosmopolitan feel of the city at the time.  [7]

On January 30, 1836  Intrinsic  , a ship from Liverpool on the way to New Orleans, was blown into a bay near Bishop’s Island in Kilkee. The ship repeatedly dashed against the rocks and sank along with its crew of 14 people, none of whom survived. Shipwreck place now called “Own Bay”.  [8]  A chartered passenger sailing vessel named Edmond  fell at Edmond Point 19 November 1850. The ship sailed from Limerick to New York City, but was concentrated in Kilkee Bay by a storm. As the tide was very high, the ship was driven all the way to Edmond Point, where it split in two. Of the 216 on board, 98 were drowned in the accident.  [9]  Exactly 50 years to the day after Intrinsic  fell, January 30, 1886 in  Fulmar  fell just north of Kilkee in an area called Farrihy Bay. The ship was a cargo ship carrying coal from Troon in Scotland to Limerick, but never reached its destination. Of the 17 crew members on board just a body ever recovered.  [10]

Between 28 and 29 December 1894 in  Inishtrahull  disappeared somewhere near Kilkee coast. At the time of the disappearance carrying a shipment of coal from Glasgow to Limerick but never reached its destination. The ship was only confirmed to have sunk January 3, 1985, as part of a port bow of a ship with a brass plate marked “Glasgow” was picked up by Kilkee Coast Guard.  [11]

In the 1890s, Kilkee again had another boom, when the West Clare Railway opened to freight, improve business life in the area, as well as providing a relatively quick means of travel to and from the city. Many prominent people in the community traveled to Kilkee, including Sir Aubrey de Vere, Charlotte Brontë (who spent their honeymoon here), Sir H. Rider Haggard, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. In 1896, Crown Princess of Austria visited the city.  [12]  The entertainer Percy French was a regular performer in the city and an incident at the West Clare Railway heading to Kilkee led him to write the song “Are Ye Right There Michael”. Although it has become more developed and modern in recent years, the town retains some of its 19th century Victorian feel.

Kilkee has regularly awarded the blue flag of the European Commission. In 2006, a statue of Richard Harris unveiled in Kilkee by actor Russell Crowe.


In recent years, during a period of rapid economic growth in Ireland called “Celtic Tiger”, Kilkee went considerable expansion with the development of hotels, transport and other forms of housing. During this period, the beach or the “horseshoe” bay crowded as the population increased to 25,000 during the summer months, although this peak has declined significantly from 2008 onwards as the Irish financial crisis has prevented so many people from visiting the city for the summer.  [13] The  city’s principal income is still the tourism industry and thus many recreational sites have been established, including restaurants, pubs and cafes. After the last weekend of August the city emptied and many businesses close by next summer, creating a much slower pace of life compared to the busy summer months. This means that if the local companies do not have a good summer in terms of sales, they may suffer financially for the rest of the year. Summer 1950 in Kilkee are evocatively described in Homan Chesterton’s memoir,  Rathcormick  (2001).


Along with bath on the string, swimmers can choose between Pollock Holes, New Found out and Byrnes Cove. Pollock hole, which is also known as Toss are Reef, three natural rock closed pools of water which changes each of the tide. This results not only in fresh water, but fills the marine life in many rock pools surrounding it. Diving boards at New found allow dives up to 13 meters (45 feet) in the open sea. The annual diving competition held on these cards. [14]

Every year there are many participants in the Bay Swim, a race of about one mil from the east end of the city to the west of the bay. The race starts at Byrnes Cove, a protected cove located near George’s head, a prominent headland in the city. In 2011, nearly 200 people participated in the swim.There is also a mini cove swimming for children under fourteen, from Sandy Cove to the pier.  [15]  The last weekend in June sees an influx of triathletes as Kilkee host Hell of the West Triathlon, the longest triathlon in the country.This is one of the biggest and toughest triathlon in the Irish Triathlon calendar with upwards of 600 athletes taking part in a 1,500-meter swim, 45 km bike and finish with a 10km road race.  [16]

Kilkee has a reputation as a place to enjoy diving. Jacques Cousteau declared that it was the best place in Europe for scuba diving, and one of the five best in the world.  [ Citation needed ] The Kilkee Dive Centre is a fully equipped dive center that caters to both beginners and experts. Divers can go to depths of 10 meters (32 feet) to 45 meters (147 feet). The variety of marine life in the reefs surrounding the bay attracts divers from all over the world.  [17]  

A version of badminton (not squash, as is often erroneously stated) played against the high sandstone walls in the West End for generations, and it is possible that the rules were codified in Kilkee before racquetball standardized elsewhere. The most important trophy, the Tivoli Cup, first competed in Kilkee in 1935; badminton in its present form is not codified internationally until 1950. Richard Harris, who would go on to become an internationally known actor, won the Cup four consecutive years, from 1948 to 1951, a record unmatched by any of today.  [18]

The Strand Races are horse races annually contested Kilkee beach. The first began in the 19th century on the sandy hills where the golf club is now. The races are normally held over two days in September, when the summer season is nearing its end. The course is done by placing the poles on the beach and when the tide goes out the competitions begin.  [19]  Traditionally a celebration of farmers when the season is over.

Clare has a strong GAA tradition, where the local team called St. Senan’s.The club has won many county finals at all levels and has reached two Munster Senior Football Final-determining. The people of the city is proud of its strong history with Gaelic sports, especially in football, the club has won many titles over the years.

Kilkee is popular with walkers as different paths stretch out in all directions from the bay. The most popular walk is the cliff walk, which means to go up Dunlicky Road and then turn right onto the rocks at Intrinsic Bay, following the road until you eventually end up at Pollack holes.

East End of the city is home to an 18-hole golf course. The first and second tees overlook the Atlantic Ocean and the third tee overlooks Chimney Bay.Other golf clubs in the immediate vicinity of the city is Doonbeg Golf Club, and Lahinch Golf Club, both world famous links courses.


Before the West Clare Railway opened in 1887, the only way to get to town was a paddle steamer from Limerick to Kilrush and then by horse and carriage from there. This service ran from 1816 to 1918, but was stopped after World War I because of the popularity of the railroad, but for many years the railroad and steamship service ran along with a special “Steamer Express” train to and from Kilkee.  [20]  After the railway closed in 1961 , the only way to get to the place where the car but because the mainline railway system will connect Limerick and Galway to Ennis, it is still possible to get the train as far as Ennis. Although only bus services offered by Bus Éireann from Kilkee is Kilrush, Ennis and Limerick (via Shannon Airport), it is possible to get to Cork or even Dublin by connecting buses or trains.  [21]

For international visitors, the nearest airport is Shannon. Shannon Airport offers services to Europe, USA and Canada.

Cois Fharraige

Kilkee hosted the previous Cois Fharraige festival in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Each year the festival was held over three days in September and consisted of live music and water sports events including a surf contest in Spanish Point.It was remarkable that Ireland’s first surfing and music festival. Although Cois Fharraige was a new event, it managed to attract some well-known bands in the three years were organized, such as Republic of Loose, The Coronas, The Blizzards, Noah and the Whale, Ocean Colour Scene, Laura Izibor and Delorentos.  [22]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of tourist attractions in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^  “Census Ireland 2011”. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^  “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 15 October, 2013.
  4. Jump up ^  Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  5. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume.  37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  6. Jump up ^  “Shots open a window in Kilkee history.” 27 November 2007. Taken 20 August augusti2012.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b “A History of Kilkee.” Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  8. Jump up ^  “inherent Shipwreck”. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  9. Jump up ^  “Sail Ship Edmond” run ashore on Kilkee “ 12 December 2008. Hämtad16 August 2012.
  10. Jump up ^  “Fulmar Report”. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^  “Inishtrahull Record”. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  12. Jump up ^  “Discover Kilkee -County Clare”. 20 August 2012.
  13. Jump up ^  “hope on the horizon.” Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  14. Jump up ^  “Bombs Away! Annual diving competition “ August 4, 2011. Retrieved 21 August augusti2012.
  15. Jump up ^  “Big day out for Kilkee Bay swim.” August 4, 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  16. Jump up ^  “Hell of the West – Latest News”. June 23, 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  17. Jump up ^  “Kilkee Dive Centre”. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved 21 August augusti2012.
  18. Jump up ^  “Tivoli Cup in Kilkee.” Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  19. Jump up ^  “A History of the Beach Races”. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  20. Jump up ^  “Passenger Services on the Lower Shannon”. 21 August 2012.
  21. Jump up ^  “Kilkee – to come here.” Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  22. Jump up ^  “The Blizzard & Laura Izibor go Cois Fharraige Line-Up” August 21, 2009. Hämtad21 August 2012.


Lisdoonvarna  (Irish:  Lios Duin Bhearna  , which means “once it gapped hold”)  [2]  is a spa town of 822 people (2002 census) in County Clare in Ireland. The city is known for its music and festivals.

The town got its name from the Irish  Lios Duin Bhearna  meaning “Lios Duin,” or enclosured soon, of the gap ( “Bearna”). It is believed that the fort within the meaning of this name is the green earth Lissateeaun fort (Fort fairy hill), which is 3 km northeast of the city, near the remains of a Norman-era castle.


Bus Éireann route  350  links Lisdoonvarna to multiple locations: Ennis, Ennistymon, Cliffs of Moher, Doolin, Fanore, Kinvara and Galway. There are a number of trips each way dagligen.Vidare rail and bus links are Ennis and Galway.


In September each year, one of Europe’s largest matchmaking events are held in the town attracting upwards of 40,000 romantic hopefuls, bachelor farmers and accompanying revelers. The month-long event is a major tourist attraction. The current matchmaker Willie Daly, a fourth-generation matchmaker.

A now defunct music festival that took place near the town celebrated in a song of the same name written by the Irish folk singer Christy Moore. This festival took place until 1983, when the last event was marred by a riot and the accidental drowning of eight people.  [3]


The current city is a relatively new by Irish standards, dating mainly from the early 19th century.

On September 11, 1887 house landowner Mr. Mike Walsh was attacked Moonlighters (members of one of the organized bands desperadoes who carried on a system of farming abuse in Ireland).  [4]  A detachment of the Royal Irish Constabulary defended the house and its owners and it was hard battles in and around the house. Head Constable Whelehan killed. All Moonlighters caught. Seven constables, four acts constables and two head constables Constabulary received a medal for bravery.  [5]

See also

  • Ireland portal

List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^  Census Statistics Office Ireland: Alphabetical list of cities with its population, 2002
  2. Jump up ^ Lisdoonvarna placental Database of Ireland. Pulled: 09/05/2013.
  3. Jump up ^ Lisdoonvarna Festival 1983
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ PE Abbott and JP Tamplin, British Galanntry Awards, page 274th
  6. Jump up ^ and not considered a census town until 1891. Pre 1891 totals for the townlands of Lisdoonvaarna and Royal Spa, where the spa is and the first guest house was built for tourists in the 1870s. For a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses” in the  Irish population, economy and society  , edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54, and even “The latest developments the Irish population history, 1700-1850 “by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in  the Economic history Review  , New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November, 1984), pp. 473-488.


Karst topography  is a landscape formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage system with sinkholesoch caves.  [1]  It has also been documented for weathering resistant rocks, such as quartzite given the right conditions. [2]  Subterranean drainage can limit surface water with few or no rivers or lakes. But in areas where the dissolved bedrock is covered (perhaps by debris) or limited by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock layers, distinct developments karst surface be completely missing.


The word  Karst  borrowed from German  karst  in the late 19th century.  [3] The German word came into use before the 19th century.  [4]  According to the usual interpretation, the term derives from the German name for Kras region (Italian:  Carso  ), a limestone plateau surrounding the city of Trieste in northern Adriatic (nowadays, located on the border between Slovenia and Italy in the 19th century part of the Austrian Littoral).  [5]  Scientists agree, however, on whether the German word (which shows no metathesis) was borrowed from Slovenian.  [6] [7]  the Slovenian common noun  anchored  first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form  Kraški  in the 16th century.  [8]  as a proper noun, the Slovenian shape  Grast  was first certified in 1177,  [9] refers to the karst plateau -a region in Slovenia partially extending into Italy, where the first research on the karst topography was performed.The Slovenian word arose by metathesis from the reconstructed form  * korsъ  ,  [8]  borrowed from Dalmatian Romance  carsus  .  [9]  In the end, the word Mediterranean origin,  [9]  are believed to come from a Romanized Illyrian base.  [8]  It has been suggested that word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root  karra-  “rock”.  [9] [10] the  name may also be connected to oronym  Kar (u) sádios Oros  quoted by Ptolemy, and perhaps even LatinCarusardius  .  [8] [9]   


The development of Karst occurs when acidic water begins to break down the surface of the rock close its cracks or bedding plane. As the bedrock (limestone or dolostone) continues to break down the cracks tend to be larger. As time goes on, these fractures will be wider, and eventually, a system of any kind drainage begins to form under.Om this underground drainage system does form, it will accelerate the development of karst arrangement where because more water will be able to flow through the region. [ 11]

Resolution mechanism

The carbonic acid that causes these features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide (CO  2  ), which dissolves in water. When rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can give much more CO  2  to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves the calcium carbonate. The primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following:

2  O + CO  2 2  CO  3
CaCO  3 + 2  CO  3 Ca  2+ + 2 HCO  3  

In particular, and very rare conditions as previously encountered in Lechuguilla in New Mexico (and more recently of Frasassi caves in Italy), other mechanisms may also play a role. Oxidation of sulfides which leads to the formation of sulfuric acid can also be one of the corrosion factors of karst formation. As the oxygen (O  2  ) -rich surface water seep deep into anoxic karst system, the supply of oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system (pyrite or H  2  S) to form sulfuric acid (H  2  SO  4  ). Sulfuric acid then reacts with the calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion of the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is:

2  S + 2 O 2 2  SO  4 (Sulfide oxidation)
2 SO  4 + 2 H 2  O SO  42-  + 2 H  3  O  + (Sulphuric acid dissociation)
CaCO 3 + 2 H 3  O + Ca  2+ + 2 CO 3 + 2 H 2  O (Calcium carbonate dissolution)
CaCO 3 + 2 SO 4 caSO 4 + 2  CO  3 (Global reaction leading to calcium sulfate)
caSO 4 + 2 H 2  O CaSO  4  · 2H  2  O (Moisture and gypsum formation)

This reaction chain forms gypsum.  [12]


The karstification of a landscape can result in a variety of large-or small-scale features both on the surface and under. On exposed surfaces, small features include solution ribs (or rillenkarren), rivulets, clints and grikes, collectively called Karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes, or cenotes (closed basins), vertical shafts, foibe (inverted funnel shaped sinkholes), disappearing streams and return springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes and karst valleys.Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, can result in karst towers, or haystack / eggbox landscape. Under the surface, complex underground drainage systems (such Karstakviferer) and extensive caves and cave systems can be formed.

Erosion along limestone beaches, especially in the tropics, produces karst topography comprising a sharp makatea surface of the normal reach of the sea and cuts that are usually the result of biological activity or bioerosion at or slightly above the sea surface. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailand’s Phangnga Bay and Halong Bay in Vietnam.

Calcium carbonate dissolved in water can be folded out where the water discharges a part of the dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers occur from sources can give tough terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over long time periods. In caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals.


Agriculture in karst areas must take into account the lack of surface water.The soils may be fertile enough, and rain can be adequate, but rain water moves rapidly through the slots in the ground, sometimes leaving the surface dry between rain.

A karst fenster occurs when an underground stream emerges at the surface between layers of rock, cascades certain distance, and then disappears back down, often into a sinkhole. Rivers in karst areas may disappear underground a number of times and grow up again in different places, usually under a different name (Ljubljanica, the river of seven names). An example of this is denPopo Agie River in Fremont County, Wyoming. In a place simply called “sinks” in Sinks Canyon State Park, the river flows in a cave in a formation known as the Madison Limestone and then rises again 800 meters (  1  /  2  mi) down the canyon in a quiet pool. A Turlough is a unique type of seasonal lake found in Irish karst areas are formed by the annual upwelling of water from the underground water system.

Water from wells in karst topography may be unsafe, as the water may have run unimpeded from a sinkhole in a pasture cattle, through a cave and to the well, bypassing the normal filtering that occurs in a porous aquifer. Karst formations are cavernous and therefore high rates of permeability, resulting in reduced opportunity for contaminants to be filtered. Groundwater in karst areas is just as easily polluted as surface streams. Sinkholes have often been used as farm or community rubbish dumps. Congested or faulty septic tanks in karst landscapes may dump sewage directly into underground channels.

Karst topography also means problems for the human population. Sinkholes can develop gradually as surface openings enlarge, but progressive erosion is often invisible until the roof of an underground cavern suddenly collapses.Such events have swallowed homes, cattle, cars and agricultural machinery.In the US, for example, a cave sinkhole swallowed a part of the collection of the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green, Kentucky in 2014.  [13]

Interstratal Karst

Interstratal Karst is a karstic landscape that developed under a cover of insoluble stones. Usually this will involve a cover of sandstone overlying limestone layers undergo lösning.I UK wide doline field developed at Mynydd Llangynidr over a plateau Twrch Sandstone lying hidden Carboniferous Limestone.  [14]


Kegelkarst is a type of tropical Karst terrain with many cone-like hills formed by the cockpit, and mogotes poljes and without strong fluvial erosion processes. There are in. Cuba, Jamaica, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Puerto Rico, southern China and Vietnam  [15]


Pseudokarsts is similar in form or appearance of karst features but is created through different mechanisms. Examples include lava caves and granite tors -for example Labertouche Cave iVictoria, Australia and paleocollapse functions. Mud caves is an example of pseudokarst.

Sheet Karst areas

The world’s largest limestone karst is Australia’s Nullarbor Plain. Slovenia has the highest risk of sinkholes, while the Western Highland Rim in the eastern US is the second highest risk of karst sinkholes.  [16] [17] 

Chocolate Hills in the Philippines, is also a significant karst topography.They are chocolate colored conical karst hills widespread in the heart of Bohol, the island province of Central Visayas.

Ozark Plateau Ozarks of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas.

The Arbuckle Mountains of south central Oklahoma contains intensely folded and faulted carbonate beds that have produced some of the highest densities of karst features found in the United States. Because of the nature of the raised beds, Arbuckle Mountains contains a sequence of limestone ridges and valleys slate. This causes the waterfall development which streams down over a limestone ridge in a valley slate. Because the water is rich in calcium carbonate dissolved from the karst system, large deposits of travertine have gathered at the waterfalls where the turbulence causing mineral precipitation. The most notable of these waterfalls is Turner Falls near the town of Davis.

Historical studies and early theories

1689, Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer in the study of karst in Slovenia, and a Fellow of the Royal Society for improving Natural Knowledge, London introduced the word  Karst  to European researchers, describes the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Cerknica.  [18]

In 1893, Jovan Cvijić in his  Das Karstphänomen  theorized  holo karst  as the type found along the eastern Adriatic, and  Mero Karst  incompletely developed some karst forms like the kind of karst located in eastern Serbia.He claimed that most types of dolines, “the diagnostic karst landforms,” created by mountains resolution.  [ Citation needed ]  

List of terms for karst related features

See also: stalactite

  • Abime, a vertical shaft in the karst that can be very deep and usually opens in a network of underground passages
  • Cenote, a deep sinkhole, characteristic of Mexico, because of the collapse of limestone bedrock exposing groundwater during
  • Phoebe, an inverted funnel-shaped sinkhole
  • Scowle
  • Turlough (lake) (turlach), a kind of vanishing lake as Irish Karst
  • Uvala (landform), a collection of several smaller individual sinkholes that coalesces into a compound sinkhole
  • Karren, bands of limestone forming a surface
  • Limestone pavement, the shape of the land consists of a flat, carved surface of exposed limestone similar to an artificial pavement
  • Polje (polje karst, karst fields), a large flat-specific karstic plains.Identification Polje is the Slovenian word meaning field.
  • Doline, also sink or sinkhole is a closed depression draining underground in karst areas. The name comes from the doline dolina, the Slovenian word meaning valley.
  • Fenster karst (karst window), a feature where a spring emerges with water flow suddenly disappear into a sinkhole

See also

  • Glaciokarst
  • Thermokarst
  • Speleology
  • Scowle
  • underground river
  • List of landforms
  • Karstjäger


  1. Jump up ^ What is karst, the University of Texas
  2. Jump up ^ Geomorphological landscapes in the world.
  3. Jump up ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary . 2002. Vol. 1 AM. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 1481st
  4. Jump up ^ Seebold, Mr. 1999.  Kluge Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache  , 23 edition. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, p. 429th
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ Pfeiffer, Dieter. 1961. “Zur Definition von der Begriffen Karst Hydrologie.”  Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft Chen Geology  113: 51-60, p. 52
  7. Jump up ^ Portner, Rudolf. 1986.  bevor die Römer cam. Städte und Stätten Deutscher Urgeschichte  Rasatt: Pabel Moewig-Verlag, p. 88th
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c d SnO, Marko. 2003.  Slovenski etimološki slovar  . 2nd edition. Ljubljana Modrijan, p. 318th
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e (ed.) Bezlaj, France. 1982.  Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika  , Vol. 2, KO. Ljubljana Sazu, p. 82.
  10. Jump up ^ Gams, I.,  Kras against Sloveniji – v prostoru in this case (Karst in Slovenia in time and space), 2003, ISBN 961-6500-46-5.
  11. Jump up ^  “What is the Karst (and why it is important)?”. Karst Waters Institute.
  12. Jump up ^ Galdenzi, S.; Cocchioni, M.; Morichetti, L.; Amici, V.; Scuri, S. (2008). “Sulfidic groundwater chemistry of Frasassi Cave, Italy” (PDF).Journal of Cave and Karst Studies.  70 (2): 94-107.
  13. Jump up ^
  14. Jump up ^
  15. Jump up ^ Whittow, John (1984).  Dictionary of Physical Geography  .London: Penguin, 1984, p 292. ISBN 0-14-051094-X.
  16. Jump up ^
  17. Jump up ^
  18. Jump up ^ Paul Larsen,  scientific accounts, a vanishing lake: Janez Valvasor, Cerknica and the new philosophy  , in 2003.


Burren  (Irish:  Boireann  , which means “big stone”) is a karst landscape in County Clare, Ireland. It measures about 250 square kilometers and is enclosed roughly within the circle made by the villages Ballyvaughan, Kinvara, Tubber, Corofin, Kilfenora and Lisdoonvarna.

The  Burren National Park  is one of six national parks in Ireland and the smallest in size (15 km  2  ) .The Burren National Park Visitor Centre is located on Church Street in Corrofin, Ireland.


Burren area formed part of the territory of Corco Modhruadh, which means “seed or people Modhruadh” which was coextensive with the diocese of Kilfenora. At some point around the 12th century, the area is divided into two: Corco Modhruadh Iartharach ( “Western Corcomroe”) and Corco Modhruadh Oirthearach ( “Eastern Corcomroe”) also known as Boireann as the end of the 16th century, the English administrative baronies of Corcomroe and the Burren, respectively. The O’Loughlin (Ó Lochlainn) clan ruled Boireann down to the middle of the 17th century from his boss’s home on Gragans Castle (Tower is not the house of the same name). The head of the family was known in later times as “Prince of the Burren” and clan members were buried in the family grave near altareCorcomroe Abbey. Their kinsmen O’Connor (Ó Conchubhair) clan ruled Corco Modhruadh Iartharach from Dough Castle near Liscannor. Villages and towns are within medieval territoriumBoireann include Lisdoonvarna, Ballyvaughan, New Quay / Burrin (Burren), Noughaval, Bealaclugga (Bell Harbour), Carron and Fanore / Craggagh.

Burren is rich with historical and archaeological sites. There are more than 90 megalithic tombs in the area, portal dolmens (including Poulnabrone Dolmen), a celtic high cross in the village of Kilfenora, and a number of ring forts – among them the triple ring fort Cahercommaun on the edge of an inner trim and exceptionally well-preserved Caherconnell Stone Fort.Corcomroe Abbey is one of the area’s main scenic attractions.


Grikes and clints drive along the limestone pavement

The rolling hills of the Burren consists of limestone pavements with crisscrossing cracks known as “grikes”, leaving isolated rocks called “Clint”.The region supports arctic, Mediterranean ochalpina plants side by side, because of the unusual environment. The limestones, which goes from Visean stage of the Lower Carboniferous, shaped like sediment in a tropical sea about 350 million years ago. The layer contains fossil corals, crinoids, sea urchins and ammonites.

Icing of the Quaternary facilitated greater denudation. The result is that the Burren is one of the finest examples of a glacio- karst landscapes in the world. The effects of the last ice age (the Midlandian) is the most common, with the Burren overrun by ice during this glaciation. The effects of past karstification (solutional erosion) have been eliminated by the last ice age.So all surfaces karstification now seen is from about 10,000 years ago and the Burren karst is why recently. Solutional processes have increased and deepened grikes of limestone pavement. Preexisting lines of weakness in the rock (vertical joints) contributes to the formation of extensive cracks separated by clints (flat sidewalk tiles). Berg karstification facilitates the formation of underground drainage.

Climate and agriculture

Burren has an unusually temperate climate. Average air temperatures range from 15 ° C in July to 6 ° C in January. Soil temperature usually does not fall below 6 ° C (end of 2010 registered a very unusual prolonged period of snow).As the grass grows when the temperature rises above 6 ° C, this means that the Burren (the neighboring Aran Islands) has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland or Britain, and supports diverse and rich vegetation. Late May is the sunniest time,  [1]  and also probably the best time to see the flowers, with gentianaoch avens top (but orchids bloom later).  [ Citation needed ]  

During the counter-guerrilla operations in the Burren in 1651-1652, Edmund Ludlow said ” (Burren) is a country where there is not enough water to drown a man, wood enough to hang one or earth enough to bury him …. .. And yet their cattle are very fat ,. grass growing in turfs of earth, of two or three feet square, which lies between the stones, which are of limestone, is very sweet and nourishing  ” [1] [2] 

Flora and fauna

Burren is known for its outstanding collection of plants and animals.  [2]  The region supports many rare Irish species,  [ which? ]  Some of which are only in this area.  [ Citation needed ]  Others occur in similar karst areas in the west of Ireland.    

Three-quarters of Irish species of flowers found in the Burren. The grikes (cracks) to give damp protection, supporting a wide range of plants, including rice. Where the surface of the pavement split into gravel, many of the hardier arctic or alpine plants can be found when the limestone pavement is covered with a thin layer of soil, are patches of grass seen, interspersed with herbaceous plants. Among the flowers that recorded from the Burren’s spring gentian, an alpine plant with bright blue flowers used as a symbol of the area by the Tourist Board. The Irish orchid (  tätnycklar Intacta  ) and bloody cranesbill (  bloody cranesbill  ) are also there.  [3]

Notes insects found in the Burren includes the butterflies on Fritillary ( Boloria Euphrosyne  ), Brown Hairstreak (  Thecla betulae  ), Marsh Fritillary ( Euphydryas aurinia  ) and white wood (  forest suite wing  ); moths, the Burren Green ( torvfly  ), Irish ANNULET (  gnophos dumetata  ) and Transparent Burnet (  Zygaena purple formalized  ); the Hoverfly  Kronblom fly  and the water beetle  Ochthebius nilssoni  . This last species is known from only five places in the world, its type locality in northern Sweden and four marl lakes in the Burren.

Burren is one of the most important nesting areas in Ireland for marten.


Burren has a long history of traditional Irish music. It is especially known for “West Clare Style” of concertina playing and music festival in Doolin and Corofin.


Burren many limestone cliffs, especially sea cliffs on Ailladie, are popular with rock-climbers.  [4]  For cavers, there are a number of mapped caves in the area, especially Pollnagollum. Doolin is a popular “base camp” for cavers and is home to one of the two largest cave rescue businesses in the Irish Cave Rescue Organisation.


  • Native flowers and rock formations
  • Poulnabrone portal grave
  • Burren landscape
  • Poulnabrone Portal Tomb
  • burren fences
  • Karst meadow
  • stone monuments
  • Karst dome near Kilkeedy Parish – eastern Burren

See also

  • Aillwee Cave
  • Burren Action Group
  • Cliffs of Moher
  • Turlough (lake)
  • Mullaghmore, County Clare
  • Newtown Castle
  • Temple Cronan
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Corrofin


  1. Jump up ^
  2. Jump up ^  “Remarkable Plants of the Burren: A catalog raisonné”.
  3. Jump up ^ Clements, P. 2011  Burren Country, travels through an Irish limestone landscape  . Collins Press. ISBN 9781848891173
  4. Jump up ^  “Irish Climbing Online Wiki”.

Bunratty Castle

Bunratty Castle  (Irish:  Caislean Bhun Raithe  , which means “castle at the mouth of the Ratty”) is a large 15th century tower house in County Clare, Ireland. It is located in the center of Bunratty village (Irish:  Bun Raite  ), the N18 road between Limerick and Ennis, near Shannon Town and its airport.The castle and adjoining folk park are run by Shannon Heritage attractions.


Identification Bunratty,  Bun Raite  (or possibly,  Bun na Raite  ) in Irish means “basin” of “Ratty” river.  [2]  This river, at the side of the castle, flows into the near Shannon orifices.


Previous structures

The first recorded settlement on the site may have been a Norsemen deal / trade camp is reported in the Annals of the Four Masters have been destroyed by Brian Boru in 977. According to local tradition, such a camp was located on a rise southwest of the current castle. Since no actual remains of this settlement has yet been found, its exact location is unknown and its existence is not proven.  [3]

Around 1250, King Henry III of England granted cantred or district Tradraighe (or Tradree) to Robert De Muscegros, which in 1251 cut down about 200 trees in King’s Wood påCratloe. These may have been used to construct a  motte and bailey  castle, which would have been the first castle at Bunratty, but again the exact position of this is unknown. A later reference in state newspapers, dating to 1253 gives the Muscegros right to hold markets and an annual fair in Bunratty. It has therefore been assumed that the site was the center of early Norman control in south-east Clare. Early 19th century scholars bring structure to the north west of the present castle. But when a hotel was built there in 1959, John Hunt excavated the area and thought the remains be to a gun position from the League Wars (see below).  [2] [3] 

These chips later be returned to (or taken back by) King Henry III granted to Thomas de Clare, a descendant of Strongbow in 1276. The Clare built the first stone structure on the site (the second castle). This castle was occupied by ca. 1278-1318 and consisted of a large single stone tower with lime white walls. It was near the river, at or near the site of the current Bunratty Castle.In the late 13th century, Bunrattty had about 1,000 inhabitants. The castle was attacked several times by O’Brien (or O’Brians) and their allies. 1284, while De Clare was away in England, the place was captured and destroyed.On his return in 1287, The Clare had the place was rebuilt and a 140-yard (130 m) Longfossé built around it. The castle once again attacked but it did not appear until 1318. In that year, a great battle was fought at Dysert O’Dea as part of the Irish Bruce Wars, where both Thomas De Clare and his son Richard was killed. The Lady Clare, on learning this, fled from Bunratty Limerick after burning castle and town. The De Clare family never returned to the area and the remains of the castle eventually collapsed. Because the stones probably used for other local buildings, no trace of the other castles. [3]

In the 14th century, Limerick was an important port for the English crown.Protecting access via Shannon Estuary from attack by the Irish, the site was once occupied. In 1353, Sir Thomas de Rokeby led a British army to conquer MacNamaras and MacCarthys. A new castle (third) was built in Bunratty, but again, its exact location is unknown. Local tradition considers that stood on the site where the Bunratty Castle Hotel later constructed. However, the new structure is hardly finished before they are picked up by the Irish. Documents show that in 1355, King Edward III of England released Fitzjohn Thomas Fitzmaurice from prison in Limerick. He had been indicted for allowing the castle to fall into the hands of Murtough O’Brien also serves as a Governor (captain) in Bunratty.  [3]

Current structure

The fourth castle, the current structure, built by the MacNamara family in about 1425. Its builders may have been a Maccon Sioda MacNamara, chief of Clann Cuilein (ie MacNamaras). He died before the castle was completed happened during his son Sean Finn (died 1467). At about 1500, came Bunratty Castle in the hands of O’Brien (or O’Brians), the most powerful clan in Munster and later the Earls of Thomond. They expanded the place and finally made it to his boss seat, move it there from Ennis.  [3]

In 1558, the castle is now listed as one of the most important stongholds of Thomond -was taken by Thomas Radclyffe, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from Donal O’Brien of Duagh last King of Thomond (died 1579), and given to Donal’s nephew, Connor O ‘Brien. Donogh O’Brien, Conor’s son, may have been to move the seat of the family from Clonroad (Ennis) Bunratty. He made various improvements to the castle, including putting a new management roof on it.  [2]

During the League Wars set off the Irish rebellion in 1641, Lord Forbes, commanding forces in the English Long Parliament, received by the then Lord Barnabas O’Brien to occupy Bunratty 1646. Barnabas did not want to commit to both sides of the fight, play royalists rebels and Roundheads against each other. He left for England, where he joined King Charles.Defense of the castle, whose position allowed them to hold it to access the blockade by sea to Limerick (held by the League) and the River Shannon, was in the hands of Rear Admiral Penn, father of William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania. After a long siege, the Confederates took the castle. Penn surrendered but were allowed to sail away to Kinsale.  [2]

Barnabas O’Brien died in 1657, but had apparently rented the castle to a “John Cooper”, possibly the same person married to Máire Ní Mahon avLeamaneh Castle, widow of another O’Brien, Conor (died 1651).  [2]  Bunratty remained O’Brien property, and in the 1680s the castle was still the main seat of the Earls of Thomond. 1712, Henry the 8th and last Earl of Thomond (1688-1741) sold Bunratty Castle and 472 acres (191 hectares) of land to Thomas Amory for £ 225 and an annual rent of £ 120 Amory in turn sold the castle Thomas Studdert who moved in about 1720.  [4]

The Studdert family left the castle (allows to decay), to reside in the more comfortable and modern adjacent “Bunratty House” they had built in 1804.  [4][5]  The reason for the move is tied up in family arguments over the oldest son marry his cousin.  [ citation needed ]   

For some time in the middle of the 19th century, the castle was used as a barracks by the Royal Irish Constabulary.  [6]  In 1894, Bunratty again be used by Studdert family, as the seat of Captain Richard Studdert.  [6]  at the end of the 19th century , the ceiling of the Great Hall collapsed.  [2]

In 1956 the castle was bought and restored by the 7th Viscount Gort, with support from the Office of Public Works.  [4]  He reroofed castle and saved it from destruction. The castle was opened to the public in 1960, sports furniture, tapestries and works of art dating to around 1600.  [3] [4] 


Today, the castle is a major tourist attraction, along with “Bunratty Folk Park”. Both the Castle and Bunratty House is open to the public. The castle is known for its medieval banquets, offered since 1963, where “Bunratty Castle Entertainers” performing today.

“Bunratty Folk Park” is an open air museum with 30 buildings, including Ardcroney Church of Ireland church, moved here and reopened in 1998.


  1. Jump up ^ national monuments in County Clare
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Lynch, Christopher (1977), “Bunratty Castle – a Brief History” (PDF), The Other Clare,  a : 17-18
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f . Ryan, William Gerrard (1979), “An examination of the monuments of Archaeological and historical interest in the Barony of Bunratty Lower, Co. Clare, Part 4: Castles and tower houses c.1500 Chapter 33: Bunratty Parish “. Clare Library. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Landed estates database: Studdert (Bunratty)”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  5. Jump up ^  “estates database: Bunratty House”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “Landed estates database: Bunratty Castle”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.


  • Christopher Lynch,  Bunratty Castle  , Volume 41 of The Irish Heritage series, Eason, 1984, ISBN 0900346566th

County Clare

County Clare  (Irish:  Contae an Chlair  ) is a municipality in Ireland, in the Mid-West region and the province of Munster. Clare County Council is the local authority. The county had a population of 117,196 at the census of 2011.  [1]

Geography and political subdivisions

Clare is the northwestern part of the River Shannon, covering a total area of 3400 sq km (1300 sq mi). Clare is the 7th largest of Ireland’s 32 traditional counties in area and 19th largest in terms of population. It borders two counties in Munster and a county in Connacht: County Limerick in the south, County Tipperary to the east and County Galway in the north. Clare nickname is the  Banner County  .  [2]

Baronies, parishes and townlands

The county is divided into baronies of Bunratty Lower, Upper Bunratty, Burren, Clonderalaw, Corcomroe, Ibrickan, Inchiquin, islands, Moyarta, Tulla Tulla Lower and Upper. These in turn are divided into civil parishes, which are divided into townlands. These divisions are real estate define land boundaries and ownership, rather than administrative.

Towns and Villages

  • Ardnacrusha
  • Ballynacally
  • Ballyvaughan
  • Bare Field
  • boston
  • Broadford
  • bunratty
  • Carrigaholt
  • Carron
  • Clarecastle
  • Clonlara
  • Connolly
  • Coolmeen
  • Cooraclare
  • Corofin
  • Crevice
  • Cratloe
  • Cree (Creegh)
  • Cross
  • Chrusheen
  • Doolin
  • Doonaha
  • Doonbeg
  • Ennis
  • Ennistymon
  • Fanore
  • Feakle
  • Inagh
  • Inch
  • Kilbaha
  • Kilfenora
  • Kilkee
  • Kilkishen
  • Kildysart
  • Kill
  • Killimer
  • Kilmaley
  • Kilmihil
  • Kilmurry McMahon
  • Kilnaboy
  • Kilnamona
  • Kilrush
  • Labasheeda
  • Lahinch
  • Liscannor
  • Lisdoonvarna
  • lissycasey
  • Meelick
  • Milltown Malbay
  • Mount
  • Mullagh
  • Newmarket-on-Fergus
  • O’Brien’s Bridge
  • O’Callaghans Mills
  • Ogonnelloe
  • Parteen
  • Quilty
  • Quin
  • Ruan
  • Scariff
  • Shannon
  • Sixmilebridge
  • Toonagh
  • Tuamgraney
  • Tubber
  • Tulla
  • Whitegate

physical geography

Water defines a large part of the physical limits of Clare. To the southeast is the River Shannon, Ireland’s longest river and to the south is the Shannon Estuary. The boundary to the northeast is defined avLough Derg which is the third largest lake in Ireland. In the west, the Atlantic Ocean, and the north is Galway Bay.

County Clare contains The Burren, a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and plants. On the western edge of the Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher. The highest point in County Clare is Moylussa, 532, in the Slieve Bernagh  [3]  varies in the eastern part of the county. The following islands are outside the county:

  • Aughinish
  • Inishmore (or Deer) Island
  • Inishloe
  • mutton Island
  • Scattery Island


There was a Neolithic civilization in the Clare area – the name of the people is unknown, but the prehistoric peoples left the evidence remains in the form of old dolmen; megalithic single chamber, typically consisting of three or more upright stones. Clare is one of the richest sites of these graves in Ireland, most attention is the Burren area, it is known somPoulnabrone dolmen which translates as  the hole sorrows  .  [5]  The remains of people inside the tomb has been excavated and dated to 3800 BC .  [5]  Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia  information dating back to 100 AD, is the oldest written account of the island with geographical features.  [6] in his map Ptolemy names Gaelic tribes inhabit it and the areas where they residents; Clare in the area he identified a tribe called  Gangani  .  [7] Historians have found tribes on the west of Ireland most difficult to identify with famous people, menCamden O’Conor and speculated a possible connection between Gangani and  Concani  ,  [8] [9] [ 10]  of the eleven tribes in the confederation of Cantabri in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. [11]

During the early Middle Ages, the area was part of the kingdom of Connacht controlled by Uí Fiachrach Aidhne, until it was annexed to the Kingdom of Munster solved by Dalcassians in the middle of the 10th century. It was renamed Thomond, which North Munster and given rise to Brian Boru in this period, perhaps the most noted högkung. From 1118 onwards, the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as their own petty kingdom, controlled by the O’Brien clan. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman domination Thomond, expire at the Battle of Dysert O’Dea in 1318 under Edward Bruce invasion. The County name Clare will probably not from the Clare family, but upon payment of Clare (now Clarecastle) whose Irish name  Clar  [ “plank bridge”] refers to a crossing of the River Fergus.  [12] [13] [14]

1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough O’Brien in surrender and regrant to Henry VIII became Earl of Thomond in Henry’s The Kingdom of Ireland. Henry Sidney Lord Deputy of Ireland, Desmond Rebellions responded by creating Presidency of Connaught in 1569 and the presidency in Munster in 1570. He was transferred Thomond from Munster to Connaught, which he shired, Thomond is County Clare. About 1600 Clare was removed from the presidency Connaught and made a presidency in its own right under the Earl of Thomond. When Henry O’Brien, 5th Earl of Thomond died in 1639, Lord Deputy Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford decreed Clare should return to the presidency in Munster, but the war of the three kungadömenaförsenat until reset.  [15]

County Clare’s nickname is the  Banner County  , where various origins have been proposed: the banners captured by Clare Dragoons at the Battle of Ramillies; or the banner of “Catholic Emancipation” up avDaniel O’Connell victory in a 1828 election for County Clare who led the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829th  [16]

Scattery Island, at the mouth of the Shannon off the Clare coast, was transferred to Limerick Corporation and the County of Limerick city after the dissolution of the monasteries, and assigned to County Clare by municipal companies (Ireland) Act 1840th Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, a part of the legal County Galway (Drummaan, Inishcaltra North and Mount electoral divisions) were transferred to County Clare. This area includes the village of Mountshannon on the northwestern shore of Lough Derg.

Local authorities and the Dáil representation

See also: Clare (Dáil Éireann constituency) and Clare County Council

The county seat is at Ennis, who also serves as a major regional hub for County Clare. Among its rescue, it contains Ennis Regional Hospital, Clare divisional HQ in Lake, Clare fire brigade and civil defense.

Clare is represented by its own parliamentary constituency in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas and has been since 1921. Clare currently served by four TDs. In short, a small area of Clare were in Clare-Galway South constituency in the 1970s before being abolished.The second part of the local government represented by the Municipal -Clare four in the form of Ennis, Kilrush, Kilkee and Shannon.

The constituency has historically been a Fianna Fáil stronghold. But Fianna Fáil lost its overall majority Council in 2004.  [17]  As of 2009 local elections Fine Gael is the largest party with 12 seats.  [18]  It won 40% of votes in the Clare constituency in the 2011 Irish general election.

Prominent former TDs Clare include Éamon de Valera who went on to become prime minister and president, former President Patrick Hillery and former Minister Brendan Daly.


English is the main language spoken in Clare. The vast majority of the population are Irish people, accounting for 86%. Most immigrants are Europeans total additional 7520; There is also a small African minority of 1,124 people while other groups are very small in number.  [22] The population of Clare accounted for 117.196 people in the last census in 2011. The main cities are Ennis with a population of 25,360 and Shannon with the 9673rd demographic profile of Clare in general is quite young: 22% are under 14 years, while 12% are over 65, compared to the national average of 20% and 11%, respectively.  [20]  There is a slightly higher percentage of males by 50 , 5%, while females number 49.5%.  [21]

In addition there is a large Clare diaspora due to large migration during the 19th century. There are millions of people around the world who can trace their family background Clare; these are mostly present in North America, UK, Australia, South Africa, Argentina and New Zealand.  [23]  Many people from the Irish diaspora visiting the area to trace his family roots and background.  [23]

Most of the names in Clare derived from September’s of Dalcassian course of Gaels; some of the most common examples are few names of assimilated Norman origin such as Burke, Dalton, and Comyn.  [25]


The most dominant religion in County Clare is Christianity; at least 92% of the population in the area surveyed as part of Ireland Census 2006 identified as Christian.  [26] There are many abbeys and priories in Clare; some of the ruins of these as Scattery Island, Bishop Island and Drum monastery is old, dating from the 6th century when Christianity was first introduced to Ireland.The former was founded by St. Senan who was born locally near Kilrush in 488 and is counted among the twelve apostles of Ireland.  [27]  There are many other saints of Clare as Flannan, Mochulleus, Moula, Caïmin, Maccreiche, Munchin and more.  [28]  today the Catholic Church is in the majority with 88% of the population declaring themselves adherents of the religion, this is slightly above the national average.  [26]

Most of Clare falls under the Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Guy, which is part of the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and Emly.  [29]  The Bishop of Killaloe sitting at the St Peter and Paul Cathedral in Ennis. A small part of the northwestern part of the Clare falls under the Diocese of Galway, Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora.  [30] As part of the local architectural conservation projects around eighty Christian churches are protected structures, some of the more notable structures include the ruins of Corcomroe Abbey, Quin Abbey and Dysert O Dea monastery.  [31]

The largest religious minority is the Church of Ireland, which is part of the Anglican community, with nearly 2000 followers  [26]  in Clare. The county is part of the Diocese of Limerick and Killaloe, one of the three cathedrals of the diocese is St. Flannan’s Cathedral in Kill.  [32]  Other religious communities in Clare are very small in comparison, while there is also a minority who declare no religion.  [ 26]


Tourist attractions

County Clare is famous for beautiful scenery.  Citation needed  ]

  • Cliffs of Moher
  • Doolin
  • Inis Cealtra (Holy Island) in Lough Derg
  • Kilbaha
  • Kilkee
  • loop Head
  • Scattery Island
  • Spanish Point
  • Burren


West Clare and some pockets in East Clare was recognized as part of the Gaeltacht, the Irish Free State government in the original  Coimisiún na Gaeltachta  1926th The most prominent of these areas with native Irish speakers were west of Ennis in Kilmihil, Kilrush, Doonbeg, Doolin, Ennistimon, Carrigaholt, Lisdoonvarna and Ballyvaughan. But at the time of the second  Coimisiún na Gaeltachta  1956, the decline has been such that West Clare was completely removed from the list, but it remained under the Gaeltacht (Housing) serves until 2001.

Geographical proximity to the Aran Islands (which was once a part of Thomond) and local trade by fishermen from that meant the language held out longer in Fanore, Murroogh, Doolin and Quilty than other places. The last native Clare Irish speakers, the  seanchaí  Paddy Pharaic Mhichil Shannon Fisher Street, Doolin, died in the early 1990s. More recently, pressure group  Coiste Forbartha Gaeltachta Chontae a Chlair  have tried to restore the official status in West Clare a Gaeltacht area.  [33] [34]


County Clare has a strong history of traditional music. It is home of the Kilfenora Ceili Band, the Tulla Ceili Band, Stockton Wing, Sharon Shannon, Noel Hill, Peadar O’Loughlin, Martin Hayes and legendary tin whistlerMicho Russell. Ennis in County Clare is also the birthplace of Grammy-nominated singer Maura O’Connell, whose grandmother started a fish market in the city.The county has many traditional music festivals and one of the most famous is the Willie Clancy Summer School, held every July in the town of Milltown Malbay in memory of the famous uilleann piper Willie Clancy.

Andy Irvine has written two songs celebrate County Clare is a “west coast of Clare” (recorded with Planxty 1973), where he mentions the Spanish Point and Milltown Malbay. The other is “My Heart last night in Ireland” (recorded on his solo album  rain on the roof  in 1996, and again at the  transit station 2005), where he mentions several towns and villages in County Clare: Milltown Malbay, Scariff, Kilrush, Sixmilebridge, Kilkishin, Lahinch, Ennistymon, Liscannor and Kilkee, and makes two references to music Willie Clancy:

In the town of Scarriff sun shone in the sky
When Willie Clancy played their pipes and tears welled in my eyes
Many years have passed and gone since the time we were there
, but my heart tonight in Ireland in the cute County Clare.
. ..
Lahinch and Ennistymon , Liscannor and Kilkee
But best of all was the Milltown when the music flowed so free
Willie Clancy and County Clare I am ever in your debt
for the sights and sounds of yesterday lights memories yet.

Milltown Malbay is home to Oidhreacht a Chlair, an institute of higher education in all aspects of Irish tradition, history and literature.  [35]


Clare hurling team has one of the best records of success in the country in recent years with many cups Liam MacCarthy Cup after winning the 1995, 1997 and 2013 and also finalists in 2002. Clare won the Munster final in football in 1992 beat Kerry . There is a strong Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) presence in County Clare with the founder of the GAA, Michael Cusack, born in Carron in the heart of the Burren in North Clare. Irish rugby internationals from Clare include Keith Wood, Anthony Foley and Marcus Horan.



Clare has two national primary roads -a classification with reference to the main roads between major cities in Ireland.  [36]  This includes the N18 linking Limerick to Galway, passing through Ennis and route of the N19 -Shannon. [36]  these two roads is a part of the wider western and southern corridor linking many of the major settlements across the island in these areas. There are also some significant national secondary roads -across coast, stretching from Bally by Lahinch and Kilkee, before they get to Kilrush is N67.  [36] In addition to this N68 connects Kilrush to Ennis, but Ennis is connected to Ennistymon via the N85.  [ 36]

Main public transportation is mostly limited to buses drove by the Irish government companies Bus Éireann; There are about 25 buses run frequently roads that pass through most major settlements in Clare.  [37]  The Ennis railway station operated by the state-owned Iarnród Éireann is the main railway station in Clare today; it opened 2 July 1859.  [38]  The route limerick trains run from Ennis to Dublin and it generally takes three hours to complete the journey.  [39] [40]  It was formerly much more extensive local rail network in Clare, who, while a part of the United Kingdom, West Clare Railway was in existence from its opening in 1887 by Charles Stewart Parnell until 1961 that covers a large part of the county.  [41]  it was quite ineffective but leads Percy French to write the song  Ye Right there Michael?  about their experiences. A large part of it was dug up and removed by the Irish Government from 1950 to 1970 after having considered wasteful, but it remains to local organizations who want to conserve and restore parts of it. [42]

The third busiest airport in Ireland is located in Clare with Shannon International Airport, which opened in 1945.  [43]  Together with Dublin Airport and Cork Airport is one of the three main airports in the country, handling 3.62 million passengers in 2007. Shannon was the first airport in Ireland to receive transatlantic flights.  [43]  Ryanair is the airline handling Main with the UK and continental European countries such as Spain, France and Germany as the top destinations.  [44]  much traffic from the United States received, Aer Lingus handles the majority; It is sometimes used as a military landing that has caused some controversy in the country,  [45]  , but nonetheless has generated significant revenue for the airport.  [46]  There are some local ferry services, so much of the county is surrounded by water, there is one from Killimer to Tarbert Island in Kerry  [47]  and also from Doolin to the Aran islands of Inisheer and Inishmore. [48]

See also

  • High Sheriff of Clare
  • Lord Lieutenant of Clare
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^  “Census 2011 – County Clare Overview”.
  2. Jump up ^  “Clare, The Banner County – World Cultures European” Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ NB: not related to the Slieve Bearnagh mountain in County Down.
  4. Jump up ^  “Climate”. 25 December 2008.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “Neolithic sites in Ireland.” October 2, 2008.
  6. Jump up ^  “Ptolemy’s map of Ireland: a modern decoding” Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  7. Jump up ^  “The arrival of the Celts”. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  8. Jump up ^ O’Laughlin,  families, County Clare, Ireland ; 7.
  9. Jump up ^  “Before there were counties”. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  10. Jump up ^ Four Masters,  “The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters” as translated by Owen Connellan. , 393rd
  11. Jump up ^ Anthon,  a classic Dictionary , 368th
  12. Jump up ^ Briggs, Keith (2009). “Clare, Clere and Cleres” (PDF).Newspaper English ortnamns Society (41): 14th
  13. Jump up ^  “Origin of the name” Clare “”. .Hämtad 19 April 2012.
  14. Jump up ^  “Thom Directory 1931”. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  15. Jump up ^  Falkiner, Caesar Litton. “The Counties of Ireland: A historical sketch of their origin, constitution, and gradually Demarcation (1902-1904)” .Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature. 24 : 184-5.
  16. Jump up ^ Spellissy, Sean (1 January 2003). A History of County Clare.Gill & Macmillan. p. 39. ISBN 9,780,717,134,601th
  17. Jump up ^ Mark Hennessy and Michael O’Regan (15 June 2004). “” A very poor performance “- Ahern”. The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  18. Jump up ^  “2009 local elections – Electoral Area Details”. Election Ireland. Taken 19 april2012.
  19. Jump up ^ for post 1821 numbers, 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865, for a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre- Irish famine bills “in the Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54, and also in New developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850 by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in the Economic history Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473-488.
  20. Jump up ^  “Persons, males and females in each Province, County and City classified by age group, 2006”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  21. Jump up ^  “Population of each Province, County and City, 2006 ‘.Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  22. Jump up ^  “Persons, males and females usually resident in each province and county, and present in the State on census night, classified by ethnic or cultural background, in 2006”. Central Statistics Office Ireland .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  23. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Clare Diaspora”. Clare Heritage and Genealogical Research Centre. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  24. Jump up ^  “Valley gCais or The Dalcassians of Thomond” .DalcassianSeptembercom. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
  25. Jump up ^  “Norman and Cambro-Norman surnames in Ireland” Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  26. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Census 2006 – Volume 13 – Religion”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  27. Jump up ^ Gratton-Flood, WH (1 March 1907). “The Twelve Apostles of Erin.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York. Robert Appleton Company In  . Hämtasnio February 2008.
  28. Jump up ^  “County Clare folk tales and myths: early Christian times.” .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  29. Jump up ^  “History of Guy Pin”. Archived from originaletden 11 December 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  30. Jump up ^  “pin Galway, Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora.” .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  31. Jump up ^  “List of Protected Structures in Co. Clare – churches “. Clare County Council. Archived from the original November 19, 2007.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  32. Jump up ^  “St Flannan’s Cathedral, Killaloe” .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  33. Jump up ^  “public meeting at Clare Gaeltacht revival”. Gael Port.January 26, 2015.
  34. Jump up ^  “Clare Gaeltacht:” When we have come from and where we are going “. ‘ Gael Port. January 26, 2015.
  35. Jump up ^  “Oidhreacht a Chlair Teo”. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  36. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Highway: lengths of 2007” (PDF). National Roads Authority .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  37. Jump up ^  “Bus services to Clare County Council”.ämtad25 December 2008.
  38. Jump up ^  “Ennis station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Hämtad25 December 2008.
  39. Jump up ^  “Data on trains between Dublin and Enniskillen” .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  40. Jump up ^  “Your journey – Timetables”. Irish Rail. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  41. Jump up ^  “A Brief History of the West Clare Railway” from the original January 4, 2008.Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  42. Jump up ^  “The West Clare Railway Co.”. from the original January 4, 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  43. ^ Jump up to: ab “Shannon Airport Facts & Figures”.ämtadsex November 2013.
  44. Jump up ^  “Flights from Shannon Airport.”ämtad25 December 2008.
  45. Jump up ^  “Peaceful protest at Shannon Airport draws 1,700 people” Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  46. Jump up ^  “Nearly 200,000 soldiers using Shannon”. Irish Times. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  47. Jump up ^  “Killimer Tarbert Car Ferry”.ämtad25 December 2008.
  48. Jump up ^  “Doolin Ferry Landing”. Archived from originaletden 8 December 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.


  • Anthon, Charles (1855). A Classical Dictionary. Harvard University.
  • O’Laughlin, Michael C. (2000). The families of County Clare, Ireland.Irish Roots Cafe. ISBN 0-940134-98-5.
  • The four Masters (2003). “The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters”, translated by Owen Connellan. Irish Roots Cafe. ISBN 0-940134-14-4.

Brownshill Dolmen

The  Brown Hill Dolmen  (  Dolmain Chnoc a Bhrúnaigh  in Irish) is a megalithic portal tomb located 3 km east of Carlow, County Carlow, Ireland.It is just utanförR726 regional road  [1]  and is clearly visible from the road. A cornerstone of Brown Hill, weighs approximately 100 tons, is known to be the heaviest in Europe.  [2]  The tomb is listed as a national monument.  [3]


Officially known as  Kernanstown Cromlech  , it is also written as  Brown  e actress  Dolmen. It is located on a hill sits the former estate house Browne family as the hill got its name.  [4]


It was built between 4000 and 3000 BC of some of the earliest farmers to inhabit the island. It is also known as  Brownhill Portal Tomb  , so called because the entrance to the tomb was flanked by two large upright stones (orthostats) supports granite cornerstone, or roof of the chamber. A cornerstone is believed to have been covered by an earthen mound and a grind stone blocked the entrance. On Brownhill both portal stones and stone gate is still in place; Capstone is located on top of the portals and the gate stone and slopes to the ground away from the entrance. Not much more information is available at Brownhill because it has never been excavated.  [1] A fourth upright standing nearby and could be the remains of a förgård.Omfattningen of the chamber can not be determined.

See also

  • Dolmen
  • List of megalithic sites


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Brown Hill Dolmen”. Carlow Pulled 09/12/2007.
  2. Jump up ^ Weir, A (1980). Early Ireland. A Field Guide. Belfast Blackstaff Press. p. one hundred and first
  3. Jump up ^ national monuments in County Carlow
  4. Jump up ^  “Browneshill Dolmen”. Carlow County Museum. Pulled 09/12/2007.

County Carlow

County Carlow  (Irish:  Contae Cheatharlach  ) is a municipality in Ireland.It is part of the South East region and is also located in the province of Leinster.  [8]  It is named after the town of Carlow, which lies on the River Barrow. Carlow County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 54,612 according to the census of 2011.

Geography and political subdivisions

Carlow, or “Ceatharlach” originally part of Norman Palantine counties of Leinster, became a separate county probably around 1306.  [9]  At the time, more than today, which extends through the coastal area around Arklow, but control of this area was questioned by the Irish chiefs in the area. These areas were given over to County Wicklow in 1606-1607


There are seven historic baronies in the county: Carlow, Forth, Idrone East, Idrone West, Rathvilly, St. Mullin Lower and Upper St. Mullin.

Towns and Villages

  • Ardattin
  • Ballinkillin
  • Ballon
  • Bally
  • Borris
  • Carlow
  • Clonmore
  • Clonegal
  • Fennagh
  • The hack Town
  • Kildavin
  • Muine Bheag
  • myshall
  • Nurney
  • old Leighlin
  • Rathvilly
  • Royal Oak
  • St Mullin’s
  • Tinryland
  • Tullow

Local governments and politics

Local authorities in County Carlow is controlled by the  local government act , the latest of which (Local Government Act 2001) established a two-tier structure of local authorities .Toppskiktet of the structure consists of Carlow County Council. The second part of the municipal council consists of. .Outside the city, the County Council is solely responsible for local services [10]  Two towns in the county council: Carlow and Muine Bheag. There are 21 councilors in the county who return from five local elections areas: Borris (3), Carlow East (4), Carlow West (5), Muine Bheag (4) and Tullow (4).  [11] [12] Because the county is part of the Southeast region, some County Council are also representatives isydöstra regional authority. 

For elections to Dáil Éireann, is part of Carlow Carlow-Kilkenny constituency that returns five TDs. The current form of the constituency was created for the 1948 general election.


  • FC Carlow is the local football team competing in a championship
  • Carlow GAA is the county’s Gaelic Athletic Association, the body which fields both hurling and football teams.


  • Pierce Butler – soldier, planter and statesman, recognized as one of America’s “founding fathers. He represented South Carolina in the Continental Congress and the US Senate.
  • Myles Keogh – American Civil War military officer and later captain of Company In the US 7th Cavalry Regiment – fought in the Indian Wars and was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. He was born in Orchard, Leighlinbridge 1840th
  • William Dargan – engineer, is often seen as the father of Irish railways.
  • Richie Kavanagh – comic songwriter, from Raheenwood, Fenagh, Co.Carlow.
  • John Tyndall – 19th century scientist who was the first to explain why the sky is blue.
  • Derek Ryan – country singer and former member of the pop band D-side
  • Saoirse Ronan – Oscar and Golden Globe nominated actor.
  • Kathryn Thomas – RTÉ presenter.
  • Samuel Haughton – polymath, in 1866 published a formula to calculate the drop needed to cause death of the hangings.
  • Peter Murphy – radio and television companies presented RTÉ’s  Cross Country Quiz  , born in Carlow
  • Sean O’Brien Leinster and Ireland international rugby player.
  • Frank O’Meara, Carlow -born Irish artist known for its Impressionist plein air landscape painting (1853-1888).
  • James Fenelon – a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.
  • David Mullins – Irish jockey, known for riding rule the world to win the 2016 Grand National

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Carlow)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Carlow
  • High Sheriff of Carlow


  1. Jump up ^  “County Carlow”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  3. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^  Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  7. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review.  37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  8. Jump up ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Carlow (county)”. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. Jump up ^ Desmond Roche,  municipal law of Ireland  , Dublin, 1982
  10. Jump up ^  “All Services”. Carlow County Council. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  11. Jump up ^  “2009 Local Elections – Carlow County Council” Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  12. Jump up ^ Act of the Oireachtas: County Carlow Local Electoral Areas Order 2008

County Armagh

Armagh  (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland and one of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland, located in the northeastern part of ön.Gränsar to the southern shore of Lough Neagh, covering the county an area of 1326  [4]  and has a population of about 174,792. It is in the historical province of Ulster. Armagh is known as the “Orchard County” because of its many apple orchards.  [5]


The name “Armagh” is derived from the Irish word  Ard  means “height” and Macha  , together meaning “height” (or high place) and Macha. Macha mentioned in  The Book of the Taking of Ireland  , and is also said to have been responsible for the construction of the hill place Emain Macha (now Navan Fort near Armagh City) to serve as the capital of Ulaid kings (who give their name to the Ulster), also thought to be Macha’s  height  .

Geography and Features

From its highest point at Slieve Gullion, in the southern part of the county falls Armagh land away from its rugged south with Carrigatuke, Lislea and Camlough mountains, the rolling drumlin country in the center and west of the county, and finally the plains in the north where rolling flats and small hills reaching the sea at Lough Neagh.

County Armagh’s border with Louth is characterized by rugged Ring of Gullion rising in the southern part of the county, while a large part of its border with Monaghan and down goes unnoticed with seamless continuation of drumlins and small lakes. The Blackwater River marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the county’s northern border.

There are also a number of uninhabited islands in the county’s portion of Lough Neagh: Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Padian, Phil Roe flat and shallow flat.


Despite being located in the east of Ireland, Armagh has an oceanic climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters, and temperate, humid summers. Generally, the temperature rarely drops below freezing during the daytime, but the frost is not uncommon in the months of November to February. Snow is rarely longer than a few hours, even in the elevated southeastern länet.Somrarna is mild and humid, and even with sunshine often interspersed with showers, daylight lasts for nearly 18 hours during high summer.


The main Irish SEPTS in the county were descendants of the Collas, the O’Hanlons and MacCanns and Uí Neill, the O’Neills of Fews. Armagh into several baronies: Armagh held by O’Rogans, lower Fews held by O’Neill in Fews and upper Fews was under the control of O’Larkins, later moved by MacCanns. Oneilland East was territory O’Garveys, also displaced by MacCanns. Oneilland West, who Oneilland East, was once O’Neill territory, until then held by MacCanns, who were Lords of Clanbrassil. Upper and Lower Orior was O’Hanlon territory. Tiranny ruled by Ronaghan. Various country ruled by O’Kelaghan. The area around the base of Slieve Guillion near Newry was also home to a large number of McGuinness clan as the outcasts of hereditary countries held in County Armagh was the territory Down.Ancient Ulaid (also known as Voluntii, Ultonians, Ulidians, Ulstermen) before the fourth century . It was ruled by the Red Branch, whose capital was Emain Macha (or Navan Fort) near Armagh. Place, and then the city was named after the goddess Macha. Red Branch plays an important role in Ulster Cycle, such as cattle Raid of Cooley. But they were eventually driven out of the area of the three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. Clan Colla ruled the area known Airghialla or Oriel for these 800 years.

Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, and the Catholic Church continues to be his view. Armagh is currently one of four counties in Northern Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Catholic background, according to the census of 2011.


The southern part of the county has been a stronghold of support for the IRA, earning it the nickname “Bandit Country” but this is generally regarded as untrue media label that has resulted in slander and demonization of the local community.  [13]  South Armagh is predominantly nationalist , with most of the population opposed to any form of British presence, especially of a military nature. See Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade for further information.

On 10 March 2009 CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI officer in Craigavon, County Armagh the first police deaths in Northern Ireland since 1998. The officer fatally shot by a sniper when he and a colleague looked “suspicious activity” at a house in nearby when a window was smashed by youths causing the occupants to call the police. The PSNI officials answered emergency calls, providing a CIRA sniper opportunity to shoot and kill officer Stephen Carroll.  [14] [15] 


County Armagh is no longer used as a management area for municipal purposes, however, still officially used for purposes such as Lieutenancy area – the county retains a lord lieutenant acting as representative of the British monarch in the county.  [16]

County Armagh ceased to function as a municipal entity in 1973. Currently, the county is covered for municipal purposes by four district councils, namely Armagh City and District Council, most of Craigavon, roughly the western third of Newry and Mourne District Council and part of Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council , centered on Peatlands Park.

With the proposed reform of local authorities in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Armagh would have covered part of two new council areas, Armagh City and Bann District and Newry City and down; However, the reform is not gone yet.

Armagh ceased to function as a constituency in 1983 but is still the core of Newry and Armagh constituency represented at Westminster and the Newry and Armagh constituency represented in the Northern Ireland Assembly.County Armagh also remain as a district for legal and real estate purposes;But its baronies no longer has any administrative use.

The -XZ suffixes are used today in vehicle registration plates for vehicles registered in County Armagh.


Main article: List of places in County Armagh

cities(population of 18,000 or more and 75,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Newry (also part of the settlement is in County Down)
  • Craig, include:
    • Lurgan
    • Portadown

means towns

(population of 10,000 or more and 18,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Armagh (the town charter)

small towns

(population of 4,500 or more and 10,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • No

intermediate regulations

(population of 2250 or more and in 4500 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Bessbrook
  • Keady
  • Rich Hill
  • Tandragee


(population of 1,000 or more and for 2250 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Crossmaglen
  • Market Hill
  • Mullavilly / Laurelvale
  • Poyntzpass (part of the settlement is in County Down)
Small villages and hamlets(population of less than 1,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • acting on
  • Annaghmore
  • Anna Hugh
  • Aughanduff
  • Ardress
  • Ballymacnab
  • Bann Foot
  • Belleeks
  • Blackwater Town
  • Broomhill
  • Camlough
  • Clonmore
  • Charlemont
  • Cladymore
  • Creggan
  • Cullaville
  • Cullyhanna
  • Darkley
  • Derryadd
  • Derryhale
  • Derrymacash
  • Derrymore
  • Derrynoose
  • Derrytrasna
  • Dorsey
  • Dromintee
  • Drumnacanvy
  • Edenaveys
  • Forkill
  • Hamiltonsbawn
  • Jonesborough
  • Killean
  • Killylea
  • Kilmore
  • Lislea
  • Lisnadill
  • Loughgall
  • Loughgilly
  • Madden
  • Maghery
  • Meigh
  • Middletown
  • Milford
  • Mount Norris
  • Mullaghbawn
  • Mullaghbrack
  • Mullaghglass
  • Newtownhamilton
  • Street Scotch
  • silver Bridge
  • Tartaraghan
  • Tynan
  • Whitecross



The baronies of County Armagh (1900)

Main article: baronies Ireland

  • Armagh
  • Lower fews
  • Upper fews
  • Oneilland East
  • Oneilland West
  • Lower Orior
  • Upper Orior
  • Tiranny


Main article: List of civil parishes in County Armagh


Main article: List of townlands in County Armagh


County Armagh is crossed by two major motorways – the M1 connecting Belfast to Dungannon crosses the northern part of the county, while the A1 / N1 from Belfast to Dublin in the long run sydost.Armagh has many local roads connecting settlements in the county.

Armagh once had a well-developed network of connections, including Armagh City, Culloville, Goraghwood, Market Hill, Verner Bridge, Tynan (see History of rail transport in Ireland) but today only Newry (Bessbrook), Portadown, Poyntzpass, Scarva and Lurgan served by railway.

There is a possible re-opening the railway from Portadown Railway Station Armagh railway station in the future.  [18]  Minister of the Department of Regional Development, Danny Kennedy MLA indicates the railway restoration plans in line from Portadown Armagh.  [19]

Ulsterbus provides the most comprehensive public transport in the county, including frequent bus service daily from most cities in Belfast. Northern Ireland Railways / Iarnród Éireann’s Enterprise service provides connections to Dublin in just over an hour and Belfast for some forty minutes, several times a day.

inland waterways

County Armagh is crossed by the Ulster Canal and the Newry Canal that is not fully open to navigation.


In conjunction football, NIFL Premiership has that serves as the top division, two teams in the county: Glenavon FC and Portadown FC, with Annagh United Armagh City FC, Doll Hastings Town FC, Loughgall FC and Lurgan Celtic FC competes in NIFL Championship, which serves as the levels two and three.

The Armagh County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or  Armagh GAA  organizes Gaelic games in the county.

People associated with County Armagh

See main article  : People from County Armagh

  • Frank Aiken (1898-1983), born in County Armagh, Irish Republican, Irish Foreign Minister, Tánaiste
  • Saint Benignus Armagh, (d. 467), first principal Cathedral School in Armagh and the Bishop of Armagh
  • Brian Boru (941-1014), buried in Armagh City, winner of Clontarf, högkung
  • George Buchanan Armstrong (1822-1871), born in County Armagh, developed the new system for sorting mail on trains in the US  [20]
  • Sir Robert Hart (1835-1911), born in County Armagh, others Inspector General of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service (IMCS) 1863-1911
  • Arthur Hunter Palmer (1819-1898), born in County Armagh, 5th Premier of Queensland
  • Samuel Knox (1756-1832), born in County Armagh, Presbyterian clergyman, headmaster, and author.  [21]
  • Tommy Makem (1932-2007), born in County Armagh, singer, musician, songwriter, often called “The Bard of Armagh”.
  • Seamus Mallon (1936-), born in County Armagh, first deputy First Minister in Northern Ireland
  • Colin Morgan (1986-), born in County Armagh, actor
  • Paul Muldoon (1951-), born in County Armagh, poet, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for poetry and TS Eliot Prize
  • Tomás Ó Fiaich (1923-1990), born in County Armagh, Cardinal (Catholicism), Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland from 1977 to 1990
  • Eunan O’Neill (1982), born in County Armagh, journalist,  Russia Today
  • Sir William Olpherts (1822-1902), born in County Armagh, soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Ian Paisley (1926- 2014), was born in County Armagh, priest, politician, second Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
  • Saint Patrick (fifth century), the first bishop of Armagh
  • Connor Phillips (1981-), born in County Armagh, radio, TV presenter and DJ
  • George William Russell “AE (1867-1919), born in County Armagh, writer, critic and painter
  • Robert Stewart (1759-1822), educated at The Royal School, Armagh.British Foreign Minister, secretary of war, the leader of the British House of Commons and the Chief Secretary for Ireland
  • Colin Turkington (1982), born in Portadown, County Armagh, professional race driver and 2009 British Touring Car champion.
  • James Ussher (1581-1656), Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, 1625-1656
  • Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (1760-1842), educated at The Royal School, Armagh. Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and India’s Governor General

Tourist attractions

  • Armagh Observatory, which was founded in 1790 and the Armagh Planetarium, a modern working astronomical research institute with a rich heritage
  • Armagh Public Library on Abbey Street in Armagh City, particularly rich in 17th and 18th century English books, including Dean Jonathan Swift’s own copy of the first edition of his  Gulliver’s Travels  with his manuscript corrections
  • Navan Fort, now a tree-ring hill once housed the rulers of Ulster with contemporary interactive visitor center
  • Saint Patrick’s Church of Ireland Cathedral, founded in 445, the seat of the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, which contains the tomb of Brian Boru
  • Saint Patrick’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, started in 1838, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, on a hill and dominates the local countryside
  • Gosford Castle, mock medieval 19th-century castle with large grounds
  • Slieve Gullion, extinct volcano with a crater lake, the highest burial cairn in Ireland, view over 9 counties, with the visitor center at its feet
  • Bagel Bean, Armagh most famous breakfast and lunch spot. Found in two places in the small town center. Founded 10 years ago in the Lower English Street and also now open on Market Street.


The most common surnames in County Armagh at the time of the United Kingdom Census 1901,  [22]  by order of incidence:

  • 1. Murphy
  • 2. Hughes
  • 3. Wilson
  • 4. McCann
  • 5. Kelly
  • 6. Quinn
  • 7. Donnelly
  • 8. Campbell
  • 9. Robinson
  • 10. Johnston


  • View of Slieve Gullion
  • The Enterprise näraNewry
  • South Armagh rural
  • Forkhill Mountain
  • Emain Macha
  • Moyry Castle
  • Killnasaggart Stone, 700 AD
  • Patrick’s Anglican Cathedral, est. 445
  • Armagh City
  • The small town of Market Hill
  • Clare Glen Forest, Tandragee
  • approach tillCrossmaglen
  • Knock Bridge near Portadown to Newry Canal
  • Gosford Castle, off Market Hill

See also

  • references abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland (County Armagh)
  • List of Irish counties by area
  • List of Irish counties by population
  • Lord Lieutenant of Armagh
  • High Sheriff Armagh
  1. Jump up ^ Census figures no longer released detailing yields County but rather parliamentary constituency, Municipal District Electoral Ward and exit. This figure is based on a compilation of all persons residing in Titles include County Armagh April 29, 2001, ie all electoral wards in Newry and Armagh parliamentary constituency (minus Mary, St. Patrick and Windsor Hill from County Down) in combination with 17 departments in Upper Bann parliamentary constituency from County Armagh (ie Derrytrasna, birches, bleary, Drumgask, Taghnevan, court , Annagh, Brown, Ballybay, Ballyoran, Corcrain, Edenderry, Killycomain, Kernan, Drumgor, Mourneview church Knocknashane, Park Lane, Wood, Drumnamoe and Tavanagh).  “Area Profiles”. Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service. Hämtadskrevs 8 August of 2008.
  2. Jump up ^ Tourism Ireland: 2007 Annual report of the Ulster Scots
  3. Jump up ^ North-South Ministerial Council: Annual Report 2006 in Ulster Scots
  4. Jump up ^ [1] County Armagh, Surface
  5. Jump up ^ your place and mine – Armagh
  6. Jump up ^  “Met Office”. Retrieved 4 October of 2008.  [ Dead link  ]
  7. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  8. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. (27 September 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  12. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review.  37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  13. Jump up ^  “The myth of the bandit country”. Armagh: Iarchimi Ard Mhacha Thea. May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “Continuity IRA shot dead officer.” London: BBC News. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  15. Jump up ^  “Continuity IRA claims PSNI murder”. RTE News and Current Affairs. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original 11 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ See Northern Ireland (Lieutenancy) Order 1975 (SI 1975 No 156)
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f “Statistical Classification of settlements”. NI Neighbourhood Information Service. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  18. Jump up ^ The Ulster Gazette. May 16, 2013
  19. Jump up ^  “Kennedy hopes of Armagh line restoration – Portadown Times.” Retrieved 21 August, 2013.
  20. Jump up ^  who was who in America historical volume, 1607-1896.Marquis Who’s Who. In 1963.
  21. Jump up ^ Ibid .
  22. Jump up ^ The most common surnames in Armagh

Navan Fort

Navan Fort ( Old Irish : Emain Macha ( [eṽənʲ ṽaxə] ), Modern Irish : Eamhain Mhacha ( [AWN waxə] )) är en fornlämning i County Armagh , Nordirland . Enligt traditionen var en av de stora kungliga platser av förkristna Gaelic Irland och huvudstad i Ulaid . Avhuggna huvuden av deras fiender sades hållas här. Det är en stor rund höljet präglas av en bank och dike-med en cirkulär kulle och resterna av en ringkärra i mitten. Arkeologiska undersökningar visar att det fanns en gång byggnader på platsen, inklusive en storroundhousen -liknande struktur. Webbplatsen tros ha haft en hednisk ceremoniell ändamål. Enligt Oxford Dictionary of keltisk mytologi “, den [Eamhain Mhacha] av myt och legend är en mycket större och mystisk plats än arkeologiska utgrävnings stöd”. [1]

Namnet Eamhain Mhacha tros betyda “paret Macha ” eller “tvillingarna av Macha”. “Navan” är en Anglicization av den irländska An Eamhain .

Plats och beskrivning

Webbplatsen är ett statligt Care historisk byggnad i townland av Navan i Armagh City och District Council området. Det är på en låg kulle cirka 1,6 miles (2,6 km) väster omArmagh (vid rutnät ref. Område H847 452). [2] Platsen består av en cirkulär hölje 250 meter (820 fot) i diameter, präglad av en bank och dike. Konstigt nog är diket på insidan, vilket tyder på att det inte var byggd för försvar.

Inuti höljet två monument är synliga. Excentriskt till nordväst är ett lerkärl kulle 40 meter (130 fot) i diameter och 6 meter (20 fot) hög. Excentriskt till sydöst är den cirkulära intrycket av en ringkärra, de tillplattade resterna av en sen förhistorisk ceremoniell eller nedgrävning monument, ca 30 meter (100 fot) i diameter. [3]

Arkeologiska utgrävningar har visat att byggandet av 40 meter högen så får du 95 BC (säkert dateras av dendrokronologi ). [3] : 61 A roundhousen -liknande struktur bestående av fyra koncentriska ringar av tjänster kring en central ek stam byggdes, dess ingång mot väster (förhistoriska hus alltid möter österut, mot soluppgången). Golvet i byggnaden täcktes med stenar ordnade i radiella segment, och hela byggnaden var avsiktligt brändes ned innan de täcks i en jordhög och torv (det finns arkeologiska bevis för liknande upprepad byggnad och förbränning av Tara och Dún Ailinne ). [3] : 24-25 banken och dike som markerar höljet gjordes samtidigt.

Ingen fast datum kan tilldelas den ringskottkärra, men utgrävningar och geofysiska undersökningar har visat resterna av en siffra-of-åtta formad träbyggnad under. Den större ringen av figuren-of-åtta var 30 meter (100 fot) i diameter, de mindre cirka 20 meter (65 ft). Byggnaden hade byggts två gånger. Liknande, något mindre strukturer, var och en med en central härd , konstaterades under 40 meter högen. Artefakter som finns i dessa skikt visar de bebodda i slutet av bronsåldern och tidig järnålder (ca 600 till åtminstone 250 f.Kr.). Kanske den mest ovanliga objekt som finns i dessa skikt var skallen av en berberapa . [4]

En tidigare bronsålders struktur, en cirkulär dike som omger högen, 45 meter (150 fot) i diameter, 5 meter (16 fot) bred och 1 meter (3 fot) djup, konstaterades också, och flintverktyg och skärvor av keramik show aktivitet på platsen i neolitiska (c. 4000-2500 BC).

Fram till 1985, var platsen hotas av utbyggnaden av en närliggande kalkbrott. Främst till följd av de ansträngningar aktivistgrupp vänner Navan, en offentlig utredning som genomförts under året stoppat ytterligare brytning, och rekommenderade att platsen utvecklas för turism. Ett besökscentrum, med artefakter och audiovisuella utställningar, öppnades 1993, men stängdes 2001 i brist på medel. [5] det igen på säsongsbasis under 2005 efter det att platsen köptes av Armagh City och District Council .

Andra viktiga förhistoriska platser i närheten inkluderar Haughey Fort , en tidigare bronsåldern hill fort två tredjedelar av en mil (1 km) till det västra; den kungens stall , en konstgjord pool också anor från bronsåldern; ochLoughnashade , en naturlig sjö som har gett järnålders artefakter.

I irländsk mytologi

Enligt irländsk mytologi och historisk tradition det var huvudstad i Ulaidh , de människor som gav sitt namn till provinsen Ulster . Det var förmodligen grundades av gudinnan Macha i den 7: e eller 5: e århundradet f.Kr., och var säte för Conchobar i berättelser om Ulster Cycle . Conchobar sägs ha haft tre hus på Eamhain Mhacha:

  • den Cróeb Ruad ( “Dull Red Branch “, härleder varifrån den närliggande townland av Creeveroe) där kungen satt;
  • den Cróeb Derg ( “Bright Red Branch”), där troféer av slaget hölls, och
  • den Tete Brecc ( “Spräcklig förråd”) där krigare vapen förvarades.

Många av de mest kända namnen i irländsk mytologi förknippas med Eamhain Mhacha och Red Branch krigare.

  • Amergin poeten
  • Cuchulainn , den stora krigaren
  • Emer , hans viljestark och vacker brud
  • Conall Cernach (Conall Segersäll), hans fosterbroder och nära vän
  • Lóegaire , en annan krigare
  • Conchobar , kung av Ulster
  • Cathbad , chefen druid
  • Fergus Mac Róich , en annan stor krigare och kung
  • Deirdre av Sorrows, den vackraste kvinnan i Irland, och Naoise , hennes modiga älskare
  • Leabharcham , den kloka kvinnan

I mytologin namnet Eamhain Mhacha är omväxlande förklaras som “Macha tvillingar” (så därför Macha födde tvillingar där efter att ha tvingats tävla i en vagn-ras) eller “Macha hals-brosch” (kallas så eftersom Macha utstakad gränserna för den platsen med hennes brosch). De Annals of Four Masters post som det övergavs efter den brändes av tre Collas i 331 e.Kr., efter att de hade besegrat Fergus Foga , kung av Ulster, i slaget vid Achadh Leithdheirg .

I populärkulturen

Eamhain Mhacha är namnet på en traditionell irländsk musik band som bildades 2008. [6] irländska heavy metal-bandet Waylander har också en låt som heter “Emain Macha” på deras 1998 album Reawakening Pride gång förlorat .

“Emain Macha” är namnet på en plats i datorspel Dark Age of Camelot , [7] Mabinogien och The Bard Tale .

Se även

  • ? En sluagh sidhe så jag nEamhuin ( “Är detta en älva värd i Eamhain Mhacha?”) – En irländsk dikt dateras till slutet av 16-talet.



  1. Hoppa upp^Oxford Dictionary of keltisk mytologi , ed. James MacKillop, inträde för Emain Macha
  2. Hoppa upp^ “Navan Fort” (PDF) . Miljö och arv service NI – State Care historiska monument . Hämtastre december 2007 .
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c. Lynn, Chris (2003) Navan Fort: Arkeologi och myt . Spanien: Wordwell Books. ISBN 1-869857-67-4 .
  4. Hoppa upp^
  5. Hoppa upp^Bender, Barabara (2001). “The Politics of the Past: Emain Macha (Navan), Nordirland”. I Layton, Robert. Förstörelse och bevarande av kulturegendom . Routledge . pp. 199-209. ISBN 0-415-21695-8 .
  6. Hoppa upp^[1]
  7. Hoppa upp^Shadows Edge – DAOC – Emain – Dark Age of Camelot New Frontiers Karta

St Patricks Cathedral, Armagh (Church Of Ireland)

St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh  is the seat of the Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland. There are Armagh, Northern Ireland. It is also the Cathedral of the Diocese of Armagh.


The origin of the cathedral are related to the construction of the stone church at 445 Druim Sail Each (Willow Ridge) hill at St. Patrick, around which a monastery community development. The church was and is the center for the Church of Ireland. After Henrician Reformation in Ireland cathedral became increasingly associated with the then established church and has been settled in Anglican happening since the reign of Elizabeth I. A Roman Catholic cathedral was built on a nearby hill in the nineteenth century. Friendly relations existing between the two cathedrals.

The church itself has been destroyed and rebuilt 17 times. The building was renovated and restored under Dean Eoghan McCawell (1505-1549) at the beginning of the sixteenth century has suffered a devastating fire in 1511 and is in poor condition. Shortly after his death, the cathedral was described by the Lord Chancellor Cusack as “one of the fairest and best churches in Ireland”.  [1]  Again, it was substantially restored between 1834 and 1840 by Archbishop Lord John George Beresford and architect Lewis Nock Exalted in Cottingham. The fabric is still the medieval (and earlier – in particular the crypt) buildings, but much restored. While Cottingham was heavy-handed in its restoration research of TGF Patterson and Janet Myles at the end of the twentieth century have shown that restoring to have been especially antiquarian of his time. The tracery of the nave windows in particular are meticulous restorations that is a copy of the font. Capital decoration of the two westernmost pillar of the ship (either side of the West Door internal porch) is medieval as the bulk of the external gargoyle carvings (some resited) of the rack in East Arm. Cottingham intends to maintain rich cusped West Door with flanking niches heavens was over ruled. Later restorations have been more radically changed the internal proportions of the medieval building, proportions Cottingham had retained.

Many other Celtic and medieval carvings are to be seen in the cathedral which is also rich in eighteenth and nineteenth century sculpture. There are works of Chantry, Roubiliac, Rysbrack, Mirochetti and others.

Cathedral Foundation and Worship  Precentor – Reverend Terence Scott;Chancellor – Pastor Colin Moore; Treasurer – Pastor John McKegney;Archdeacon – The Venerable Raymond Hoey. Prebendaries: Mullabrack, Reverend WJA Dawson (2006) Bally, Reverend RJN Porteus (2006) Loughgall, Reverend JNT Campbell (2009) Tynan, Pastor WM Adair

Priest Vicars Choral: Pastor Peter Thompson, Succentor (2006) Pastor Michael Kennedy (1995) Pastor TA Cross (2006) Pastor EM Culbertson (2007) Pastor J Moore (2007) Reverend JM McClenaghan (2007)

The Choral Foundation, dating from Culdees and refounded as the Royal College of King Charles the Vicars Choral and organist at the Cathedral in Armagh, continues until today. There is generally a dozen men in the Lay Vicars Choral and sixteen boy choristers.

Every Sunday there are three services in the cathedral; 10:00 said the Eucharist, 11:00 Sung Eucharist (except the second Sunday of the month when sung Matins) and 3:15 Choral Evensong.Matins said, Monday to Saturday, at 09:30. On holidays and anniversaries, the Eucharist is celebrated at 9:30.

Notable burials

  • Marcus Gervais Beresford (1801-1885), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland (appointed in 1862). Cousin of Lord John Beresford
  • Charles Frederick D’Arcy (1859-1938), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland
  • Saint Ethnea, baptized by St. Patrick, died around 433 AD; Her Feast Day is 11 January
  • Brian Boru (c.942-1014) högkung
  • Lord John Beresford
  • John Baptist Crozier and his wife Alice Isabella

Organs and organists


Details of the organ from the National Organ Register


  • 1634 Richard Galway
  • 1661 John Shaw
  • 1695 Robert Hodge
  • 1711 William Toole
  • 1722 Samuel Betteridge
  • 1752 John Woffington
  • 1759 Robert Barnes
  • 1776 Langrishe Doyle
  • 1782 Richard Langdon
  • 1794 John Clarke Whitfield
  • 1797 JOHN JONES
  • 1816 Frederick Horncastle
  • 1823 Robert Turle
  • 1872 Thomas Marks
  • 1917 GHP Hewson
  • 1920 Edred Chaundy
  • 1935 West Reginald
  • 1951 Frederick Carter
  • 1966 Christopher Phelps
  • 1968 Martin White
  • 2002-2015 Theo Saunders
  • 2015- Present Dr. Stephen Timpany

See also

  • Anglicanism portal
  • List of cathedrals in Ireland
  • Dean of Armagh List of Deans in Armagh cathedral.
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh (Roman Catholic)


  1. Jump up ^ Church in two nations. Published in early modern history (1500-1700), functions, Issue 1 (Spring 1998), medieval history (pre-1500), Volume 6 the-church-from-two nations

St Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh (Roman Catholic)

St. Patrick’s Cathedral  in Armagh, Northern Ireland is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland. It was built in stages between 1840 and 1904 to serve as the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Armagh, the original medieval cathedral of St. Patrick have been transferred to the Protestant Church in Ireland at the time of the Irish Reformation.

The cathedral stands on a hill, which makes his Anglican counterpart.

Cathedral Primate Crolly

The construction of a Catholic cathedral in Armagh was a task imbued with great historical and political symbolism. Armagh the primatial seat of Ireland and its ancient ecclesiastical capital Darst Patrick had established its Great Church. But since the Irish Reformation under Henry VIII had no Catholic archbishop resident there. Since the seventeenth century, had the majority Catholic population in Ireland living under the rigors of criminal laws, a number of provisions that were designed, in the words of the Anglo-Irish historian Lecky, “to deprive Catholics of all civilian lives, to reduce them to a state of extreme, brutal ignorance, and to distance them from the ground. ” As a result, while to some extent tolerated, the public practice of Catholicism was almost completely extinguished and all the churches exist at the time of the adoption of laws ceded to the established church. Thus, in the late eighteenth century, there were some Catholic churches and cathedrals no existing in Ireland for a large Catholic population. After Catholic Emancipation in 1829, the need to build churches and cathedrals to serve this population became critically apparent. The lack of a Catholic presence in the primatial city of Armagh, in particular, became a popular cause of discontent among the emerging Catholic episcopate, clergy and congregation.

Archbishop William Crolly was appointed to the Catholic See Armagh in 1835 and almost immediately sought permission to reside in Armagh; the first Catholic Primate to do so since the Reformation. After having settled in the town, he put then to seek a site for a new Catholic cathedral. The main difficulty in constructing a Catholic Cathedral in Armagh was that the country Armagh city and suburbs consisted almost entirely of “see the country,” the mensal property or demesne of the Protestant Primate and thus would not be available for the Catholic Episcopate to purchase. A dramatic location on top of a hill on the outskirts of the city, however, had been sold to the Earl of Dartrey. According to the ninth century Book of Armagh, this hill was prominent in the St. Patrick had reunited DOE spared at the site of the high altar of his Cathedral during his inauguration in around 445 AD with his mother.

A building committee was established and a weekly penny collection taken for construction. The architect was to be Thomas Duff of Newry who had designed the cathedral there and also the Pro-Cathedral iDundalk.

He designed a cross-building, with a nave, aisles, trancepts, cows, and run; a large square central tower and two smaller ones on the western front flanking the main door, and flush with the walls of time, similar to York Minster. At Dundalk, the style was a highly romanticized and noticeably un-historicist version of Perpendicular Gothic of the sixteenth century. The foundation stone was laid on St. Patrick’s Day 1838 but as a result of the Irish Famine work stalled in 1847 with the basics and aisles only partially complete.

Cathedral of choice Dixon and McGettigan

Archbishop Crolly was himself a victim of starvation, contracting cholera while tending to famine-ravaged Drogheda and die on Good Friday 1849.Hans successor, Archbishop Paul Cullen abandoned the project and moved primatial See Drogheda. It was only when Cullen was translated into Dublin and Archbishop Joseph Dixon was appointed to the See Armagh who work resumed in 1854. At this time, Duff was dead and there had been a revolution in ecclesiastical architectural taste of Ireland. After the visit to Ireland of AWN Pugin, the perpendicular Gothic was the style of the sixteenth century had fallen from favor and the former medieval Gothic becoming more popular. The architect James Joseph McCarthy, a self-proclaimed “student” of Pugin, was appointed to oversee the completion of the cathedral.

Its position as the architect for the new cathedral was quite difficult for the, at the time of McCarthy’s appointment, the walls of Duff’s Perpendicular building was already 10 meters (34 feet) high and had reached the top of the aisles. McCarthy does not want to continue to build the now outmoded Perpendicular Gothic Duff. His solution was to start building a Decorated Gothic cathedral of the fourteenth century on top of the alleged sixteenth century foundations and walls. Decorated Gothic tracery was introduced into the existing window openings and in the west, he reduced the size of the window and traceried-in an arcade of apostolic statues. The pitch of the roof was raised Duff a full 6.1 meters (20 feet), adding significantly to the external impact of the building and allows the insertion of the clerestory and Triforium to the interior. A sense of drama added to the transepts by adding asymerical spired towers at its ends and the addition of bow windows to their ends. The most dramatic change is made to Duff plans were desertion of the three fairly squat tower designed by Duff to reach a height of 39 meters (128 feet). Instead, two broken towers crowned with spiers of 64 meters (210 feet) high were built in the western part.

Dixon died back in 1866 before the completion of the cathedral and once again the project was abandoned in his older successor Archbishop Michael Kieran. It therefore fell to Kieran’s successor, Archbishop Daniel McGettigan to complete the building. After completion of the spiers, McGettigan turned his attention to the interior. Here, to capitalize on the increased height at the expense of external design studies, McCarthy constructed an elaborately carved arched hammer-beam ceiling with carved angels concluding the hammer beams and stone saint consoles. He constructed a Caen stenreredos that spans the entire wall at the east end and filled with carvings from the Life of the Virgin in an arcade carved and crocketted pinnacles and centered with a carved canopy over the statue of the Madonna and child. Archbishop McGettigan authorized painted murals that adorn the walls of the Lady Chapel and stencilling applied onto its roof. The cathedral was consecrated August 24, 1873

After the inauguration, Primate McGettigan continued to make improvements as funds and his fall would allow. In 1875 he was ordered Stations of the Cross from Herbert & Co. Liverpool and installed the large 33-stop organ by William Telford. In 1879, seven light east windows filled with stained glass of Earley & Powell in Dublin and work began on seven terrace stairs to the plaza in front of the west end. Finally, in 1884, a sexton’s lodge was constructed at the bottom of the stairs. When Archbishop McGettigan died in December 1887 after several years of declining health, the cathedral had seen the passage of five successive archbishops and expenditure for the unprecedented sum of over £ 70,000.

Cathedral Cardinal Logue

McGettigan’s successor as Archbishop Michael Logue, longest Archbishop of Armagh. An acquaintance learned priest, Logue was appointed to the College of Cardinals by Leo XIII in 1893, became the first Archbishop of Armagh appointed to the College in its history. When he came up to the finished Cathedral in Armagh, Logue was far from impressed. He complained about the “poor and beggerly elements” in decor and noted that “visitors who had turned to the cathedral filled with admiration for the beauty of its exterior was … unpleasantly surprised, not to say disedified in comparative shabbiness and poverty interior”. On August 20, 1899 Cardinal Logue issued a pastoral letter entitled “The National Cathedral” urged the Irish people and its diaspora to supply sufficient funds to beautify the interior of the cathedral. A collection Bazaar was organized in 1900 and now by the architect William Hague in Dublin (who had inherited much of McCarthy’s practice at his death) was appointed to make plans.

The bazaar raised over £ 30,000 and Logue traveled to Italy with his architect to visit the marble quarries and artisan workshops, selecting materials and craftsmen to perform the Hague plans. Haag died shortly after designing the first of its extension: a marble rood 9.1 meters (30 feet) wide and 11 meters (36 feet) high.

He was replaced by George Coppinger Ashlin, former partner Pugin’s son. At the appointment Ashlin identified almost immediately a large structural problems with the roof at McCarthy aisles and a new groined ceiling Bath stone was constructed. In combination with repairs due to the towers that had not been designed to take the weight of McCarthy’s spiers, used a large part of the funds raised by the bazaar. Yet Cardinal Logue pressed ahead with lavish plans. Ashlin designed an altar carved from Carrara marble, Lapis Lazuli and Jasper to sit at the Hague’s rood and Italian sculptor Cesare Aureli was commissioned to cut a head in  alto relievo  of Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper.

Ashlin closed the crossing by constructing two side screens of marble statues, 9.1 meters (30 feet) wide, across the north and south transepts and sculptures in marble communion rails inlaid with  Breccia di S Votaleat Nave.

The  Cathedra  throne is projected in three divisions in the second bay on the north side with canopied niches, has crockets and pinnacles and crowned with a marble spire. In the middle of the throne was carved with the arms of Cardinal in statuary marble. The entire intersection was coated with inlaid marble, constructed in squares with quatrefoil panels and cross and centered on a  pietra dura  representation of the Cardinal’s armorial bearings.

An elaborate pulpit was constructed in the southwest pier of intersection.Consists of statuary marble inlaid with rare colored marbles, his plane was octagonal, with angular niches containing statues of the Evangelists, St. Patrick and St. Brigid, the canopies above the statues and carved groined.The panels between the statues filled with inlaid traceries. The canopy of the pulpit, rises to a height of nearly 36 ft. Was carved in Austrian oak painted white and inlaid with colored enamel and gold leaf.

Behind the rood, McCarthy reredos remained intact, but its lower parts enriched with marble inlay in a diaper pattern with  fleur de lis  in a vibrant variety of colored Italian marbles. A new Lady altar and the tabernacle was constructed before the altar wall of the marble statue. The antependium contained three relief groups, labor prominent Roman sculptor Michele Trepisciano (1860-1913) shows “The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple”, “assumption” and “Coronation of the Virgin” inset into separate panels with cusped heads, and columns  Breccia di Seravezza Antica  and Breccia Corallina  bullets. The tabernacle, inlaid with Corsican Jasper, was in the form of a cube topped with a roof made of fish scales carvings and ended with two large marble statues standing angels.

In the north and south of the Lady Chapel, was Side chapels erected to St. Joseph (North) and St Brigid (South), close the aisles in the East.

In the south transept, was a sumptuous altar erected to the Sacred Heart.Finally, to the west end, McCarthy wooden gallery replaced with a three-bay marble screen of white marble supported the quatrefoil pillars  Portas Suppose  marble and inlaid with  Brocatello  marble. The organ itself was built to fit the new enlarged space and a new Austrian oak organ case was designed and built.

The most striking and composed by Cardinal Logue’s legacy to the cathedral, however, was the system of mosaics he was commissioned to decorate every inch of blank wall in the Cathedral. Considerable thought was given to how best to deal with the decoration of the walls of the building. Metropolitan McGettigan had completed a system of painted murals and stencilling of the walls, but as a result of Armagh humid climate, these had died within a few years of completion. T therefore decided to adopt a mosaic decorative order, with the initial high costs paid by the future save on repainting a mural systems. The material used was Italian ceramics of different colors in the cube-shaped cubes of glass slabs for plated parts to prevent tarnishing, and for increased gloss. The sections were compiled in two workshops in London and carefully glued, face down, on paper strips. These were then applied to a fresh coating of special cement on the walls in a manner similar to the hanging of wallpaper.

To complete its scheme of decoration, Cardinal Logue ordered Italian painter Oreste Amici (1872-1930), who had been trained at the Institute of Fine Arts in Rome, painting the picture of McCarthy’s hammer beam ceiling in an Italian style .The ceiling is painted in oil, the current shadow primer adopted by a soft terracotta to harmonize with the color of the wall mosaic.

With works closed, stirred cathedral solemnly rededicated July 20, 1904.

Reformulation: the Cathedral Cardinals Conway and O’Fiaich

The cathedral remained much as Cardinal Logue left it until the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council called for work to be carried out on the high altar. William Cardinal Conway was appointed to the See Armagh in 1963 even though he had served as senior Irish participants in the Second vatikankoncilietsedan start. He returned to Armagh Archbishop keen to introduce the reforms proposed by the Council. The reforms of the liturgy requires greater visibility and Assembly participation in Catholic services and for a time it had felt that 1904 marble works at the intersection had prevented large-scale ritual in the cathedral. Conway then inaugurated an architectural competition to adapt shrine Armagh cathedral to the new requirements and to allow greater freedom of movement and visibility around the shrine area. Several candidates submitted designs and controversial all of them suggested to remove substantially all of Ashlin marble works at the intersection. Conway chose the winning design by Liam McCormick (1916-1996), even if the work is started on the reorganization of the intersection until the death of Cardinal Conway in 1977.

It then fell to Tomas Cardinal O’Fiaich to complete the works. As completed, they were as radical as they were divisive. The entirety of marble in the intersection were removed and much of it destroyed, including The Hague’s rood and Ashlin’s high altar, Cathedra, the altar and the inlaid marble floor.The pulpit was dismantled and broken up and the side altar to Saints Brigid and St. Joseph were removed and relocated in other churches. Only McCarthy Caen stone removal reredos survived, although their lower parts, enriched in 1904 with Carrara marble, dismantled and flowers wallpaper attached to the lower part of the reredos in their place. New furnishings carved from rough hewn Wicklow granite was installed at the intersection and the sanctuary area was expanded beyond the line of the former rood and was taken up by several feet and dressed in polished Wicklow granite. Critic had been 1904 system design and foreign materials that result in the reorganization stressed its native roots. The new altar, ambo and tabernacle was carved by a sculptor Dundalk, Peter McTigue and the tent is manufactured in Kilkenny. Carpets that replaces the marble floor was woven in Killybegs. To replace the rood cross, was a huge sculpture entitled “Tree of Life” mission from Imogen Stuart, the German-born Irish skulptör.Katedralen re rededicated June 13, 1982 when the relics of St. Malachy placed in the new altar.

The work was met with almost unanimous shock and outrage. “Neither the quality of the replacements or skill craft can hide the total alienation of the new work from the spirit and meaning which was McCarthy’s ecclesiological and architectural inspiration. In this setting, these modern intrusions appear unjustified and irrelevant, “complained the Ulster Architectural Heritage Society (UAHS, 1992). Architecture historian Joan Sheehy wrote on reformulation as “compensation … of a fine late Gothic Revival cows with pieces of granite and a tabernacle which looks like a microwave.”

Restoration and renovation: the Cathedral by Cardinal Brady

Even the decorative style cathedral thus changed significantly in 1982, had the building has not undergone any major construction since the exchange of time-ceiling in 1904. In 2002, the need for major structural repairs to the building has become apparent. As a result of the construction methods walls and wear of the roof had moist damaged much of mosaic and painted decorations had blunted with smoke and dust. A large part of the exterior stonework had been destroyed and the twin spired towers had become unstable. A pin-committee to monitor these great works to secure the building decided that the time was ripe to examine the much criticized sanctuary. The firm Rooney & McConville was commissioned to design the sanctuary area. McCormick’s vilified seized deleted in its entirety and the sanctuary area re floor with Italian porcelain tiles from Armatile mimic (with little success) inlaid marble floor of 1904 that had survived virtually intact for McCormick granite podium.marmorgolvet is thus finally destroyed in the process. A new altar and ambo of Tunisian limestone was installed.

The altar was inspired by early-Irish cross and the image of Christ (Crucified, Risen, Return to Glory), flanked by the Apostles, on three sides. The fourth side visible from the main part of the church showing Our Lord with four Irish saints: St. Patrick St. Malachy, St. Brigid and St. Oliver Plunkett .Two pair of brass gates that had survived from 1899 marble rood was replicated several times, welded, topped with a completely convincing poor quality gothic crown and made into a new full brass screen behind the high altar, restoring a separate Lady Chapel area as the culmination of an ambulatory around the shrine area. Tabernacle removed to Southern nave which in turn is shielded by another brass screens and Cathedra placed on a podium directly behind the new altar. A Evangelarium created in the south tower (now converted to a shop), and the baptistry was restored at the base of the north tower. The base of the McCarthy reredos was restored in 1904 and inlaid marbles revealed. At the time of the rededication of the cathedral May 25, 2003 more than £ 6 million had been used.

The Crossing designed by Rooney & McConville, 2003

Cathedral today

Daily Mass is held Monday through Saturday at 10:00. On Sunday, Mass is celebrated at 9:00, 11:00 and 05:30, with a 7:00 Vigil Mass on Saturday evening. Lots holy day celebrated at 09:00 and 11:00. Confessions are usually heard before and after the Saturday evening vigil mass.


  • Cardinal William Conway
  • Cardinal John D’Alton
  • Tomas Cardinal Ó Fiaich
  • Michael Cardinal Logue
  • William Cardinal Crolly


The organ in Armagh cathedral was originally built by the famous organ builder William Telford 1875. In 1987, the organ was rebuilt, enlarged and tonal changes of the Irish Organ Company Ltd. who also gave a new townhouse drawknob console. The renovation was designed by the late John Holmes with the Cathedral Organist Baron George Memory as a consultant.All the old pipes and individual cases were not restored and retained. The organ is now part of the English, French Cavaille-Coll and European style, the dominant sound is French. The organ currently has four manuals and 58 stops.


Positif:  Gelind gedeckt 8, Bell Gamba 8, Singend Principal 4, Koppelflute 4, Nasard 2 2/3, Octavin two, Tierce a 3/5, Petit Cymbale III, Cromorne 8, Zymbalstern, anxious (adjustable), Octave, Essential positif, Swell to positif, Bombarde to positif,

Large:  Double Diapason 16, Open Diapason 8, Gamba 8, Bourdon 8, Principal 4, flute Ouverte 4, 2 2/3 twelfth, fifteenth 2, Fourniture V Cymbale II (a total crazy screaming deal,) 16 Bombarde, Trompette 8 , Clairon 4, Swell to Great, Positif Great, Positif Sub-Octave to Great,

Swell:  Open Diapason 8, Stopped Diapason 8, Salicional 8, Unda Maris 8, Principal 4, Doublette 2, Plein Jeu III, Basson 16, Cornopean 8, Clarion 4, anxious (adjustable), Octave, Sub-Octave,

Bombarde:  Flute Harmonique 8, Voce Umana 8 + 8, Carillon III Orlos 8, Trompeta Magna 16 (TC from Trompeta Réal 8), Trompeta Réal 8, Clarin 4 (From Trompeta Réal 8), Campana Bella (an octave of clocks),

Pedal  Gravissima 32, Principal 16, Violonbasse 16, Bourdon 16, Double Diapason (large) Violone 8 (From Violonbasse 16), Gedecktbass 8, Principal 4, Doublette 2, Grosse Fourniture III, Carillon II, Bombarde 16 Basson 16 (Swell) trumpet 8 (from Bombarde 16), Clarion 4 (from Bombarde 16), Orlos 4 (from Orlos 8, Bombarde) Positif pedaling, great to Pedal, Swell to Pedal, Bombarde pedaling, large and pedal Pistons Together.


The organist of St. Patrick’s Cathedral for over 50 years, Baron George Memory, born in Belgium in 1924. He has a large repertoire of Bach, Handel, Mozart and various French composers, and is a most accomplished pianist and composer.


  • Buildings Co. Armagh  by CEB Brett, published by the Ulster Architectural Heritage Society 1999
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh  . Tomas Ó Fiaich. The Irish Heritage Series: 58, Eason & Son Ltd, Dublin, in 1987.

Rathlin Island

Rathlin Island  (from Irish:  Reachlainn  ) is an island and the parish off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland.


Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island Northern Ireland, with a growing population of about 145 people, and is the northernmost inhabited island off the coast of Ireland. The inverted L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles (6 km) from east to west, and 2.5 miles (4 km) from north to south.

The highest point on the island is Slieveard, 134 meters (440 feet) above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles (25 km) from the Mull of Kintyre, the southern tip of Scotland’s Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, and represented by Rathlin Development & Community Association.  [2]

Town Country

Rathlin is part of the traditional Baroni Cary (around town Bally), and the district Moyle. The island is a parish and is divided into 22 townlands:

townland Area acre [3] 
Ballycarry 298
Ballyconagan 168
Bally Gill USA 244
Bally Gill North 149
Bally Gill South 145
Ballynagard 161
Ballynoe 80
Carravinally (Corravina Beg) 116
Carravindoon (Corravindoon) 188
church Quarter 51
Cleggan (Clagan) 202
Craigmacagan (Craigmacogan) 153
demesne 67
glebe 24
Kebble 269
Kilpatrick 169
Kinkeel 131
Kinramer North 167
Kinramer South (Kinramer) 173
Knockans 257
Mullindross (Mullindress) 46
Roonivoolin 130


A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles (10 km) away. Two ferries on the route – a quick foot passenger only catamaran ferry called “Rathlin Express” and a larger ferry, owned by the Scottish Government, called “MV  Canna  “, carrying both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.  [ 4] [5]  Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 as a subsidized “lifeline” service.  [6]  there is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners.  [7] 


Rathlin is a prehistoric volcanic origin, which have been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province.  [8]

Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland. It is home to tens of thousands of sea birds, including guillemots, kittiwakes, puffins and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is a popular place förfågelskådare, with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve with spectacular views of Rathlin’s bird colony. The RSPB has also managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the chough. Northern Ireland’s only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively barren island is impressive, standing 70 meters (230 feet) high. Bruce’s cave  [9]  is named after Robert Bruce, also known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider. As described as inspiring Bruce to continue their struggle for Scottish independence  [10] The  island is also the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.  [11]

2008-09, the Coast Guard in the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland implemented bathymetric survey work in the area north of County Antrim, update Admiralty charts (Joint Irish bathymetric survey Project) .By doing so a number of interesting underwater geological identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged or the crater lake on a plateau with clear evidence of the rivers that feed it. This suggests the events that led to the flooding – ground subsidence or rising water levels – was extremely quick.Marine research in the area has also identified new species of anemone, rediscovered fan mussel (the UK’s largest and rarest mussels – thought to be found only in Plymouth Sound and a few places off the West of Scotland) and a number of shipwreck sites,  [12] [13]  , including HMS Drake (1901),  [14]  , which was torpedoed and sank just off the island 1917th 


Rathlin probably known to the Romans, Pliny refers to “Reginia” and Ptolemy to “Rhicina” or “Eggarikenna”. In the 7th century Adomnán mentions “Rechru” and “Rechrea insula”, and these may also have been early name for Rathlin.  [15]  The 11th century Irish version of History Brittonum indicates that the Fir Bolg “took the man and other islands except -. Arran, Islay and ‘Racha’ ‘another possible early variant  [16]

Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster. The raid, marked by the looting of the island’s church and the burning of its buildings, took place in 795 (  Burning of Reachrainn of looters, and its shrines were broken and looted.  )

In 1306, Robert Bruce sought refuge on Rathlin, which is owned by the Irish Bissett family, staying in Rathlin Castle, originally belonging to their domination in the Glens of Antrim. The Bissetts later displaced by Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, to welcome Bruce.Later, in the 16th century, it came into the possession of Macdonnell in Antrim.

Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront the Scottish refugees on the island, and in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men, women and children in the Clan MacDonnell was killed.  [17] [18]  Also in 1642, Covenanter Campbell Foot soldiers in Argyll encouraged by his commander Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands clan MacDonald. This they did with ruthless efficiency, throwing lots of MacDonald women over cliffs to their death on the rocks below.  [19] [20]  The number of victims of this massacre has been as low as a hundred and as high as three thousand.  

In the later 18th century, kelp production became important with Rathlin become an important center of production. The shoreline is still full of ovens and bins. This was a commercial venture, sponsored by the landowners on the island and encompassed the entire society.  [21]

A 19th century British visitors to the island found that they had an unusual form of government where they chose a judge who sat on the “throne of turf”.  [22]

The world’s first commercial wireless telegraphy link was formed by employees Guglielmo Marconi between East lighthouse on Rathlin to Kenmara House Bally July 6, 1898.  [23]

More recently, Richard Branson crashed his hot air balloon in the sea off Rathlin Island in 1987 after his record flight across the Atlantic from Maine.  [Citation needed ]  

The island formerly boasted a population of over a thousand in the 19th century, and its current permanent population is about 125. This swelled with visitors in the summer, with most going to see the cliffs and their huge seabird populations. Many visitors come for the day, and the island has around 30 beds for overnight visitors. Boathouse visitor center at Church Bay is open seven days a week from April to September, minibus tours and bike rentals also available. The island is also popular with divers who come to explore the many wrecked ships in the surrounding waters.

Rathlin Island dialect of Irish are now extinct, and could have been described as intermediary form between the other Irish and Scottish dialects.

On 29 January 2008 the RNLI Portrush lifeboat, the “Katie Hannan,” grounded after a big swell hit the rear end of the ship on the breakwater rocks just outside the harbor on Rathlin while trying to retrieve an islander RIB. The lifeboat was handed over to an outside salvage company.  [24] [25] 

In July 2013 BT Ireland installed a high-speed wireless broadband pilot project to a number of premises. The first deployment of its kind in the UK and Ireland, “wirelessly to the cabinet” will deliver 80Mbs to the user. [26]

After Brexit referendum June 23, 2016 is Rathlin residents consider being a part of Scotland, to remain within the European Union.  [27]


Tievebulliagh mountain near Cushendall has a Neolithic stone ax factory, and a similar one is to be found in Brockley (a cluster of houses in the townland of Bally Gill USA)  [28]  and has the same porcellanite stone. The island has also been settled during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.There is also a unexcavated Viking vessel in a mound formation.  [29]

Gallery of panoramic photos

  • views of Rathlin Island seen from the boat to Bally
  • panorama of Rathlin Island Harbour
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • views of Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island harbor


  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island cliffs and lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island Harbour
  • Rathlin Island from Bengore Head on the North Antrim Coast
  • Rathlin Island Ferry
  • Rue Point on the south of Rathlin Island looking towards Fairhead
  • The island seen from Dry Headmed Fair Head visible to the left
  • Rathlin Island Ferry at Ballycastle

See also

  • References Conservation in the UK
  • northern Ireland
  • List of islands in Ireland
  • List of islands in Great Britain
  • List of civil parishes in County Antrim
  • Chadwick, Hector Munro (1949)  Early Scotland Picts, Scots and Welsh in southern Scotland  . Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, WJ (1994)  The Celtic place names in Scotland  . Edinburgh;Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published in Edinburgh; Celtic Royal Society, the 1926th


Portrush  (from Irish:  Port Rois  meaning “cape port”)  [2]  is a small seaside town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, on the County Londonderry border. The main part of the old town, including the railway station and most hotels, restaurants and bars, is built on a mile-long peninsula, Ramore Head, pointing north-northwest. It had a population of 6.454 people, as measured by the 2011 Census. During the off-season, Portrush is a bedroom community for the nearby campus of the University of Ulster in Coleraine. It neighbors the resort Port.

The city is known for its three sandy beaches, West Beach, East Beach and white stones, as well as Royal Portrush Golf Club, the only golf club outside mainland Britain which has hosted the Open Championship.

It was the base for  Katie Hannan  (this life boat was damaged in 2008 after running aground during a rescue on Rathlin Island, now based as a training boat for RNLI), a Severn class lifeboat and  Ken and Mary  , a D class coast by RNLI lifeboat. Lifeboats have operated from Portrush Harbour since 1860, and currently stationed there’s Severn Class William Gordon Burr  and D-class coaster David Roulston  .

Portrush is in the East Londonderry constituency of the UK Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly.


A number of flint tools were found during the late nineteenth century shows that the location of Portrush occupied during “Larnian” (late Irish Mesolithic) period,  [4]  Latest estimates to date to about 4000 BC.  [5]

The location of Portrush, with its excellent natural defenses, was probably a permanent solution around the 12 or 13 century. A church is known to have been on Ramore Head at this time, but no part of it survives now. From the records of the papal taxation in 1306, the Portrush Church – seems to have been quite wealthy – and by extension the village. The cape also held two castles, with varying periods. The first of these, Caislean an Teenie, believed to have been on top of Ramore Head, and probably destroyed in the late 16th century; the second, Portrush castle may have been built around the time of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. Nothing survives either castle.  [6]

As a result of the war the Three Kingdoms in the middle of the seventeenth century, became Portrush a small fishing village. It grew considerably during the nineteenth century as a tourist destination, after opening avjärnvägsBallyMena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Portrush Junction in 1855, and at the turn of the twentieth century has become one of the biggest tourist destinations in Ireland, with a number of large hotels and guesthouses, including prominent Northern Counties Hotel. Like the city’s beaches and Royal Portrush Golf Club (opened 1888), the nearby Giant’s Causeway was a popular tourist destination, with the Giant’s Causeway Tramway – at that time one of the world’s longest electrified railways – building in 1893 to cater to travelers coming from Portrush.

The city’s fortunes peaked in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, and declined after World War II with the growth of foreign travel. It escaped any involvement in the Troubles until August 6, 1976, when a series of bombings of buildings burned and destroyed several buildings, but without loss of life.  [7]  In a second attack in April 1987, two officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was shot in the back by the provisional Irish Republican army while on foot patrol on Main Street.  [8]


Portrush is classified as a small town in the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA)  [9]  (ie with population between 4,500 and 10,000 people). 2011 Census recorded that there were 6.454 people living in Portrush. Of these:

  • 18.89% were younger than 16 years, and 25.11% were aged 60 and over
  • 48.22% of the population were male and 51.78% were women
  • 20.8% listed their religion as Catholic, 50.8% were of Protestant denomination, and 14% said no religion.
  • 4.97% of the population aged 16-74 were unemployed.

For more information, see :. Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service  [10]

Tourist attractions

  • Attractions in the city include the “coastal zone” (formerly Portrush Countryside Centre),  [11]  Waterworld swimming complex, and, in the outskirts of the city, the ties between the Royal Portrush Golf Club, which hosted the 1951 British Open Golf Championship and Ballyreagh golf course. At the 1951 British Open Golf Championship young star Derek McLachlan won the hearts of the local crowd when he led the third day with 3 kind only to run out of bounds twice on the last day of the open and finished tied for 8th place.
  • There are two long sandy beaches in the city, the so-called Western and Eastern Beach. White Rocks and Curran Strand stretch on from the East Strand and are backed by sand dunes. The coast continues past Dunluce Castle to Giant’s Causeway (it was once possible to travel to these attractions from Portrush at the Giant’s Causeway Tramway). A 13-foot high bronze sculpture,  [12] inspired by local traditional sail boats, located at East Beach ( “for the people of the sea” by Cork-based sculptor Holger Lönze).
  • Portrush is home to one of Northern Ireland’s most famous nightclubs.Kelly complex consists of a multitude of bars and clubs and is Northern Ireland’s biggest nightclub complex.  [ Citation needed ]  There are nightclub Lush!  Like attracts many of the world’s top DJ and host BBC Radio 1 events.  
  • Portrush is also home to Barry’s Amusements, the largest amusement park in Northern Ireland. The actor James Nesbitt once worked in Barry.
  • The inserts, a collection of stones lying just off the coast, is an important habitat for several species, some unique to Northern Ireland.
  • Portrush parkrun is a free, weekly, timed 5 km runs along the East Strand beach to the White Rocks and back.  [13]


  • Portrush hosted an annual air show in early September.  [14]
  • The RNLI raft race is a popular annual event. This is a popular game show where contestants must build a raft that can travel from West Strand beach in Portrush Harbour. The race has been on Northern Ireland News broadcasts in several years. The event is a great credit to the RNLI’s popularity in the region.  [15]
  • The North West 200 is a motorcycle race that runs through Port, Coleraine and Portrush each May, a prolonged tourist attraction that has attracted audience of over 150,000 in recent years.  [16]  The late brothers Joey Dunlop and Robert Dunlop have been regular winners at the races : they hold the record for most wins, thirteen and fifteen respectively.


The following schools in Portrush:  [ citation needed ]  

  • Portrush Primary School  : an elementary school with a nursery unit at Crocnamac Road. The school educates about 250 students aged 4-11.Portrush Primary founded 1959th
  • Carnalridge Primary School  : back in 2010 by ex-student and professional golfer Graeme McDowell.  [ Citation needed ]  
  • Mill Strand Integrated Primary School  .
  • St Patricks Primary School  .


  • LGBT Activist Mark Ashton lived here.  [17]
  • Golfer Darren Clarke, winner of the Open Championship 2011, live in Portrush.
  • Fred Daly, golfer, winner of the 1947 Open Championship
  • Golfer Graeme McDowell, who was the first Irishman to win the US Open, born in Portrush.


  • Royal Portrush Golf Club. The only place outside of mainland Britain to host the British Open. 2011 British Open champion Darren Clarke is the resident professional clubs, and live in Portrush.
  • Portrush Hockey Club
  • The Northern Ireland Milk Cup uses Parker Avenue in Portrush as one of the venues for the tournament, and many teams stay within the city itself.
  • All three Portrush beaches often used by water sports enthusiasts, especially surfers and bodyboarders
  • Coleraine afford to maintain tennis courts, bowling greens and a playground on Ramore Head.
  • Fishing is popular from land or at sea, Causeway Lass fishing boat available for rent at the harbor.


Portrush railway station was inaugurated December 4, 1855 and closed for freight September 20, 1954. The station is the last stop on the Coleraine-Portrush railway line, where travelers can connect with trains to Derry, Belfastoch outside.  [18]

Portrush is a busy seaside resort, with a frequent train service run by Northern Ireland Railways contact with Ulsterbus services related to Bushmills and the Giant’s Causeway.

See also

  • List of RNLI stations
  • Stewart


  1. Jump up ^ Dunluce Castle NI US Department of the Environment.Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  3. Jump up ^  “Portrush chapel, Ireland”. Wesleyan Juvenile Offer. London.Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society  VII : March 31, 1850 is taken.Nineteen November 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25506293, p. 244; JSTOR 25513788, p. 238-242
  5. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25800527, p. 249
  6. Jump up^,274001,en.pdf
  7. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1976
  8. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1987
  9. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website.”
  10. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service website.
  11. Jump up ^  “Education in the coastal areas Portrush”. UK: DOENI.Retrieved 19 August 2014.  External link to (help) | publisher =
  12. Jump up ^  “East Strand Portrush artworks website”.
  13. Jump up ^  Missing or empty (help) | title =
  14. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland International Air Show website”.
  15. Jump up ^  “Portrush Royal National sea rescue site.”
  16. Jump up ^ BBC News
  17. Jump up ^ Doward, Jamie (21 September 2014). “The real triumph gay communist behind the hit movie Pride”. The Guardian.
  18. Jump up ^  “Portrush station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Retrieved 28 August of 2007.

The Old Bushmills Distillery

The  Old Bushmills Distillery  is a distillery in Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. As of December 2014, it was in the process of moving from ownership of Diageo plc to Jose Cuervo. All whiskey bottled under the Bushmills whiskey brand is produced in Bushmills Distillery and uses water drawn from Saint Columb’s Rill, which is a tributary of the River Bush. The distillery is a popular tourist attraction, with around 120,000 visitors per year.

The company that originally built the distillery was founded in 1784, but the date of 1608 is printed on the label of the brand -. Referring to an earlier time when a royal license was granted to a local landowner to distill whiskey in the area  [1] [2]  for different periods of closure in its recent history, the distillery has been in continuous operation since it was built after a fire in 1885. 


The area has a long tradition of distillation. According to one story, as far back as 1276, called an early settler Sir Robert Savage of Ards, before defeating the Irish in battle, strengthened their troops with “a mighty drop acqua vitae”.  [3]  In 1608, a license was granted Sir Thomas Phillipps by king James in distilling whiskey.  [4]

for the next seven years, in countie of Colrane, otherwise known as O Cahanes countrey, or within territorie called Rowte in Antrim by himselfe or his servauntes, to do, ho, and distill these and SOE large amounts aqua penalty, usquabagh and aqua composita, that he or his assignes shall thinke fitt; and the same to sell, vent and dispose of all people, yerelie yeeldinge Somme 13s 4d …

Bushmills Old Distillery Company itself was not established until 1784 by Hugh Anderson.  [1]  Bushmills suffered many lean years with many periods of closure with no information about the distillery in operation in official records in both 1802 and 1822. In 1860, Belfast spirit merchant Jame McColgan and Patrick Corrigan bought the distillery; In 1880 they formed a limited liability company. In 1885, the original Bushmills buildings were destroyed in a fire, but the distillery quickly rebuilt. In 1890, a steamer owned and operated by the distillery, the SS  Bushmills  , made its maiden voyage across the Atlantic to deliver Bushmills whiskey to America. It is called the Philadelphia and New York before heading to Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama.

In the early 20th century, the US was a very important market for Bushmills (and other Irish whiskey producers). American Prohibition in 1920 came as a huge blow to Irish Whiskey industry, but Bushmills managed to survive.Wilson Boyd, Bushmills’ manager at the time, predicted the end of the ban and had large stores of whiskey ready to export. After World War II the distillery was bought by Isaac Wolfson, and in 1972 it was taken over by Irish Distillers, which means that Irish Distillers controlled the production of all Irish whiskey at the time. In June 1988, Irish Distillers was acquired by French spirits group Pernod Ricard.

In June 2005, the distillery was bought by Diageo for £ 200 million. Diageo has also announced a major advertising campaign to regain market share for Bushmills.

In May 2008, Bank of Ireland issued a new series of sterling banknotes in Northern Ireland, all of which have an illustration of the Old Bushmills Distillery on the front page, replacing the previous notes series which depicted Queen’s University in Belfast.  [5] [6] 

In November 2014 it was announced that Diageo was trading Bushmills brand Jose Cuervo in exchange for 50% of Don Julio tequila brand Diageo does not already own. The transaction is expected to be completed in early 2015.  [7]

Current whiskey range

  • Bushmills Original – Irish whiskey blend is sometimes called the Black Bush, Bushmills White Label. Grain whiskey is stored in American oak barrels.
  • Black Bush – has a significantly higher proportion of malt to grain whiskey than the white label. Spanish Oloroso sherry seasoned oak casks mature malt.
  • Bushmills 10 years single malt – Matured in American bourbon and Oloroso sherry casks for at least 10 years.
  • Bushmills 12 years single malt – A special edition is currently sold only at Bushmills Distillery, mostly matured in sherry casks.
  • Bushmills 16 years single malt – Matured for 16 years or more in a combination of American bourbon, Spanish Oloroso sherry butts and Port tubes.
  • Bushmills 21 years single malt – A limited number of 21 years bottles are made each year, and stored on three different types of barrels: first in American bourbon barrels and then in Spanish Oloroso sherry casks.Together it will be 19 years in these containers, after which it can be in Madeira barrels for another two years until bottling.
  • Bushmills 1608: A special 400th anniversary whiskey. From February 2008 there Bushmills outlets around the world; But from 2009 it will be available only in Whiskey Shop distillery and duty free shops.  [8]
  • Bushmills Sherry Cask Single Malt -. A special edition, the first in the “Steamship Collection”, available only in Belfast, Dublin and London Heathrow Airport  [9]  Matured in Oloroso sherry casks.


Some Bushmills has performed well at international Spirit ratings competitions. In particular, the Black Bush Finest blended whiskey received double gold medals at the 2007 and 2010 San Francisco World Spirits competition.  [10] There was also a well-above-average 93 points from the Beverage Testing Institute in 2008 and 2011.  [10]

In popular culture

  • The band NOFX mentions Bushmills in the song “Theme from a NOFX Album” of 2000 release  Pump Up The Valuum
  • Tom Waits mentions “Old Bushmills” in the song “Tom Traubert Blues” (also covered by Rod Stewart)
  • In the third season episode of  The Wire  , the Back Burner, Jimmy McNulty refers to Bushmills “Protestant whiskey” when he offered after that Jameson is available
  • Burt Reynolds plays a police lieutenant in the 1975 film  Hustle  whose favorite alcohol Bushmills
  • In 1982, the film  ‘s Cathedral  , the Paul Newman character Frank Gavin orders Bushmills and water at his neighborhood pub
  • In the Rescue Me series seasons 1-7, the Bushmills whiskey shared the common and favorite of the entire Irish Gavin family and referred to in at least ten episodes

See also

  • Irish whiskey
  • List of Irish whiskey brands
  • Whiskey
  • Barrel
  • Distillation
  • List of oldest companies
  • master mixer
  • Diageo



  1. ^ Jump up to: a b Old Bushmills History (official website)
  2. Jump up ^ Alternative Whisky Academy
  3. Jump up ^ Ray Foley (1 January 2006). The best Irish drinks. Source, Inc., p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4022-0678-8. Hämtasoch 31 October of 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ George Hill (1877). A history of the plantation in Ulster in the early seventeenth century, from 1608 to 1620. M’Caw, Stevenson & Orr. p. 393rd Retrieved 31 October of 2010.
  5. Jump up ^  “Bank of Ireland to present the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland a new issue of banknotes”. Bank of Ireland. 02.11.2008.Hämtas2016 / 03 / 07th
  6. Jump up ^  “Bank raises glass to the famous drink”. BBC News. .Hämtas 04/23/2008 10/30/2008.
  7. Jump up ^ Taylor, Charlie (11.03.2014). “Jose Cuervo to acquire Bushmills from Diageo”. The Irish Times. Pulled 03/11/2014.
  8. Jump up ^ Bushmills kick-starting 400th anniversary campaign
  9. Jump up ^ [1]
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b Product review of Bushmills Black Bush Irish Finest blended whiskey

Lough Neagh

Lough Neagh  , (pronounced / ˌ l ɒ xn eɪ /,  lokh ja  ) is a freshwater lake in Northern Ireland. The largest lake by area in the British Isles, deliver the 40% of Northern Ireland’s water.  [3] [4]  Its name comes from the Irish:  Loch nEachach  , which means “Lake of Eachaidh”, but today it is usually spelled Loch nEathach  (Irish : [ɫ̪ɔx n̠ʲahax].) in Irish  [5]  Lough owned by the Earl of Shaftesbury. 


With an area of 151 square miles (392 km  2  ), it is the largest lake on the island of Ireland, the 15th largest lake in the European Union  [3] [4]  and is ranked 31 in the list of largest lakes of Europe. Located 20 miles (30 km) west of Belfast, is about 20 miles (30 km) long and nine miles (15 km) wide. It is very shallow around the margins and the average depth in the main part of the lake (9 m), about 30 feet, although the lough deepest is about 80 feet (25m) deep. 


Of the 1760 square miles (4550 km  2  ) catchment, about 9% is located in Ireland and 91% in Northern Ireland,  [6]  a total of 43% of the land area of Northern Ireland is drained into Lough,  [7]  which itself flows out northwards to the sea via the River Bann. As one of the sources, the upper Bann Lough can itself be considered as part of Bann. Lough Neagh is fed by many tributaries, including the rivers  Main  (34 mi) Six Mile Water (21 ml), Upper Bann (40 mi) Blackwater (57 mi) Ballinderry (29 mi) and Moyola (31 mi)  [8]

Islands and peninsulas

  • Coney Island
  • Coney Island Flat
  • Flat Croaghan
  • Derrywarragh Island
  • Flat Kinturk
  • Oxford Island (peninsula)
  • Padian
  • Ram Island
  • Phil Roe plate
  • The shallow Flat
  • Traad (peninsula)

Towns and Villages

Towns and villages near the Lough include Craigavon, Antrim, Crumlin, Randalstown, Toomebridge, Ballyronan, Ballinderry, Moortown, Ardboe, Maghery, Lurgan and Magherafelt.


Five of the six counties of Northern Ireland have shores on Lough (only Fermanagh does not), and its area is shared among them. Counties listed clockwise:

  1. Antrim (eastern and northern shores of the lake)
  2. Down (small part in the southeast)
  3. Armagh (south)
  4. Tyrone (west)
  5. Londonderry (northern part of the western shore)

municipal Districts

The area of the lake is divided between four municipal districts in Northern Ireland, listed clockwise:  [9]

  • 3 Antrim and Newtownabbey, in northeastern
  • 4 Lisburn and Castlereagh, east
  • 6 Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon, in the south
  • 9 Mid Ulster in the west


Although the Lough is used for a variety of recreational and commercial activities, it is fragile and tends to get very serious very quickly in windy conditions.

Water supply

Lough used by Northern Ireland Water as a source of fresh water. The Lough supplies 40% of the region’s drinking water. There have long been plans to increase the amount of water drawn from the Lough, through a new treatment plant works at Hog Park Point, but these have not yet been realized. The Lough ownership of the Earl of Shaftesbury has implications for planned changes in government domestic water services in Northern Ireland,  [10]  that the lough is also used as a sewer outlet, and this arrangement is only permitted by the British Crown immunity.  [ Citation needed ] In 2012 it was reported that Earl considering transferring ownership of Lough to the Northern Ireland Assembly.  [11]  


Traditional working boats on Lough Neagh include wide beamed from 4.9 to 6.4 meters (16 to 21 feet) clinker-built, Spirits-rigged working boats and smaller flat-bottomed “cots” and “flats”. Barges, here called “lighters” was used until the 1940s to transport coal over the lough and adjacent canals.Until the 17th century, log boats (  coití  ) were the main mode of transportation. Some traditional boats are left now, but a community-based group on the southern shore of the lough is based on a range of workboats. [12]

In the 19th century, three canals were constructed with the help of the lough to connect various ports and cities: Lagan Navigation link from the city of Belfast, the Newry Canal Attached to the port of Newry, and the Ulster canal led to Lough Erne navigation, providing a navigable inland route via the river Shannon to Limerick, Dublin and Waterford. Lower Bann was also navigable to Coleraine and the Antrim coast, and the short Coalisland Canal as a route for coal transportation. Of these waterways, only the lower Bann remains open today, although a recovery plan for the Ulster Canal is underway.

Lough Neagh Rescue provides search and rescue services 24 hours a day. It is a voluntary service funded by the district bordering the Lough. Its members are well trained and is a declared facility for Coast Guard coordinates rescue on Lough Neagh.


Lough Neagh attracts bird watchers from many nations due to the number and variety of birds that winter and summer in the bogs and beaches around the lough.


The flora of the northeastern part of Northern Ireland contains algae:  Chara aspera  ,  Chara globe  . Each  sphere  ,  Chara globe  . Where  virgate  ,  Chara vulgaris  . Where  vulgaris  ,  Chara vulgaris  var.  Papillata  ,  Tolypella nidifica  each.  Slick  .  [13] The  record of Angiospermae include:  ranunculus flammula  . was  pseudoreptans  ,  ranunculus auricomus  ,  Ranunculatus sceleratus  ,  Ranunculatus circinatus  ,  Ranunculatus peltatus  ,  extended box  ,  coastline box  . subsp  minus  ,  Nymphaea alba  ,  Ceratophyllum demersum  ,  sylörter water  ,  Erophila Verna  . sub  samples  ,  Cuckooflower  , lundbräsma  ,  Cardamine flexuosa  ,  sumpfräne  ,  fran amphibian  , mignonette  ,  sweet violet  ,  herb pansy  ,  Viola tricolor  ssp.  Violoa tricolor ssp.  curtissi  ,  hypericum androsaemum  ,  Hypericum maculatum  ,  Elatine hydro  ,  Silene vulgaris  ,  Rödblära  ,  SOAPWORT  ,  [13]


Eel fishing has been a major industry in Lough Neagh for centuries. These European eel get from the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, about 4,000 miles along the Gulf Stream to the mouth of the River Bann, and then get into the lough. They remain there for about 10 to 15 years, matures, before returning to the Sargasso to spawn. Today Lough Neagh eel fisheries export their eels to restaurants all over the world, and Lough Neagh Eel has been granted protected geographical status under EU law.  [14]

Mythology and folklore

The Irish mythical story  Cath Maige Tuired  ( “Battle of Moytura”), is Lough Neagh known as one of the top 12 Loughs in Ireland.  [15]  The origin of the lake and its name is explained in an Irish tale that was written down in the Middle Ages, but is probably pre-Christian.  [16] [17]  According to the tale, the lake is named after Echaid (modern spelling: Eochaidh or Eachaidh), who was the son of Mairid (Mairidh), a king of Munster. Echaid falls in love with his stepmother, a young woman named Ébliu (Ébhlinne). They try to escape, along with many of its holder, but someone kills their horses. In some versions, the horses are killed by Midir (Midhir), which can be another name for Ébliu husband Mairid.Óengus (Aonghus) will appear and provide them with a huge horse that can carry all their belongings. Óengus warning that they must not let the horse rest or it will be their downfall. But after reaching the Ulster horse stop and urinate, and a spring rising from the site. Echaid decides to build a house there and cover the spring with a cornerstone to stop it overflowing. One night Capstone is not replaced and spring flooding, drowning Echaid and most of his family, and to create  Loch n-Echach  (  Loch nEachach  : Lake Eochaidh or Eachaidh).  [16] [17]  

The character Eochaidh refers to the Daghdha, a god of the ancient Irish also called Eochaidh Ollathair (which means “horsemen, father of all”).  [17] Ébhlinne, Midhir and Aonghus was also the names of the gods. Mary McGrath and Joan Griffith writes that the idea of a supernatural being create the landscape with their own body is an old man that is common to many pre-Christian cultures.  [17]  A Gaelic September called UI Eachach (which means “descendants of Eochaidh”) lived in area and it is likely that their name comes from the cult of the god Eochaidh.  [16]

Another story tells how the lake was formed when Ireland’s legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn McCool) scooped up a bit of earth and threw it at a Scottish rival. It fell into the Irish Sea, form the Isle of Man, while the crater left behind filled with water to form the Lough Neagh.  [18]

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Lough Beg
  • Portmore Lough


  1. Jump up ^ Naijural Heirship: Peat Moss NI Environment and Heritage Service.
  2. Jump up ^ org
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b Official Tourism Ireland website
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b com
  5. Jump up ^ Deirdre Flanagan and Laurance Flanagan, Irish placenta (Gill & Macmillan Ltd, 1994)
  6. Jump up ^  “Lough Neagh.” UK Environmental Change Network.Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Rivers Agency
  8. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey of IrelandRivers and their watersheds, 1958 (table reference)
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^  “Sudden death can affect NI Water”. BBC News. 19 May 2005.
  11. Jump up ^  “Earl of Shaftesbury does not exclude Lough Neagh sale”.BBC News.
  12. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Boating Heritage Association
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b Hackney, P. 1992.  Stewart & Corry Flora in northeastern Ireland.  Third Edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen’s University of Belfast. ISBN 0 85389 446 9
  14. Jump up ^ official list of UK protected foods. Taken Accessed 15 christmas 2011.
  15. Jump up ^ Augusta, Lady Gregory. Part I of Book III: the great battle of Magh Tuireadh.  Gods and Fighting Men  (1904) on
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ó hÓgáin, Daithi.  Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encyclopedia of the Irish folk tradition  . Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.181
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mary McGrath, Joan C. Griffith.  The Irish Draught Horse: A History  . Collins, 2005. p.44
  18. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Heritage: Folklore & Legends

Giant Causeway

The  Giant’s Causeway  is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic eruption.  [1] [2]  It is also known as Clochán a Aifir  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  in Irish  [3]  and  tha Giant Causey  in Ulster -Scots.  [4] 

It is located in County Antrim in the north east coast of Northern Ireland, about three miles (4.8 km) northeast of the town of Bushmills. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986, and a national nature reserve in 1987 by the Ministry of the Environment for Northern Ireland. In a 2005 survey of  Radio Times  readers, Giant’s Causeway was named as the fourth greatest natural wonder in United Kingdom.  [5]  The tops of the columns form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot and disappear under the sea. Most of the columns are hexagonal, but there is also some with four, five, seven or eight sides. The maximum is about 12 meters (39 feet) high, and the solidified lava in the cliffs is 28 meters (92 feet) thick in places.

A large part of the Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast World Heritage Site is currently owned and managed by the National Trust and it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Northern Ireland.  [6]  The rest of the site is owned by the Crown Estate, and a number of private landowners.


About 50 to 60 million years ago,  [1]  during the Paleocene Epoch, Antrim was the subject of intense volcanic activity, when viscous molten basalt pierced through chalk beds to form an extensive lava plateau. As the lava cooled, the contraction occurred. Horizontal contraction fractured in a manner similar to the drying clay, with cracks propagating according mass was cooled, leaving pillar like structures, which are also broken horizontally in “biscuits”. In many cases, the horizontal fracture resulting in a bottom surface that is convex and the upper face of the lower segment is concave, which produce what is called “batch” leads. The size of the columns in the first place is determined by the speed at which lava from a volcanic eruption cools. [7]  The extensive fracture network produced the distinctive columns seen today. The basalts were originally part of a large volcanic plateau called Thulean plateau formed during the Paleocene.  [8]


According to legend, the columns are the remains of a causeway built by a giant. The story goes that the Irish giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn MacCool) from the Fenian Cycle of Gaelic mythology, was challenged to a fight by the Scottish giant Bena Donner. Fionn accepted the challenge and built footbridge across the North Channel, so that the two giants could meet.In one version of the story, Fionn down Bena Donner.  [9]  In another, Fionn hides from Bena Donner when he realizes that his enemy is much greater than he. Fionn’s wife, Oonagh, hides Fionn as a baby and put him in a cradle.When Bena Donner sees the size of the “baby”, he expects that the father, Fionn, must be a giant among giants. He flees back to Scotland in fear, destroying the causeway behind him so that Fionn could not follow.  [10] above sea level, are identical basalt columns (part of the same ancient lava flow) at Fingal’s Cave on the Scottish island of Staffa, and it is possible that the story was influenced by this.  [11]

In total Irish mythology, is Fionn mac Cumhaill not a giant but a hero with supernatural abilities. In  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888), it should be noted that, with time, “the pagan gods of Ireland […] grew less and less in the popular imagination, until they turn into fairies, pagan heroes became bigger and bigger until they turn into giants. ”  [12]  there are no surviving pre-Christian tales of the Giant’s Causeway, but it may have originally been associated with the Fomorians (  Fomhóraigh  ),  [13]  the Irish name Clochán na bhFomhóraigh  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  means” stepping stones in  Fomhóraigh  “. The  Fomhóraigh  are a race of supernatural creatures of Irish mythology sometimes described as giants and that may have originally been part of a pre-Christian pantheon.  [14]


The discovery of the Giant’s Causeway was announced to the world in 1693 by the presentation of a paper to the Royal Society from Sir Richard Bulkeley, a Fellow of Trinity College, although discoverer had in fact been the Bishop of Derry who had visited the place a year earlier. The site gained international attention when Dublin artist Susanna Drury did watercolors of the year 1739; the Drury won the first award presented avRoyal Dublin Society in 1740 and was engraved in 1743.  [15]  In 1765, a record at the Causeway appeared in volume 12 of the French  Encyclopédie  , which was informed grave Drury work; engraving of the “East Prospect” itself appeared in a 1768 volume of plates published for  the Encyclopédie  .  [16]  In the caption to the plates French geologist Nicolas Desmarest proposed, for the first time in print, that such structures were volcanic origin.

The site first became popular among tourists in the nineteenth century, especially after the opening of the Giant’s Causeway Tramway, and only after the National Trust took over his care in the 1960s were some of the traces of commercialism away. Visitors can walk over basalt columns that are on the edge of the sea, a half mil walk from the entrance to the site.

Visit Centre

Causeway was without a permanent visitors’ center between 2000 and 2012, as previously, built in 1986, burned down in 2000.  [17]  Public funds have been earmarked to build a new center, and after an architectural competition, a proposal was accepted to build a new center, designed by Dublin architects Heneghan Peng, which would be put into the ground to reduce the impact on the landscape. A privately funded proposal received preliminary approval in 2007 by Environment Minister and DUP member Arlene Foster.  [18]  The public funds that had been allocated were frozen as a disagreement developed about the relationship between the private developer Seymour Sweeney and the DUP.  [19]  It was also discussed whether an individual interest should be allowed to take advantage of the location – given its cultural and economic importance and because it is largely owned by the National Trust. Coleraine Borough Council voted against the private plans, and for the benefit of a public development projects  [20]  and Moyle similar signaled dissatisfaction and gave the land on which the former visitor center stood for the National Trust. This gave the Trust control of both the Causeway and surrounding land. Ultimately, Mr. Sweeney dropped a legal challenge to the publicly funded plan.  [21]

The new visitor center was opened by the first minister Peter Robinson and Deputy Prime Minister, Martin McGuinness, in July 2012,  [22]  has with funding raised from the National Trust, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, the Heritage Lottery Fund and public donations.  [23]  Since its inception, the new visitor center gathered very mixed reviews from those who visit the Causeway to their pricing, design, content and placement across the causeway walk descent.  [24]

There was some controversy about the content of some exhibits in the visitor center, which refers to the Young Earth Creationist given the age of the Earth.  [25] [26]  Although these inclusions were welcomed by the chairman of the Northern Irish Protestant group, the Caleb Foundation,  [27 ]  National Trust stated that the inclusions formed only a small part of the exhibition and the Trust “fully supports the scientific explanation for the creation of the stones 60 million years ago.”  [28]  an online campaign to remove creationist materials launched in 2012, and after this, Trust conducted a review and concluded that they should be amended to have the scientific explanation of the footbridge origin as the main focus. Creationist explanations still mentioned, but presented as a traditional belief in some religious communities, rather than a competing explanation for Causeway origin.  [29] 

Notable features

Some of the structures in the area, after having been the subject of several million years of weathering, similar objects, such as  Organ  and  Giant boot structures. Other features include many reddish, weathered low columns known as  Giants Eyes  , created by the displacement of basalt boulders; the Shepherd footsteps  ; the  honeycomb  ; the  giant harp  ; the  chimneys  ; the Giant Gate  and  Camel hump  .

Flora and fauna

The area is a haven for seabirds fulmar, petrel, cormorant, shag, redshank, guillemots and razorbills, while the weathered rock formations host a number of rare and unusual plants, including sea Spleenwort, hare’s foot tooth, vernal squill, sea fescue and frog orchid.

A stromatolite colonies report is available at the Giants Causeway in October 2011 -. A rare find as stromatolites are more common in warmer water with higher content of salt solution than that found by the road  [30]

similar structures

Main article: List of places with column articulated volcanics

Although the basalt columns of the Giant’s Causeway are impressive, they are not unique. Basalt Pillars is a common volcanic feature, and they occur at many scales (because rapid cooling produces smaller columns).

railway access

The Belfast-Derry course run by Northern Ireland Railways connects to Coleraine and along Coleraine-Portrush branch line to Portrush. Local Ulsterbus provide connections to railway stations. It is a beautiful walk 7 miles from Portrush together Dunluce Castle and the Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway.


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast ‘. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ Jack Challoner, John Farndon, Rodney Walshaw (2004).Rocks, minerals and the Changing earth. South Water. p. 19.
  3. Jump up ^  “Clochán a Aifir / Giant’s Causeway – placental Database of Ireland ‘.Placen Commission. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. Jump up ^ The crack: Yin giant leap for mankind  newsletter  .Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ Report survey results Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  6. Jump up ^  “Giant’s Causeway Northern Ireland still Top Attraction” (Press release). Northern Ireland Tourist Board. August 18, 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  7. Jump up ^  “The University of Toronto (2008, December 25). Mystery of hexagonal column formations “.
  8. Jump up ^ Geoffroy, Laurent; Berg, Françoise; Angelier, Jacques (September 1996). “Brittle tectonism in relation to PALEOGENE development of Thulean / NE Atlantic domain: a study in Ulster”.Geological Journal.  31 (3) :. 259-269 doi: 10.1002 / (SICI) 1099-1034 (199,609) 31: 3 <259 :: AID-GJ711> 3.0.CO, 2-8. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Giant’s Causeway.”  The Dublin Penny Journal  , issue 5 (1832), p.33
  10. Jump up ^ Jones, Richard.  Myths and legends in the UK and Ireland  .New Holland Publishers, 2006. p.131
  11. Jump up ^ formation of basalt columns / pseudocrystals
  12. Jump up ^ “giants.”  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888)
  13. Jump up ^ Lyle, Paul.  Between rocks and hard places: Discovering Ireland’s northern landscapes  . The Stationery Office, 2010. p.3
  14. Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia.  The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore  .Infobase Publishing, 2004. p.198
  15. Jump up ^ Arnold,  Irish art  , p. 62.
  16. Jump up ^ “Susanna Drury, Causeway and the Encyclopédie, 1768”ämtat 14 March 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ BBC News – Study Causeway blaze – 30 April, 2000
  18. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers set to get the nod Causeway – 10 September 2007
  19. Jump up ^ BBC News – developers DUP link “irrelevant” – 11 September 2007
  20. Jump up ^ BBC News – Causeway must be public; advice – 12 September 2007
  21. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers ends Causeway Challenge – May 2009
  22. Jump up ^ Maguire, Anna (5 July 2012). “Causeway Visitors Centre: A great leap forward?”. Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  23. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway gets £ 9m Tourist contribution”. BBC. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  24. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, TripAdvisor”. TripAdvisor.15 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  25. Jump up ^  “National Trust in the Giant’s Causeway creationism row”.The autonomous. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  26. Jump up ^  “Causeway center provides creation view”. U TV. July 4, 2012.Hämtat5 July 2012.
  27. Jump up ^  “Online conference calls to remove the creation of the exhibition at the Giant’s Causeway.” BBC Northern Ireland. July 5, 2012.Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  28. Jump up ^  “Trust Causeway creationism row”. Irish Independent. July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  29. Jump up ^ confidence, change the Causeway center “Creationist” exhibition  BBC News  October 3, 2012 (retrieved November 30, 2012)
  30. Jump up ^ stromatolite colonies found in the Giant’s Causeway, BBC News. 14 October 2011.

Carrickfergus Castle

Carrickfergus Castle  is a Norman castle in Northern Ireland, which is located in the town of Carrickfergus in County Antrim, on the north shore of Belfast Lough. Besieged in turn by denskotska, Irish, English and French, the castle played an important military role until 1928 and is still one of the best preserved medieval buildings in Northern Ireland. It was strategically good, with 3/4 of the castle perimeter surrounded by water (even in modern times only 1/3 is surrounded by water because of clearance). Today it is maintained by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency as a state care historic monument, at grid ref: J4143 8725th  [1]


Carrickfergus built by John de Courcy in 1177 as its headquarters, after he conquered eastern Ulster in 1177 and ruled as a petty king until 1204, when he was overthrown by another Norman adventurer, Hugh de Lacy. Initially they Courcy built the Interior Department, a small courtyard at the end of the promontory with a high polygonal wall and east gate. It had several buildings, including the main hall. From its strategic location on a promontory, originally almost surrounded by sea, commanded the castle Carrickfergus Bay (later known as the Belfast Lough), and the ground approaching the walled city developed in its shadows.

English control

It first appears in the official English records in 1210 when King John besieged it and took control of the then Ulster main strategic garrison. After his capture, constables were appointed to command the castle and its surroundings. In 1217 the new constable, The Serlane, was awarded a hundred pounds to build a new curtain wall so that the approach along the mountain can be protected, as well as eastern methods of sand exposed at low tide. The middle-ward curtain wall later reduced to ground level in the eighteenth century, save along the sea side, where it survives with a poster gate and east tower, known for a fine collection of crossbows loops on the basement level.

A chamber on the first floor in the east tower believed to have the castle canopy because of their fine Roman style double window surround, if the original canopy must have been in the inner compartment. The ribbed vaults over the entrance passage of the murderous hole and the massive portcullis at each end of the gatehouse is later realizes started by Hugh de Lacey, who died in 1248 and did not live to see its completion in about 1250. It was completed by King Henry III.

After the collapse of the Earldom of Ulster in 1333, the castle remained in the Crown’s main residential and administrative center of Northern Ireland.During the early stages of the nine-year war (1595-1603), when the English influence in the north became weak, crown forces were provided and maintained by the city’s port. And in 1597, the surrounding countryside was the scene of the Battle of Carrickfergus.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, improvements were made to accommodate artillery, including external splayed gun ports and embrasures for cannons, but these improvements not prevent the castle from being attacked and captured on many occasions during this time. Marshal Schomberg besieged and took the castle in the week-long siege of Carrickfergus in 1689. This is also the place where Schomberg leader, King William III first set foot in Ireland June 14, 1690.

In 1760, after heavy fighting in the city, it was handed over to the French invaders under the command of François Thurot. They looted the castle and the town and then left, only to be captured by the Royal Navy.

Subsequent use

In 1778, a small but important event in the American War of Independence began in Carrickfergus, when John Paul Jones, given the reluctance of his crew approached too close to the castle, attracted a Royal Navy ship from its moorings in the North Channel, and won an hour long struggle. In 1797 the castle, which had on several occasions been used to house prisoners of war, became a prison and it was heavily defended during the Napoleonic Wars; six cannons on the eastern battery remaining twenty-two used in the 1811th

For a century remained a magazine and armory. During the First World War it was used as a garrison and ammunition store, and during World War II as a bomb shelter.

It was garrisoned continuously for about 750 years until 1928, when ownership was transferred from the British army to the new government in Northern Ireland for the conservation of an old monument .Many of its after Norman and Victorian additions removed to restore the castle’s original Norman look. It remains open to the public. Assembly Hall has been completely renovated and there are many exhibits to show what life was like in the Middle times. It was built and rebuilt three times, and still stands today.

railway access

The castle is a short walk from Carrickfergus railway station. Trains connect west to Belfast Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street and east to Whitehead and Larne port operated by Northern Ireland Railways.

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • Castles in Northern Ireland
  • Castles in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^  “Carrickfergus Castle” (PDF). Environment and Heritage Service NI – State Care of historical monuments. Be checked out three December 2007.

Belfast–Derry Railway Line

The  Belfast-Derry railway line  (called  Derry ~ Londonderry line  with NI Railways  [1]  ) runs from Belfast to Londonderry Derry in Northern Ireland.This line consists mainly of single track from just under Mossley West station up to Londonderry Waterside station with venues in Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Castle.

Current position

Services on Derry ~ Londonerry line runs on an alternating pattern to and from Belfast. The trains will change every hour between services from Great Victoria Street Londonderry Waterside (and vice versa), and a service from Great Victoria Street Coleraine, which then continues to Portrush via Coleraine-Portrush railway.

On weekdays, stations between Great Victoria Street, Coleraine every hour in both directions, with each outgoing trains alternating between a service to Londonderry Waterside, and a service to Portrush, except for some rush hour trains that stop at Coleraine. In the other direction, all the trains run every hour to Great Victoria Street, with the exception of a few late night and peak time services, that ends at Belfast Central. Stations between Coleraine and Londonderry Waterside served every hour in each direction.

On Saturdays, the service is still very much the same throughout the line during the week, except for a reduction in peak-time services.

On Sundays, all trains running between Great Victoria Street, Londonderry Waterside, except for the first and last service of the day, starting from or ending in Coleraine. Only seven trains go each way on Derry ~ Londonderry line on Sundays.  [2]

All passengers traveling to Portrush on the Derry-based services, or to Derry at Portrush-bound services, must change Coleraine Station.

previous activities

Before 2001 and the resumption of the Bleach Green Line, services operated via Crumlin, Glenavy, Ballinderry and Lisburn. The resumption of Bleach Green Line resulted in shorter travel between Belfast and Londonderry. A skeleton service continued on the Lisburn-Antrim line until 2003, when the line and its stations were closed. This section of railway is now used exclusively for driver training, for emergency diversions needed.

Recent history and future

In August 2011 it was planned to reduce services in Coleraine to Londonderry section to five services in each direction on weekdays, to facilitate safety improvement works in 2012. A reconstruction of the line was due to commence in April 2012, but the £ 75 million it was to be sold, was not tillgänglig.Detta resulted in opposition from supporters of the section who feared that the line would be permanently shut down.  [3]

In October 2011, after years of uncertainty, DRD Minister Danny Kennedy moved funds from the A5 dual development project upgrade railway projects, allowing for a three Phase upgrade, which began in July 2012.

Phase 1 saw the line near the 9 months to completely relay two sections (Coleraine Castle and Eglinton Londonderry) of the stretch, extend the life of the remaining portion by converting the current hit track continuous welded rail, eliminating the wet spots and essential bridge repairs. This ended March 24, 2013 and the new timetable changes have resulted in a morning train to reach Derry before 9:00 for the first time since Northern Ireland Railways took control of the network in the 1960s.

Phase 2 was due to begin in 2014/15, but is currently delayed, consisting of the introduction of a passing track and resignalling route. It will see the signal cabins Castle and Londonderry turn, centralize signaling in Coleraine, and deliver every hour between Derry and Belfast.  [4]

Phase 3 will include the entire relay tracks between Castle and Eglinton 2021 deliver half-hour services.  [5]

Other future plans for Londonderry line includes a reinstatement of the double line of Antrim Ballymena, doubling the track from Monkstown Templepatrick, and any transfers of the route terminal in Londonderry.

Railway Technology function

Coleraine is a bascule bridge for railway over navigable river Bann.  [6] Shortly after Castle station are two tunnels created during an event called the Big Blast in October 1845. Castle tunnel is 668 yards long and is the longest operating railway tunnel in Northern Ireland . After passing through a short opening train passes the shorter Downhill tunnel is 301 yards in length.  [7]


The signal on the line from Great Victoria Street to slaught level crossing (just south of Ballymena station) is controlled by the Belfast Central control terminal. From Ballymena, are signaling and level crossings controlled by Coleraine signal cabin. After trains depart Coleraine an electric train crew system works between Coleraine and Castle. This is when the driver receives a token to access the portion of the line. Castle has its own signal cabin, which controls the signaling from up to Ballykelly, where the driver hand symbol to the signal controller and allowed another to make it possible for trains to move on to Londonderry. Londonderry also has a signal control terminal that controls the signaling from Eglinton.De most of Belfast to Londonderry line is controlled by color light signals, but Castle station still has semaphore signals from the somersault-type typical of the NCC functions.


After a full withdrawal of NIR NIR Class 80 and Class 450 trains, the line is now served by a combination of NIR NIR Class 3000 and Class 4000 diesel units.


  1. Jump up ^  “NI Railways Timetable – Derry Line, Winter 2012” (PDF).Translink. Be checked out three January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Railways (March 2013). “NIR Service 3 Timetable”. Translink. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Kennedy calls for more money for Londonderry rail link.”BBC News. August 25, 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Londonderry Line” Andy Milne Rail Staff May 2012.
  5. Jump up ^  “Derry railway upgrade on the right track.” Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^


The  Falls Road  (from Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , which means “territory attachments”  [1]  ) is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, which runs from Divis Street in Belfast city center to Anderson’s in the suburbs. Its name is synonymous with Republican community in the city, while neighboring Shankill Road are mainly loyalists, separated from the Falls Road avfredslinjer. The road is usually called  the  Falls Road, rather than as Falls Road. It is known as the  Faas Raa  in Ulster-Scots.  [2]


Nearby White Rock Road 1968

The Falls Road got its name from the Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , an Irish small kingdom whose name means “territory attachments”.  [1]  This territory was roughly the same as the church congregation in Shankill, which spanned a large part of today’s Belfast.  [1]

The Falls Road itself was originally a road leading from the center but the population in the area expanded rapidly in the 19th century with the construction of several large linen factories. All of these have now closed or repurposed. This initial area, which was centered on the intersection of today’s Millfield and Hamill Street in what is now the Divis Street, was known as the Falls and lent its name to the road,  [3]  previously called the “pound”.  [Citation needed ]  the homes in area developed in the 19th century and organized in the narrow streets of small radhus.Många of these streets were named after characters and events of the Crimean War (1853-1856), which is present at the time.  [1]  

These included Raglan Street (named after Lord Raglan, the commander of the British forces in the Crimean War), Alma Street (named after the Battle of Alma), Balaclava Street (named after the Battle of Balaklava), Inkerman Street (named after the Battle of Inkerman) and Sevastopol Street (named after the siege of Sevastopol).  [1]

The view from the Falls Road to the city center, 1981

In the 1960s the buildings in the area had fallen considerably and the Belfast Corporation introduced a greater development plan that involved whole scale demolition of large parts of the area and replaced with a series of flat complex. The highest point in this transformation was the Divis Tower, built on top of the historic district formerly known as Pound Loney.  [4]


Bobby Sands mural on the Falls Road

A predominantly working class community Falls Road has historically had a strong socialist tradition before 1970 had been less Irish nationalist than other parts of Northern Ireland. James Connolly, a resident of Upper Falls during a period in the early 20th century and was involved in organizing the workers in linen factories  [ citation needed ]  , but the area was generally seen as a bedrock of Irish parliamentary party (IPP) at the time. Éamon de Valera lost heavily here in the 1918 UK general election the IPP Joe Devlin. Connolly secretary Winifred Carney also stayed at the Falls with her husband, George McBride, a Protestant and World War I veteran.  [ Citation needed ]    

The last century has seen an ongoing competition between different versions of the labor / socialist and nationalist / Irish Republican leadership elections in the area. In the 1929 elections to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, Belfast, Falls constituency was won by nationalist Richard Byrne after a bitter contest with William McMullen, a supporter of Connolly.  [Citation needed ]  

In the 1945 election, Harry Diamond won the seat stands for Socialist Republican Party. He held the position until 1969, when he was defeated by Paddy Devlin stands for Northern Ireland Labour Party. Devlin, who had once been a member, along with the Diamond, in Belfast branch of the Irish Labour Party, became a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party in 1970 and remained a member until Parliament has been prorogued in 1972.  [ citation needed ]  

Garden of Remembrance, Falls Road.

In 1964, Billy McMillen stood as a Republican clubs candidate for Belfast West constituency in the Westminster election. His office was in the Divis Street and the Irish tricolor along Starry Plough of Connolly’s Irish Citizen Army was displayed in the window. The public display of the flag of Ireland was prohibited by the Northern Ireland government. Protestant preacher Ian Paisley insisted Royal Ulster Constabulary remove the flag or he would organize a march and remove it yourself. The police feared a backlash from loyalists, and removed it, causing unrest and riots by nationalists.  [5]

Frederick Douglass mural on “Solidarity Wall”, then painted.

In the late 1960s, many Catholics from all over Northern Ireland began the campaign, many with NICRA, against discrimination in housing and employment, under the banner of a civil rights campaign in conscious imitation of philosophy and tactics used by the American Civil Rights Movement.  [6 ]

Many activists saw NICRA as an Irish Republican Trojan horse, designed to destabilize Northern Ireland, and force members of a united Ireland.  [7] [8] Several streets around the Falls Road burned by loyalists in August 1969. In response to the worsening situation, the British government utplaceradebrittiska army on Falls Road. The troops were initially welcomed by many but not all Falls residents to protect them, but the heavy-handed tactics of the most mainland British-born members of the army who do not know or understand the situation would alienate most Catholics and nationalists. [9] [10]  

In 1970, the road was the scene of what became known as the Falls Curfew.3000 British troops sealed off the streets around the Falls Road, home to about 10,000 people, setting off tear gas. The UK measures was received by the Official IRA (OIRA), who engaged them in a vicious firefight. Over the weekend, four Catholic civilians were killed by the British army. Ninety rifles were recovered.  [11]  It is generally regarded as the end of the British Army “honeymoon” period with the Nationalists in Belfast.  [12]

For the next three decades, the British Army had a significant presence on the Falls Road, with a base on top of Divis Tower. This was removed in August 2005 as part of the British government’s normalization program for Provisional Irish Republican Army’s claim that it ends its armed activity. In the meantime, Falls Road saw some of the worst violence “troubles”. The last British soldier to be killed on the road itself was private Nicholas Peacock, was killed by a trap bomb left outside Rock Bar, opposite the top of the Donegall Road.  [13]

1991 IRA hit squads based in Upper Falls and Beech Mount was involved in attacks against loyalist paramiliaries in the nearby village area. In September 1991, they shot dead 19 years old up UVF John Hanna at his home in the Donegall Road, and in November the same year, they shot dead William King Berry and his stepson Samuel Mehaffey, members of the UDA and the RHC, respectively, in their home on Lecale Street .  [13]


Falls Road Library, opened 1908th

Since the 1960s there has been a significant recovery of the traditional culture of the Irish language, dance and music. These are all showcased during the Feile an Phobail, an annual festival of Irish culture. The road is also home to Culturlann, an Irish cultural center that is open all year.  [ Citation needed ]  

One of three Carnegie libraries were built in Belfast is on the Falls Road. It opened on 1 January 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Belfast still serves as a library.  [14]

Educational institutions and hospitals

Several major educational institutions in the area, including St. Dominic Grammar School for Girls, St. Rose High School, St Mary’s University College, and the Irish school Coláiste Feirste.

St. Louise’s Comprehensive College is one of the largest comprehensive girls schools in Europe. St Finian’s and St. Catherine’s schools were closed because of falling student numbers. Katarina together with St. John’s girls and St. Gallen boys to form St. Clares in September 2005. St. Mary’s Christian Brothers Grammar School was originally located in Barrack Street off Divis Street in the Lower Falls but was transferred to a new establishment on the Glen Road in the Upper Falls in the 1960s. There are several major hospitals in the area, including the Royal Victoria Hospital, the Royal Maternity and Children’s Hospital.  [ Citation needed ]  


KyrkogårdarDet are several Catholic churches in the Falls Road. These include St. Church, St. Paul’s Church in the center of the Falls and St. John’s Church in Upper Falls. Nearby is Clonard Monastery, home of the Redemptorist religious order. Father Alec Reidsom played a key role in the Northern Ireland peace process was based here.

Two large cemeteries located on top of the Falls Road: Belfast City Cemetery and Milltown Cemetery.

other buildings

Although the area is largely residential, there are several large (former)), industrial and other buildings. The most famous of the original factory buildings Conway Mill Conway Street (named after the Conway family, a famous rich family of Clonard Area), originally a flax spinning mill, now houses a community enterprise in small business, studios, retail space and training floor. The Dunlewey Centre (Belfast Metropolitan College campus) is a community training center in the heart of the Lower Falls.

See also

  • Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast
  • Lower Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Upper Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Raidió Fáilte


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e placental NI Falls
  2. Jump up ^ Language / Cultural Diversity – Irish Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Belfast history,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ Megan Deirdre Roy.  Divis Flats: the social and political consequences of a modern housing project in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1968-1998  ,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Peter Taylor.  Loyalists  , ISBN 0-7475-4519-7, p. 32
  6. Jump up ^  Weiss, Ruth. Peace in his time: War and Peace in Ireland and South Africa. p. 34.
  7. Jump up ^ Lord Cameron,  Disturbances in Northern Ireland: Report of the Commission appointed by the governor in Northern Ireland  (Belfast, 1969)
  8. Jump up ^ Purdie, Bob.  Politics in the streets: the origins of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland  , The Black Staff Press, ISBN 0-85640-437-3.
  9. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  10. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ Ed Moloney.  A Secret History of the IRA  , ISBN 0-14-101041-X, p. 91.
  12. Jump up ^ Richard English.  Armed struggle  (2003), p. 136
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b McKittrick, Feeney, Thornton, Kelters, David, Brian, Chris, Seamus (2004). Lost lives. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 1158, 1248, 1257-1258.
  14. Jump up ^  “Catalogue of the photo exhibition Irish Carnegie Library” (PDF). An Chomhairle Leabharlanna (The Library Council Sweden).Retrieved 4 September 2012.


mural  is a piece of artwork painted or applied directly to a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinctive feature of the mural is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Some murals are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (eg with marouflage). If these jobs can be accurately called “murals” is the subject of some controversy in the art world  [ who? ]  , But the technology has been in general use since the late 19th century.  [1]  


Jataka stories frånAjantagrottorna, 7th Century

Murals of sorts date to the Upper Paleolithic times that the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France (around 30,000 BC). Many old wall paintings have survived in Egyptian tombs (about 3150 BC),  [2]  the Minoan palaces (Middle period III of Neopalatial period from 1700 to 1600 BC) and Pompeii (about 100 BC – AD 79) .

In medieval times, the wall paintings were mostly done on dry plaster (Secco). The huge collection of Kerala mural dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco.  [3] [4]  In Italy, around 1300, the technique for painting frescoes on wet plaster reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of the mural .  [5] 

In modern times, the term became more familiar with Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The most famous is probably  the fresco  , using water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a quick use of the resulting mixture over a large area, often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry. The  marouflage  method has also been used for millennia.

Painting today is painted in a variety of ways, using oil or aqueous media.The styles can vary from abstract to  trompe l’oeil  (a French term for “fool” or “fool the eye”). Initiated by the works of wall artists like Graham Rust and Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe l’oeil painting has experienced a revival in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas which is then pasted on a wall surface  (see the wallpaper, Frescography)  to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene.


Historic wall techniques

The 18-century BC fresco of the installation of Zimrilim  discovered vidKungliga castle in Old Navy in Syria

In the history of the mural, several methods have been used:

A fresco  painting from the Italian word  affresco  which derives from the adjective  fresco  ( “fresh”), describes a method in which the color is applied to the plaster on walls or ceilings. The  Buon fresco  technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water in a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is then absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. After that the painting stays for a long period of time up to centuries in fresh and bright colors.

Fresco-secco  painting is done on dry plaster (  Secco  is “dry” in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

Mezzo fresco  painted on almost dry plaster, and was defined by the sixteenth-century writer Ignazio Pozzo as “firm enough not to take a thumb-print” so that the pigment penetrates only slightly into the drywall. At the end of the sixteenth century this had largely displaced the  buon fresco  method, and was used by artists who Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of  a secco  work.


In Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic paints were used in a cold state is used.  [6] [7] 

Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods of the mural. The tempera pigments are bound in a proteinaceous media such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.

In 16th century Europe, oil on canvas emerged as a simpler method for the mural. The advantage was that the artwork would be completed in the artist’s studio and later transported to their destination and attached to the wall or taket.Oljefärg can be a less satisfactory medium of murals because of its lack of brilliance in color. Even pigments yellowed by the binder or easily affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more vulnerable to rapid deterioration over a patch of ground.  [ Citation needed ]  Various muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, be it oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints  [8]  applied by brush, roller or airbrush / aerosols . Customers will often ask for a certain style and the artist can adapt to the appropriate technology.  [9]  

A consultation usually leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a quotation to the customer approves muralist before starting work. The area to be painted can be structured to match the design allows the image to be peeled carefully, step by step. In some cases the design is projected directly onto the wall and traced with a pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without Sketch, prefer the spontaneous technique.

Once completed, the mural can be given layer of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work against UV rays and surface damage.

In modern, fast form of muralling young enthusiasts also use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give the desired models on a canvas board. The fabric later set aside to let the mud dry. Once dried, the cloth and the shape painted with your choice of colors and later coated with lacquer.

CAM designed Frescography by Rainer Maria Latzke digitally printed on canvas

As an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural can be digitally printed murals also applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and then reproduced in close to original quality.

The disadvantages of prefabricated murals and decals is that they often mass produced and lacking attractiveness and exclusivity of an original work of art. They are often not adapted to the individual wall sizes of the customer and their personal ideas or requests can not be added to the mural as it progresses. The Frescography technology a digital method of manufacture (CAM) was invented by Rainer Maria Latzke up some of the personalization and size restrictions.

Digital technology is often used in advertisements. A “wall cape” is a big advertisement on or attached to the outer wall of a building. Wallscapes can be painted directly on the wall as a wall painting, or printed on vinyl, and securely attached to the wall just like a plate. Although not strictly classified as paintings, large scale printed media is often referred to as such.Advertising paintings traditionally painted on buildings and shops of recordings authors, recent large-scale poster signs.

The significance of murals

The San Bartolo mural

Murals are important that they take the art in the public space. Because of the size, cost, and work to create a mural, muralists must often on behalf of a sponsor.Ofta it is the local authorities or a business, but many murals have been paid with grants of patronage. For artists, their work to a wide audience that otherwise might not set foot in an art gallery. A town benefits by the beauty of a work of art.

Murals can be a relatively effective tool of social emancipation or achieving a political objective.  [10] The  paintings have sometimes created the law, or have been commissioned by local bars and cafes. Often the visual effects are an enticement to attract public attention to social issues. State-sponsored public art expressions, particularly paintings, often used avtotalitära regimes as a tool for propaganda. Despite the propagandistic nature of that work, some of them still have an artistic value.

Murals can have a dramatic impact on the conscious or unconscious attitudes passer, when added to the areas where people live and work. It can also be argued that the existence of large public murals can add aesthetic improvement of the daily lives of residents or employees at a company site.

Other world-famous wall paintings can be found in Mexico, New York, Philadelphia, Belfast, Derry, Los Angeles, Nicaragua, Cuba and India. [1] They have served as an important means of communication for members of socially, ethnically and racially divided communities in times of conflict.They also showed to be an effective tool in a dialogue and thus solve the cleavage in the long run. The Indian state of Kerala has exclusive murals.These Kerala mural on the walls of Hindu temples. They can be dated from the 9th century.

The San Bartolo murals of the Maya civilization in Guatemala, is the oldest example of this technique in Mesoamerica and is dated to 300 BC.

Many rural towns have begun using murals to create tourist attractions in order to increase economic income. Colquitt, Georgia is one such city.Colquitt was elected to host the 2010 Global Mural Conference. The city has more than twelve paintings completed, and will be hosting the conference along with the Dothan, Alabama, and Blakely, Georgia. In the summer of 2010, Colquitt begin work on its icon painting.

Murals and politics

Diego Rivera’s mural depicting Mexico’s history vidNational Palace in Mexico City

The Bardia Mural, photographed in the 1960s, before its damage by corruption and the ravages of time.

Wall paintings show the Marxist view of the press in this cafe in East Berlin in 1977 was covered by advertising after Germany was reunited

The Mexican mural movement in the 1930s brought a new prominence to the murals that a social and political tool. Diego Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros was the most famous artists in the movement. Between 1932 and 1940, Rivera also painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York. In 1933 he completed a famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels entitled  Detroit Industry  on the walls of a courtyard of the Detroit Institute of Arts.  [11]  During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the yard defend the artistry of the murals while attacking his policies “abominable”.

The Colombian government in 1948 hosted IX Pan-American Conference to establish the Marshall Plan for America. The head of the OEA and the Colombian government commissioned Master Santiago Martinez Delgado, to paint a mural in the Colombian Congress building to commemorate the event. Martinez decided to do it on the Cucuta Congress, and painted Bolívar front of Santander, upset liberals do; so, because of the murder of Jorge Eliezer Gaitan mobs El bogotazo tried to burn the capital, but the Colombian army stopped them. Several years later, in the 1980s, with the Liberals in charge of Congress, passed a resolution to shut down the whole house of the elliptical room 90 degrees to put the main mural on the side and mission Alejandro Obregon to paint an impartial mural in the surreal style.

Northern Ireland contains some of the most famous political murals in the world.  [12]  Nearly 2,000 paintings have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s.  [13]  More recently, many murals are non-sectarian, political and social issues such as racism and environmentalism and many are completely a-political, depicting children at play and scenes from everyday life. (Senordirländska murals.)

One is not political, but social belonging mural covering one wall of an old building, once a prison, on top of a cliff in Bardiyah in Libya. It was painted and signed by the artist in April 1942 weeks before his death on the first day of the first battle of El Alamein. Known as the Bardia Mural, was created by the English artist, Private John Frederick Brill.  [14]

In 1961, East Germany began erecting a wall between East and West Berlin, which became known as the Berlin Wall. Also on the painting side of East Berlin were not allowed, artists painted on the western side of the wall from the 80th century until the fall of the Wall, 1989.

Many unknown and known artists such as Thierry Noir and Keith Haring painted on the wall, “the world’s longest canvas”. Sometimes detailed artwork often painted over within hours or dagar.På the western side of the wall was not protected, so that everyone can paint on the wall. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the eastern side of the Wall was also a popular “canvas” for many mural and graffiti artists. Orgosolo, Sardinia, is a very important center for paintings policies.

It is also common for wall painting graffiti used as a memoir. In the book “Someone said to me,” Rick Bragg writes about a number of communities, mainly in New York, which has walls dedicated to the innocent lives lost.  [15]These memorials, both the written word and mural style, gives the deceased to be present in the communities where they lived. Bragg says that “murals has woven itself into the fabric of the neighborhoods and the city.” These memorials serve as a constant reminder to the living community of innocent lives lost due to inner city violence.

Murals in modern interior

Traditional interior murals

Forest mural of  a red shoe  in private homes, England 2007

Many people like to express their individuality by commissioning an artist to paint a mural in their home, this is not an activity exclusively for owners of large houses. A mural artist is only limited by the charge and therefore the time of the painting; dictate the level of detail; a single wall painting may be added to the smallest of the walls.

Private tasks can be for dining, bathroom, living room, or, as is often the case-the children’s bedroom. A child’s room can be transformed into “fantasy world” of a forest or the racetrack, encourage imaginative play and an awareness of art.

The current trend for feature walls has increased behalf of muralists in the United Kingdom. A large hand-painted mural can be designed on a theme, incorporate personal pictures and elements and can be changed during the painting. The personal interaction between client and muralist is often a unique experience for an individual usually does not participate in the arts.

In the 1980s, illusionary wall painting experienced a revival in private homes.The reason for this revival of the interior can in some cases be attributed to the reduction of living space for the enskilde.Faux architectural features as well as scenery and views can lead to “open out” walls. Urban areas of housing can also contribute to people’s feelings of being cut off from nature in its free form. A mural commission of this kind may be an attempt by some people to re-establish a balance with nature.

Commissions of murals in schools, hospitals and retirement homes can achieve an attractive and welcoming atmosphere in these care institutions.Murals in other public buildings such as pubs are also common.

Graffiti interior murals

Mint & Serf at Ace Hotel, New York

Recently, graffiti and street art has played a key role in modern mural. Such graffiti / street artists such as Keith Haring, Shepard Fairey, ABOVE, Mint & Serf, Futura 2000 OS GÊMEOS and Faile, among others, has successfully crossed their street art aesthetic outside the walls of the cityscape and on the walls of private and corporate clients. As graffiti / street art became more mainstream in the late 1990s, the youth-oriented brands like Nike, Red Bull and Wieden Kennedy turned to graffiti / street artists to decorate the walls of their offices. This trend continued in the 2000s with graffiti / street art to get more recognition from art institutions worldwide.

Ethnic murals

Rajasthani motifs mural of Kakshyaachitra, Bombay 2014

Many homeowners choose to display the traditional art and culture of their community or events from their history in their homes. Ethnic paintings have become an important form of decoration. Warli painting paintings become a preferred way of wall decoration in India. Warli painting is an ancient Indian art form where the tribal people used to depict different stages of life on the walls of their mud houses.

Tile mural

Panel of tiles by Jorge Colaço (1922) depicts an episode from the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) between the Portuguese and Castilian arméer.En piece of public art in Lisbon, Portugal.

Tile murals are murals made of stone, ceramic, porcelain, glass or metal trays that are installed in, or added to the surface of an existing wall. They are also inlaid in the floor. Wall tiles are painted, glazed, sublime printed (as described below) or the more traditional cut or broken into pieces. Unlike the traditional painted murals as described above, the tile paintings are always done with the use of plates.

Mosaic murals are made by combining small 1/4 “to 2” size pieces of colored stone, tile ceramic or glass and then put out to create an image. Today’s modern technology has made commercial mosaic wall makers to use the computer program to separate the photographs in colors that automatically cut and glued onto discs with a mask create precise paintings quickly and in large quantities.

The azulejo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐzuleʒu], Spanish pronunciation: [aθulexo]) refers to a typical form of Portuguese or Spanish painted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. They have become a typical aspect of Portuguese culture, manifesting without interruption for five centuries, the successive trends in art.

Azulejos can be found inside and outside the churches, palaces, ordinary houses and even train stations or subway stations.

They are used not only as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity as temperature control in homes. Many azulejos chronicle major historical and cultural aspects of Portuguese history.

Custom Printed tile murals can be produced using digital images of kitchen splashbacks, wall displays, and floors. Digital images and artwork can be resized and printed to accommodate the desired size of the area to be decorated. Custom tile printing using a variety of techniques, including dye sublimation and ceramic type laser toners. The latter technique can provide fade-resistant custom plates which are suitable for long term outdoor exposure.

notes muralists

  • Edwin Abbey
  • Carlos Almaraz
  • Added Dorothy
  • Judy Baca
  • Banksy
  • Arnold Belkin
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • John T. Biggers
  • Torsten Billman
  • Henry Bird
  • Edwin Howland Blashfield
  • Pale le Rat
  • Steve Bogdanoff
  • Giotto di Bondone
  • Gabriel Bracho
  • Paul Cadmus
  • Eleanor Coen
  • Dean Cornwell
  • John Steuart Curry
  • Robert Dafford
  • Dora The Larios
  • Santiago Delgado Martinez
  • Faile
  • Shepard Fairey
  • Piero della Francesca
  • Louis Grell
  • Satish Gujral
  • Manav Gupta
  • Richard Haas
  • Keith Haring
  • Albert Henry Krehbiel
  • Susan Krieg
  • Rainer Maria Latzke
  • Tom Lea
  • Will Hicok Low
  • Sofia Maldonado
  • John Anton Mallin
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Reginald Marsh
  • knox Martin
  • Peter Max
  • Michelangelo
  • Mario Miranda
  • Claude Monet
  • Roberto Montenegro
  • Frank Nuderscher
  • violet Oakley
  • Edward O’Brien
  • Juan O’Gorman
  • Pablo O’Higgins
  • José Clemente Orozco
  • Rufus Porter
  • Aarón Pina Mora
  • Archie Rand
  • Raphael
  • Freydoon Rassouli
  • Diego Rivera
  • Graham Rust
  • Sadequain
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Eugene Savage
  • Conrad Schmitt
  • Clément Serveau
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros
  • Frank Stella
  • Rufino Tamayo
  • Titian
  • Alton Tobey
  • Allen Tupper True
  • Kent Twitchell
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • John Walker Augustus
  • Oliver Henry Walker
  • lucia Wiley
  • Ezra Winter
  • Robert Wyland
  • Isaiah Zagar
  • PK Sadanandan


  • Stylized mural of the miners’ leader Warren James, at a pub in Parkend, Gloucestershire.
  • Painting of Erykah Badu iSutton, Greater London, United Kingdom
  • Mural in Satriano, Italy.
  • 15th century Christ in Majesty in Jaleyrac
  • Building, Boston, Massachusetts, around 1992
  • Paint, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Graffiti mural in Gutovka, Prague 10, Czech Republic, 2012
  • The tree of life, stairway mural of Manav Gupta
  • Orr C. Fischer,  The Corn Parade,  1941, oil on canvas, agricultural -themed mural on the wall of the post office, Mount Ayr, Iowa.  [16]
  • Largest mural stamp of artist Francisco Vargas
  • Mural on Israel’s security barrier
  • Mural against indifference to evil in Warsaw, Poland

See also

  • anamorphosis
  • Bogside Artists
  • Brixton mural painting
  • Detachment of murals
  • List of US post office paintings
  • Mexican muralism
  • Murals in Kerala, India
  • MURAL Festival
  • Newtown area graffiti and street art
  • Post Office paintings
  • Propaganda
  • public art
  • social realism
  • socialist realism
  • The Manchester paintings
  • tiled print
  • Trompe l’Oeil
  • Wall Poetry


  1. Jump up ^ Clare AP Willsdon (2000). Mural in Britain 1840-1940: Image and Meaning. Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-817515-5. Retrieved syv May 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Only after 664 BC are dates secure. See Egyptian chronology for details.  “Chronology”. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Pulled 03/25/2008.
  3. Jump up ^ Mena Chery, George (ed.):  St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India  , Vol. II, 1973; (Eds.) Mena Chery, George  Native American Church History Classics, Vol. I, Nazranies  , Saras, 1998
  4. Jump up  ^ ” ‘Pallikalile Chitrabhasangal” (PDF).
  5. Jump up ^ Péter Bokody,  mural painting as a medium: Technology, Entertainment and liturgy  , in the  image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle Ages  , Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014, 136-151
  6. Jump up ^ Selim in August. La Tecnica dell’Antica pittura parietal Pompeiana. Pompeiana, Studi per il 2 ° Centenario degli Scavi di Pompei. Napoli 1950, 313-354
  7. Jump up ^ Jorge CuNi, Pedro CuNi, Brielle Eisen, Rubén Savizki and John Bove. “Characterization of the binding medium used in the Roman encaustic paintings on the wall and the wood.” Analytical methods.Retrieved February 2012.  Check date values in: (help) | Access-date =
  8. Jump up ^  “used by Eric cumini paintings”. Eric cumini. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  9. Jump up ^  “Toronto mural”. Technical aspects of the mural. Toronto muralists. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Sebastian Vargas. “Seizing the public space”. D + C Development and Cooperation. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  11. Jump up ^  “Diego Rivera”. Olga Gallery. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  12. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Looking for a neutral identity in Northern Ireland’s political murals. In: Peace Review 24 (4).
  13. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Importance of paintings during the unrest: Analyze the Republican use of murals in Northern Ireland. In: Machin, D. (Ed.) Visual Communication Reader. De Gruyter.
  14. Jump up ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission. “Final resting place”. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  15. Jump up ^ Bragg, Rick.  Someone said to me: Newspaper Stories of Rick Bragg  . New York: Vintage Books, 2001.
  16. Jump up ^  “The Corn Parade”. History Matters. George Mason University. Retrieved 27 August of 2010.


Belfast City Hall  is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, is on the north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas in the city center.


The White Linen Hall, and Linen Hall Library as it was in 1888. Now replaced by City Hall.

The site is now occupied by the Belfast City Hall was once the home of the White Linen Hall, an important international linen exchange. The street that runs from the back door of Belfast City Hall through the middle of linen Quarter’s Linen Hall Street.  [2]

Plans for the City Hall began in 1888 when Belfast was granted city status by Queen Victoria. This was in recognition of Belfast’s rapid expansion and thriving linen, rope-making, shipbuilding and engineering industries. During this period passed Belfast Dublin cards as the most populous city in Ireland. [3]

Construction began in 1898 under the supervision of architect Sir Alfred Brumwell Thomas and was completed in 1906 at a cost of £ 369 tusen.Belfast Corporation (now Council) used their profits from the gas industry to pay for the building of the Belfast City Hall. Local firms H & J Martin and WH Stephens were among those involved in the construction business. James G. Gamble, architect, was clerk of works.

City Hall in Durban, South Africa almost an exact copy of Belfast City Hall.  [4] It was built in 1910 and designed by Stanley G. Hudson, who was inspired by Belfast design. The Port of Liverpool Building, designed by Arnold Thornley and was completed in 1913, is another very close relative.  [5]

August 1, 2006 celebrated the City Hall its centenary with a “Century of Memories” exhibit and family picnic day.  [6]

On December 3, 2012 the City Council voted to limit the days that the Union Flag flies from City Hall to a maximum of 18 designated days. Since 1906, the flag flown every day of the year. The move was supported by the Council of Irish nationalist members of the Council and the Alliance Party Council. It objected to the union council, which had a majority in the Council until the Northern Ireland local elections in 2011. On the night of the vote, union and pro-government demonstrators tried to storm the town hall. They held protests across Northern Ireland, some of which turned violent.  [7]


The grounds of the City Hall is popular for relaxation during the summer. In the background is the dome of Victoria Square and Belfast Wheel.

The exterior is built mainly from Portland stone and is in Baroque Revival style. It covers an area of one and a half acres and has an enclosed courtyard.

With towers at each of the four corners, with a lantern -crowned 173 feet (53 m) copper dome in the center dominates the city hall downtown skyline. Like other Victorian buildings in the city center, the town hall copper-clad domes are a distinctive green.

The  Titanic  Memorial in Belfast located on the grounds of Belfast City Hall.

The pediment sculpture is by FW Pomeroy, assisted by local Carver J. Edgar Winter, and on the back of the current line of £ 10, £ 20, £ 50 and £ 100 sterling bank notes issued avNorthern Bank.  [8]

The design of the building is reminiscent of the Old Bailey in London.  [ Citation needed ]  

Highlighting projects

Floodlights have been added to City Hall to illuminate the building in a variety of colors and combinations. Using the same technology as the Empire State Building in New York, a white light is applied to the building, after dusk, and there will also be “color-washed” on special dates.  [9]

Belfast City Hall is lit green for the annual St. Patrick’s Day celebration

Opportunity Date Color
Belfast Pride Saturday, July 6, 2013 Rainbow
orange Fest Friday, July 12, 2013 Orange and purple
Polish Independence Day Monday, November 11, 2013 red and white
Chinese New Year Friday, January 31, 2014 Red and yellow
Valentine’s Day Friday, February 14, 2014 RED
International Women’s Day Saturday, March 8, 2014 Purple
St. Patrick’s Day Monday, March 17, 2014 Green
May 1 Monday, May 5, 2014 RED
The Queen’s official birthday To be confirmed – first or second Saturday in June 2014 Red, white and blue


The interior has a number of notable features including porte-cochere and the Grand Entrance, the grand staircase, reception room and the great hall. The latter was destroyed during the Belfast Blitz, and then rebuilt.

Carrara, Pavonazzo and Brescia bullets are used extensively throughout the building is stained glass window featuring among other Belfast Coat of Arms, portraits of Queen Victoria and William III and shields iprovinserna Ireland.

Various monuments are in the building, including those of Frederick Robert Chichester, Earl of Belfast, Sir Crawford and Lady McCullagh and 36th (Ulster) Division.

The gardens around City Hall is popular with office workers take their lunch during the summer months, as well as tourists and teenagers gather in their dozens to enjoy the green.

Various statues stands in the grounds, including the Queen Victoria by Sir Thomas Brock. There is also a granite column dedicated to American Expeditionary Force, many of which were based in Belfast before D-Day.

Brock has also designed the marble figure of  Thane  , the Titanic Memorial in the memorial to victims of the sinking of the RMS  Titanic  . The ship was built at the Harland and Wolff’s shipyard located in the eastern part of the city. The monument was originally located at the front gate to the town hall, at the junction of Donegall Square North and Donegall Place.

There is a memorial to Sir Edward Harland, former head of the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast and mayor from 1885 to 1886. It also sculpted by Thomas Brock. [10]

The grounds also house Northern Ireland’s largest war memorial, The Garden of Remembrance and the Cenotaph, where wreaths laid on Remembrance Day.

James Magennis VC, the only Northern Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, is also celebrated in the grounds. Leading Seaman won the medal while serving in the Far East in 1945. A 6-foot-high (1.8 m) memorial Magennis, made of Portland stone and bronze, standing in front of city hall. It was built in 1999.

3 January 2006 ratified Belfast City Councillors a plan to erect a statue to the late Belfast footballer George Best in the grounds of City Hall. After approval from the Best family, George Best Memorial trust was created in December 2006. The trust protector David Healy contributed £ 1,000 to the estimated total cost of £ 200,000.  [11]

In October 2007, a 60 m Ferris wheel was built on the plot, which gives passengers panoramic view 200 feet (61 m) above the city. The wheel had 42 air-conditioned capsules, which can contain up to six adults and two children.The wheel finally ended at 18:00 April 11, 2010 and was removed in May 2010.  [12]

In 2008 Imjin River Memorial was moved here when Patrick’s Barracks in Ballymena closed. The monument celebrates the Irish  [13]  troops lost the battle of Chaegunghyon in January 1951 during the Korean War.  [14]

  • Under construction
  • Belfast – Titanic Memorial
  • In building
  • Monument to Queen Victoria
  • Lord Dufferin monuments
  • Statue of Edward James Harland, founder avHarland and Wolff
  • Memorial James Magennis VC (2004)
  • Showing Belfast City Hall with the Belfast Wheel aside, since March 2010
  • Statue of James Horner Haslett, Mayor of Belfast (1887-1888)
  • Statue of Sir Daniel Dixon, first mayor of Belfast (1892-1893, 1901-1904 and 1905-1907)
  • Statue of William James Pirrie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1896-1898)
  • Statue of Robert James McMordie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1910-1914)


  1. Jump up ^Brett, CEB Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914. Page 67. Friar Bush Press, Belfast, 1985.
  2. Jump up ^The Linen Hall Library, one of Belfast’s oldest cultural institutions, which occupies a place in Donegal Square North in front of City Hall today, began life within the walls of the White Linen Hall.
  3. Jump up ^The Victorian Web, National University of (12 September 2006).
  4. Jump up ^BBC Schools website.
  5. Jump up ^Brett, CEB  Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914  . Belfast Friar Bush Press, 1985;  65.
  6. Jump up ^BBC news. BBC News (1 August 2006).
  7. Jump up ^“Violence in Belfast after the Council votes to change the flag of the EU policy,”  BBC News  3 December 2012 Retrieved 5 December 2012
  8. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland”. Ron Wise’s Banknote World. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October of 2008.
  9. Jump up ^Belfast City Hall – Belfast City Council. (1 August 1906).
  10. Jump up ^Belfast City
  11. Jump up ^BBC News (30 January 2007).
  12. Jump up ^Belfast City Council Archive March 17, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Jump up ^  “Royal Ulster Rifles Korean Memorial”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “War Memorial Trust”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.


Belfast ( / b ɛ l . F ɑː s t / eller / b ɛ l . F æ s t / , från Irish : Béal Feirste , som betyder ” mun av sandbankar “) [11] är huvudstad och största staden Nordirland , och i mitten av den tionde största Primär stadsgränsen i Storbritannien . [12] på Lagan , hade en befolkning på 286 tusen vid folkräkningen 2011 och 333.871 efter 2015 reform av rådet [1] Belfast beviljades stadsrättigheter 1888.

Belfast var ett centrum för de irländska linne , tobak, repslageri och varvsindustrin: i början av 20-talet, Harland and Wolff , som byggde RMS Titanic , var den största och mest produktiva varv i världen. Belfast spelade en nyckelroll i den industriella revolutionen , och var en global industrikoncern centrum förrän under senare delen av 20-talet.Industrialiseringen och inflyttning det tog gjort Belfast den största staden i Irland i början av 20-talet.

Idag är Belfast ett centrum för industrin, liksom konsten, högre utbildning, näringsliv, och lag, och är den ekonomiska motorn i Nordirland. Staden drabbades hårt under period av konflikter som kallas ” oroligheterna “, men på senare tid har genomgått en lång period av lugn, fri från den intensiva politiska våld av tidigare år, och betydande ekonomiska och kommersiella tillväxt. Dessutom, Belfast centrum har genomgått omfattande expansion och förnyelse under de senaste åren, särskilt runt Victoria Square .

Belfast har två flygplatser: George Best Belfast City Airport i staden, och Belfast International Airport 15 miles (24 km) väster om staden. Belfast är en stor hamn, med kommersiella och industriella bryggor dominerar Belfast Lough kusten, inklusive Harland and Wolff varvet och är noterat av Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) som englobal stad . [13]


Namnet Belfast kommer från den irländska Béal Feirsde , som senare stavat Béal Feirste . [14] Ordet Beal betyder “mun” eller “rivermouth” medan feirsde / feirste är genitiv singularis av fearsaid och hänvisar till en sandrev eller tidvatten ford över en flod mun. [14] [15] namnet skulle alltså översätta ordagrant som “(flod) mynning sandrev” eller “(flod) mynning ford”. [14] Denna sandrev bildades vid sammanflödet av två floder på vad är nu Donegall Quay: den Lagan , som rinner ut i Belfast Lough och dess biflod Farset . Detta område var det nav kring vilket den ursprungliga bosättningen utvecklas. [16] Den irländska namn Béal Feirste delas av en townland i County Mayo , vars namn har anglicized somBelfarsad . [17]

En alternativ tolkning av namnet är “mun [floden] av sandrev”, en anspelning på floden Farset, som rinner ut i Lagan där sandrev var belägen. Denna tolkning gynnades avEdmund Hogan och John O’Donovan . [18] Det verkar dock klart, att själva floden fick sitt namn efter den tidvatten korsningen. [14]

I Ulster Scots namnet på staden är Bilfawst [19] [20] eller Bilfaust , [21] även om “Belfast” används också. [22] [23]


Huvudartikel: History of Belfast

Även om länet stad i Belfast skapades när den beviljades stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888, [24] staden fortsätter att ses som gränsöverskridande County Antrim ochCounty Down . [25]


Platsen för Belfast har varit ockuperat sedan bronsåldern . Den Giant Ring , en 5000-årig henge , ligger nära staden, [26] och resterna av järnåldern fornborgar kan fortfarande ses i de omgivande bergen. Belfast förblev en liten bosättning av liten betydelse under medeltiden . John de Courcy byggt ett slott på vad som nu är Castle Street i stadens centrum på 12-talet, men det var i mindre skala och inte så strategiskt viktigt som Carrickfergus Castle till norr, som byggdes av de Courcy i 1177. O’Neill klanen hade en närvaro i området.

I den 14: e århundradet, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, ättlingar Aodh Buidhe O’Neill byggde Grey slott på Castlereagh, nu i östra delen av staden. [27] Conn O’Neill av Clannaboy O’Neills ägde stora landområden i området och var den sista invånare i Grey slott, en kvarvarande länk vara Conn Water flod som rinner genom östra Belfast. [28]


Belfast blev en betydande lösning i 17-talet efter att ha etablerats som en stad av Sir Arthur Chichester , [29] som ursprungligen avgjordes av protestantiska engelska och skotska invandrare vid tidpunkten för Plantation of Ulster . (Belfast och länet Antrim, dock inte en del av denna Plantation system som de privatkoloniserade.) 1791, den United Irishmen grundades i Belfast, efter Henry Joy McCracken och andra framstående presbyterian från staden inbjuden Theobald Wolfe Tone och Thomas Russell till ett möte, efter att ha läst Tone s “Argument på uppdrag av katolikerna i Irland”. [30] Bevis på denna period av Belfast tillväxt kan fortfarande ses i de äldsta delarna av staden, som kallas inlägg .

Belfast blommade som en kommersiellt och industriellt centrum i den 18: e och 19-talen och blev Irlands framstående industristad. Industrier frodades, inklusive linne, repslageri, tobak, tung industri och varvsindustrin, och i slutet av 19-talet, gick om Belfast kort Dublin som den största staden i Irland. De Harland and Wolff varv blev en av de största skeppsbyggare i världen, som sysselsätter upp till 35.000 arbetare. [31] I 1886 staden drabbades intensiva upplopp i frågan om självstyre, som hade delat staden. [32]

I 1920-1922, blev Belfast huvudstad i den nya enheten i Nordirland som ön Irland delades . Den medföljande konflikten (den irländska frihetskriget ) kosta upp till 500 liv i Belfast, den blodigaste sekteristiska stridigheter i staden tills oroligheterna i slutet av 1960-talet. [33]

Belfast var kraftigt bombat under andra världskriget . I en räd, 1941, tyska bombplan dödade cirka tusen personer och lämnade tiotusentals hemlösa. Bortsett från London, var detta den största förlusten av liv i en nattrazzia under blitzen . [34]


Huvudartikel: De Troubles

Belfast har varit huvudstad i Nordirland sedan starten 1921 efter Government of Ireland Act 1920 . Det hade varit skådeplats för olika episoder av sekteristiska konflikt mellan dess katolska och protestantiska befolkning. Dessa motsatta grupper i denna konflikt nu ofta benämns republikan ochloyalist respektive, även om de är också löst kallade ” nationalistisk ” och ” fackförenings ‘. Det senaste exemplet på denna konflikt var känd som besvärar – en civil konflikt som rasade från cirka 1969 till 1998. [35]

1972 Donegall Street bombningarav provisoriska IRA

Belfast såg några av de värsta oroligheterna i Nordirland, särskilt under 1970-talet, med rivaliserande paramilitära grupper som bildats på båda sidor. Bombning, lönnmord och gatuvåld bildade en bakgrund till liv under oroligheterna. Den provisoriska IRA detonerade 22 bomber inom ramarna för Belfast centrum på 1972, på vad som är känt som ” blodiga fredagen “, dödade elva personer. Regeringstrogna paramilitärer inklusive Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) och Ulster Defence Association (UDA) hävdade att dödandet de genomförts var i vedergällning för IRA kampanjen . De flesta av deras offer var katoliker utan kopplingar till den provisoriska IRA. [36] En särskilt ökänd grupp, baserat på Shankill Road i mitten av 1970-talet, blev känd som Shankill Butchers .

Sammanlagt var över 1600 personer dödats i politiskt våld i staden mellan 1969 och 2001. [37] Sporadiska våldsamma händelser fortsätter från och med 2015 , även om det inte stöds av de tidigare antagonisterna som hade nått en politisk överenskommelse 1998.


Belfast beviljades stad status av Jakob I av England i 1613 och officiellt stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888. [38] Sedan 1973 har det varit en lokal styrningområde under lokal administrering av Belfast kommunfullmäktige .[39] Belfast är representerat i både det brittiska underhuset och i Nordirlands beslutande församling . För val till Europaparlamentet , är Belfast i Nordirland valkretsen .

Lokala myndigheter

Belfast kommunfullmäktige är kommunen som ansvarar för staden. Stadens förtroendevalda är borgmästare Belfast , biträdande borgmästare och höga Sheriff som väljs bland 60fullmäktigeledamöter . Den första överborgmästare i Belfast var Daniel Dixon, som valdes i 1892. [40] Den borgmästare för 2016-17 är Alderman Brian Kingston i Demokratiska unionistparti , medan vice borgmästaren är Mary Ellen Campbell av Sinn Féin , både varav valdes i juni 2016 för att avtjäna ett år i taget. The Lord Mayor uppgifter hör ordförande över rådets möten, ta emot framstående besökare till staden, och företräda och främja staden på nationell och internationell nivå. [40]

1997, unionister förlorade övergripande kontroll över Belfast kommunfullmäktige för första gången i sin historia, med Alliance parti Nordirland vinner maktbalansen mellan nationalister och unionister. Denna ståndpunkt bekräftades i de tre efterföljande Valen, med borgmästare från Sinn Féin och socialdemokratiska och arbetarpartiet (SDLP), vilka båda är nationalistiska partier, och eftersom mellan befolkningsgrupperna alliansparti väljs regelbundet. Den första nationalistiska överborgmästare i Belfast var Alban Maginness av SDLP, 1997.

De senaste valen till Belfast kommunfullmäktige hölls den 22 maj 2014 med stadens väljare val sextio råds över tio distrikt val- områden . Resultaten var: 19 (3) Sinn Féin, 13 (-2)Demokratiska unionistparti (DUP), 8 (2) Alliance Party , 7 (-1) SDLP , 7 (4) Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) , 3 (1) Progressiv Unionist Party (PUP), med traditionella Unionist Voice . gröna ochmänniskor före vinst Alliance alla vinnande deras första platser. [41]

Belfast råd deltar i vänortssystemet , [42] och kopplas samman med Nashville i USA, [43] Hefei i Kina, [44] och Boston i USA. [45] [46]

Nordirländska församlingen och Westminster

Stormont är hem till den nordirländska församlingen.

För mer information om detta ämne, se Nordirland Montering och Storbritanniens parlament .

Se även: Belfast (Nordirland parlamentets valkretsar) och Belfast (UK parlamentvalkretsen)

Som Nordirlands huvudstad, är Belfast värd för nordirländska församlingen på Stormont , platsen för den decentraliserade lagstiftaren för Nordirland. Belfast är indelad i fyra Nordirland Montering och brittiska parlaments valkretsar: North Belfast , West Belfast , South Belfast och östra Belfast . Alla fyra sträcker sig utanför stadsgränserna för att inkludera delar avCastlereagh , Lisburn och Newtownabbey distrikt. I Nordirland Monterings Val i 2016 , valdes Belfast 24 medlemmar av den lagstiftande församlingen (MLAs), 6 från varje valkrets . Belfast valdes åtta DUP , 7 Sinn Féin , 3 SDLP , 3 Alliance Party , ett UUP , en grön och en PBPA MLAs. [47] I 2015 brittiska allmänna valet, valde Belfast en MP från varje valkrets till huset vid Westminster , London. Detta bestod av 2 DUP, en SDLP, och en Sinn Féin. [48]

Vapenskölden och motto

Belfast vapen antogs 1890

Staden Belfast har latinska motto ” Pro tanto quid retribuamus .” Detta är hämtat från Psaltaren 116 Vers 12 i den latinska Vulgate bibeln och är bokstavligen “För så mycket vad ska vi återbetala” Versen har översatts i biblar annorlunda – till exempel som “Vad skall jag göra till Herren för alla sina fördelar mot mig? “. [49] det är också översatt som” i gengäld så mycket, vad skall vi ge tillbaka? ” [50] den Queens University Students ‘Union Rag Week publikation PTQ har fått sitt namn från de tre första orden i mottot .

Den vapenskölden av staden utformades av John Vinycomb och skildras som Party per fesse argent och azurblå, chef en hög gråverk och på en kanton Gules en klocka argent, i botten ett skepp med segel satt argent på vågorna i havet korrekt . Denna heraldiska språk beskriver en sköld som är uppdelad i två horisontellt ( part per fesse ). Den övre ( chef ) av skärmen är silver ( argent ), och har en punkt-down triangel ( en stapel ) med en repeterande blå-vitt mönster som representerar päls ( Vair ). Det finns också en röd fyrkant i det övre hörnet ( en kantonen gules ) på vilken det finns en silverklocka. Det är troligt att klockan är ett exempel här på “sned” (eller punning) heraldik, som representerar den första stavelsen i Belfast. I den nedre delen av skärmen ( i bas ) finns en silver segelfartyg visas seglar på vågorna färgade i de faktiska färgerna i havet ( korrekt ). Den supporter på “Dexter” sida (höger sida, att notera att i heraldik “rätt och” vänster “är från bäraren av skölden perspektiv) är en kedjad wolf, medan den” illavarslande “(till vänster från innehavarens perspektiv) är en sjöhäst. den krönetovanför skärmen är också en sjöhäst. Dessa armar går tillbaka till 1613, när Jakob i av England beviljade Belfast stad status. den tätningen som används av Belfast köpmän hela 17-talet på sina skyltar och handels-mynt. [51] ett stort blyinfattade fönster i stads~~POS=TRUNC visar armarna, där en förklaring antyder att sjöhäst och fartyget avser Belfast betydande maritima historia. vargen kan vara en hyllning till stadens grundare, Sir Arthur Chichester , och hänvisar till sin egen vapensköld. [51]


Flygfoto över Belfast.

Belfast är i den västra delen av Belfast Lough och vid mynningen av floden Lagan ger det en idealisk plats för varvsindustrin som en gång gjorde det berömda. När Titanic byggdes i Belfast i 1911-1912, Harland and Wolff hade den största varvet i världen. [52] Belfast ligger på Nordirlands östra kust vid 54 ° 35’49 “N 05 ° 55’45” W . En konsekvens av denna nordliga breddgrad är att det både tål korta vinterdagar och har långa sommarkvällar. Under vintersolståndet , är lokal solnedgång den kortaste dagen på året före 16:00 medan soluppgången är ca 08:45.Detta balanseras av sommarsolståndet i juni, när solen går ner efter 22:00 och stiger före 05:00. [53]

OpenStreetMap Belfast

År 1994 en fördämning byggdes över floden från Laganside Corporation att höja den genomsnittliga vattennivån så att det skulle täcka de opassande lera lägenheter som gav Belfast sitt namn [54] (från irländsk Béal Feirste , som betyder “Sand ford på mynningen “). [15] området Belfast Local Government District är 42,31 kvadrat miles (109,6 km 2 ). [55]

Den floden Farset är också uppkallad efter detta slam insättning (från den irländska Feirste betyder “sand spotta”). Ursprungligen en större flod än vad det är idag, Farset bildade en brygga på High Street fram till mitten av 19-talet. Bank Street i stadens centrum hänvisade till älvstranden och Bridge Street namngavs för platsen för en tidig Farset bro. [56] Ersatt av floden Lagan som viktigare floden i staden, försmäktar i Farset nu i dunkel, enligt high Street. Det finns inte mindre än elva andra mindre vattendrag i och runt Belfast, nämligen Blackstaff, Colin, den Connswater, den Cregagh, den Derriaghy, Forth, Knock, den Legoniel, den Milewater, den Purdysburn och Ravernet. [57 ]

Cavehill , en basalt kulle med utsikt över staden

Staden omges i norr och nordväst av en rad kullar, inklusive Divis Mountain , Black Mountain och Cavehill , tros vara inspirationen för Jonathan Swift’s Gullivers resor . När Swift bodde på Lilliput stuga nära botten av Belfasts Kalksten Road, inbillade han att Cavehill liknade formen av en sovande jätte skydda staden. [58] Formen på jätte näsa, som lokalt kallas Napoleons näsa , officiellt kallas McArt Fort namnges förmodligen efter konst O’Neill, en 17-tals hövdingen som kontrollerade området vid den tiden. [59] de Castlereagh Hills utsikt över staden på den sydöstra.


Liksom resten av Irland, har Belfast en tempererat eller havsklimat, med ett smalt intervall av temperaturer och regn under hela året. Klimatet i Belfast är betydligt mildare än vissa andra platser i världen på en liknande latitud, på grund av uppvärmningen påverkan av Golfströmmen. Det finns för närvarande 5 väder observera stationer i Belfast: Helens Bay, Stormont, Newforge, Castlereagh och Ravenhill Road. Lite längre bort är Aldergrove Airport. [60] Den högsta uppmätta temperaturen vid någon officiell väderstation i Belfast var 30,8 ° C (87 ° F) vid Shaws Bridge den 12 juli 1983. [61] Belfast innehar rekordet för Nordirlands varmaste natten minst 19,6 ° C (67,3 ° F) vid Whitehouse den 14 augusti 2001. [62]

Staden blir kraftig nederbörd (större än 1 mm) på 157 dagar i ett genomsnittligt år med en genomsnittlig årlig nederbörd på 846 mm (33,3 tum), [63] mindre än områden i norra England eller de flesta av Skottland , [61] , men högre än Dublin eller sydöstra kusten av Irland. [64] Som en urban och kustområde, Belfast blir vanligtvis snö på färre än 10 dagar per år. [61] den absoluta maximala temperaturen vid väderstationen i Stormont är 29,7 ° C ( 85 ° F), utspelar sig under juli 1983. [65] i ett genomsnittligt år den varmaste dagen kommer att stiga till en temperatur av 24,4 ° C (75,9 ° F) [66] med en dag av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller ovan inträffar ungefär en gång vartannat i tre år. [67] den absoluta minimitemperatur på Stormont är -9,9 ° C (14 ° F), under januari 1982 [68] men i ett genomsnittligt år den kallaste natten faller lägre än -4,5 ° C (24 ° F) med luft frost registreras på bara 26 nätter. [69] Den lägsta temperaturen att inträffa under de senaste åren var -8,8 ° C (16,2 ° F) den 22 december 2010. [70]

Den närmaste väderstationen som solsken data och långsiktiga observationer längre finns är Belfast International Airport ( Aldergrove ). Extrema temperaturer här har något mer variation på grund av den mer inre platsen. Den genomsnittliga varmaste dag på Alder exempelvis kommer att nå en temperatur av 25,4 ° C (77,7 ° F), [71] (1,0 ° C [1,8 ° F] högre än Stormont) och 2,1 dagar [72] bör uppnå en temperatur av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller högre totalt.Omvänt den kallaste natten medel år -6,6 ° C (20,1 ° F) [73] (eller 1,9 ° C [3,4 ° F] lägre än Stormont) och 39 nätter bör registrera en luft frost. [74] Några 13 mer frostiga nätter än Stormont. Den lägsta temperatur vid Alder var -14,2 ° C (6 ° F), under december 2010.

Areas and Districts

Main article: Subdivisions in Belfast

For more information about the City Layout, see § Transport in Belfast city layout.

Belfast expanded very rapidly from being a market town to become an industrial town during the 19th century. Because of this, it is less an agglomeration of villages and cities that have expanded into each other, than other comparable cities, such as Manchester or Birmingham. The city expanded into the natural barrier of the hills that surround it, overwhelming other settlements. Accordingly roads along which the expansion took place (e.g., Falls Road or Newtownards Road) is greater than in the districts define nuclear settlements. Belfast is still segregated by walls, commonly known as the “peace lines”, built by the British army after August 1969, and which still divide 14 districts in the inner city. [79] In 2008, a process was proposed for the removal of “peace walls”. [80] In June 2007, a £ 16 million program announced that will change and clean up the streets and public places in the center. [81] Major thoroughfares (quality bus corridor) in the city include the Antrim Road, Shore Road, Holywood Road, Newtownards Road , Castlereagh Road, Cregagh Road, Ormeau Road, Malone Road, Lisburn Road, Falls Road, Springfield Road, Shankill Road, and Crumlin Road, Four Winds. [82]

Belfast city center is divided into two postcode districts, BT1 for the area located north of the City Hall, and BT2 for the area in the south. Industrial and Docklands BT3. The rest of Belfast for the city is divided roughly clockwise systems from BB3 in northeast around to BT15, BT16 and BT17 with further out to the east and west respectively. ÄvenBT derived from Belfast, the BT postcode area stretches across Northern Ireland. [83]

Since 2001, boosted by increasing the number of tourists, the City Council has developed a number of cultural quarters. The Cathedral Quarter takes its name from St Anne’s Cathedral (Church of Ireland) and has taken on the mantle of the city’s most important cultural city. [84] It hosts an annual visual and performing arts festival.

Custom House Square is one of the city’s largest outdoor places for free concerts and street entertainment. The Gaeltacht Quarter is an area around the Falls Road in West Belfast which promotes and encourages the use of the Irish language. [85] The Queen’s Quarter of South Belfast is named after Queens University. The area has a high proportion of students and hosts the annual Belfast Festival at Queens every autumn. It is home to botanical gardens and the Ulster Museum, which reopened in 2009 after extensive refurbishment. [86] The Golden Mile is the name of the mile between Belfast City Hall and Queen’s University. With the Dublin Road, Great Victoria Street, Shaftesbury Square, Bradbury Place, contains some of the best bars and restaurants in the city. [87] Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the nearby Lisburn Road has developed into the city’s most exclusive shopping strip. [88] [89] Finally, the Titanic Quarter covers 0.75 km 2 (0 sq mi) of reclaimed land adjacent to Belfast Harbour, formerly known as the Queen of Iceland. Named after the RMS Titanic, which was built here in 1912, [52] work has begun which promises to transform some former shipyard land into “one of the largest waterfront development in Europe”. [90] The plans include apartments, a river entertainment district, and a major Titanic-themed museum. [90]



Main articles: Architecture Belfast, Buildings in Belfast, and List of tallest buildings and structures in Belfast

The architectural style of Belfast buildings ranging from Edwardian, like City Hall, the mother, who Waterfront Hall. Many of the city’s Victorian landmarks, including the viktigasteLanyon building at Queens University Belfast and Line Hall Library, designed by Sir Charles Lanyon.

City Hall was completed in 1906 and was built to reflect Belfast city status, granted by Queen Victoria in 1888. The Edwardian architectural style of Belfast City Hall influenced Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, India, and Durban City Hall in South Africa. [91] [92] The dome is 173 feet (53 m) high and numbers above the door state “Hibernia encouraging and promoting commerce and art in the city.” [93]

Among the city’s most beautiful buildings are two former banks: Ulster Bank in Waring Street (built in 1860) and Northern Bank, in nearby Donegall Street (built in 1769). The Royal Courts of Justice in Chichester Street is home to Northern Ireland’s highest court. Many of Belfast’s oldest buildings are the Cathedral Quarter area, which is currently undergoing redevelopment as the city’s largest cultural and tourist area. [84] Windsor House, 262 feet (80 m) high, has 23 floors and is the second tallest building (as opposed to the structure) in Ireland. [94] Work has begun on longer Obel Tower, which already surpasses the height of the Windsor House in its unfinished state.

Scottish Provident Institution, an example of Victorian architecture in Belfast

Ornately decorated Crown Liquor Saloon, designed by Joseph Anderson in 1876, in Great Victoria Street is one of only two pubs in the UK owned by the National Trust (the other is the George Inn, Southwark in London). It was made internationally famous as the setting for the classic film, Odd Man Out, starring James Mason. [95] The restaurant panels in the Crown Bar was originally made for Britannic, the sister ship of the Titanic, [93] built in Belfast.

Harland and Wolff shipyard has two of the largest dry docks in Europe, [96], where giant cranes, Samson and Goliath stand out against Belfast’s skyline. Including Waterfront Hall and the Odyssey Arena, Belfast has several other venues for the performing arts. The architecture of the Grand Opera House has an oriental theme and was completed in 1895. It was bombed several times during the unrest, but has now been restored to its former glory. [97] The Lyric Theatre, (re-opened May 1, 2011 after undergoing a refurbishment program) is the only full-time producing theater in the country, where film star Liam Neeson began his career. [98] The Ulster Hall (1859-1862) was originally designed for large dances but now mainly used as a concert and sporting venue. Lloyd George, Parnell and Patrick Pearse all attended political rallies there. [93]

Parks and gardens

Main article: List of parks and gardens in Belfast

Palm House in Botanic Gardens

Sitting at the mouth of the River Lagan where it becomes a deep and protected lough, Belfast is surrounded by mountains that create a microclimate that promotes horticulture. From the Victorian Botanic Gardens in the heart of the city to the heights of Cave Hill Country Park, the large expanse of Lagan Valley Regional Park [99] to Colin Glen, Belfast contains an abundance of park and forest parks. [100]

Parks and gardens are an integral part of Belfast’s heritage, and home to an abundance of local wildlife and popular places for a picnic, a stroll or a jog. A large number of events take place throughout including festivals such as Rose Week and special activities such as bird watching evenings and great beast hunts. [100]

Belfast has over forty public parks. Forest of Belfast is a partnership between the state and local groups in 1992 to manage and conserve the city’s parks and open spaces. They have ordered more than 30 public sculptures since 1993. [101] In 2006, the City Council set aside £ 8 million to continue this work. [102] The Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club was founded in 1863 and is administered by the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. [103]

With an average of 670,000 visitors per year between 2007 and 2011, is one of the most popular parks, the Botanic Gardens, [104] in the Queen’s Quarter. Built in 1830 and designed by Sir Charles Lanyon, Botanic Gardens Palm House is one of the earliest examples of a curvilinear and cast iron greenhouse. [105] Other attractions in the park include the Tropical Ravine, a humid jungle glen built in 1889, rose gardens and public events ranging from live opera broadcasts to pop concerts. [106] U2 played here in 1997. Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park, south of the city center, attracts thousands of visitors each year to its International Rose Garden. [107] Rose the week of July each year features over 20,000 summer. [108] It has an area of 128 acres (0.52 km 2) by meadows, forests and gardens and has a Diana memorial garden, a Japanese garden, a walled garden, and Golden Crown Fountain commissioned in 2002 as part of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee celebrations. [107]

In 2008, Belfast finalist in the big city (200,001 and over) category of the RHS Britain in Bloom competition along with the London Borough of Croydon and Sheffield.

Belfast Zoo is owned by Belfast City Council. The Council spends £ 1.5 million each year to run and promote the zoo, which is one of the few local government-funded zoos in the UK and Ireland. The zoo is one of the best visit the attractions of Northern Ireland, which receives more than 295,000 visitors per year. The majority of the animals are endangered in their natural habitat. The zoo houses more than 1,200 animals of 140 species, including Asian elephants, Barbary lions, Malayan sun bears (one of the few in the UK), two species of penguin, a family of western lowland gorilla, a squad common chimpanzees, a pair of red pandas , a pair of Goodfellow tree-kangaroos and Francois’ langurs. The zoo also carries out important conservation work and participates in European and international breeding programs that help to ensure the survival of many endangered species. [109]


For more information on this topic, see List of people from Belfast.

Ethnic groups in the census 2011

White (96.7%)

Asian (2.2%)

Black (0.4%)

Mixed (0.5%)

Others (0.2%)

Irish Member (0.08%)

At the 2001 census, the population was 276,459, [110] whereas 579.554 people lived in the wider Belfast Metropolitan Area. [111] This was the fifteenth largest city in the UK, but the eleventh largest metropolitan region. [112] Belfast experienced a huge growth in population in the first half of the twentieth century. This increase subsided and reached around the beginning of the unrest in 1971 census shows nearly 600,000 people in Belfast city limits. [113] Since then, the inner city numbers have dropped dramatically as people have moved to swell the Greater Belfast suburb population. The 2001 census population in the city limits had dropped to 277.391 [110] people, with 579.554 people living in the greater Belfast Metropolitan Area. [111] The 2001 census registered 81.650 people from Catholic backgrounds and 79.650 people from Protestant backgrounds in working age live in Belfast. [114] The population density in 2011 was 24.88 people / hectare (compared to 1.34 for the rest of Northern Ireland). [115] Like many cities, Belfast city center is characterized today by the elderly, students and single young people, while families tend to live in the periphery. Socio-economic areas radiate out from the Central Business District, with a pronounced wedge of prosperity extends Malone Road and Upper Malone Road in the south. [113] An area of greater loss extends to the west of the city. The areas around the Falls and Shankill Roads are the most deprived wards in Northern Ireland. [116]

Despite a period of relative peace, most areas and districts of Belfast still reflect the divided nature of Northern Ireland as a whole. Many areas are still very segregated along ethnic, political and religious lines, especially in working-class areas. [117] These zones – Catholic / Republican on the one hand and the Protestant / Loyalist on the other – is always marked by flags, graffiti and murals. Segregation has existed throughout the history of Belfast, but has been maintained and increased by any outbreak of violence in the city. This escalation of segregation, described as a “ratchet effect”, have shown few signs of easing. [118] When violence flares, it tends to be in interface areas. The highest levels of segregation in the city are in West Belfast with many areas greater than 90% Catholics. Opposite but comparatively high levels seen in predominantly Protestant east Belfast. [119] Areas where segregated working-class areas meet is called interface areas and sometimes marked by peace lines.

Ethnic minority communities have been in Belfast since the 1930s. [120] The largest groups are Poles, Chinese and Indians. [121] [122] Since the enlargement of the EU, the numbers have increased by an influx of Eastern European immigrants. Census figures (2011) showed that Belfast has a total non-white population of 10,219, or 3.3%, [122] while 18,420, or 6.6% [121] of the population born outside the UK and Ireland. [121] Nearly half of those born outside the UK and Ireland live in South Belfast, where they make up 9.5% of the population. [121] Most of the estimated 5,000 Muslims [123] and 200 Hindu families [124] living in Northern Ireland living in the Greater Belfast area.

Judging by the fact that 6.6% of the population was born outside the UK, it is likely that Belfast is approximately 92.5% White Irish / British and 3.3% non-white. This makes the city about as ethnically diverse as Sunderland and York.

Belfast City Council area in 2011 census
Percent Catholic or raised Catholic
The most cited national identity
Percentage of people born outside the UK and Ireland


Main article: Economy of Belfast

The IRA ceasefire in 1994 and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 has given investors confidence to invest in Belfast. [125] [126] This has led to a period of sustained economic growth and large-scale reconstruction of the city center. Developments include Victoria Square, the Cathedral Quarter, and Laganside with the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall.

Waterfront Hall. Built in 1997, is a concert hall, exhibition and conference center.

Other important developments include the regeneration of the Titanic Quarter, and the construction of the Obel Tower, a skyscraper set to be the tallest tower on the island. [127] Today, Belfast Northern Ireland educational and commercial hub. In February 2006, Belfast unemployment at 4.2%, lower than both Northern Ireland [128] and the average British 5.5%. [129] In the past 10 years, employment has grown by 16.4 percent, compared with 9.2 per cent for the UK as a whole. [130]

Northern Ireland’s peace has led to soaring property prices in the city. In 2007, Belfast saw house prices grow by 50%, the fastest growth rate in the UK. [131] In March 2007, the average house in Belfast cost £ 91,819, with the average in South Belfast is £ 141,000. [132] In 2004, Belfast had the lowest utilization owners in Northern Ireland at 54%. [133]

Fred has increased the number of tourists coming to Belfast. There were 6.4 million visitors in 2005, an increase of 8.5% from 2004. The visitors spent £ 285.2 million, supporting more than 15,600 jobs. [134] The number of visitors increased by 6% to 6.8 million in 2006, with tourists spending £ 324 million, an increase of 15% compared to 2005. [135] the city’s two airports have contributed to making the city one of the most visited weekend destinations in Europe. [136]

Belfast has been the fastest growing economy in the thirty largest cities in the UK over the past decade, a new economy report by Howard Spencer found. “It is because [of] the fundamentals of the UK economy, and [why] people actually want to invest in the UK,” he commented on the report. [137]

BBC Radio 4’s World reported furthermore that despite higher corporation tax in the UK than in the Republic. There are “large quantities” of foreign investment coming into the country.

Times wrote about Belfast’s growing economy: “According to the region’s development agency, in the 1990s Northern Ireland had the fastest growing regional economy in the UK, with GDP increasing by 1 percent per year faster than the rest of the country. any modern economy, the services sector is crucial for the development of Northern Ireland and enjoys good growth. in particular, the region has a thriving tourist industry with record levels of visitors and tourist revenues and has established itself as an important location for call centers. “[138] Since the end of the conflict areas, tourism has the biggest in Northern Ireland, heavily using low cost. [138]

Der Spiegel, a German weekly newspaper of politics and economy, titled Belfast as The New Celtic Tiger which is “open for business”. [139]

Industrial growth

A 1907 stereoscopic postcards showing the construction of a passenger liner (RMS Adriatic) at Harland and Wolff shipyard

As the population of Belfast town began to grow in the 17th century, its economy based on trade. [140] It provided a market for the surrounding countryside and the natural inlet of Belfast Lough gave the city its own port. Gateway delivered a route for trade with Britain and later Europe and North America. In the middle of the 17th century Belfast exported beef, butter, hides, tallow and corn and it imported coal, cloth, wine, brandy, paper, wood and tobacco. [140]

At this time, linen trade in Northern Ireland blossomed and in the mid-18th century, one fifth of all the linen exported from Ireland delivered from Belfast. [140] The present town, however, is a product of the industrial revolution. [141] it was not until industry transformed linen and shipbuilding industries as the economy and population greatest. At the turn of the 19th century, Belfast had turned into the largest linen producing center in the world, [142] earning the nickname “Linenopolis”.

Belfast Harbor was dredged in 1845 to provide deeper berths for larger ships. Donegall Quay was built out into the river when the harbor was developed further and trade flourished. [143] The Harland and Wolff shipyard was founded in 1861, and at the time the Titanic was built, in 1912, it had become the largest shipyard in the world. [52]

Samson and Goliath, Harland & Wolff’s gantry cranes.

Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company based in Belfast. It was the first aircraft manufacturing companies in the world. The company began its cooperation with Belfast in 1936, with short and Harland Ltd., a company jointly owned by Shorts and Harland and Wolff. Now known as Shorts Bombardier it works as an international aircraft manufacturer is located near the port of Belfast. [144]

The rise of mass-produced and cotton clothing after World War I were some of the factors that led to the decline of Belfast’s international linen trade. [142] Like many British cities dependent on traditional heavy industry, Belfast suffered serious decline since the 1960s, become much worse during the 1970s and 1980s by the unrest. More than 100,000 manufacturing jobs have disappeared since the 1970s. [145] For decades, requires Northern Ireland’s fragile economy significant public support from the British exchequer of up to £ 4 billion per year. [145]


niversity of Ulster, Belfast Campus

Belfast saw the worst unrest in Northern Ireland, with almost half of the total deaths in the conflict occurring in the city. Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, there has been a significant urban renewal in the city center, including Victoria Square, Queens Island and Laganside and the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall. The city has two airports: DenGeorge Best Belfast City Airport adjacent to Belfast Lough and Belfast International Airport which is near Lough Neagh. Queens University in Belfast is the largest university in staden.Den University of Ulster also maintains a campus in the city, which concentrates on art, design and architecture.

Belfast is one of the constituent towns that make up the Dublin-Belfast corridor region, which has a population of just under 3 million.


Silent Valley Reservoir, showing the masonry spills

Most of Belfast’s water is supplied from the Silent Valley Reservoir in County Down, created to collect water from the Mourne Mountains. [146] The rest of the city’s water comes from Lough Neagh, via Dunore water treatment plant in County Antrim. [147] the citizens of Belfast pay for their water in their rates bill. Plans to bring in additional water tariffs have been shot divisional centralization in May 2007. [148] Belfast has about 1300 km (808 mi) of sewage, which is currently being replaced in a project costing over £ 100 million and will be completed in 2009. [149]

Northern Ireland Electricity is responsible for the transmission of electricity in Northern Ireland. Belfast electricity comes from Kilroot Power Station, a 520 megawatt dual coal and oil fired plant, located näraCarrickfergus. [147] Phoenix Natural Gas Ltd. began supplying customers in the Greater Belfast and Larne with natural gas in 1996 through the newly Scotland-Northern Ireland pipeline. [147] prices in Belfast (and the rest of Northern Ireland) was reformed in April 2007. The discrete capital value system means rates bills are determined by the capital value of each domestic property assessed avvärderings and Lands Agency. [150] The recent dramatic increase in house prices has made these reforms unpopular. [151]


The Belfast Health & Social Care Trust is one of five trusts created April 1, 2007 by the Department of Health. Belfast contains most of Northern Ireland’s regional specialist centers. [152] The Royal Victoria Hospital is an internationally recognized center of excellence in trauma care and provide specialized trauma care for the whole of Northern Ireland. [153] It also gives the city a specialist neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ENT and dental services. The Belfast City Hospital is the regional specialist center for hematology and is home to a cancer center that competes with the best in the world. [154] The Mary G McGeown Regional Nephrology Unit at the city hospital’s kidney transplant center, the regional renal services for Northern Ireland. [155] Musgrave Park Hospital in south Belfast specializes in orthopedics, rheumatology, sports medicine and rehabilitation. It is home to Northern Ireland first acquired brain injury unit, costing £ 9 million and opened by the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall in May 2006. [156] Other hospitals in Belfast include the Mater Hospital in north Belfast and Children’s Hospital


Main article: Transport in Belfast

Great Victoria Street station Northern Ireland Railways

Belfast is a relatively car-dependent city by European standards, with an extensive network of roads including the 22.5 miles (36 km) M2 and M22 motorway route. [157] A 2005 study of how people travel in Northern Ireland showed that people in Belfast made 77% of all journeys by car, 11% by public transport and 6% on foot. [158] it showed that Belfast has 0.70 cars per household compared to figures of 1.18 and 1.14 in the East in the Western Northern Ireland. [158] A road improvement systems in Belfast began in early 2006, with the upgrading of two junctions along West dual carriageway for overpass standard. The improvement scheme was completed five months earlier than planned in February 2009 with the official opening will take place on 4 March 2009. [159]

Commentators have argued that this could create a bottleneck at York Street, the next street intersection, until it also upgraded. [Citation needed] On October 25, 2012 Stage 2 report for York Street intersection approved [160] and in December 2012 planned upgrade moved into the third stage of the development process. If successfully completed the necessary statutory procedures, work on the flyover to connect the West to the M2 / M3 motorway is scheduled to take place between 2014 and 2018, [161] to create a continuous link between M1 and M2, the two main highways in Northern Ireland.

Black taxis are common in the city, which operates on a stock basis in some areas. [162] These outnumbered by private hire taxis. The bus and rail public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by a subsidiary of TransLink. Bus services in the city proper and the closer suburbs operated by Translink Metro, with services that focus on connecting residential areas with the city center in 12kvalitet bus corridors running along the main radial roads, [163]

More distant suburbs are served by Ulsterbus. Northern Ireland Railways provides suburban services along three lines running through Belfast’s northern suburbs to Carrickfergus, Larne and Larne Harbour eastwards towards Bangor and south west towards Lisburn and Portadown. This service is called the Belfast Suburban Rail system. Belfast is linked directly to Coleraine, Portrush and Derry. Belfast has a direct train to Dublin called Enterprise which is run jointly by the NIR and Iarnród Éireann, the national railway company of the Republic of Ireland. There is no train service to cities in other countries in the UK, because of the lack of a bridge or tunnel connecting Britain to the island of Ireland. However, there is a combined ferry and train ticket between Belfast and the cities in the UK, called Sail Rail. [164]

In April 2008, the Department for Regional Development, reported on a plan for a light rail system, similar to the one in Dublin. The consultants said Belfast do not have the population to support a tramway, which suggests that investment in bus-based rapid transit would be preferable.The study showed that bus-based rapid transit produces positive economic results, but light rail do not. The report by Atkins & KPMG, however, said that there would be an opportunity to migrate to the light rail in the future should the increased demand. [165] [166]

The city has two airports: Belfast International Airport offers domestic, European and international flights to Newark (New York) operated by United Airlines, Orlando and Las Vegas are both operated by Thomas Cook. The seasonal flight to Orlando is also operated by Virgin Atlantic. The airport is located northwest of the city, near Lough Neagh, while George Best Belfast City Airport, which is closer to the center by train from Sydenham påBangor Line, adjacent to Belfast Lough, offers UK domestic flights and some European flights. In 2005, Belfast International Airport was the 11th busiest commercial airport in the UK, which accounts for just over 2% of all UK terminal passengers while George Best Belfast City Airport was the 16th busiest and had a% of UK terminal passenger. Belfast – Liverpool route is the busiest domestic route in the UK, excluding London with 555.224 passengers in 2009. Over 2.2 million passengers flew between Belfast and London in 2009. [167]

Belfast has a large port used for exports and imports of goods and passenger ferry service. Stena Line operates regular routes to Cairnryan in Scotland using their conventional vessels – with an overpass of about 2 hours and 15 minutes. Until 2011, the route went to Stranraer and used, among other things, a HSS (High Speed Service) vessel – with a crossing of about 90 minutes. Stena Line also operates a route to Liverpool. A seasonal sailing to Douglas, Isle of Man operated by Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.


Main article: Culture of Belfast

AC / DC with Bon Scott (center) pictured with guitarist Angus Young (left) and bassist Cliff Williams (back), performing at the Ulster Hall in August 1979

Belfast’s population is evenly split between the Protestant and Catholic residents. [110] These two distinct cultural groups both have contributed greatly to the city’s culture. Full Troubles, Belfast artists continued to express themselves through poetry, art and music. In the period since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, Belfast has begun a social, economic and cultural transformation gives it a growing international cultural reputation. [168] In 2003, Belfast had an unsuccessful bid for the 2008 European Capital of Culture. The bid was run by an independent company, Imagine Belfast, who boasted that it would “make the Belfast venue for Europe’s legends, where the sense of history and faith find a home and a sanctuary from caricature, parody and oblivion.” [169] According to The Guardian the bid may have been undermined by its history and volatile politics. [170]

2004-05, the arts and cultural events in Belfast attended 1.8 million people (400,000 more than last year). That same year, 80,000 people participated in cultural and arts activities, twice as many as in 2003-04. [171] A combination of relative peace, international investment and the active promotion of art and culture attract more tourists to Belfast than ever before. 2004-05, 5.9 million people visited Belfast, an increase of 10% compared with the previous year, and spent £ 262.5 million. [171]

The Beatles come to the Ritz Cinema, Belfast after their concert November 8 in 1963.

The Ulster Orchestra, based in Belfast, Northern Ireland is the only full-time symphony orchestra and is well known in the UK. Founded in 1966, it has existed in its present form since 1981, when the BBC Northern Orchestra disbanded. [172] The music school Queens University is responsible for arranging a remarkable series of lunchtime and evening concerts, often given by renowned musicians who usually given in Harty Room at the university (University Square).

There are many traditional Irish bands playing throughout the city and a lot of music schools concentrate on teaching traditional music. Well-known city center venues would include Kelly’s Cellars, Maddens and the Hercules bar. Famous artists would include McPeakes, Brian Kennedy and the band 9Lies.

Musicians and bands have written songs about or dedicated to Belfast: U2, Van Morrison, Snow Patrol, Simple Minds, Elton John, Rogue Male, Katie Melua, Boney M., Paul Muldoon, Stiff Little Fingers, Nanci Griffith, Glenn Patterson, Orbital James Taylor, Fun Boy Three, Spandau Ballet, The Police, Barnbrack, Gary Moore, Neon Neon, toxic waste, and energy Orchard.

Furthermore, in Belfast the Oh Yeah Music Centre located (Cathedral Quarter), a project that was founded to give young musicians and artists a place where they can share ideas and get started his music career as a chance to be supported and promoted by professional musicians Northern Irish music scene.

Belfast has a long underground club scene, which was formed in the early 1980s. [173]

Like all areas of the island of Ireland outside the Gaeltacht, the Irish in Belfast not an unbroken intergenerational transmission. Because of the Community’s activities in the 1960s, including the establishment of Shaws Road Gaeltacht community, vast in Irish art, and the progress made in the availability of Irish medium education in the city, it can now be said that there is a “native” community of speakers. [Dubious – discuss]. language is heavily promoted in the city and is particularly visible in the Falls Road, where the signs of both the iconic black taxis and buses are bilingual [174] Belfast has the highest concentration of Irish speakers in Northern Ireland. [citation needed] Project to promote language the city funded by various sources, especially Foras na Gaeilge, an all-Ireland body funded by both the Irish and British governments. There are a number of Irish primary schools and a secondary school in Belfast. The provision of certain resources for these schools (such as the provision of textbooks) are supported by the charity of the TACA.


Belfast Telegraph Headquarters

Belfast is home to the Belfast Telegraph, Irish News and Newsletter, the oldest English-language newspaper in the world still in publication. [175] [176] The city has a number of free publications including Fate magazine, Go Belfast and Vacuum, distributed through bar, cafes and public places.

The city is the headquarters of BBC Northern Ireland, ITV station UTV and commercial radio stations Belfast City Beat and U105. Two community radio stations, Tops 106 and Irish-language station Raidió Fáilte, sent to the city from west Belfast, as well as Queen Radio, a student-run radio station that broadcasts from Queens University Student Union. One of Northern Ireland’s two community television stations, nvtv, is based in the Cathedral Quarter of the city. There are two independent cinemas in Belfast: the Queens Film Theatre and the Beach Cinema, which host screenings during the Belfast Film Festival and the Belfast Festival at Queens. Sending only through the Internet is homely Planet, culture radio station for Northern Ireland, which supports community relations. [177]

The city has become a popular film location; Paint Hall at Harland and Wolff has become one of the UK Film Council’s main studios. The complex consists of four stages of 16,000 square feet (1000 m 2). Show filmed at The Paint Hall feature film City of Ember (2008) and HBO’s Game of Thrones series (starting in late 2009).

In November 2011, Belfast was the smallest city to host the MTV Europe Music Awards. [178] The event was hosted by Selena Gomez and celebrities like Justin Bieber, Jessie J, Hayden Panettiere, and Lady Gaga traveled to Northern Ireland to take part in the event, held at the Odyssey Arena. [179]


Main article: Sport in Belfast

The Kingspan Stadium is home förUlster Rugby

Belfast has several notable sports teams playing a variety of sports such as soccer, Gaelic games, rugby, cricket and hockey. The Belfast Marathon is run annually on the first of May, and attracted 20,000 participants in 2011. [180]

The Northern Ireland football team, ranked 43rd October 2014 in the World Cup Rankings, [181] play their home games at Windsor Park. The current Irish League champions Crusaders are based at Seaview, in the northern part of the city. Other Premier teams include 2008/09 champions Glentoran, Linfield and Cliftonville. Intermediate-level clubs are: Donegal Celtic, Dundela, Harland & Wolff Welders, Newington Youth, PSNI, Queen’s University, and Sports & Leisure Swifts, who specializes in NIFL Championship; Albert Foundry FC, Ballysillan Swifts, Bloomfield FC, Crumlin Star FC, East Belfast FC Grove United FC, Immaculata FC, Malachians FC, Orange Old Boys’ Association FC, Rosario Youth Club FC, St. Patrick Young Men FC, Shankill United FC, short Brothers FC and Sirocco Works FC in the northern Amateur Football League and Brantwood Ballymena & Provincial League. Belfast was the hometown of Manchester United legend George Best who died in November 2005. On the day he was buried in the city, 100,000 people lined the road from his home on the Cregagh road to Roselawn Cemetery. [182] Since his dödCity Airport was named after him and trust has been set up to fund a memorial to him in the center. [183]

Gaelic football is the most popular spectator sport in Ireland, [184] and Belfast is home to over twenty football and hurling clubs. [185] Casement Park in west Belfast, home to the Antrim county teams, has a capacity of 32,000, making it the second largest Gaelic Athletic Association ground in Ulster. [186] The 1999 Heineken Cup champions Ulster Rugby plays at Kingspan Stadium in the southern part of the city. Belfast has four teams in rugby’s All-Ireland League: Belfast Harlequinsi Division 1B; and Instonians, Queen’s University and Malone in Division 2A.

Ice hockey is one of Northern Ireland’s most popular sports mainly down to it’s home to one of the largest British clubs, the Belfast Giants. The Giants founded in 2000 and play their matches at the 9500 capacity Odyssey Arena, the audience normally range from 4.000 to 7.000. Many ex-NHL players have been featured on the Giants roster, none more famous than the world super Theo Fleury. The Giants play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League is the top league in England. The Giants have been league champions four times, most recently in the 2013-14 season. The Belfast Giants is a huge brand in Northern Ireland and their growing stature in the game led to the Belfast Giants play the Boston Bruins in the NHL, October 2, 2010 at Odyssey Arena in Belfast, losing the game 5-1.

Other notable athletes from Belfast include double world snooker champion Alex “Hurricane” Higgins [187] and world champion boxers Wayne McCullough and Rinty Monaghan. [188] Leander ASC is a well known swimming club in Belfast. Belfast produced Formula One racing stars John Watson, who competed in five different teams during his career in the 1970s and 1980s, and Ferrari driver Eddie Irvine.

Famous residents

Gerry Adams, outpatient Main article: List of people from Belfast

A blue plaque adorned Belfast birthplace of former President IsraelChaim Herzog

  • John Stewart Bell, a physicist
  • George Best, soccer players, Ballon d’Or winner
  • Danny Blanchflower, footballer and manager
  • Jackie Blanchflower football
  • Sir Kenneth Branagh, actor
  • Christopher Brown, football player
  • Jocelyn Bell Burnell, astro
  • Patrick Carlin, Victoria Cross recipients
  • Ciaran Carson, author
  • Frank Carson, comedian
  • Craig Cathcart, footballer
  • Shaw Clifton, former General of the Salvation Army
  • Lord Craigavon, former Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
  • Mal Donaghy, footballer
  • Jamie Dornan, actor
  • Barry Douglas, musicians
  • John Boyd Dunlop, inventor
  • Jonny Evans, football
  • Corry Evans, football
  • Carl Frampton, boxer
  • Sir James Galway, musicians
  • Craig Gilroy, rugby union players
  • Chaim Herzog, former president of Israel
  • Alex Higgins, snooker player
  • Eamonn Holmes, programs
  • Paddy Jackson, rugby union players
  • Oliver Jeffers, artist
  • Lord Kelvin, physicist and engineer
  • CS Lewis, author
  • James Joseph Magennis, Victoria Cross recipients
  • Jim Magilton, footballer and manager
  • Paula Malcomson, actor
  • Mary McAleese, former President of Ireland
  • Gerry McAvoy, musician and long time bassist with Rory Gallagher
  • Wayne McCullough, Olympic silver medalist, WBC World Champion Boxer, Patron Northern
  • Ireland Children’s Hospice
  • Alan McDonald, footballer
  • Sammy McIlroy, footballer and manager
  • Gary Moore, guitarist
  • Van Morrison, singer and songwriter
  • Doc Neeson, singer-songwriter
  • Mary Peters, Olympic sports
  • Patricia Quinn, actor
  • Pat Rice, football players and coaches
  • Trevor Ringland, rugby union players
  • Peter Robinson, first minister of Northern Ireland
  • Bobby Sands, the IRA hunger striker
  • David Trimble, former First Minister of Northern Ireland, Nobel Peace Prize winner
  • Gary Wilson, cricketer


See also: List of schools in Belfast, List of high schools in Belfast, and the List of grammar schools in Belfast

The Lanyon Building of Queen’s University in south Belfast

Belfast has two universities. Queens University Belfast was founded in 1845 and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of 20 leading research-intensive universities in the UK. [189] It is one of the largest universities in the UK with 25,231 basic and postgraduate students spread over 250 buildings, of which 120 are listed as of architectural value. [190] University of Ulster, created in its current form in 1984, is a multi-center universities a university campus in the Cathedral quarter of Belfast. Belfast campus has a special focus on art and design and architecture, and is currently undergoing major refurbishment. The Jordan campus, just seven miles (11 km) from Belfast city center focusing on technology, health and social sciences. The Coleraine campus, about 55 mi (89 km) from Belfast city center concentrates on a wide range of topics. Course provision is broad – biomedicine, environmental science and geography, psychology, business, humanities and languages, film and journalism, travel and tourism, teacher training and computers are among the campuses forces. The Magee campus, about 70 mi (113 km) from Belfast city center has many educational strengths; including business, computers, creative techniques, care, Irish language and literature, social sciences, law, psychology, peace and conflict studies and performing arts. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) Web Service gets funding from both universities and is a rich source of information and sources of unrest as well as society and politics in Northern Ireland. [191]

Belfast Metropolitan College is a large further education college with three main locations around the city, including several smaller buildings. Formerly known as the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education, specializing in vocational training. The College has over 53,000 students enrolled on full-time and part-time courses, making it one of the largest further education colleges in the UK and the largest on the island of Ireland. [192]

The Belfast Education and Library Board was established in 1973 as the municipality is responsible for education, youth and library services in the city. [193] There are 184 primary, secondary and grammar schools in the city. [194]

The Ulster Museum in Belfast.


Titanic Belfast, Belfast devoted built RMS Titanic, was opened in 2012

Belfast is one of the most visited cities in the UK, [195] and the second most visited on the island of Ireland. [Citation needed] In 2008, 7.1 million tourists visited the city. [Citation needed] Many popular tour bus companies and boat trips run there throughout the year.

Frommers, the American travel guidebook series, which is listed Belfast as the only UK destination in its Top 12 destinations to visit in 2009. The other listed destinations were Berlin (Germany), Cambodia, Cape Town (South Africa), Cartagena (Colombia), Istanbul (Turkey), the Lassen Volcanic National Park (USA), Saqqara (Egypt), the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail (US), Waiheke Island (New Zealand), Washington, DC (USA), and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada ). [196]

Belfast City Council is currently investing in the whole rebuilding of the Titanic Quarter, which is planned to consist of apartments, hotels, and a river entertainment district. A major tourist attraction, Titanic Belfast is a monument to Belfast’s maritime heritage at the site of the former Harland & Wolff shipyard was opened on 31 March 2012. It has a cross by escalators and suspended walkways and nine high-tech galleries. [197] They also hope to invest in a new modern transport systems (including high-speed and others) for Belfast, with a cost of £ 250 million. [198]

There is a tourist information office is located on Donegall Place. [199]

Twin towns – Sister cities

Belfast has the following twin cities: [200]

Nashville, Tennessee, United States (since 1994)
Hefei, Anhui Province, China (since 2005)
Boston, Massachusetts, United States (since 2014)
Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China (since 2016)

1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Belfast City Council.” Retrieved February 22, 2016.
2. Jump up ^ Britain’s metropolitan regions Office for National Statistics (urban area of Belfast and connected settlements, Table 3.1, page 47)
3. Jump up ^ Statistical Classification and delineation of Settlements (PDF), NISRA in February 2005, retrieved May 13, 2012
4. Jump up ^ Wakefield, Edward. A report on Ireland, statistical and policy: in two volumes. 2nd London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. pp. 693-694.
5. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.” Archives from the original The 20 September 2010. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
6. Jump up ^ “Home.” Histpop.Org. 2 April 2007. Retrieved November 13 of 2010.
7. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census website.” Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
8. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish Populatioe, Economy and Society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
9. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
10. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Council Belfast. A profile of the city Demography. “ Archived from the original at 25 Sep of 2010. Hämtad12 August of 2010.
11. Jump up ^ Royal Mint – Belfast
12. Jump up ^ City Metric
13. Jump up ^ “The World According GaWC 2012”. Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Loughborough University. Hämtad15 February 2014.
14. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “placental Database of Ireland – Belfast: view scanned items” Retrieved May 25, 2014.
15. ^ Jump up to: ab “placenames / Logainmneacha – Belfast”. BBC Northern Ireland – Education. BBC. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
16. Jump up ^ Keenan, Desmond (2000). Pre-Famine Ireland. fifth
17. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland – Belfarsad”. Hämtad13 November 2010.
18. Jump up ^ Hogan, Edmund (1910). Onomasticon Goedelicum. Dublin. ,. O’Donovan, John (1856) Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland. Dublin.
19. Jump up ^ “Ulster Scots language and dialects of Ulster”. The Linen Hall Library .Hämtas March 3, 2016.
20. Jump up ^ Annual Report Ulster-Scots in 2006 North / South Ministerial Council.
21. Jump up ^ BBC Ulster-Scots Library – Switherin day Ullans Speakers Association. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
22. Jump up ^ “North-South Ministerial Council 2010 Annual Report Ulster Scots” (PDF) .Hämtas two August 2014.
23. Jump up ^ “North-South Ministerial Council: 2009 annual report Ulster Scots” (PDF) .Hämtas two August 2014.
24. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Hall.” Discover Northern Ireland. Ireland Tourist Board.Arkiverat from the original at 16 June 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
25. Jump up ^ “Belfast, Newcastle County Down coast.” County Down Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
26. Jump up ^ “A walk on the outskirts of Belfast Giant Ring Trail, Northern Ireland”. The Guardian. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
27. Jump up ^ Komesu, Okifumi (1990). Irish writer and policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-389-20926-3.
28. Jump up ^ “The celebration marks the arrival of the first Ulster Scots in Ireland” (PDF) .Irish News. 24 April 2006. File (PDF) from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 September of 2007.
29. Jump up ^ “History of Belfast Castle.” Tourism and arenas. Belfast City Council. 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
30. Jump up ^ Connolly, Sean J. (2008). Divided Kingdom Ireland 1630-1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 434-449. ISBN 978-0-19-958387-4.
31. Jump up ^ “Cranes to stay on the city skyline.” BBC News. 9 October 2003. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
32. Jump up ^ Ryland, Frederick (1897). Events of the reign 1837-1897 .London: George Allen. p. 101. OCLC 267093697th
33. Jump up ^ Robert Lynch, Northern IRA and the first years of Partition, P227
34. Jump up ^ “The Belfast Blitz remember.” BBC News. 11 April 2001. Hämtat12 March 2007.
35. Jump up ^ Kelters, Seamus (February 2013). “Violence in the Troubles”. History. BBC .Hämtad May 19, 2014.
36. Jump up ^ o Dochartaigh, Niall (1999). From Civil Rights to Armalites. Cork University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-85918-108-9.
37. Jump up ^ “Sutton Index deaths”. Cain. 11 April 2001. Retrieved July 9, 2013 .Sök for Belfast in “text search in the description (and keywords)”
38. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Hall: History and Background”. Belfast City Council. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Hämtat24 May 2007.
39. Jump up ^ “Local Government (Boundaries) Act (Northern Ireland) 1971”. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). 2007. Archived from the original July 7, 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
40. ^ Jump up to: ab “Councillors: Lord Mayor.” Belfast City Council. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
41. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Council elections from 1993 to 2005”. Northern Ireland elections .Nordirland Social and Political Archive (ARK). 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
42. Jump up ^ “Belfast signs Sister Cities agreement with Boston.”
43. Jump up ^ “Sister Cities Online Directory: UK, Europe, Sister Cities International Retrieved 17 November 2011 ..
44. Jump up ^ Belfast signed sister city agreement with Hefei Retrieved 19 February 2008.
45. Jump up ^. Black, Rebecca (25 March 2014) “Belfast and Boston to be named sister cities -“. Hämtastvå August 2014.
46. Jump up ^ Elle Movement, John (12 May 2014). “Boston signed sister city agreements with the Belfast”. The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
47. Jump up ^ “Northern Ireland elections”. BBC News. May 8, 2016. Retrieved 11 May, 2016.
48. Jump up ^ “Westminster elections in Northern Ireland 2005 ‘. Northern Ireland elections. Northern Ireland Social and Political Archive (ARK). 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
49. Jump up ^ King James Bible, Psalm 116 Verse 12
50. Jump up ^ “I thought of the two mottos in Belfast and America -” Quid Pro Tanto “and” E Pluribus Unum. “I reliable information that these roughly translated as” In return for so much, what shall we give back? “And” From many, one. ” “Celebrate Diversity Belfast Mayor Tom Ekin
51. ^ Jump up to: a b. Brett, the CEB (1967) Buildings of Belfast, from 1700 to 1914. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
52. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Introduction to the Titanic – Titanic in history.” Titanic. Built in Belfast. Ulster Folk Transport Museum. Archived from the original August 17, 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
53. Jump up ^ “Sunrise and sunset in Belfast”. Sun Calculator. time and Retrieved 18 May 2007.
54. Jump up ^ “Lagan Weir – Why it exists.” Laganside. Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
55. Jump up ^ “field measurements in Northern Ireland”. 2001 census data .Nordirland Statistics & Research Agency. 2001. Archived from the original 25 May 2014. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
56. Jump up ^ “Belfast City: Did you know?”. Discover Ireland. Tourism Ireland. 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
57. Jump up ^ Des O’Reilly, rivers of Belfast – A History
58. Jump up ^ “Belfast Hills”. Discover Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Tourist Board .Hämtat 18 May 2007.
59. Jump up ^ “If Cave Hill.” Cave Hill Conservation Campaign. 2007. Archived from the original February 6, 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
60. Jump up ^ “Station Locations”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
61. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Climate: Northern Ireland”. Met Office. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
62. Jump up ^ “2001 Minimum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
63. Jump up ^ “Belfast, Northern Ireland – Average Conditions”. BBC Weather Centre. BBC. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. Hämtat8 October of 2009.
64. Jump up ^ “rainfall in Ireland.” Met Éireann. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
65. Jump up ^ “1983 Maximum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
66. Jump up ^ “1971-2000 average warmest day”. Hämtadskrevs 23 September 2011.
67. Jump up ^ “> 25c days”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
68. Jump up ^ “> January 1982 Minimum”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
69. Jump up ^ “> Air frost occurrence.” Retrieved 23 September 2011.
70. Jump up ^ “> December 2010 minimum. ‘ Retrieved 23 September 2011.
71. Jump up ^ “average annual warmest day”. Hämtadskrevs 22 September 2011.
72. Jump up ^ “> 25c days”. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
73. Jump up ^ “> annual average coldest night”. Hämtadskrevs 22 September 2011.
74. Jump up ^ “> Average frost occurrence.” Retrieved September 222011th
75. Jump up ^ “Belfast from 1981 to 2010 Average”. KNMI. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
76. Jump up ^ “Belfast outliers”. KNMI. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
77. Jump up ^ “Belfast International Airport (Aldergrove) 1981-2010 average.” Met Office. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
78. Jump up ^ “Airpoirt Belfast International (Aldergrove) outliers”. KNMI .Hämtad 8 November 2011.
79. Jump up ^ Margrethe C. Lauber. “Belfast Peace Lines: An analysis of urban boundaries, Design and social space in a divided city.” Archived from originaletden 8 February 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
80. Jump up ^ “” a process of removing Interface Barriers “, Tony Macaulay, July 2008” (PDF). Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
81. Jump up ^ “Major makeover for Belfast City Centre”. Department of Social Development (NI). June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
82. Jump up ^ “the arterial Routes”. Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan 2015 Draft Plan. Planning Service. Archived from the original 18 May 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
83. Jump up ^ “The UK Postcode System.” List Masters. 2005.Arkiverat from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
84. ^ Jump up to: ab “The Cathedral Quarter, Belfast.” Northern Ireland Tourist Board. 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
85. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht Quarter.” Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure. 2007. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Taken 15 januari2016.
86. Jump up ^ “Contact”. Ulster Museum. 2007. Archived from the original The 29 May 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
87. Jump up ^ “The Golden Mile Pub Crawl”. Virtual Belfast. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
88. Jump up ^ “Shopping at a Glance”. Visit South Belfast. South Belfast Partnership. Archived from the original 25 May 2014. Retrieved 18 maj2007.
89. Jump up ^ Burns, Gemma (28 February 2007). “A passion for preserving Belfast Beauty”. South Belfast News. Retrieved March 12, 2007. [Dead link]
90. ^ Jump up to: ab “Corporate Message: Vision”. About the Titanic Quarter .Titanic Quarter. 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved Eighteen May 2007.
91. Jump up ^ Krishna Dutta (2003). Calcutta: a cultural and literary .Signal books. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-902669-59-5.
92. Jump up ^ Wine, Michael (25 May 2006). “When the road to Rename is not running Smooth”. The New York Times. Archived from the original April 16, 2009. Retrieved 1 October of 2007.
93. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Historic Belfast A guide to the city’s landmark buildings” .Go to Belfast. Archived from the original The 18 June 2007. Retrieved 23 maj2007.
94. Jump up ^ Morgan, Ian (4 March 2007). “Ireland’s tallest building to be converted into apartments.” Archived from the original September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2007.
95. Jump up ^ “The BBC are looking for stars in Belfast film noir”. BBC News Northern Ireland. 23 February 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
96. Jump up ^ “Harland and Wolff complete SeaRose docking project”. Harland and Wolff. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
97. Jump up ^ “Grand Opera House.” Bio taxes. Retrieved 1 June 2007.
98. Jump up ^ “Neeson in the attempt to revive the theater.” BBC News. 10 December 2004. Archived from the original The 16 January 2008. Hämtatsyv December 2007.
99. Jump up ^ Home
100. ^ Jump up to: ab “Parks and gardens”. gotobelfast. 1 April 2007. Taken May 162,009th
101. Jump up ^ “Why urban art is put on the map”. BBC News. Retrieved 18 maj2014.
102. Jump up ^ “your locality Space Strategy” (PDF). Belfast City Council. p. 49. File from the original on May 18, 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
103. Jump up ^ “If the Field Club.” Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
104. Jump up ^ gardens and Tourism, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, March 2012, p. 5, retrieved May 25, 2014
105. Jump up ^ “Palm House Botanic Gardens, Belfast.” Houses, castles and gardens in Ireland. Archived from the original The 13 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
106. Jump up ^ “Tropical Ravine”. Belfast City Council. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved May 30 of 2009.
107. ^ Jump up to: ab “Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park and City of Belfast International Rose Garden”. Go to Belfast. Archived from the original The 31 May 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
108. Jump up ^ “Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park.” Discover Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 15 June 2007. Hämtat18 May 2007.
109. Jump up ^ “Parks and gardens”. belfastzoo. On April 1, 2007. Archived from the original April 14, 2009. Retrieved sixteen May 2009.
110. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Comparative Demographic Profile: Belfast City Council, Northern Ireland”. 2001 census data (Crown Copyright). Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency. 2001. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved seventeen May 2007.
111. ^ Jump up to: a b “Area profile Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area (BMUA)” .Folkräkningen 2001 data. Northern Ireland Statistics & forskningsinstitut.2001. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved 16 maj2007.
112. Jump up ^ Pointer, Graham. “Britain’s metropolitan areas” (PDF). UK National Statistics. Archive (PDF) from the original The 30 November 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
113. ^ Jump up to: a b. Stephen, Roulston (2006) “Urban Structure: Growth of Belfast” .Geografi in Action. National Grid for Learning. Archived from the original 15 April 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
114. Jump up ^ McCulloch, Andrew, “An analytical look at our religious background and segregation in Belfast” Meaning Magazine, retrieved 13 maj2012
115. Jump up ^ “Population density: QS102NI (administrative geographies).” Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
116. Jump up ^ “Northern Ireland deprived Measure” (PDF). Department of Finance and Personnel. May 2005 Archives (PDF) from the original The 5 June 2007. Hämtat18 May 2007.
117. Jump up ^ Stephen Roulston (2006). “Ethnic diversity segregation in Belfast Introduction to ethnic diversity in Belfast.”. Geography in Action. National Grid for Learning. Archived from the original on 18 May 2007. Hämtat18 May 2007.
118. Jump up ^ Lloyd, C. (2003). “To measure local segregation in Northern Ireland” (PDF) .Centrum for spatial territorial Analysis and Research (C-STAR). School of Geography, Queen’s University. Retrieved March 12, 2006.
119. Jump up ^ Doherty, P (1995). “Ethnic segregation in Belfast”. Centre for the study of conflict. University of Ulster, Coleraine: Chapter 8. File from the original March 3, 2006 is taken. Twelve March 2006.
120. Jump up ^ “Ethnic minorities: Who lives here” (PDF). Northern Ireland Education: Teacher’s Notes. BBC. Archive (PDF) from the original The 5 June 2007. Hämtat24 May 2007.
121. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service”. Taken eleven juni2015.
122. ^ Jump up to: ab “Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service”. Taken eleven juni2015.
123. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Belfast Islamic Centre. In 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
124. Jump up ^ “Hinduism”. Primary focus: Program 1 – Indian Community .BBC. Retrieved 8 October of 2007.
125. Jump up ^ “Durkan” hopeful “for the future of the Good Friday Agreement”. Department of Finance and Personnel. Retrieved 17 September of 2007.
126. Jump up ^ “the House of Commons Hansard written reply to Feb. 13, 2002” .The house. Retrieved 17 September of 2007.
127. Jump up ^ “U2 Tower strikes bad chord with residents.” BBC News. 7 August 2006. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
128. Jump up ^ “Monthly Labour Market Report”. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment. 15 February 2006. Archived from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
129. Jump up ^ “employment”. National Statistics. Office for National Statistics.Mars 2006. Archived from the original The 18 May 2007. Retrieved 18 maj2007.
130. Jump up ^ Morgan, Oliver (1 April 2007). “From bombs and bullets boom towns”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved sixteen May 2007.
131. Jump up ^ “Northern Reaches Watershed in house prices” (Press release) .University of Ulster. 15 November 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2007.
132. Jump up ^ Carson, Helen (28 February 2007). “Typical price of Ulster homes edges ever closer to £ 200,000.” The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved March 13, 2007. [dead link]
133. Jump up ^ “Homeowners Occupation Prices” (Press release). Halifax. 19 November 2004. Archived from the original (DOC) of 5 June 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
134. Jump up ^ Belfast 2005: Tourism Facts and Figures (PDF). Belfast City Council. 2006. File (PDF) from the original The 5 June 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
135. Jump up ^ “Record number of visitors coming to Belfast.” GO Belfast. July-August 2007, p. 6th
136. Jump up ^ “Invest in Belfast: A 2007 city guide for investors”. Belfast City Council. Archived from the original The 10 October 2007. Retrieved eighteen May 2007.
137. Jump up ^ “Belfast” UK’s fastest growing economy ‘. ” June 30, 2008. Archived from the original 25 Maj 2014. Retrieved August twelve in 2010.
138. ^ Jump up to: ab “Northern Ireland – Overview”. The Times. Archived from the original November 4, 2006. Retrieved 12 August augusti2010.
139. Jump up ^ “The New Celtic Tiger: Belfast is Open for Business.” DER SPIEGEL. 4 July 2008. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
140. ^ Jump up to: a b c Beckett, JC; et al. (2003). Belfast, The Making of the City. Chapter 1: Belfast at the end of the eighteenth century. Belfast Apple Press Ltd. pp 13-26 .. ISBN 0-86281-878-8.
141. Jump up ^. McCreary, Alf (22 January 2014) “The industrial revolution transformed Belfast, making it Ireland’s biggest city – and it all started with the port.”. The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
142. ^ Jump up to: a b Beckett, JC; Boyle, E. (2003). Belfast, The Making of the City. Chapter 3: “Linenopolis” the rise of the textile industry. Belfast Apple Press Ltd. pp 41-56 .. ISBN 0-86281-878-8.
143. Jump up ^ Beckett, JC; Sweetman, R (2003). Belfast, The Making of the City.Kapitel 4: Development of the port. Belfast Apple Press Ltd. p 57-70..ISBN 0-86281-878-8.
144. Jump up ^ “Corporate series Northern Ireland” (PDF). Corporate Northern Ireland in 2007. Corporate series. Archived from the original (PDF) of 16 February 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
145. ^ Jump up to: a b “? Northern Ireland – Where is the bright new future. ” Management Today .23 March 2006. Retrieved sixteen May 2007.
146. Jump up ^ “The Silent Valley”. Northern Ireland Water. In 2007. Taken 30 maj2014.
147. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Strategic Plan Framework: public services and utilities” .Förslag Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan 2015 Planning service..Arkiveras from the original The 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
148. Jump up ^ “Water reform: Secretary of State announces the suspension of contributions” .Water Reform NI. March 2007. Archived from the original June 9, 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
149. Jump up ^ “Belfast Sewer Project – Facts”. Northern Ireland Water. In 2007. Retrieved May 26 of 2007. [Dead link]
150. Jump up ^ “Summary of credit rating reform domestic” .Institutionen for finance and personnel. 2005. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
151. Jump up ^ “Domestic prices Reform”. Fair prices campaign. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
152. Jump up ^ “Review of Public Administration: Consultation on draft legislation for the establishment of five new integrated health and social care trusts” (PDF) .DHSSPS. Archive (PDF) from the original The 27 September 2007. Hämtad17 September of 2007.
153. Jump up ^ Payne, William (September 1998). “Hospital Development: PFI beyond DBFO”. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Wilmington Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 6 May 2007. [Dead link]
154. Jump up ^ Morrison, PJ (2006). “Better statistics Cancer – a new cancer center for Northern Ireland”. Ulster Medical Journal. Ulster Medical Society. 75 (2): 110. PMC 1,891,734. PMID 16755938.
155. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Hospital: If the unit.” Renal Association.November in 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
156. Jump up ^ “TRH open Northern Ireland’s first Regional Acquired Brain Injury Unit” .The Prince of Wales. May 15, 2006. Archived from the original March 7, 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
157. Jump up ^ “M2 / M22 motorway.” Hämtadtolv August of 2010.
158. ^ Jump up to: a b Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (18 October 2005). “Travel Survey for Northern Ireland 2002-04” (PDF). The Department of Regional Development. Archived from the original on 19 May, 2007. Retrieved six maj2007.
159. Jump up ^ “The official opening of the M1 / Westlink Improvement Scheme” .Avdelningen for regional development. March 12, 2009. Archived from originalpå 27 December 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
160. Jump up ^ “road improvements Sy