St. James Gate Brewery (Irish: Grúdlann Gheata Naomh Séamuis ) is a brewery founded in 1759 in Dublin, Ireland by Arthur Guinness. The company is now part avDiageo, a company formed from the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan in 1997. The main product of the brewery is Guinness Draught.

Originally leased in 1759 Arthur Guinness Book of IR £ 45 (Irish pounds) per year for 9000 years, St. James Gate has been home to the Guinness ago. It became the largest brewery in Ireland in 1838, and the largest in the world in 1886, with an annual output of 1.2 million barrels. [1] Although no longer the largest brewer in the world, it is still the largest brewer of stout in the world .The company has since bought out originally leased property, [2] and during the 19th and early 20th centuries the brewery owned most of the buildings in the surrounding area, including many streets of housing for brewery employees and offices in connection with the brewery. The brewery also has all its own power with their own power plants. [ Citation needed ]

There is an attached exhibition on the 250-year history of Guinness, called the Guinness Storehouse.


Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in Leixlip, Kildare, and then from 1759 at the St. James Gate Brewery in Dublin. On December 31, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £ 45 per year for the unused brewery. [3] [4] But the lease is no longer in effect because the brewery property has been bought out when it expanded beyond the original 4 -acre site. [2]

Ten years after its establishment on May 19, 1769 Guinness exported their beer (he had stopped brewing ale then) for the first time, when six and a half barrels were shipped to England. The business expanded through the adoption of steam power and re-exporting to the UK market. On the death of Benjamin Guinness in 1868 the business was worth over £ 1 million, and the brewery site had grown from about 1 acre to over 64 acres. In 1886, his son Edward sold 65 percent of its business through a public offering on the London Stock Exchange for £ 6 million.

The company pioneered several quality control measures. The brewery hired statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym “Student” of the techniques developed for Guinness, particularly Student’s t-distribution and the even more famous t-test. [5]

Because of the Irish Free State’s “Control of Manufactures Act” in 1932, the company moved its headquarters to London later that year. [6] Guinness brewed their last porter in 1974.

In 1983, a non-family CEO Ernest Saunders was appointed and arranged reverse acquisition of the leading Scotch whiskey producer Distillers in 1986. Saunders then asked to resign after revelations that the Guinness share price had been illegally manipulated (see Guinness share trading fraud).

In 1986, Guinness PLC was in the middle of a bidding war for the much larger Distillers Company. In the final phase, Guinness stock increased by 25 percent – which was unusual, because the stock of the acquiring company usually falls in a situation takeover. Guinness paid several individuals and institutions, mainly American arbitrageur Ivan Boesky, about $ 38 million to buy $ 300 million worth of Guinness stock. The effect was to increase the value of the deal for Distillers, whose leadership favored merged with Guinness.

In connection with the investigation revealed that Bank Leu was involved in half of the purchases. Two of Guinness’ directors signed the-table agreements where the Bank Leu subsidiaries in Zug and Lucerne bought 41 million shares of Guinness. Guinness secretly promised to redeem shares at cost, including commission. In order to fulfill their part of the agreement Guinness, deposited $ 76 million with Bank Leu’s Luxembourg subsidiary.

As Distillers was worth more than the Guinness plc, the Guinness family shareholding in the merged company went below 10 percent, and today no one family member on the board. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986. [7]

The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo plc, activated in 2006 at about EUR 40 billion. [8] Although it is not officially taken over completely, owns the Guinness family is still 51 percent of the brewery.Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland switched to St James Gate Brewery Dublin. [9]


The main product is the Guinness phrases, a 4.2% ABV dry stout which is one of the most successful beer brands in the world. For many years a part of the drink aged to give a sharp lactic flavor, although Guinness has refused to confirm if this is still happening. The thick creamy head is the result of beer mixed with nitrogen when poured. It is popular with Irish people both in Ireland and abroad and despite a decline in consumption in recent years, is the best selling alcoholic drink of all time in Sweden [10] [11] , where Guinness & Co. making almost € 2 billion annually. The brewery also producesGuinness Original , a 4.3% ABV version of the draft, but nitrogen; [12] Caliber, a low alcohol pale lager; Guinness Bitter, an 4.4% bitters sold in a jar with a widget; and 7.5%, Guinness Foreign Extra Stout.


Guinness stout is available in several varieties and strengths, which include:

  • Guinness Draught, sold in kegs, cans and bottles widget: 4.1 to 4.3% alcohol by volume (ABV); Extra Cold served by a super cooler at 3,5 ° C (38.3 ° F). [13]
  • Guinness Original / Extra Stout: 4.2 or 4.3% ABV in Ireland and the rest of Europe, 4.1% in Germany, 4.8% in Namibia and South Africa, 5% in the US and Canada, and 6% in Australia and Japan.
  • Guinness Foreign Extra Stout: 7.5% ABV version sold in Europe, America, Africa, the Caribbean and Asia. The foundation is an unfermented but hopped Guinness wort extract shipped from Dublin, which added to local ingredients and brewed locally. The strength can vary, for example, it sold 5% ABV in China, 6.5% ABV in Jamaica and eastern Africa, and 8% ABV in Singapore. [14] In Nigeria, part of the sorghum is used. Foreign Extra Stout mixed with a small amount of the intended fermented beer. [15]
  • Guinness Special Export Stout, sold in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, originally brewed in 1945 Naafi be sent to British troops stationed in Europe. [16]
  • Guinness Bitter, an English-style bitter beer: 4.4% ABV.
  • Guinness Extra Smooth, a smoother stout sold in Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria: 5.5% ABV.
  • Malta Guinness, a sweet alcoholic drink produced in Nigeria and exported to the UK and Malaysia.
  • Guinness Mid-Strength, a low-alcohol stout test marketed in Limerick, Ireland in March 2006 [17] and in Dublin in May 2007: [18] 2.8% ABV.
  • Caliber, a premium non-alcoholic lagers. It is brewed as a full-strength layer; Since the end of brewing alcohol removed: 0.05% ABV.
  • Guinness Red, brewed in exactly the same way as Guinness except that the grain is only lightly toasted so that it provides a brighter, slightly fruitier red ale; test marketed in the UK in February 2007 :. 4.1% ABV [19]
  • 250 Anniversary Stout, released in the US, Australia and Singapore, April 24, 2009: [20] 5% ABV.
  • Guinness Nitro IPA, which was introduced in September 2015. An ale made with 5 variteis of hops (Admiral, Celeia, topaz, challenger, and cascade). It is packaged in jars with a nitrogen widget on 5.8% ABV.

In October 2005, the Guinness Book of the Brewhouse Series, a limited edition collection of draft stouts available for about six months each. There were three beers in the series.

  • “Toucan Brew introduced in May 2006. It was named after the cartoon toucan used in many Guinness advertising. The beer had a sharper taste with a slightly sweet taste due to its triple jumped brewing.
  • North Star was introduced in October 2006 and sold until the end of 2007. Three million liters of Northstar was sold during the second half of 2007. [21]

Despite an announcement in June 2007 that the fourth Brewhouse Stout will begin in October of the same year, [22] no new beer showed up in late 2007, it seemed Brewhouse Series has quietly canceled.

Withdrawn Guinness variants include Guinness Brite Lager, Guinness Brite Ale, Guinness Light, Guinness XXX Extra Strong Stout, Guinness Cream Stout, Guinness Gold, Pilsner Guinness, Guinness Breo (a slightly citrusy wheat beers), Guinness Shandy, and Guinness Special Light. Breo (which means “spirit” in the Old Irish) was a wheat beer; it cost about 5 million Irish pounds to develop.

For a short time in the late 1990s, produced the Guinness’ St. James Gate “range of craft-style beers, are available in a small number of Dublin pubs.The beers were: Pilsner gold, Wicked Red Ale, Wildcat wheat beer and Dark Angel stock.

A brewing byproduct of Guinness, Guinness Yeast Extract (GYE), was produced until the 1950s.

Guinness family

The grandson of the original Arthur Guinness, Sir Benjamin Guinness, was mayor of Dublin and was created a baronet in 1867, only to die next year. His eldest son, Arthur, Baron Ardilaun (1840-1915), sold control of the brewer Sir Benjamin’s third son Edward (1847-1927), who became the 1st Earl of Iveagh.Iveagh launched the company on the London Stock Exchange in 1886. Until then, the only other parties outside of the Guinness family were members of the Purser family who helped run the brewery during most of the nineteenth century. He, his son and grandson, 2nd and 3rd Earl, chairman of Guinness now until the 3rd earl’s death in 1992. There are no longer any members of the Guinness family at the table.


On June 17, 2007 The Sunday Independent first reported that Diageo was considering selling most of the St. James Gate Brewery to take advantage of high property prices in Ireland. [23] The story was widely picked up by both the national and international media organizations, but the proposal to build a new Dublin brewery at Leixlip on land belonging to Desmond Guinness was canceled in late 2008 when the Irish property prices had dropped, and so the ability to sell a large part of the current brewery to meet the lower cost of building a new’d gone. [24]

The following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page complete with photos and a history of the plant since 1759. Initially, Diageo said that talk of a movement was pure speculation, but given the mounting speculation in the wake of Sunday Independent article the company confirmed that it is conducting a “major review of its activities”.This is largely thanks to the efforts of the company’s continued efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the bridge on the St. James Gate facility.[25]

On 23 November 2007, appeared an article in the Evening Herald , a Dublin newspaper that Dublin City Council, in the best interest of the city of Dublin, had put forward a proposal to prevent the building permit ever granted for the development of the site which makes it very difficult for Diageo to sell the site for residential development.

9 May 2008, Diageo announced that St James Gate Brewery will be open and renovated, but the breweries in Kilkenny and Dundalk will be closed by 2013 when a new larger brewery opened near Dublin.Resultatet will be a loss of approximately 250 jobs in throughout the Diageo / Guinness employees in Ireland. [26] Two days later, the Sunday Independent reported again that Diageo executives had met Tánaiste Mary Coughlan, deputy leader of the Irish Government, to relocate to Ireland from the UK to take advantage of its lower corporate tax rates. Several British companies have taken the step to pay Ireland’s 12.5 percent rate rather than Britain’s 28 per cent interest. [27]Diageo released a statement to the London Stock Exchange denying the report. [28]

Camino de Santiago

St. James’s Gate in Dublin was traditionally a main starting point for Irish pilgrims begin their journey on the Camino de Santiago (Way of St. James).Pilgrims’ passports were stamped this before leaving, usually for A Coruna, north of Santiago. It is still possible for Irish pilgrims to get these traditional document stamped on both the Guinness Storehouse and St. James’ Church, and many do, while on their way to Santiago de Compostela. [29]

Guinness Storehouse

Smoke from a 2009 fire at the brewery where two firefighters were injured. [30]

Main article: Guinness Storehouse

Guinness Storehouse, “Home of Guinness”, is Dublin’s most popular tourist attractions. A converted brewing factory, it is now a Guinness museum, which contains elements from the old brewery factory to explain the history of its production. Some of the old brewing equipment is on show, as well as powerful ingredients, brewing techniques, advertising methods and storage devices.

The exhibition takes place on seven floors, in the form of a 14 million pint glass of Guinness. The last floor is the Gravity Bar, which has a nearly 360 ° panorama of the city, where visitors can claim a free pint of “black stuff”.

The magazine is where they used to add the yeast to the beer fermentation.

Guinness Storehouse visitors do not get to see beer brewed in front of them, but from different points of the building you can see parts of the brewhouse, reservoirs, granaries and the dish farm.

See also

  • Dublin Tramways # Guinness Brewery tramways
  • Guinness World Records
  • St. James Gate FC


  1. Jump up ^ “When Brick Lane was home to the largest brewery in the world | Zythophile “. Hämtad14 September 2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Guinness Storehouse FAQ”. 18 March 2012. Question: I am the 9000-year lease still valid?A 9000-year lease signed in 1759 was a four-acre brewery site. Today the brewery covers over 50 acres, who grew up during the last 200 years around the original four tunnland.Den 1759 lease is no longer valid as the company purchased land directly many years ago.
  3. Jump up ^ “Arthur’s Day 2011”. Diageo. 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Archive Paper: Arthur Guinness (1725-1803)” (pdf).Guinness Storehous. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ Douglas W. Hubbard, how to measure something (John Wiley & Sons, 2007) pp 133-134.
  6. Jump up ^ Oliver, Garrett (2011). The Oxford Companion to Beer.Oxford University Press. p. 494. ISBN 9,780,195,367,133th
  7. Jump up ^ Diageo: History
  8. Jump up ^ Spirits soar at Diageo
  9. Jump up ^ Guinness to close its London Brewery
  10. Jump up ^ Barry, Dan (28 August 2000). “In Ireland, pubs, a startling trend.” Lisdoonvarna Journal. The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008. … Guinness stout is still the best-selling alcoholic beverage in Ireland, during the past year, their consumption here has declined by nearly 4 percent.
  11. Jump up ^ “Diageo beer sales continue decline.” The beverage industry Ireland. Barkeeper. 26 February 2007. Hämtattio April 2008. Yet the Guinness Book to be Ireland’s number one beer “by a wide margin” according to Michael Patten, Group Corporate Relations Director of Diageo Ireland, “More than 40 percent of all beer sold in Ireland is Guinness.
  12. Jump up ^ “Guinness Original / Extra Stout (Ireland / UK) from St James Gate (Diageo) – Rate Beer” Retrieved 28 August of 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ Guinness website [ dead link ] Guinness Extra Cold
  14. Jump up ^ “APB: About APB: Our markets: Singapore”.
  15. Jump up ^ Previously it was mixed with beer fermented naturally as a result of the ferment in old oak barrels with Brettanomyces population.There is now made with pasteurized beer having bacterially fermented.Protz, R. (1996). The Ale Trail. Kent: Eric Dobby Publishing. pp. 174-176.
  16. Jump up ^ Guinness Dublin [1] Guinness, 1952. Printed by Hely’s Ltd, East Wall, Dublin.
  17. Jump up ^ Low alcohol Guinness Stout
  18. Jump up ^ Weaker stout designed to make the Guinness Book of a slump Irish Times Online
  19. Jump up ^ Guinness Red Archive 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Jump up ^ “Guinness stout new offer for a limited time – Food Inc.-”
  21. Jump ^ Guinness sales rally in Diageo
  22. Jump up ^ Guinness to launch fourth in the brewhouse series
  23. Jump up ^ Daniel McConnell (17 June 2007). “Last orders for Guinness time at St James’s Gate ‘. Irish Independent .Hämtad 17 June 2007.
  24. Jump up ^ Irish Times interview on February 20, 2009
  25. Jump up ^ Diageo promises green future for the black stuff
  26. Jump up ^ Diageo keeps Dublin Guinness place to build new
  27. Jump up ^ Horan, Niamh; McConnell, Daniel (11 May 2008). “Diageo is” seriously considering “Irish move”. Irish Independent.
  28. Jump up ^ “Diageo denies report it plans tax move to Ireland”. Reuters.11 May 2008.
  29. Jump up ^ Irish Society of Friends of St. James »Useful information
  30. Jump up ^ “Two firefighters were injured in the blaze of Guinness”. RTE News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009.