Kilkenny (Irish: Contae Chill Chainnigh ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster, and is part of the South East region. It is named after the city [7] Kilkenny .Länet was based on the historical Gaelic kingdom of Ossory ( Osraige ), which is also the foundation of the Diocese of Ossory.Kilkenny County Council is the local authority for länet.Enligt census in 2011 the population of the county is 95,419. [5]

Geography and political subdivisions

Kilkenny is the 16th largest of the traditional 32 counties of Ireland in the area and the 21 largest in terms of population. [8] It is the third largest country in the province of Leinster and the seventh largest in terms of population.


See also: baronies in Ireland and the List of townlands in Kilkenny

The county is divided into so-called nine baronies, which in turn are divided into civil parishes and the townlands. There are about 800 townlands in Kilkenny. Each Baroni consisted of a number of assemblies or parts of assemblies. Both civil parishes and baronies are now largely obsolete (except for certain purposes, such as the right documents related to land) and no longer used for municipal purposes. Baronies in Kilkenny:

  1. Callan ( ceremonial )
  2. Crannagh ( Crannach )
  3. Fassadinin ( Fasach en Deighnín )
  4. Barondömet Galmoy ( Gabhalmhaigh )
  5. Gowran ( Clematis )
  6. Ida ( Uí DHEA )
  7. Iverk ( Iverk )
  8. Kells ( Kells )
  9. Kilculliheen [9] ( Cill Choilchín )
  10. Kilkenny City ( Kilkenny )
  11. Knocktopher ( Hill en Causeway )
  12. Shillelogher ( SiOL Fhaolchair )

For religious administration, the county was divided into parishes. Each ward had at least one church. Barony boundaries and ward boundaries were not connected.

From the 17th to mid-19th centuries civilian communities was based on early Christian and medieval monasteries and churches settlements. They civil congregations are divided into townlands (see List of townlands in Kilkenny). As the population grew, new assemblies created and parish covered the same area as the established Church of Ireland. The Roman Catholic Church adapted to a new structure based on towns and villages. The 2,508 civil parishes in Ireland, which often violates both the Barony and county boundaries.

Towns and Villages

The county includes the city of Kilkenny, located in the center of the county, and the cities and Ballyragget Castle to the north of the county and Graiguenamanagh, Mooncoin, Callan ochThomas in the south.

  • Ballyfoyle , Ballyhale , Ballyragget , Bennettsbridge
  • Callan , Carrigeen , Castle , Castlewarren , Clogh , Coan [10]
  • Danesfort , Dungarvan , Dunnamaggan [11]
  • Flagmount , Freshford
  • Galmoy , Goresbridge , Gowran , Graiguenamanagh , Glenmore
  • Hugginstown
  • Inistioge
  • Jenkins , Johnstown , Johnswell
  • Kilkenny , Killinaspick , Kilmacow , Kilmoganny , Knocktopher
  • Moneenroe, Mooncoin, Mullinavat
  • Paulstown , Piltown
  • Redhouse, Tullagher-Rosbercon [12]
  • Slieverue , [13] Stoneyford
  • Thomas, Tullaroan, rower
  • Urlingford
  • Windgap

physical geography

See also: Geography of Ireland

The River Nore flows through County and Suir forms the border with County Waterford. Brandon Hill is the highest point with an elevation of 515 m (1,690 ft). Most of the county, a hilly area of moderate height highlands of northeastern, northwestern and southern part of the county; the middle is lower in comparison. [14]

The county is located at 52 ° 35’N 7 ° 15’W and has an area of 512.222 acres (2,072.89 km 2 , 800.347 sq mi) [1] containing a population of 87,558. The county extends from 52 degrees 14 minutes 52 degrees 52 minutes north latitude and 6 degrees from 56 minutes to 7 degrees 37 minutes west longitude. The north-south length of the county is 45 miles (72 km); and its greatest width from east to west, is about 23 miles (37 km) and its narrowest part is about 12 miles (19 km) from where it widens irregularly towards the north.

Kilkenny Laois extends south from the valley of the River Suir and east from Munster – Leinster border of the River Barrow. The River Nore bisects the county and the River Barrow and Suir are natural boundaries to the east and south of the county. Kilkenny adjacent to Laois, Carlow, Wexford, Waterford and Tipperary.


See also: Geology Ireland

The geology Kilkenny include Kiltorcan Formation is Early Carboniferous age. [15] The formation is about Kiltoncan Hill near Ballyhale Callan Knock Topher areas. It forms the top part of the old red sandstone and is distinctive Upper Devonian – Lower Carboniferous. Unit in southern Sweden [16] It contains non-lithologies red, green mudstones, siltstones, fine sandstones and yellow sandstone. There is a fossil assemblage innehållandeCyclostigma and archaeopteris and archaeopteris hibernica. [17]

Most of the county is mainly limestone of the upper and the lower group, corresponding to the rest of Ireland. A large area of northern and eastern contain beds of coal, surrounded by limestone strata, interspersed with shale, argilaceous ironstone and sandstone. This occurs east in Nore around the Castle, along the border with Laois. It is generally accompanied by culm, which are widely used for burning lime.

The environment in Kilkenny contains a great variety of natural heritage, including rivers, wildlife (mammals, birds, plants), woodlands, hedgerows, and various landscapes and geological features. The main use of land is grassland, dairy and tillage farming especially around Kilkenny City and in the fertile central plain of the Nore Valley. Coniferous forests are in mountain areas.

The habitats of international and national importance, designated under EU and national legislation. The four categories of designated spot in force in Kilkenny special conservation areas, natural areas, statutory reserves and bird sanctuaries. Currently there are 36 designated natural areas of national and international importance in County Kilkenny, covering about 4.5% of the county. [18]

Mountains and hills

See also: List of mountains in Ireland

Kilkenny is comparatively low compared to other mountain ranges in Ireland with the highest peak is Brandon Hill (Irish: Cnoc Bhréanail ), at 515 meters (1,690 ft) above sea level. The bulk of the rest of the county is hilly except for the center of the county, just south of the city of Kilkenny, which is comparatively lower than the rest of the county. There are highlands in northeast, northwest and in the southern part of the county.

In the northern part of the county highlands in Castle District, Castle plateau include Culla Hills to the west of Nore Valley Castlecomer Hills and Slieve Marcy in the east. These hills are divided by the valley of the river Dinan unites Nore from the east. The highest point in Castle Hills is 313 meters (1,027 ft), and is the northwestern town of Castle and near the border with Laois. The high point of Culla Hills is in Laois at 279 meters (915 feet), but its rolling hills spread over a large area of Kilkenny in the northwestern area.

In the western part of the county Slieveardagh Hills and Booley Hills extends west to County Tipperary. The highest point in Slieveardagh Hills Knocknamuck of 340 meters (1120 feet). The Booley Mountains partially split from Tory Hill to Kilmacow valley of the river which flows into the River Suir.

In the southern part of the county is Brandon Hill, at 515 meters (1,690 ft) and is close to Barrow and Graiguenamanagh. The area enclosed between the rivers Nore and Barrow to their point of walking is heightened. Along the western part of the Barrow and Nore is mostly covered by hills from almost the same height except along the left bank of the River Suir. Here is a rich area of land between the river and the mountains.


See also: Rivers of Ireland and the list of rivers in Ireland

The main rivers in Kilkenny , known as the Three Sisters, the Nore, Barrow and Suir. [19] The River Nore bisects the county and flows through Ballyragget, Kilkenny City and the villages of Bennett, Thomas and Inistioge.The Suir forms the border between Waterford and Kilkenny. River Barrow forms a boundary to the east of the county.

While Kilkenny is located inland have access to the sea via Belview Port, Port of Waterford, on the Suir estuary and through New Ross in the River Barrow.On the River Barrow, from the villages of Gorebridge and Graiguenamanagh, there is a navigable river with traditional barges to the River Shannon or Dublin Bay. Kilkenny river network helps drain the soil gives the county a very favorable lower central plain.

Kings River and the Dinan use of canoe and kayak because they contain stretches of peaceful waters and a number of ponds and streams. The wide, winding rivers Nore and Barrow are used for fishing, boating and water sports.

protected areas

Special areas of conservation under the European Union Habitats Directive, Kilkenny [20] includes Hugginstown Fen [21] southwest of Ballyhale, The Loughans [22] näraUrlingford, Cullahill Mountain [23] at Castle plateau near Johnstown, Spahill and Clomantagh Hill [24] , forming part of a steep connecting Slieveardagh Hills Castle Plateau, Galmoy Fen [25] north of Johnstown, Lower Suir [26] south of Thurles, freshwater portions of Barrow / River nore [27] and Thomas Quarry, near Thomas . [28]

In 2005 Coan Bogs defined as a Natural Area under section 18 of the Wildlife Act 2000. [29] The blanket bog consists of two small areas of mountain blanket bog located near Castlei townlands of Coan East and Smithtown. [30]bedrock geology for both areas shale overlain locally by moraine and blanket bog vegetation is well developed. [31]

Fiddown Island is a 62.6 hectares of state-owned nature reserve was established in 1988. [32] near the Fiddown along the River Suir consists of a long narrow island marsh / woodlands covered by willow scrub and adjacent to the reed swamps – it is the only known site of its kind in Ireland. [33]


See also: Flora and fauna of Ireland in Ireland

The wildlife in Kilkenny is part of the county’s biodiversity is an environmental, economic, recreational areas and resources.

Fauna of Kilkenny include hedgehogs, otters, badgers, foxes and bats Leisler’s bat, Daubenton’s bat, the brown long-eared bat and Pipistrellus.There are also sika deer, fallow deer, stoats, ekorreoch pygmy shrew. [34] The bird nesting season is from March 1 to September 1. Forests, trees and hedges form a network of habitats, ecological corridors “important for wildlife to flourish and move between habitats.

Flora of Kilkenny include endangered autumn crocus, including rare species such as bog orchid, the Killarney Fern and tufted salt marsh grasses.[34] There are also vulnerable species less snapdragons, meadow barley, small-white orchid, opposite leaf pondweed, betony, red hemp nettle, narrow leaves helleborine, lanceolate Spleenwort annual knawel basil and thyme.


Surveys of forests in Kilkenny include a Forest Survey of Kilkenny , conducted in 1997 to identify the forest land in the county and a survey of hardwood forests in three special areas of conservation, Barrow-Nore, River Unshin and Lough Forbes (2000) , which includes part of the Kilkenny , [35] and thenational survey of Native Woodlands (NSNW) from 2003 to 2008 was one of the biggest ecological surveys filled in Ireland and did his field work in the county in 2003. [36]

Estimates of forest land in Kilkenny include Forest Inventory Planning System (1998) , which is expected to Kilkenny had 2251 hectares of mixed forest and deciduous forests not dominated by beech, which represents 1.09% of the county and the NFI 2004 and 2006 which estimates that 4430 hectares in the county are native woodland, pine regarded as foreign, representing 2.15% of the county. [37] [a]

Best quality places in the county when it comes to preserving value includes Kylecorragh Wood (SAC) along the River Nore, [38] Grenan Wood (SAC), Knockadrina, Garryricken North (NHA / SNR), Bally Tobin / Ballaghtobin, Brown Wood (NHA / SAC ), Kyleadohir Wood (NHA / SNR), Brownwood, Thomas, Ballykeefe Wood, Cullentragh, Rossenarra, Newrath and Garryricken South. [37] the most endangered forest area in the county is Greatwood. [37]

The main governmental organizations working to ensure the development of forestry in Kilkenny’s National Parks and Wildlife Service (Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government) and Forest Service (Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine). There are legislative measures that recognize the importance of trees and forests, hedges and provide for their protection, including the Forest Act (1946) and the Wildlife (Amendment) Act (2000) . These stop trees being cut down on a notice of intention given and prohibit cutting hedges within the bird nesting season.The greatest threats come primarily from invasive species, heavy grazing and harmful activities such as foreign planting native logging and dumping.[37] There are examples of logging (both legal and illegal) of ash trees for the production of Hurley. [37]

There are about 180 large trees in Kilkenny included in the registry tree Ireland, [39] compiled by trees on Ireland, [40] based on characteristics such as age, height, diameter, historical or folklore connections. The tallest trees in Kilkenny is a silver fir of 5.39 x 43 located at Woodstock Gardens, Inistioge and the tree with the largest perimeter is a regular lime of 9.01 x 27m located at Cool Morehouse Thomas. Currently, there are under the Planning and Development Act (2000) there are 4 Tree Preservation Orders (TPO) in Kilkenny for the protection of trees, groups of trees and forests recreational value. These include Oldcourt in Inistioge, Keatingstown, Barna iFreshford, Sawney Wood Castle and Gardens in Kilkenny City.

Important trees in county Kilkenny include two cedars of Lebanon onKildalton Agricultural College in Piltown, Monterey cypress, beech, spruce and two coast redwood at Woodstock Gardens, Inistioge. In Thomas is a common kalkpå Cool Morehouse , an English / common oak in Stoneen Kilfawe , an English / Common oak at Mount Juilliet Estate and Wellingtonia, giant sequoia, Monterey cypress, sweet / Spanish chestnut and holm oak / evergreen oak tree at Kilfane Glebe . There is also a Turkey oak onThreecastles House in Kilkenny, a box and two English / Common oak at Bally Tobin House in Callan, a common lime, Wellingtonia giant sequoia and two Monterey cypress on the Shankill Castle Paul Town, an English / common oak in Ballykeefe house in Kilmanagh, an English / common oak in Fannings Town house in own and a book on Castle Golf Club in Castle. [41]


Trädgårdar inkluderar Kilfane Glen i Thomas , Woodstock Garden i Inistioge , Discover Park i Castle , Darver House garden i Jenkins , Coolcashin Gardennära Johnstown , Emoclew Garden i Goresbridge , Shankill Gardens & Castle i Paulstown , Rothe Family Garden i Kilkenny , Dahlia trädgård roddaren och rosenträdgården på Kilkenny Castle . Häckar har också historisk betydelse som townland och åkerkanter.


The Nore Valley Way is a long distance trail under development. When completed, it will start in Kilkenny City and ends in Inistioge. [42] It is designated as a National marked the ranks of the National Trails tjänstgörandeirländska Sports Council and managed by the Trail Kilkenny,[43] a group composed of representatives of Kilkenny County Council , County Kilkenny LEADER partnership, Kilkenny Sports partnership and local landowners. [44] the scenic South Leinster Way, a very scenic trails, travel along the lower Barrow Valley before leaving the river at Graiguenamanagh to cross the lower slopes of Brandon Hill.


Kilkenny takes its name from the town of Kilkenny. Kilkenny is the anglicised version of the Irish Cill Chainnigh , meaning Church (Cell) in Cainneach or Canice . This probably applies to the church and round tower, now St. Canice Cathedral, which was built to honor St. Canice.

The Osraige Kingdom was one of the old Kingdoms in Ireland. The Kings of Osraige, the Mac Giolla Phádraig family, reigned over Osraige and Cill Chainnigh was their stronghold. DenKonungariket Ossory existed from at least the 2nd century to the 13th century AD. The current church diocese in the area is still known as Ossory. The medieval diocese of Ossory [45] and was founded in 549 AD, [46] and its territory corresponded to the medieval Kingdom of Ossory. In historical times, Kilkenny replaced Aghaboe as the main church in Osraige.

Empire was bounded by two of the three sisters rivers Barrow and Suir and the northern border, in general, the Slieve Bloom Mountains. The Osraige -Their name means people of deer- inhabited very modern Kilkenny and parts of neighboring counties Laois. In the west and south, was Osraige bounded by the River Suir, east watershed of the River Barrow marked the border with Leinster, and in the north it extended to and beyond the Slieve Bloom mountains. River Nore running through the UK.

Osraige formed the easternmost part of the country and the province of Munster until the middle of the 9th century, after which it was linked to Leinster. Osraige was largely a buffer state between Leinster and Munster. Its main neighbors were Loígsi, UI and UI Cheinnselaig Baircche of Leinster in the north and east and Deisi Muman, Eóganacht Chaisil and Eile of Munster in the south and west. [47]

The name Osraige said to be from Usdaie, a Celtic tribe that Ptolemy’s map of Ireland places in roughly the same area as Osraige would later occupy. The area mentioned by Ptolemy are probably major late Iron Age hill fort at Freestone Hill produced some Roman finds. Also interesting burial in Stoneyford typical Roman type and probably dates to the 1st century. [48] The Osraighe the allegedly descended from Érainn people. Others suggest that Ivernic groups included Osraige of the Kingdom Osraige / Ossory. [49] The Brigantes were the only Celtic tribe to have a presence in both England and Ireland, the latter of which they could be found around Kilkenny, Wexford and Waterford. [50]

The Marriage of Strongbow and Aoife (1854) by Daniel Maclise, a romanticized image of the union between MacMurrough Aoife and Strongbow in the ruins of Waterford.

Pope Adrian IV gave Norman King Henry II of England permission to claim Ireland 1154. The Cisternians came to Jerpoint Kilkenny and around 1155-1160. Jerpoint Abbey was founded by Donal MacGiollaPhadruig, King of Ossory 1158. During 1168, Dermot MacMurrough the king of Leinster was driven out of his kingdom by Rory O’Connor, the högkung using Tiernan O’Rourke. MacMurrough was looking for help from Henry II and was helped by a Cambro-Norman lord notable Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow history. MacMurrough secured the services of Richard, promising him the hand of his daughter Aoife of Leinster and succession to Leinster. Richard and other Marcher barons and knights of King Henry gathered an army. The army, according to Raymond le Gros took Wexford, Waterford and Dublin in 1169 and 1170, and Strongbow joined them in August 1170. The day after the capture of Waterford, he married MacMorrough daughter, Aoife.

The domination of Ireland was a domination created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-1171. Kilkenny was part of domination Leinster. Strongbow became Lord of Leinster in the 1171st

After the Norman invasion, the island of Ireland was divided into thirty-twocounties . The Ireland today consists of twenty-six of the thirty-two traditional counties with the other six forms Northern Ireland. Two former county in the Republic have been divided, giving a contemporary total of twenty-nine counties for administrative purposes instead of twenty-six.


The main religion is Catholic, but there are Church of Ireland, Presbyterian, Methodist, Jewish and other religious traditions who live in Kilkenny. [61] As of the 2006 census, the Statistical Office, Kilkenny’s population was 87,558.[56] There were 35.669 Irish speakers in 2006. [56] There were 39.809 people currently working in Kilkenny [57] and 4,133 people on the live register in August 2008. [58] there were 1,251 births and 546 deaths in 2007. [59] household disposable income per person in 2005 was 18.032 EUR and the index of household disposable was 89.4. [60]


See also: Climate of Ireland

Pasture at Listerlin, County Kilkenny.

The climate Kilkenny , as well as the climate in Ireland, is a changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system. Kilkenny is located in Plant Hardiness Zone 9. Weather, the county is representative of the wide river valleys in the region of low temperatures on cloudless nights,[63] and is important in that it records some of the highest summer and lowest winter temperatures in Ireland. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Ireland was 33.3 ° C (91.9 ° F), at Kilkenny Castle on June 26, 1887. [64]

The Met Éireann Kilkenny Weather Observing Station, 2 km northwest of Kilkenny City center, on Duningstown Road, opened in May 1957 [63] and observations ceased in April 2008. [65] A climatological stations are currently in operation within one km of the old location, and in March 2010, was to provide live weather data to the public and climate data to Met Éireann. [65]

The maximum temperature recorded at the Met Station was 30.8 ° C (87.4 ° F) on 2 August 1995. [63] Extremes recorded at the station include the maximum air temperature of 31.5 ° C (88.7 ° F), the June 29, 1976 the lowest air temperature of -14.1 ° C (6.6 ° F) on 2 January 1979 and the lowest ground temperature of -18.1 ° C (-0.6 ° F) of 12 January 1982. [63] the maximum daily sunshine was 16.3 hours June 18, 1978. [63] the warmest and sunniest month on record in Kilkenny was in August 1995 with a total of 274.9 hours of sunshine and high temperatures throughout. [63] the maximum daily sunshine 16.3 hours of June 18, 1978. [63] the overall trend in temperatures has been on the rise with a sharp increase from 1988 onwards. [66] annual temperatures run above 0.5 degrees above the 20th century levels. [66 ]

The maximum daily rainfall recorded at Kilkenny station was 66.4 mm (2.61 in) of 17 July 1983. [63] The late 1950s and early 1960s was wet but the rain had been stable throughout the century. [ 66] 2002 was a very wet year, and since 2005, annual precipitation has increased steadily, with 2009 the wettest year since records began in 1958. [66] in the middle of the county, Kilkenny is in a protected area, over 60 km inland and surrounded by hills over 200, which ensures that there’s a windy place. [65] the highest wind gust of 77 knots from the southwest direction, recorded January 12, 1974. [63]

Local governments and politics

See also: Local government in Ireland

Local authorities in Kilkenny controlled by the local government act , the latest of which (Local Government Act 2001) established a two-tier structure of local government. The top layer of the structure consists of Kilkenny County Council. The second part consists of the municipalities of Kilkenny Borough Council, which is a city council. The city of Kilkenny may use the title “Borough Council” instead of “Town Council”, but Kilkenny Borough Council has no further information. Outside the city, the County Council is solely responsible for local services. There are 26 councilors in the council returned from five local election areas: Ballyragget, Callan, Kilkenny, Piltown ochThomas. [67]

Because the county is part of the Southeast region, some County Council are also representatives in the Southeast regional authority.

For elections to Dáil Éireann, is part of the Kilkenny Carlow-Kilkenny constituency that returns five TDs. The current form of the constituency was created for the 1948 general election. Kilkenny has represented through several parliamentary constituencies in the past. From 1918-1921 Kilkenny was part of the United Kingdom North Kilkenny Parliamentary constituency.In 1921 Carlow-Kilkenny Dáil constituency was created and have stayed apart from between 1937 and 1948, when there were only a Kilkenny constituency. TDS serving the area is currently the John J. McGuinness, Phil Hogan, John Paul Phelan, Pat Deering and Ann Phelan.



See also: Architecture Ireland

The architecture Kilkenny includes features from all eras since the Stone Age including Norman and Anglo-Irish castles, Georgian urban areas, towns and villages with unique architecture, Palladian and Rococo country houses, Gothic and neo-Gothic cathedrals and buildings. At the end of the 20th century a new economic climate resulted in a renaissance of culture and design, with a few in the forefront of modern architecture. Kilkenny contains varied architecture including passage graves, ring forts, Irish round towers, castles, churches and cathedrals, abbeys and priories, bridges and roads, and terraced houses of varying styles.

Early architecture

Den Gowran Ogham Stone.Kristnade c. 6: e århundradet. På displayen i Maria Collegiate Church Gowran

See also: Early history of Ireland, Passage grave, Ring Fort and Irish round tower

En Scail cure, Kilmogue PortalDolmen

Evidence of Neolithic settlement can be found throughout the county. There are large burial mounds including portal tombs and dolmens at AGA, Harris and Borrismore. There are passage graves on Clomantagh Hill and Knockroe.It was non-Megalith simple tomb funerary tombs, Linkardstown-type chests, excavated in Jerpoint West. These are late Neolithic and before the common grave rite of the Bronze Age. [68] A Neolithic houses were identified in Granny near Waterford, making it the oldest house in County Kilkenny.The square house consisted of slot-trenches, internal floors, a hearth and wooden posts at each corner, one of the post holes were radiocarbon-dated to 3997-3728 BC. A new form of early Neolithic ceramics with a lip around the inside of the rim found. This Granny pottery similar to pottery found in the South East of England. [69]

Ogham stones – found throughout the county Kilkenny. The Gowran Ogham stone which is on display in St. Mary’s Collegiate Church Gowran is an example of a kristn Ogham stone. The Ogham letters are from the 3rd or 4th century. The Christian cross carved c. 6th century by St. Patrck arrival in Ireland in 432 AD. The Ogham stone found at the site during the reconstruction of the chancel of 1826. Gowran Ogham stone has survived to the present time because of the fact that it is used as a building block in another part of the church and low undisturbed for centuries.

Passage graves consisted of a central burial chamber, with a long passage to the entrance. Knockroe contains a passage tomb that is protected by listing order. From a time starting around the Iron Age, Ireland has thousands of ring forts, or “Rath”. Carigeen, Danesfort, Dunbell large and Tullaroan all contain ringfort protected by preservation order.

The round stone tower is a feature of the early historic architecture is not usually found outside of Ireland with only three in Scotland and the Isle of Man. The tower at St. Canice Cathedral in Kilkenny City is a good example.Other round towers located around the county as Tulla Herin round tower, near Bennetts, Kells, Johnstown, and Aghaviller near Knock Topher.


See also: List of Castles in Kilkenny

Kilkenny Castle is a castle in Kilkenny. It was the seat of the Butler family.Previous surname was FitzWalter. The castle was sold to the local Castle Restoration Committee in the mid-20s for £ 50. Shortly afterwards handed over to the state, and has since been renovated and is open to visitors. Part of the National Art Gallery is on display in the castle. There are ornamental gardens on the town side of the castle, and extensive land and gardens to the front. It has become one of the most visited tourist attractions in Ireland.

Foulksrath Castle is a 15th-century Anglo-Norman tower house is located in Jenkins County Kilkenny. It was built by Purcell clan, who also built several other nearby. After over three centuries as owners, the family was reduced to living as peasants in the castle stables after avOliver Cromwell confiscated and given to his officers after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.


In the Middle Ages many fine churches in Ireland were also built, such as St.Mary’s Collegiate Church Gowran, St. Canice Cathedral in Kilkenny and St.Maria Cathedral.

St. Lachtain church, Freshford was built in 1731, with a portal from 1100 its main entrance is all that is left of the original church is the beautiful Hiberno-Romanesque (Irish-Roman) architectural porch and front door. The rest of the current church was built for Protestant worship in 1731. In St. Lachtains time Freshford was a pin. In 1225 the Bishops Castle was built in Aghore (Achadh Ur), now the Upper Court. It was used as a summer residence for over 300 years.

Abbeys and priories

See also: List of abbeys and priories in Kilkenny

East front Jerpoint Abbey

Jerpoint Abbey is a Cistercian monastery near Thomas. It was built in 1180, probably on the site of a former Benedictine monastery was built in 1160 by Domnall Mac Like Patraic, King of Osraige. [70] Jerpoint is famous for its stone carvings, including one at the grave of Felix O’Dulany, Bishop of the Diocese of Ossorynär monastery founded .

Duiske Abbey i Graiguenamanagh

Duiske Abbey in Graiguenamanagh was founded in 1204 was one of the first and largest Cistercians monastery in Ireland. What remains of the monastery is a large Gothic church that is beautifully dominates the center Graiguenamanagh. The monastery takes its name from the river Duiske or Dubh Uisce flowing through town on the way to the river Barrow which also flows through this beautiful town. Original floor tiles from the original building can be seen in the monastery together with the beautiful Gothic and Romanesque architecture.

Black Abbey in Kilkenny, founded in 1225, is a Dominican monastery with the two-bay double-height shelters reduce time to the south. It was extended, c.1325, with four-bay double-height transverse to the south with four-bay double-height shelters reduce time to the West.

Kells Priory is one of the largest medieval historical monuments in Ireland. It is a national monument and is in the guardianship of the Commissioners of Public Works. Priory is beautifully situated at the side of the King’s River, about fifteen kilometers south of Kilkenny. One of its most striking feature is a collection of medieval tower house placed at regular intervals and the walls that enclose an area of about 3 acres (12,000 m 2 ). These provide Prioryutseendet more of a fortress than a place of worship, and from them, their local name “Seven castles”.

The Callan August Friary is located in Callan. It is known locally as the “Abbey Meadow” and is located on the northeastern city on the banks of the Kings Rover.Edmund Butler of Pottlerath, a known patron of literature, successfully requested by Pope Pius II for the foundation of the friary in 1461. After Edmund died in 1462, was the real buildings erected by his son, James, probably after 1467, when he received a papal dispensation to marry his concubine, to whom he is related.

18th century bridges

Bennett’s Bridge Bennett Bridge over the River Nore

There are many 18-century bridges in County Kilkenny. These bridges are an important part of the construction and transport heritage of Kilkenny and so included in the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (Niah) Building Survey. [71]

The Great Flood of 1763 washed away many of the major bridges that cross the River Nore, and extensive reconstruction was initiated. Many of the bridges are built to designs prepared by George Smith (1763-1767), a pupil of George Semple, and they have classical-style details, indicating lasting influence of the images included in Andrea Palladio’s I Quattro Libri dell ‘ architettura (1570). Smith designed the Green Bridge in Kilkenny, Castle Bridge over the dining room (Deen) River, Thomas Bridge on the River Nore, GraiguenamanaghBron of the River Barrow and Inistioge Bridge on the River Nore.

Other 18th century bridges include; bridges in Gorebridge, Bennettsbridge, Kells, Threecastles, dining Bridge and the bridge at Mount Juliet.

tourist attractions

See also: List of tourist attractions in Ireland

Dunmore Cave

I Kilkenny Jerpoint Abbey nära Thomas , Kells Priory i Kells . Kilkenny City , inklusive St Canice-katedralen och St Marys katedral , Rothe House och Kilkenny Castle .

Jenkins Castle, c. 1830

Dunmore Cave is a show cave in Bally Foyle, with a tourist center established at the site. As well as a variety of cave formations, it is also one of the most documented archaeological sites in Ireland. Jenkins Park is located about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) north of the city of Kilkenny and 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) south of Castle off the N78 road.


See also: Communication in Ireland, Internet in Ireland, and water and sanitation in Ireland


See also: Transport in Ireland, Rail transport in Ireland Road in Ireland Bus Eireann, and List of airports in Ireland

Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail) provides rail services from Dublin to Waterford passing through Kilkenny MacDonagh Station in Kilkenny and Thomas Railway. Waterford Railway Station is just outside Kilkenny. The stations served are Dublin Heuston, Newbridge, Kildare, Athy, Carlow, Muine Bheag (Bagenalstown), Kilkenny, Thomas, Waterford Plunkett. Since Kilkenny is a stub station, reversal is necessary. Non-Passenger trains Freight DFDS from Ballina – Waterford avoid Kilkenny Lavistown loop that connects both lines go into Kilkenny. All direct services run by 22,000 railcars. It is a service was 2 hours.

Bus Éireann and JJ Kavanagh and Sons provide bus services in the county.

Kilkenny Airport is a small airport located just 1.5 km west of Kilkenny.There are six driven resident aircraft and glider based on two airport.



2016 marks the 50th anniversary of County Kilkenny Village Creameries merge to create Avonmore Creameries brand in 1966. The Coop unit became Avonmore Foods plc in 1988 and later join Waterford Foods plc in 1997. Today it is recognized as the global food giant, Glanbia, one of the world’s foremost nutrition companies with a turnover of over € 3.5 billion and 5,815 employees. [72]

1966 of 30 local Creameries, created by local farmers, along with other small rural cooperatives throughout Kilkenny and some neighboring counties and together with Unigate Limited support, formed Avonmore Creameries Federation. [73] To realize the benefits of increased scale and greater diversification in the 1960s, saw the need for a merger of many small, locally focused cooperative throughout Ireland. This led to the construction of a new multifunctional Avonmore dairy plant in Ballyragget, Kilkenny, a plant which they claimed was the largest food processing plant in Europe at the time. Today, the giant global unit called Glanbia. [74] Glanbia has its origin in the Irish agricultural co-operation developed in the past century, ever since the first Irish Co-operative in 1889, founded by Horace Plunkett .Today Glanbia has operations in 34 countries [ 75] and exports to more than 100 countries worldwide. Glanbia plc was established since 1997 by a merger of Avonmore Foods plc and Waterford Foods plc. Glanbia is ranked by revenue (2010 figures) in the 100 cooperatives, [76] No. 98 in the world and number one in Ireland in the International Co-operative Alliance, [ 77] the global apex organization of cooperatives worldwide.

According Glanbia collections in Kilkenny archive [78] at St Kieran College, Kilkenny, Avonmore Coop brand was created through a merger of the Village Creameries, SCE included among its archives: Ballingarry Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Ballyhale Co-Operative Creamery dairy Society Ltd., Bally Patrick’s Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Avonmore Creameries Ltd., Ballyragget Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Bennett Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Callan Co-op dairy and dairy Society Ltd, Castlehale Co-Operative dairy Society Ltd., Castle Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Donaghmore Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Dungarvan Co. Waterford Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Freshford Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Glenmore, Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Graiguecullen, County Carlow corn & Coal Co. Ltd., IDA Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Kells, County Kilkenny Co-Operative Agricultural & Dairy Society Ltd, Kilmanagh, Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Kilkenny City Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Leinster Milk Producers Association Ltd., Loughcullen Kilkenny Co-Operative Creamery Ltd, Miloko Co-Operative Society Ltd. Knockavendagh & Moylgass Killenaule Co-Operative Creamery Society Ltd, Muckalee Kilkenny Co-Operative Dairy Society Ltd, Mullinavat Co-Operative Creamery Society Ltd, Piltown Co- operative Society Ltd., Slieverue Co-operative Creamery Ltd, Shelbourne Co-operative agricultural Society Ltd., Windgap Co-operative Dairy Society Ltd, Letter Timber Co. Ltd., Bacon Company of Ireland, Inch Creamery (waiting to be cataloged), Barrowvale , Gorebridge Creamery (waiting to be cataloged).

The Ballyhale CDS (1895-1995) 100 years booklet with start registering a federation of 25 Co-op Creameries originally appeared in January 1965 in the framework of Avonmore Creameries Ltd., the shares were taken in the new unit of society and that the following year Ballyragget a milk processing plant was built. Ireland in the common market in 1970. The first bulk milk collection tool place from 1973, when the merger was formalized. Ballyhale CDS was one of 20 members of Avonmore Farmers Ltd.; the other founding members are Castlehale, Mullinavat, Iverk, Piltown, Carrigeen, Kilmacow, Ballyragget, South Tipperary, Mona Star Evan, Muckalee, Barrowvale, Kells, Windgap, Brandonvale, Bennetsbridge, Castle, Freshford, Donaghmore and Fennor.


See also: Healthcare in Ireland and the List of hospitals in Ireland

Hospitals in Kilkenny include three public and private hospitals. [79] St.Luke’s General Hospital is a general medical and surgical hospital was built in 1942. [80] It is located on the Freshford Road and provides a variety of local and regional services, including general medicine, general surgery, obstetrics, gynecology and pediatrics. St. Canice’s is a psychiatric hospital, opened in 1852 and is located on the Dublin Road. [81] It provides a range of mental health services including emergency and long-stay care, outpatient services throughout the county including addiction counseling, respite care community hostel facilities and kindergartens. Lourdes is the regional orthopedic hospital based outside of Kilkenny in Kilcreene. Aut Ävenär a private hospital based outside the city of Kilkenny. [82] Castle’s Castle District Hospital. [83]

There are also health centers built around County Kilkenny, including Marley


The Riordan (1965-1979) made by Raidió Teilifís Éireann (then Telefis Éireann ) was in the fictional country town of Lee Town in County Kilkenny.Its use of Outside Broadcast Units and the recording of its episodes on location rather than in the studio, broke the mold of broadcasting the soap opera genre. It was the second Irish soap opera and inspired the creation of its British counterpart, Emmerdale Farm (now Emmerdale ) avYorkshire Television in 1972.

Notable people

See also: List of Kilkenny People

  • Edmund Ignatius Rice, the founder of the Irish Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers
  • James Hoban (1762-1831) was an architect, born near Callan, best known for the design of the White House in Washington, DC
  • Seamus Moore, a novelty singer best known for JCB Song
  • Thomas Nash (Newfoundland) Irish fishermen, settled in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Founder of Branch, Newfoundland and Labrador[85]

In the book “Kilkenny goods Gentry & Aristocracy” by Art Kavanagh [86](2004), he had devoted a chapter each eighteen of the most prominent Kilkenny Families, chosen “on a random geographical basis to ensure an even distribution across the county “as follows – Agar of Gowran, Blunden Castle Blunden, Bryan Jenkins, Butler (Lords Carrick), Butler Maiden Hall, the Butler (Lords Mount Garret), Butler (Earl of Ormonde), Cuffe (Lords Desart), de Montmorency, flood on Farmley, Langrishe Knock Topher, Loftus of Mount Juliet, McCalmont of Mount Juliet, Ponsonby (Earl of Bessborough), Power of Kilfane, Smithwick of Kilcreene, St. George Freshford and Wandesforde of Catlecomer.

County Anthem

The song The Rose of Mooncoin is the traditional anthem of the county at GAA fixtures. [87]


Further information: Sport in Ireland and Kilkenny GAA


In hurling, by far the dominant sport in the county, Kilkenny GAA compete annually in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, which they won a record thirty-five times, Leinster Senior Hurling Championship, which they won seventy times, and the National Hurling League, which they has won seventeen times. Kilkenny, along with Cork and Tipperary, considered “the big three” in the world of hurling. Brian Cody has been head of the Kilkenny senior hurling team since 1998. The current senior hurling captain Joey Holden from Ballyhale Shamrocks.

Kilkenny drops or county colors are black and yellow. County Kilkenny hurling team Tullaroan, the first Kilkenny team to carry the famous black and yellow colors. In 1886, after winning the first ever county championship in Kilkenny they held a fundraising event in Tullaroan to provide the team with a playlist. After intense debate and consultation Club chose black and yellow stripes as the design for the jerseys they would wear for Limerick to August. [88]

Horse racing

Gowran Park is a horse racing course near Gowran. The first meeting was held in 1914 and the racecourse hosts 16 race days throughout the year including the Thyestes Chase (the Grand National in the south), one of the prestigefylldasteeplechases in Ireland has been won by three time Cheltenham Gold Cup winner Arkle 1964 Aintree Grand National winner Hedgehunter and Numbersixvalverde. It has 16 National Hunt and Flat meetings throughout the year.


Mount Juliet Golf Course is a golf resort located in Thomasville. It was a place for the 2002 and 2004 WGC-American Express Championship, has previously hosted the European Tour’s Irish Open on three occasions between 1993 and 1995. The par 72, 7,300 yard (6,700 m) Jack Nicklaus designed golf course opened in 1991 and was voted best Parkland Golf Coursefrom Backspin Golf Magazine in March 2008. It is known for its undulating fairways, water hazards and has contoured greens. There is also a full 18-hole putting course in the basics of Mount Juliet House, which is the site of the annual National putting championship.

Kilkenny Golf Club’s 18-hole parkland course in the city to the North West, close to the center. It hosted several professional tournaments. 1984 and 1996, there was a place for all of Ireland Mixed Foursome Finals and 1985 host All Ireland Cups and Shields finals. The course is mostly flat terrain with an abundance of trees. Around Kilkenny City is also a driving range in Newpark and an 18-hole all-weather Par 3 golf course in Pocoke.

Andra golfbanor inkluderar Gowran Park Golf Course i Gowran , [89] Callan Golf Club i Callan , [90] Castle Golf Club i Castle , [91] Mountain View Golf Course i Ballyhale [92] och Carrigleade golfbana i Graiguenamanagh . [93 ]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (Kilkenny)
  • List of Kilkenny People
  • List of tourist attractions in Ireland
  • Lord Lieutenant of Kilkenny
  • High Sheriff of Kilkenny
  • High Sheriff of Kilkenny City


  • a. ^ The big difference between these estimates can be attributed to differences in criteria and other factors, however, this increase reflect the actual expansion of woodland.
  • b. ^ The Forest Planning System 1998 (FIPS) is a GIS-based inventory of forest cover in Ireland is produced from aerial photos and satellite images. NFI (NFI) extrapolated their projections from a systematic field sampling FIPS places between 2004 and 2006.



  1. Jump up ^ Kilkenny County Council (2016). “Kilkenny County Council elected members”. .
  2. Jump up ^ Statistics. “Statistical facts about your County – Kilkenny” .
  3. Jump up ^ Central Statistics Office (2011). “Area profile County Kilkenny.” .
  4. Jump up ^ Central Statistics Office (2016). “Geographical Changes” .
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Statistics. “Kilkenny (CSO area code CTY 07)”. .
  6. Jump up ^ Oireachtas. “SI No. 432/1999 – Vehicle registration and taxation (amendment) Regulations, 1999”. .
  7. Hoppa upp^ Oireachtas (2001). “Local Government Act 2001” (PDF) . s. 25.
  8. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists . Hodder Headline Irland.pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  9. Jump up ^ Kilculliheen in Kilkenny was part of Gaultiere in County Waterford to the Local Government Act 1898
  10. Jump up ^ “Logainm”. Placenames in Ireland.
  11. Jump up ^ “”. Placenames in Ireland.
  12. Jump up ^ “”. Placenames in Ireland.
  13. Jump up ^ “”. Placenames in Ireland.
  14. Jump up ^ (Hughes, 1863, p. 623) Hughes, William (1863). “Geography British history”. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green.
  15. Jump ^ Clayton, 1977, p. 25
  16. Jump up ^ Jarvis, DE (2000) [1998]. “Palaeoenvironment of the plant carries horizons of Devonian-Carboniferous Kiltorcan Formation, Kiltorcan Hill, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland. ” In Edited by PF Friend (University of Cambridge, UK) & BPJ Williams (University of Aberdeen, UK). New perspectives on the old red sandstone (PDF). GSL Special Publications.London: Geological Society of London (GSL). p. 400. ISBN 978-1-86239-071-3 .Hämtas and July 31, 2009 .
  17. Jump up ^ Beck 1981
  18. Jump up ^ Chapter 8 – Heritage, Kilkenny Draft Development Plan 2008-2014 -Kilkenny County Council
  19. Jump up ^ (Hughes, 1863, p. 623)
  20. Jump up ^ SACs in County Kilkenny – national parks and wildlife, Ireland.
  21. Jump up ^ Hugginstown Fen (SAC IE0000404). Site Synopsis – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) – European Environment Agency.
  22. Jump up ^ The Loughans (SAC IE0000407). Site Synopsis – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) – European Environment Agency.
  23. Jump up ^ Cullahill Mountain (SAC IE0000831). Site Synopsis, Conservation Plan and maps (1, 2, 3) – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) – European Environment Agency.
  24. Jump up ^ Spahill and Clomantagh Hill (SAC IE0000849). Site Synopsis -nationalparker and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) -The European Environment Agency.
  25. Jump up ^ Galmoy Fen (SAC IE0001858). Site Synopsis – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) – European Environment Agency.
  26. Jump up ^ Lower Suir (SAC IE0002137). Site Synopsis – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) – European Environment Agency.
  27. Jump up ^ River Barrow and River Nore (IE0002162). Site Synopsis -nationalparker and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) -The European Environment Agency.
  28. Jump up ^ Thomas Quarry (SAC IE0002252) – Site Synopsis – national parks and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 data sets – the European Environment Agency.
  29. Hoppa upp^ Natur Area (Coan BOGS NHA 002.382) Order 2005 Stationery Office DUBLIN
  30. Jump up ^ Coan Bogs NHA Site Synopsis national parks and wildlife
  31. Jump up ^ Coan Bogs NHA 002 382 national parks and wildlife
  32. Jump up ^ SI No. 234/1988 – nature reserve (Fiddown Island) Establishment Order, 1988 . . 1988 . Retrieved 2010-10-08 . .
  33. Jump up ^ Fiddown Island Nature Reserve National Parks and Wildlife Service
  34. ^ Jump up to: ab “National Parks & Wildlife Service” . Retrieved 2010-10-08 . . Retrieved on 2010-10-08.
  35. Jump up ^ (Brown 2000) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name “brown2000” defined multiple times with different content (sehjälpsidan). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name “brown2000” defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  36. Jump up ^ (Perrin 2008)
  37. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e Perrin, Philip; Martin, James; Barron, Simon; O’Neill, Fionnuala;Kate, McNutt, red. (2008). Den nationella undersökningen av Native Woodlands 2003-2008 (PDF) . Volym 1. Dublin: National Parks & Wildlife Service. s. 187 . Hämtat skrevs den september 24 2010 .
  38. Jump up ^ River Barrow and River Nore (SAC) (IE0002162). Site Synopsis -nationalparker and wildlife, Ireland. Natura 2000 (data set) -The European Environment Agency.
  39. Jump up ^ records of Ireland Archive May 24, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. Jump up ^ “The Tree Council of Ireland Website” . Retrieved 2010-10-08. .ämtat on 2010-10-08.
  41. Jump up ^ Top 25 trees in County Kilkenny – Tree Council of Ireland
  42. Jump up ^ “The next step in the Nore Valley walk is finished.” Kilkenny People . October 11, 2010 . Retrieved 7 July in August 2011 .
  43. Jump up ^ “Nore Valley Way.” IrishTrails . Irish Sports Council .Hämtadsyv August August 2011 .
  44. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Trail Kilkenny. Retrieved seven August August 2011 .
  45. Jump up ^ Downham, “career”, p. 7; Mac Niocaill, Ireland before the Vikings , pp. 3-4.
  46. Jump up ^ “Ossory diocese” . Retrieved 2010-10-08 . . on 2010-10-08.
  47. Jump up ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings , maps on pages 133 and 172-173. Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland , p. 236, map 9 & p. 532, map 13th
  48. Jump up ^ Knock 2006, p. 284
  49. Hoppa upp^ James MacKillop , Dictionary of keltisk mytologi , Oxford University Press, Oxford och New York, 1998
  50. Jump up ^ “Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age.” 24, 2007.
  51. Jump up ^ “Census of post 1821 figures” . Retrieved 2010-10-08 . Retrieved on 2010-10-08.
  52. Jump up ^ “Home.” Histpop.Org. 04.02.2007 . Retrieved 2010-07-07 .
  53. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census website.” . Retrieved 2010-07-07 .
  54. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell . Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  55. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850.” The Economic History Review . 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  56. ^ Jump up to: ab CSO – Central Statistics Office (Ireland) Kilkenny
  57. Jump up ^ “People over 15 years (Number) from the county, year, sex and main economic status”. CSO.
  58. Jump up ^ “Source: Live Register Analysis, CSO” . Retrieved 2010-10-08. .ämtat on 2010-10-08.
  59. Jump up ^ “Source: Vital Statistics Yearly Summary Report 2007, CSO”.Hämtas 2010-10-08 . . Retrieved on 2010-10-08.
  60. Jump up ^ “Source: County income and regional GDP in 2005, CSO” .Hämtas2010-10-08 . . Retrieved on 2010-10-08.
  61. Jump up ^ “Population (number) of the county, and faith communities.” CSO.
  62. Jump up ^ From the official website of Met Éireann; see “30 years Average in Kilkenny from 1978 to 2007”.
  63. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghi From the official website of Met Éireann; see “Kilkenny (Weather Observing stations)”.
  64. Jump up ^ From the official website of Met Éireann; see “Temperature in Ireland”.
  65. ^ Jump up to: abc From the official website of ; see “About us”.
  66. ^ Jump up to: abcd From the official website of ; see “Climate”.
  67. Jump up ^ Act of the Oireachtas: County Kilkenny Local Electoral Areas Order 2008
  68. Jump up ^ Ryan, 1973, 2005 Moody
  69. Jump up ^ Hughes in 2004, the NRA brochure, Seanda – The NRA Archaeology Magazine: 2006 Issue 1 (8 MB)
  70. Jump up ^ Illustrated Dictionary of Irish history. Mac Annaidh, S (eds).Gill and Macmillan, Dublin. 2001
  71. Jump up ^ Kilkenny Building survey shows. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (Niah)
  72. Hoppa upp^ “Glanbia at a Glance” . Glanbia Plc.
  73. Jump up ^ “Glanbia – Our History.” About Us . Glanbia Plc.
  74. Jump up ^ “Our History”. Glanbia plc.
  75. Jump up ^ “Glanbia- our global presence.” Glanbia Plc.
  76. Jump up ^ “the world’s largest co-operatives and mutual societies” (pdf). ICA Global 300 Report 2010 . Intewrnational Cooperative Alliance.
  77. Jump up ^ “Top 300 cooperatives generate USD 2 000 billion.” World Cooperative monitor . International Co-operative Alliance.
  78. Jump up ^ “Glanbia Archives”. Kilkenny archives . St Kieran’s College, Kilkenny.
  79. Jump up ^ hospital in County Kilkenny – the Citizens Information Board, Hospital in Kilkenny –
  80. Hoppa upp^ St. Lukes General Hospital Kilkenny – Health Service Executive
  81. Jump up ^ Mental Health Services in Carlow and Kilkenny – Health Service Executive
  82. Jump up ^ Official website of Aut Even Hospital.
  83. Jump up ^ County Kilkenny health centers – Health Service Executive
  84. Jump up ^ health centers in Carlow and Kilkenny – Health Service Executive
  85. Hoppa upp^
  86. Hoppa upp^ “Bok: Den Landed Gentry & aristokrati Kilkenny efter konst Kavanagh (2004)” . Kilkenny . Irish Family Names.
  87. Jump up ^ “Mooncoin – Kilkenny”. Retrieved 2010-07-07 .
  88. Jump up ^ Fitzgerald
  89. Jump up ^ “Gowran Park Golf Course” . Retrieved 2010-10-08 .ämtat on 2010-10-08.
  90. Jump up ^ “Callan Golf Club”. Retrieved 2010-10-08. .
  91. Jump up ^ “Castle Golf Club”. Retrieved 2010-10-08 . .
  92. Jump up ^ “Mountain View Golf Course”. Retrieved 2010-10-08
  93. Jump up ^ “Carrigleade Golf Course”.ämtas2010-10-08 .