Dublin (/ d ʌ among ᵻ n /; Irish: Baile Átha Cliath [blʲaːklʲiəh]) is the capital and largest city in Ireland. [8] [9] Dublin is in the province of Leinster in Ireland’s east coast, at the mouth effluents Liffey. The city has an urban population of 1,345,402. [10] The population of the Greater Dublin Area, which in 2016 was 1,904,806 people.

Founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Ireland’s main city after the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. After the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland.

Dublin is administered by a city council. The city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of “Alpha”, placing it among the thirty cities in the world. [11] [12] It is a historical and contemporary center education, arts, administration, finance and industry.


Main article: History of Dublin

See also: Timeline of Dublin


Although the area in Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, the writings of Ptolemy (the Greco-Roman astronomer and cartographer) in about 140 AD gives perhaps the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the deal Eblana Police (Greek: Ἔβλανα πόλις.) [13]

Dublin celebrated “official” Millennium 1988 AD, which means that the Irish government recognized 988 AD as the year when the city was settled and that the first settlement would later become the city of Dublin.

The name Dublin comes from the Gaelic word Dublind , early classic IrishDubhlind / Duibhlind , Dubh / d̪uβ / alt. / Duw / alt / TO: / meaning “black, dark”, and winding / lʲiɲ [d] “pool”, referring to a dark tidal pool where the river Poddle into the Liffey on the site of the castle garden in the back of Dublin Castle. In modern Irish name is Duibhlinn , and Irish rhyme from Dublin County shows that the Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn / DI: lʲiɲ /. The pronunciation originals are preserved in the names of the city in other languages like Old English Di f electrical , Norse Dy f flax , modern Icelandic Dy f linen and modern Manx Di v lyn and Welsh You Lyn . Other cities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn , unlike anglicised as Devlin,[14] Divlin [15] and Difflin. [16] Historically, the printers use Gaelic script wrotebra with a dot of B , making Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted point, to spell the name as Dublin . Variations of the name is also available in traditional Gaelic speaking areas (gàidhealtachd, Related to irländskGaeltacht) in Scotland, such as a linen Dhubh ( “black pool”), which is part of of Linnhe.

It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement called Duibhlinn , which Dyflin took its name. From the 9th and 10th century there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Viking settlement of about 841 was known as Dyflin , from the IrishDuibhlinn and Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath ( “ford of obstacles”) was further up the river, at today’s Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin Bridge), at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath , meaning “town of the hurdled ford”, is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the river Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other cities with the same name, such asATH Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicized as Hurlford.

Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin Bridge) is understood to be close to the old “Ford of the Hurdles” ( Baile Átha Cliath ), the original crossing point on the River Liffey.

The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centered on Poddle River, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor the ship; the Poddle connected the lake with Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew.The Dubhlinn lay Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne ( “The Cattle Raid of Cooley”) refers Dublind Rissa Ratter Áth Cliath , meaning “Dublin, called Ath Cliath”.


Dublin was founded as a Viking settlement in the 10th century, and despite a number of uprisings of the native Irish remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169. [17] It was at the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 as Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, king of Connacht, went to Dublin and was consecrated king of Ireland without resistance. Probably he was the primitive undebated entire King of Ireland, and also the only one Gaelic.

The King of Leinster, Dermot MacMurrough, after his exile from Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin.Following Mac Murrough’s death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster to gain control of the city. In response to Strongbow successful invasion, King Henry II of England confirmed its sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and declared himself Lord of Ireland. [18] At this time, the county in the city of Dublin was formed along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. This continued down to 1840 närbaroni Dublin separated from the barony Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have redesignated the city of Dublin.

Dublin Castle was fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until the 1922nd

Dublin Castle, which became the center of Norman power in Ireland, founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England. [19] Following the appointment of the first Mayor of Dublin in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8000 until the end of the 13th century. Dublin flourished as a trading center, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317. [18] It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague that had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade. [20] [21]

Dublin was incorporated into the English crown as the Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern coast. The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelled a new era for Dublin, the city enjoyed a renewed importance as the center of administrative rule in Ireland.Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as an exclusively Protestant universities, and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick’s and Christ Church Cathedrals converted to Protestant. [22]

The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague of 1649-1651 wiped out nearly half the city’s residents. But the city prospered again soon after as a result of woolen and linen trade with England and reached a population of over 50,000 in 1700. [23]

early modern

Henrietta Street, was developed in the 1720s, is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin.

As the city continued to flourish during the 18th century Georgian Dublin was for a short period, the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with a population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin’s most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar and Grafton Street are two of the few remaining areas not hit by the wave of Georgian Reconstruction and retained its medieval character. [22]

Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many famous neighborhoods and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange. [22] The wide streets Commission was formed in 1757 at the request of the Dublin Corporation to control the architectural standards for the design of streets , bridges and buildings. 1759, founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a substantial financial gain for the city. [ Citation needed ] For much of the time since its inception, the brewery was Dublin’s biggest employers. [ Citation needed ]

Late modern and contemporary

GPO on O’Connell Street was in the middle of the 1916 Easter Rising.

Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century after the Act of Union in 1800, according to which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained central administration and a focal point for most of the island. Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a center of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in the UK and Ireland. [17] Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, production and shipbuilding factory-based linen cloth. [24]

The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city center and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas in Leinster House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city served as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541), the Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1800), the island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801- 1922), and the Irish Republic (1919-1922).After the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922-1937) and now is the capital of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance.

Dublin were also victims of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Even during the 30 years of conflict, violence engulfed mainly Northern Ireland. But the Provisional IRA drew a lot of support from the Republic, particularly Dublin.This caused a loyalist paramilitary group Ulster Volunteer Force to bomb the city. The most notable atrocities committed by Loyalists during this time was Dublin and Monaghan bombings in which 34 people died, mainly in Dublin itself.

Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely. The city was at the forefront of Ireland’s rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with enormous private and state development of housing, transport and business.

The government


Civic offices in Dublin City Council.

From 1842, the boundaries of the city is understood by baronies in Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the limits extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act. [25] Later, in 1953, the boundaries once again extended by municipal Provisional Order Confirmation Act. [26]

Dublin City Council is a chamber assembly of 63 [27] members elected every five years by local election areas. It is headed by the mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in the Mansion House. Council meetings take place at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities based on the civic offices at Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats judging committee, introduces policies and appoints the mayor. Council passes an annual budget for spending in areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage and planning. Dublin City Manager is responsible for the implementation of council decisions.


Leinster House on Kildare Street houses the Oireachtas.

As the capital city, Dublin is the seat of the national Parliament in Ireland, the Oireachtas. It consists of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and the Dáil as underhuset.Ordföranden live in Aras an Uachtarain in Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish Parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland is located in College Green.

Government Buildings housing the Prime Minister’s Office, the Council Department, Ministry of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed in 1911) with two wings (completed in 1921). It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. The first Dáil met originally in the Mansion House in 1919. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989. [28] Although both it and Leinster House was intended to be temporary, became permanent houses of parliament then.

For elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is divided into five constituencies: Dublin Central (3 seats), Dublin Bay North (5 places), Dublin North West (3 seats), Dublin South-Central (4 places) and Dublin Bay South (4 places ).Nineteen TD selected in total. [29]


In the past, Dublin was regarded as a stronghold for Fianna Fáil, [ citation needed ]but after the Irish local elections in 2004 the party was overshadowed by the center-left Labour Party. [30] In the 2011 general election was elected Dublin region 18, the Labour Party, 17 Fine Gael, four Sinn Féin two socialist party, 2 People before profit Alliance and three independent TDs. Fianna Fail lost all but one of its its TDs in the region. [31]



Satellite image showing the River Liffey in iIrländska lake with which it shares the Dublin iNorthside and Southside.

Dublin is located at the mouth of the River Liffey and covers an area of approximately 44 sq mi or 115 km 2 in the eastern and central Ireland. It is bordered by a low mountain range in the south and surrounded by flat farmland in the north and west. [32] The Liffey divides the city into two parts between the Northside and Southside. Each of these is further divided by the two smaller rivers – the River Tolka running southeast into Dubin Bay and the River Dodder run northeast to the mouth of the Liffey. Another two rivers – the Grand Canal on the South Side and Djurgården at Northside – call the inner city on the way from the west and the River Shannon.

The River Liffey bend in Leixlip from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development of more agricultural land use. [33]

cultural divide

A north-south division was traditionally present, with the River Liffey as dividers. Northside was widely seen as the working class, while the Southside seen as middle to upper middle class. The gap was interrupted by examples of Dublin “sub-culture” stereotypes, with upper middle class constituents seen as moving towards an accent and demeanor synonymous with South Side, and works Dubliners seen as going against the properties associated with Northside and inner city areas. Dublin economic gap was also previously an east-west and a north-south direction. It was also clear gaps between the coastal suburbs of the eastern part of the city, including those on the North Side, and the newer developments further west. [34]

As with much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin is experiencing a maritime climate ( Cfb ), with cool summers, mild winters, and lack of extreme temperatures. The average maximum January temperatures are 8.8 ° C (48 ° F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 ° C (68 ° F).On average, the sunniest months of May and June, while the wettest month is October, with 76 mm (3 inches) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 inches). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.

Dublin protected location on east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland to receive only about half of rain on the West Coast. Ringsend in the southern part of the city records the lowest rainfall in the country, with an average annual rainfall of 683 mm (27 inches), [36] the average annual rainfall in the center is 714 mm (28 inches). The main precipitation in winter is rain, but the rain occurring between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city is experiencing long summer days and short winter days.Strong Atlantic winds are most common in the fall. These winds can affect Dublin, but because of its eastern location is the least affected compared to other parts of the country. But in winter, easterly winds making the city colder and more likely to snow.


Dublin is divided into several neighborhoods or districts.

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medieval Quarter

This is the oldest part of the city, including Dublin Castle, Christchurch and St Patrick’s Cathedral with the old city wall. It was part of Dubh Linn settlement, this area became home to the Vikings in Dublin.

Georgian Quarter

St Stephens Green

Dublin is known for its Georgian architecture. Here are some of the world’s finest Georgian buildings. It starts at St Stephens Green and Trinity College up to the channel. Merrion Square, St. Stephen’s Green and Fitzwilliam Square are examples of this type of architecture.

docklands Quarter

This area is the Dublin Docklands containing “Silicon Docks”, Dublin Tech Quarter located in the Grand Canal Dock area. Global giants like Google, Facebook, Twitter and Accenture are based there. It used to be a deserted part of town, but has undergone revitalization with the development of offices and apartments.

~~ culture POS = TRUNC

Temple Bar is located in the heart of Dublin’s social and cultural life. It was once a derelict but then revived in the 1990s. [39]

Creative Quarter

It is the newest district was created in 2012. It covers the area from South William Street to George Street, and from Lower Stephens Street Exchequer Street. Its a hub for design, creativity and innovation. [40]

Tourist attractions

Dublin skyline from the Guinness Storehouse


Further information: List of public art in Dublin

Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years.One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded to a castle built with strong walls and good ditches for defense of the city, the administration of justice and the protection of the king’s tax. [41] largely complete by 1230, the castle was typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square but keep, bounded all sides by high defensive walls and protected in every corner of a round tower . Positioned to the southeast Norman Dublin Castle formed a corner of the outer perimeter of the city, with the river Poddle as a natural way to defend themselves.

The Spire of Dublin rises behind the statue of Jim Larkin.

One of Dublin’s newest monuments is the Spire Dublin, or officially entitled “Monument of Light”. [42] It is 121.2 meters (398 feet) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O’Connell Street. It replaces Nelson’s Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin’s place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, [43] who sought an “elegant and dynamic simplicity of bridging art and technology.” During the day it maintains its steel look, but at dusk the monument appears together in the sky. The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky over the city.

Many people visiting Trinity College to see the Book of Kells in the library there. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscripts created by Irish monks circa. 800 AD. The Ha’penny Bridge; an old iron footbridge over the River Liffey is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered one of Dublin’s most famous landmarks. [44]

Guinness Brewery

Other popular sights and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick’s Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on the Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, Custom House and Aras an Uachtarain. The Poolbeg Towers is also iconic features of the Dublin and are visible in many places around the city.


Dublin has more green space per square kilometer than any other European capital, with 97% of city residents living within 300 meters from a park area. [Citation needed ] The City Council gives 2.96 hectares (7.3 acres) of public green space per 1,000 people and 255 playing fields. [ citation needed ] the Council also planted about 5,000 trees annually [ citation needed ] and manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks. [45]

The Molly Malone Statue, Grafton Street.

There are many parks around the city, including the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park, and St. Stephen’s Green. Phoenix Park is about 3 km (2 miles) west of the center, north of the River Liffey. Its 16 km (10 mi) facade encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), making it one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. [46] It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. The residence of the President of Ireland (Aras an Uachtarain), built in 1751, [47]located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, the official residence of the US Ambassador, and Ashtown Castle. Concerts have also been carried out in the park by many singers and musicians.

St. Stephens Green is adjacent to one of Dublin’s main shopping streets, Grafton Street, a shopping mall named after it, while the surrounding streets are offices for a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin’s Luas tram lines. Saint Anne’s Park is a public park and recreational facility, which is shared between Raheny and Clontarf, both suburbs on the north side of Dublin. The park, the second largest urban park in Dublin, is part of a former two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi, 500-acre) property assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal located in nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny).


Main article: Economy of Dublin

Grafton Street is the main shopping street in Dublin city center

Dublin region is the economic center of Ireland, and was in the forefront of the country’s rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and the 10 richest of personal income. [48] [49] According to Mercer’s 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey , Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10 in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42 in 2010). [50] from 2005, has about 800,000 employees in the Greater Dublin Area, of which about 600,000 were employed in the service sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector. [51] [ needs update ]

Many of Dublin’s traditional industries, such as food, textile manufacturing, brewing and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s, has attracted a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and the Greater Dublin Area. Companies like Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter, Accenture and Pfizer now has European headquarters and / or operational bases in the city.

Ulster Bank on George’s Quay Plaza.

Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin’s International Financial Services Centre in 1987, which is globally recognized as a leading location for a range of internationally traded financial services. More than 500 operations are approved to trade under the IFSC program. The center is host to half of the world’s top 50 banks and half of the 20 insurance companies. [52] Many international companies have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank and Commerzbank. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) is also located in Dublin. The economic boom has led to a sharp rise in construction, with major redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Completed projects inkluderarConvention Centre, the 3Arena and Bord Gais Energy Theatre and Silicon Docks.


Main article: Transport in Dublin


The M50 motorway around Dublin.

The road network in Ireland is mainly focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway, half a ring road that runs around the south, west and north of the city, connecting important national primary routes to the rest of the country. In 2008 the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system with a three-tiered charging system based on electronic tags and car förhandsregistrering.Vägtullen is currently € 2.10 for vehicles with a prepaid tag, € 2.60 for vehicles whose number plates have been registered with eFlow and 3.10 € for unregistered vehicles. [53]

The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass of the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects the Dublin Port ochmotorvägen M1 near Dublin Airport. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs roughly around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs mainly along the natural circle formed by Dublin’s two canals, the Grand Canal and Djurgården and the North and South Circular roads.

Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 bus lines serving all parts of the city and suburbs. Most of these are controlled by Dublin Bus, but a number of smaller companies also work. Fares are generally calculated on a scene based on the distance traveled. There are several different levels of fares that apply to most services. A “Real Time Passenger Information” was introduced on the Dublin Bus bus stops 2012. Electronically showed signs convey information about the time of the next bus “arrival based on its GPS-determined position. The National Transport Authority is responsible for the integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a prepaid smart card, such kalladLeap cards can be used on Dublin’s public transport.

Railway and tram

Luas trams at Tallaghtterminus.

Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway stations in Dublin.Operated by Iarnród Éireann, Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five rail lines serving the Greater Dublin area and bedroom community that Drogheda and Dundalk in County Louth. One of these lines are electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line, which runs mainly along Dublin, with a total of 31 stations, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow. [54] Commuter trains operate on the other four lines with Irish Rail diesel multiple units. In 2013, passengers DART and Dublin Suburban lines were 16 million and 11.7 million respectively (about 75% of all Irish Rail passengers). [55]

The Luas is a light rail system operated by Veolia Transport has been operating since 2004 and now carries over 30 million passengers per year. [56]The network consists of two tram lines; denröda line connects the Docklands and the city center with the south-western suburbs, while the green line connects downtown with the suburbs south of the city and together comprise a total of 54 stations and 38.2 km (23.7 mi) of track. [57]Construction of a 6 km extension of the green line, bringing it to the north of the city, began in June 2013. [58]

Proposed projects trillion as the Dublin Metro and DART Underground will also be considered.

Rail and ferry

Connolly is connected by bus to Dublin Port and ferries operated by Irish Ferries and Stena Line Holyhead for connecting trains on the North Wales coast line to Chester, Crewe and London Euston.

Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port, can be reached by walking beside tram lines around the corner from Amiens Street, Dublin to the Store or Luas an end to Busáras which Dublin Bus operates a service to the ferry terminal, or Dublin Bus route 53 [59] or taking a taxi.


Dublin airport is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority and is north of Dublin City in the administrative county of Fingal. It is the headquarters of the Irish airline Aer Lingus, the budget airline Ryanair and regional flygbolagStobart Air and CityJet. The airport offers a comprehensive short- and medium-haul network, as well as domestic services to many regional airports in Ireland. There are also extensive long-haul service to the United States, Canada and the Middle East. Dublin Airport is the busiest airport in Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon. Construction of a second terminal began in 2007 and was inaugurated on November 19, 2010. [60]

Dublin Airport is currently ranked as the 18th busiest airport in Europe, recording over 25 million passengers in 2015, and has shown very strong growth in passenger numbers in recent years, especially over long distances.Dublin is now ranked 6th in Europe as a hub for transatlantic passengers, with 158 flights a week to the United States, especially much larger airports such as Istanbul and Rome. [ Citation needed ]


Dublin City Council began installing bike paths and trails throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012 the city has over 200 kilometers (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road trails for cyclists. [61] In 2011, the city was ranked 9 of the world’s most important cities of Copenhagenize index of bicycle-friendly cities . [62]

Dublin Bikes terminal in Docklands.

Dublin Bikes is a self-service system, bike rental which has been operating in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux, the system consists of 550 French-made unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city center. Users must make a subscription for either an annual long term rent card costs € 20 or a 3 day ticket costs € 2. The first 30 minutes of use are free, but after that the service fee due to the extra length of use apply. [63] Dublin Bikes now has over 58,000 subscribers and there are plans to drastically expand the service of the city and its suburbs to provide for up to 5,000 bicycles and 300 terminals. [64]

2011 Census showed that 5.9 percent of commuters in Dublin cycled. A report in 2013 from Dublin City Council about traffic flows passing through the channels in and out of the city found that almost 10% of all traffic consisted of riders, representing an increase of 14.1% compared with 2012 and an increase of 87.2% compared to 2006 the level and assigned actions, such as the Dublin Bikes bicycle rental system, provision of cycle paths, information campaigns to promote cycling and the introduction of 30kph center speed limit. [65]

Higher education

Dublin is the primary center of education in Ireland, it is home to three universities, Dublin Institute of Technology and many other universities.There are 20 third-level institutions in the city and in surrounding towns and suburbs. Dublin was Europe of Science in 2012. [66] [67]

Trinity College

Placement of TCD in central Dublin

The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century and is located in the center. Its sole constituent college, Trinity College (TCD) was established by Royal Charter1592 under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation. The Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics to participate until 1970. It is located in the center, on College Green, and has 15,000 students.

Dublin Institute of Technology påCathal Brugha St.

Positioning of the DIT Grange Gorman
in central Dublin

With a continuous history dating back to 1887, Dublin’s and Ireland’s Department of Technical Education and Research, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) with over 23,000 students. Dublin Institute of Technology has been specializing in engineering, architecture, science, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality and business, but also offers many arts, design, music and humanities programs. DIT currently has campuses, buildings and research facilities at several sites, including large buildings on Kevin Street, Aungier Street, Bolton Street and Cathal Brugha Street in Dublin city center, it has begun consolidation to a new city center campus in Grange Gorman.

Dublin City University (DCU), formerly known as the National Institute for Higher Education (Nihe), specializes in finance, technology, science, communication courses, language school and primary school. It has about 16,000 students, and its main campus, Glasnevin campus, located about 7 km (4 mi) from the center in the northern suburbs. It has two campuses on the North Side of the River, DCU campus Glasnevin and Drumcondra DCU campus. Drumcondra campus includes students formally Glasnevin Campus, St. Patrick’s College of Education, the nearby Mater Dei Institute and from the beginning of the 2016/17 academic year students from the Church of Ireland College of Education. These universities will be totally incorporated DCU in early school years 2016/17. [68]

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school is a recognized college of the NUI, it is located at the St. Stephen’s Green in the city center. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin. Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland’s largest private institutions of third level, with over 9,000 students located on Aungier Street. The National College of Art and Design (Ncad) supports training and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin. The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin 2nd

The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its headquarters in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), has over 30,000 students. UCD’s Belfield campus is about 5 km (3 mi) from the center in the southeastern suburbs.The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent of the NUI, is in neighboring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of the city center.

The Irish public administration and management training center based in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and postgraduate awards through the National University of Ireland, and in some cases, Queens University Belfast. There are also smaller specialized colleges, including Griffith College Dublin, Gaiety School of Acting and New Media Technology College.

Outside the city, the towns of Tallaght, South Dublin and Dun Laoghaire Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown has regional universities: University of Technology, has Tallaght full and part-time courses in a wide range of technical subjects and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) supports training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology. The western suburb Blanchard offers childcare and sports management courses together with language and technical subjects at the Institute of Technology, Blanchard.


The city of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term “Dublin” usually refers to the contiguous urban area that includes parts of the neighboring municipalities in Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together the four areas form the traditional County Dublin.This area is sometimes called the Dublin Region .Befolkningen in the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 553,165 in the 2016 census, while the population in the urban area was 1,345,402. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069, and the Greater Dublin Area 1,904,806.The area’s population is growing rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistical Office that it will reach 2.1 million years in 2020. [69]

Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a substantial net immigration, with the largest numbers coming from Europe, especially in Great Britain, Poland and Lithuania. [70] There are also a large number of immigrants from outside Europe, especially from India, Pakistan, China and Nigeria. Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than any other part of landet.Sextio percent of Ireland’s Asian population lives in Dublin. [71] Over 15% of Dublin’s population was foreign-born in 2006. [72]

The capital attracts the largest share of non-Catholic immigrants from other countries. Increasing secularization in Ireland has led to a decline in ordinary Catholic Church presence in Dublin from over 90 percent in the mid-1970s, down to 14 percent in a survey in 2011. [73]


National Museum of Ireland


Dublin has a world-famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureate William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is undoubtedly best known as the site of the greatest works of James Joyce, including Ulysses , which is located in Dublin and full of topical detail. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and characters typical of the city during the early 20th century. Other famous writers including JM Synge, Seán O’Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy and Roddy Doyle. Ireland’s biggest libraries and literary museums are located in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and the National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO city of literature, visit Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa Citymed the permanent title.[74]

Book of Kells

There are several theaters in the city center, and the world-famous players have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Sir Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best-known theaters include the Gaiety, Abbey, the Olympia, Gate, and the Grand Canal. Gaiety specializes in music and opera productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theater production to host a variety of live music, dance and film. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city’s most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. Grand Canal Theatre is a new 2111 capacity theater that opened in March 2010 in Grand Canal Dock.

Aside from being the focus of the country’s literature and theater, Dublin is also the focus of much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875-1968). The collections are from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.

In addition, public art galleries are located throughout the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. In recent years, Dublin has become host to a thriving contemporary art scene. Some of the leading private galleries include Green on Red Gallery, Kerlin Gallery, Kevin Kavangh Gallery and Mother’s Tankstation, each of which focuses on facilitating innovative, challenging and engaging contemporary visual art practices.

Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, crafts and history in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street. [75] The same area is also home to many smaller museums # 29 Fitzwilliam Street and Little Museum of Dublin on St Stephen’s Green.Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which is from 1746, and the Dublin Institute of Design, which was founded in 1991. Dublinia is a living history attraction showcasing the Viking and medieval history of the city.

Dublin has long been a city with a strong underground art scene. Temple Bar was home to many artists in the 1980s, and areas such as Project Arts Centre was a hub for public transport and new exhibits. The Guardian noted that Dublin’s independent and underground art flourished during the recession of 2010. [76] Dublin also has many acclaimed dramatic, musical and opera companies, including the Festival productions, Lyric Opera productions, pioneers musical & Dramatic Society, Glasnevin musical Society, second age Theatre company, Opera Theatre company and Opera Ireland. Ireland is known for his love of Baroque music, which is highly acclaimed at Trinity College. [77]

Dublin was nominated to be the World Design Capital 2014. [78] Prime Minister Enda Kenny was quoted saying that Dublin “would be a perfect candidate to host the World Design Capital 2014”. [79]

St. Patrick’s Day


Dublin has a vibrant night life and is said to be one of Europe’s most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of the citizens to be younger than 25. [80] [81]There are many pubs around the city center, the area around St . Stephens Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, with the most popular nightclubs and pubs.

Temple Bar

The best known area for nightlife is the Temple Bar area, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular with tourists, including stag and hen parties from the UK. [82] It was developed as Dublin’s cultural quarter and not maintain this spirit as a center for small arts productions, photography and artists’ studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues.However, it has been criticized as being expensive, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. [83] In 2014 Temple Bar specified by the Huffington Post as one of the ten most disappointing destinations in the world. [84] The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South Williamsport and Camden Street / George Street are popular venues for locals.

Live music is popularly played on streets and in locations throughout Dublin, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including The Dubliners, Thin Lizzy, The Boomtown Rats, U2, The Script, Sinéad O’Connor, Boyzone, encode Line, Westlife and Jedward. The two most famous theaters in the city center, the Savoy Cinema ochCineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Options and special interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the cinema at D’Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in Smithfield. Large modern flerskärms cinemas is over suburban Dublin. The 3Arena place in the Dublin Docklands has hosted many world-famous artists.


Clerys on O’Connell Street.

Dublin is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has many shopping areas, especially around Grafton Street and Henry Street. The center is also the site of major department stores, mainly Arnotts, Brown Thomas and Clerys (until June 2015, when it closes).

Moore Street Market in Dublin.

The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new purchase development and the loss of some traditional markets. Among several historic sites, Moore Street remains one of the city’s oldest commercial district. [85] There has also been significant growth in local farmers’ markets and other markets. [86] [87] In 2007, the Dublin Food Co-op moved to a larger warehouse of the freedoms area, where there are many on the market and local events. [88] [89] Suburban Dublin has several modern venues, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchard’s Centre, the Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre Santry, Nutgrove shopping Centre in Rathfarnham and pavilions shopping Centre in swords.


Dublin is the center of both the media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telecommunications companies based there. RTÉ is Ireland’s national public broadcaster, and has its headquarters in Donnybrook. Fair City is RTÉ’s soap opera, set in fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown . TV3 Media, UTV Ireland, Setanta Sports, MTV, Sky News Ireland and is also based in the city.The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications company Eircom, as well as mobile operators Meteor, Vodafone and 3 are all there. Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Timesand the Irish Independent , as well as local newspapers, The Evening Herald .

Besides being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin is also the host of the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and many local stations.Commercial radio stations based in the city include 4FM (94.9 MHz), Dublin’s 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038 (103.8 MHz) FM104 (104.4 MHz), TXFM (105.2 MHz) and Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz). There are also many community and interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), close to FM (90.3 MHz), Phoenix FM (92.5 MHz), Raidió na Life (106.4 MHz) and West Dublin access radio (96.0 MHz).



Croke Park

Croke Park is the largest sports stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, has a capacity of 84,500. It is the fourth largest stadium in Europe after the Nou Camp in Barcelona, Wembley Stadium in London and Santiago Bernabeu Stadium in Madrid. [90] It hosts the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, international rules football and irregularly other sports and non -sportevenemang including concerts. During the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, it played host to the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Ireland national team and the host förHeineken 2008-09 Cup rugby semi-final between Munster and Leinster who set a world record attendance for a club rugby match. [91] The Dublin GAA team plays most of their home league games throwing at Parnell Park.


Aviva Stadium

IRFU Lansdowne Road Stadium was built in 1874. This was a place for home games for both the Irish Rugby Union Team and Ireland national football team. A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the government, saw it converted into a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010. [92] Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final . [93] Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their competitive home matches in the RDS and the Aviva Stadium while Donnybrook Stadium hosted its friendly matches and games, Ireland A and women, Leinster schools and young people, and the home club game of the all Ireland League clubs Old Wesley and Bective Rangers . Dublin is home to 13 of the leading rugby union clubs in Ireland, including five of the 10 sides in the top division 1A. [94]


County Dublin is home to six League of Ireland clubs associations, Bohemian FC Shamrock Rovers St Patricks Athletic, University College Dublin, the Shelbourne and newly elected sidaCabinteely. Current FAI Cup champions are St Patrick’s Athletic. [95] The first Irish side to reach the group stage of a European competition (2011-12 UEFA Europa League group stage) ärShamrock Rovers [96] who play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin.Bohemian FC play at Dalymount Park which is the oldest football stadium in the country, after playing host to Ireland’s football team from 1904 to 1990. St. Patricks Athletic games at Richmond Park, University College Dublin play their home games at the UCD Bowl in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, while Shelbourne based on Tolka Park. Cabinteelykommer to play on Stradbrook Road. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl, and Tallaght Stadium, along with Carlisle Grounds Bray, host all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions Cup. [97]


The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 on the last Monday of October. The Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a public holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world. [98]

Dublin area has several racetracks including Shelbourne Park and the Leopards. Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Cup in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in the National Stadium on the South Circular Road. The National Basketball Arena in Tallaght is located, is home to the Irish basketball team, is the location of the basketball league finals and has also hosted boxing and wrestling events. National Aquatic Centre in Blanchard is Ireland’s largest indoor water leisure facility. Dublin has two ODI Cricket grounds in Castle Avenue, Clontarf and Malahide Cricket Club and College Park test mode and played host to Ireland’s only test cricket match so far, a women’s match against Pakistan in 2000. [99] There is also the Gaelic handball, hockey and athletics arenas, notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics.


There are 10.469 students in the Dublin region participating in 31 gaelscoileanna (Irish-speaking schools) and 8 gaelcholáistí (Irish-speaking schools). [100] Dublin has the highest number of Irish medium schools in the country. It can also be up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht speakers who lives in Dublin. Two Irish language radio station Raidió Na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta have studios in the city, and on the web and DAB station Raidió ri-Ra broadcasts from studios in the city. Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least one hour of Irish programming per week. Many Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language courses, has a bookstore and is a regular meeting place for various groups. The nearest Gaeltacht to Dublin County Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 kilometers (34 mi) away.

Twin cities

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Dublin is twinned with the following places: [32] [101]

City Nation Since
San Jose United States [102] 1986
liverpool United Kingdom [103] 1986
Barcelona Spain [104] [105] 1998
Peking China [106] [107] 2011
Emmetsburg, Iowa United States 1961

The city is also in talks to Twin with Rio de Janeiro, [108] and the Mexican city of Guadalajara. [109]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • dublin English
  • List of people from Dublin
  • List of subdivisions of County Dublin


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