The Wicklow Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Chill Mhantain ,  archaic: Cualu) is the largest continuous upland area in Ireland. They occupy the entire center of Wicklow and stretch beyond its borders in County Dublin, Wexford and Carlow. Where the mountains extend into Dublin, locally known as the Dublin Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Bhaile Átha Cliath .)  The highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 meters (3,035 feet).
Area consists essentially of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. They have driven up during the Caledonian orogeny in the early Devonian period and are part of Leinster chain, the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK. Bergen owe a large part of its current topography of the effects of the last ice age, which deepened Dalarna and created Corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century.
Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle, Slaney and Avoca rivers. Powerscourt is the highest in Ireland at 121 meters (397 feet). A number of these rivers have been used to create reservoirs for drinking water for Dublin and its surroundings.
Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters. The dominant habitat highlands consist of blanket bog, moor and mountain grasslands. Highlands support a number of bird species, including the merlin and the peregrine falcon. Dalarna is a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests.
The mountains have been inhabited since Neolithic times and a number of ancient monuments, including a series of passage tombs, survive to the present. The monastery at Glendalough, founded in the late sixth century by Saint Kevin, was an important center of the early church in Ireland. After the Norman invasion in the 12th century, the Wicklow Mountains became a stronghold and hideout for Irish clans opposed to English rule. The O’Byrne and the O’Toole family conducted a campaign of harassment against the settlers for nearly five centuries. Later mountains harbored rebels during 1798 Rising. Rebel activity died out after the construction of the Wicklow Military Road in the early 19th century and the mountains began to attract tourists to the ruins at Glendalough and admire the mountain scenery.
Wicklow Mountains continues to be a major attraction for tourism and recreation. The whole mountain area is designated as a special area of conservation and special protection under EU law. The Wicklow Mountains National Park was established in 1991 to preserve local biodiversity and landscape.
Wicklow Mountains takes its name from County Wicklow, which in turn takes its name from Wicklow town. The origin of the name comes from Danish Wykynglo or Wykinlo .  The Irish name for Wicklow, Cill Mhantáinmeans “church Mantan”, named after the apostle Saint Patrick.  Wicklow was not established as a county until 1606; before that it had been part of County Dublin.  An early name for the entire area of the Wicklow Mountains were Cualu .  There are also historical names for different areas in the mountains held by local clans: the north of Wicklow and south Dublin was known as Cualann while Glen of Imaal gets its name from the area of Hy Mail .  September 1 in the O’Byrne family called Gaval Rannall obsessed area around Glenmalure, known as Gaval-Rannall or Ranelagh .  in the Middle Ages, before the establishment of County Wicklow, the English administration in Dublin referred to the region Leinster mountains. 
Main article: mountains Wicklow Mountains
Wicklow Mountains is the largest area of continuous high ground in Ireland, which has an unbroken area of over 500 km 2 (190 sq mi) of 300 meters (1000 feet).  They occupy the middle of Wicklowoch extends into County Dublin , Carlow and Wexford.  the general direction of mountain ranges is from northeast to southwest.  the formation of several different groups, namely Kippure in the north, on the border of Dublin and Wicklow, Djouce, Tonelagee, Camaderry and Lugnaquilla center , the church and the Keadeen Mountain in the west; and Croghan Kinsella in the south.  In the east, separated from the rest of the range of Vartry plateau, is the group that includes the Great Sugar Loaf, Little Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. 
Lugnaquilla is the highest peak in the Wicklow Mountains at 925 meters (3,035 feet) and the 13th highest in Ireland.  It is also the highest peak in the Leinster and is the only Irish Munrohittas outside Munster.  Kippure is on 757 meters (2,484 feet).  There are a total of 39 peaks over 600 meters (2000 feet) in the Wicklow mountains.  There are only three passes through the mountains within 600 meters (2,000 feet) with Sally Gap (498 meters ( 1,634 feet)) and the Wicklow Gap (478 meters (1,567 ft)) is the highest road pass in the country. 
See also: Geology Ireland
The pointed mica – slate top of Djouce (left) contrasts with the rounded granite peak of War Hill (right)
Wicklow Mountains mainly consists of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. The oldest rocks are quartzites Bray group include Bray Head and Little Sugar Loaf Mountain and the Great Sugar Loaf mountain.  These transformed from sandstone deposited in the deep waters of the ancient Iapetus Ocean during kambriumperioden (542-488 million years ago).  layers of sediment continued to produce shale and shale along the seabed mixed with volcanic rock pushed up to the Iapetus began to shrink with the process of subduction during the Ordovician period (488-443 million years ago).  These stones behind now uplifted peneplain of Vartry plateau between Bray group and subject area.
Iapetus closed up completely at the end of the Silurian period (443-415 million years ago) and the Wicklow Mountains were lifted during the main phase of the Caledonian orogeny at the beginning of the Devonian period (415-358 million years ago), when the continents Baltica and Laurentia collided. [ 18] the collision pushed up a large Batholith granite, known as the Leinster Chain: this is the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK, and runs from the coast of Dun Laoghaire in Dublin to New Ross County Wexford and include Wicklow ochBlackstairs Mountains. [19 ]  the heat generated by the collision turned slates and slate surround granite schists that formed a halo (shell) around the granite.  the process averosion has removed much of the surrounding slate from the mountain tops, exposing the underlying granite.  some remains of the slate roof at some of the mountain peaks, notablyLugnaquilla.  the circular granite topped peaks contrast with sharper slate peaks: eg War Hill (granite) and Djouce. (slate) 
The last major geological event to shape the Wicklow Mountains was Quaternary glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago).  The ice deepened and formed Dalarna in the U-shape that characterizes Wicklow Glens, such as Glendalough and Glenmacnass. [ 25]when the ice melted, the small glaciers left in Corrie which till now Dam lakes of Lough Bray and Nahanagan.  Corrie, but lakes also occur, such as the North jail and southern prison Lugnaquilla.  Escaping meltwater cut narrow rocky gorges on several sites, including Glen of the Downs, the devil’s Glen and scalp.  Ribbon lakes, such as Lough Dan and Glendalough lakes, formed as well. 
Mining and quarrying
The zone of collision between continental plates that led to the formation of the Wicklow Mountains also led to mineralization and the formation of Ireland’s most important metal belt.  The most important mines have been on the Avoca and Glendalough. Mining has taken place in Avoca since at least the Bronze Age (c. 2.500 to 600 BCE).  Iron ore extraction took place between the 12th and 17th centuries before being replaced by lead mining until the mid-18th century.  the main activity from 1720 to the closure of the last mine in 1982 was copper mining.  sulfur is also taken at certain times and in small quantities, gold, silver and zinc.  Lead Mining has been the main activity in Glendalough valley and its Glendasan neighboring valleys and Glenmalure. Lead was first discovered in Glendasan in the early 19th century and lead veins later followed by Camaderry mountain to Glendalough.  Mining smaller scale took place in Glenmalure.  Ore from these mines was shipped to Bally Corus for processing.  the last mine closed in 1957. 
In 1795 discovered a local schoolteacher gold in Aughatinavought River, a tributary of the River Aughrim then renamed Gold Mines River which rises on the slopes of Croghan Kinsella mountain.  In the ensuing gold rush, around 80 kg (180 pounds) of gold was recovered from the river local gold miners, including a single blob that weighs 682 grams (24.1 ounces), the largest gold nugget ever discovered in Ireland and the UK.  mine tunnels then were arrested by the British government extracted an additional 300 kg (660 pounds) of gold .  Various attempts have been made to locate motherlode on Croghan Kinsella but in vain. 
Granite from the Wicklow Mountains has been used as a material for many buildings in Wicklow and Dublin and beyond. Quarries on Ballyknockan has provided material for buildings such as the Bank of Ireland at College Green in Dublin, Dun Laoghaire Lighthouse and Liverpool Cathedral.  Similarly, quarries at Glencullen available stone for buildings to GPO påO’Connell Street and the Industry and Commerce building on Kildare Street in Dublin. Barnacullia, on the slopes of Three Rock Mountain, delivered cobblestones to Dublin Corporation.  the quarry at Dalkey supplied granite for Dun Laoghaire Harbour and the Thames embankment. 
See also: Rivers of Ireland
Wicklow Mountains are the source of several major river systems. Because the thin blanket bog peat can not keep large amounts of water, many of these rivers has a flashy hydrography, fills quickly after heavy rain. 
The River Liffey rises between the mountains of Kippure and Tonduff the Liffey Head Bog.  One of the major tributaries of the Liffey, the River Dodder rises near the slopes of Kippure.  The King River rises Mullaghcleevaun and connects Liffey near Blessington. 
The River Vartry rises on the slopes of Djouce mountain.  In the vicinity of the River Dargle rises between Tonduff and War Hill, falls as Powerscourt, Ireland’s highest waterfall at 121 meters (397 feet),  over a cliff formed by a glacier at the point of contact between the granite and mica schist of the Wicklow Mountains.  the waterfalls at the heads Dalarna Glendalough, Glenmacnass and Glendasan occurs at about the slate-granite crosses, which consider Carrawaystick waterfall in Glenmalure. 
The River Slaney rises in northern prison of Lugnaquilla mountains and winds through Glen of Imaal was joined by Leoh, Knickeen and Little Slaney. Another of its tributaries, the river Derreen, rising on Lugnaquilla south side. 
Each of the main branches of the River Avoca – the Avonmore, the Avonbeg and Aughrim rivers – has its origin in the smaller tributaries, many of which rises in the Wicklow Mountains.  The Glenealo, Glendasan and Annamoe rivers meet to form Avonmore near Laragh.  the Annamoe rises near the Sally Gap and is joined by Cloghoge Brook between Lough Tay and Lough Dan and the river Inchavore Lough Dan.  the Avonbeg rise påTaffelberget and the three lakes.  Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers join to form the river Avoca at the meeting of the waters of the Vale of Avoca, celebrated in songthe meeting ~~ POS = HEAD COMP waters by Thomas Moore.  the Avoca joined by the river Aughrim on Wooden, sometimes called “the second meeting of the waters” .  the Aughrim formed at the junction between the Derry river water and Ow, of which the latter rises Lugnaquilla. 
See also: Water supply and sanitation in Ireland
Several of these rivers have been dammed to create reservoirs that provide drinking water for the residents of Dublin and its surroundings. The first of these was the river Vartry, dammed to create Vartry Reservoir near Roundwood in the 1860s.  A second pond was added in 1924 to increase capacity.  The River Dodder feed the two Bohernabreena reservoirs in the northern foothills of the Wicklow Mountains on Glenasmole in Dublin, which was built between 1883 and 1887 to supply water to the townland of Rathmines.  the Poulaphouca Reservoir, the river Liffey near Blessington, was constructed between 1938 and 1940.  There are also two hydroelectric plants in Poulaphouca, built in the 1940s.  a pump hydro plant was constructed at Turlough Hill between 1968 and 1974.  the water pumped from Lough Nanahangan, a natural corrie lake, in an artificial reservoir on Tomaneena mountains and released at the top the demand for electricity.  
See also: Climate of Ireland
Like the rest of Ireland, the Wicklow Mountains to experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters.  The annual rainfall reaches 2,000 mm (79 inches) on the highest mountains with more western peaks get the most rainfall (for .g. Djouce mountains, to the east, the c. 1630 mm (64 inches), while Duff Hill, in the West, the c. 1950 mm (77 inches) per year).  June and July are generally the driest months and there is an average of four hours of sunshine per day throughout the year. the snow cover in winter can reach an average of 50 days per year on the highest peaks.  Strong winds are a major factor in peat erosion summits. [ 58]
See also: Flora and fauna of Ireland in Ireland
The primary habitat of the highlands consists of heath and bog. The mountain blanket bogs formed about 4,000 years ago as a result of a combination of climate change and human activity.  Prior to this, the mountains were shrouded with pine trees.  A change in the climate is wetter and milder weather left the ground waterlogged and leached nutrients from ground, leading to the formation of peat.  Mountain blanket bog found in areas above 200 meters (660 feet) in height, and where there are more than 175 days of rain per year.  the most important builders of peat is the Sphagnum sphagnum.  Carnivorous plants such as sundew and butterworts specific to bogs and bog asphodel and bog cotton are also common.  Shoulders water is essential for reproduction of flies and damselflies and Wicklow mountain bogs also supports insects dust skater whirligig beetles, water sailors and midges as well as the common frog and seaweed lizard.  wading birds snipes, curlews and golden plovers feed in the wet marshland. 
Because of the drainage of water from bogs as a result of human activity, most of the Wicklow peat has dried out too much for Sphagnum mosses grow and heaths and hedvegetation has taken over.  Active peat building still exists in some places, most notably Liffey Head Bog.  common heather (or whiting) and bell heather is the most common moorland plants along with blueberries (or fraughan, as it is called in Ireland), bog cotton, deergrass and purple moor grass.  species found Wicklow heaths include red grouse, meadow pipit and skylark.  the birds of prey found in the highlands include kestrels, hen harriers, merlins and peregrine falcons. the latter of which are protected species.  the highlands used for sheep grazing and so moors periodically burned to keep the growth of heather in check and promote the growth of grass. 
Feral goat valley in Glenealo
Red deer, once at home in Wicklow but hunted to extinction, reintroduced on Powerscourt in the 18th century.  Japanese sika deer were also imported by Powerscourt and harkorsades with red deer.  All the deer were found in the Wicklow Mountains originates from Power’s crew and either sika deer or hybrid red sika deer.  Other mammals present include wild goats, mountain hares, badgers, stoats, otters, red squirrels, gray squirrels and bats. the Irish Elk is an extinct species of deer that lived Wicklow mountains c. 11,000 years ago, is still to be discovered in large quantities in Ballybetagh Bog near Glencullen.  Wolves was also once home in the mountains but were hunted to extinction in Ireland: the last wolf in Wicklow was killed at Glendalough 1710. 
Widespread clearance of forests began in the Bronze Age and continued until the early 20th century.  Afforestation programs began in the 1920s and accelerated in the 1950s with the widespread planting of coniferous forests, particularly in mountain moorland areas previously considered unsuitable for planting.  the dominant tree is the Sitka spruce and 58% of forest plantations,  with lodgepole pine, spruce, pine, larch and douglas fir also planted.  biodiversity is low in conifer plantations because they are not native tree species.  Broadleaf crops are rare, accounting for less than 10% of the forest. 
The young rivers in the upper valleys are spawning grounds for salmon and trout.  char, isolated in Wicklow lakes after the end of the last ice age, have been recorded at Lough Dan and lakes of Glendalough but are now believed extinct. [ 80] a program to reintroduce them in Upper Lake in Glendalough began in 2009. 
See also: History of Ireland
The Neolithic passage grave on top of Seefin Mountain
The earliest traces of human activity in the interior of the Wicklow goes to about 4300 f.Kr ..  Passage graves from the Neolithic period, is the earliest and most prominent feature of Irish prehistoric civilization in the Wicklow Mountains.  These graves sit on many of the western and northern summits Saggart in Dublin and Baltinglass Wicklow, such vidSeefin and Seefingan.  the archaeologist Geraldine Stout has suggested that they had a territorial marking function, much like today’s border crossings.  other prehistoric monuments found in the highlands include stone circles, standing stones and rock art.  the existence of standing stones at elevations suggests that they may have earned route marking purposes. the largest complex of ancient castles in Ireland is to be found in the hills near Baltinglass. 
The earliest known tribes that have controlled the Wicklow Mountains include Dál Messin Corb, the Uí Mail UI Theig and UI Briúin.  A member of Dál Messin Corb was Saint Kevin, who founded the monastery in Glendalough in the latter part of the 6th century .  Kevin traveled to Glendalough from Hollywood, crosses the mountains through the Wicklow Gap.  in the 8th century, Glendalough had grown into a substantial settlement of 500-1000 people and an important place of learning and pilgrimage.  monasteries often attacked, especially in times of illness or starvation, and Glendalough wealth made it a common target for both local tribes and later the Scandinavian invaders.  monastery declined in importance after the arrival of the Normans in the 12th century and its subsequent annexation to the archdiocese Dublin.  it was burned by the English in 1398, although the settlement continued until the end of the 16th century.  there are also important early Irish church sites in Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains on Rathmichael and Tully. 
1170, during the Norman invasion of Ireland, Strongbow and Dermot MacMurrough successfully besieged Dublin by following a high road through the Wicklow Mountains, prevent defense along the normal route west of the mountains.  The Norman invasion offset two important Gaelic clans of Kildare, the O ‘Byrne and O’Toole, who moved into the Wicklow mountains, the O’Byrnes O’Toole in the east and the west.  from their strongholds both families carried out a sustained campaign of harassment against the invaders and the Wicklow mountains became known as terra guerre ( “land of war”), in contrast to the terra Pacis ( “land for peace”) of the settled lowlands. 
Valley Glenmalure gave an almost unassailable refuge for clans and English forces suffered heavy losses there, first in 1274 and again in 1580 in the Battle of Glenmalure.   The latter defeat was at the hands of Fiach McHugh O ‘Byrne, who led that many attacks against the English and helped in escapes many of the hostages held by the English to ensure the loyalty of the Irish clans.  such hostages were Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had run away from Dublin Castle at night January 6, 1592 in the company of art O’Neill.  the two men crossed the mountains in blizzard conditions, leading to Fiach McHugh O’Byrne foothold in Glenmalure.  Art O’Neill died of exposure during the trip and Red Hugh had several toes amputated because of frostbite.  a cross and a plaque north of Conavalla mountains mark the place where art O’Neill was killed and an annual walk is now held by the two men’s footsteps.  the O’Byrnes “and O’Toole’s dominance came finally to an end with the succession of 1652 when their land was confiscated by the English Commonwealth. 
Glendalough Valley, showing the monastery town, Lower Lake and Upper Lake
A longer period of peace reigned in the Wicklow Mountains from the end of the Cromwellian period up to the 1798 Rising.  Although the main rebellion quickly defeated, Irish rebels again used the Wicklow Mountains as a hiding place and stronghold of attacking the English for many years afterwards. [ 105] Among their numbers, Michael Dwyer, was born in the Wicklow Mountains, born in townlandav Camara Glen of Imaal, and General Joseph Holt.  Both men eventually surrendered and was transported to Australia.  determined to prevent any future insurgent activity, a military road through the mountains, similar to those built in the Scottish highlands to curb the jakobitupproren, was proposed by the British government for troops to be deployed rapidly in the region.  the Wicklow military road was built between 1800 and 1809, runs from Rathfarnham, Dublin to Aghavannagh, County Wicklow through Glencree, Sally Gap and Laragh. a series of military camps and police stations were built along the route, even if they were little used and soon fell into disrepair as the Wicklow Mountains soon ceased to be a center of insurgent activity after the road was completed. 
The census in 1841 recorded a population of 13,000 in Wicklow uplands of 126.143 people in the county as a whole.  After the Great Famine, the census in 1891 showed that the population of the county Wicklow had decreased to 62,136 by the proportional fall in the inland regions even greater as the population fate margin countries. 
The construction of the railway in the 19th century led to the development of tourism in the Wicklow Mountains.  visitors were taken by horse carriage in the mountains from the railway station in Rathdrum. Glendalough established itself quickly as the most popular tourist destination and a train that was considered in 1897 but the proposals came to nothing.  tourism ~~ POS = TRUNC potential Military road was seen shortly after its completion and GN Wright Tours in Ireland (1822) is one of the earliest guides to the sights along the way. 
See also: Wicklow Mountains National Park
The main agricultural activity in the inland sheep graze, mainly uses Wicklow Cheviot breed.  Mark also used for forestry and peat cutting. Tourism and recreation are also important activities in the hinterland.Glendalough is still the most popular destination, receiving about one million visitors each year.  Leisure Activities in the mountains include walking, mountaineering, winter climbing, fishing and cycling.  Hill walking in the Wicklow Mountains first popularized by JB Malone through a weekly column he wrote in the Evening Herald newspaper.  Malone later instrumental in the creation of the Wicklow Way, Ireland’s first National marked trail, which opened in 1980 and crosses the Wicklow Mountains. the Wicklow Way has been joined by the Dublin Mountains Way and St. Kevin’s Way pilgrim road, both of which also pass through parts of the mountains.  
At the foot of concern pollution and unwanted development of the Wicklow Uplands, the government announced the creation of the Wicklow Mountains National Park in 1990 to preserve the area’s biodiversity and landscape. The park was officially established in 1991 and now covers an area of over 20,000 hectares (200 square kilometers , 77 square miles).  In addition, the Wicklow Mountains (including areas outside the National Park) is classified as a special area of conservation under the EU Habitats Directive and as a special protection area under the EU birds Directive. 
Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains is managed by the Dublin Mountains Partnership (DMP), a group formed in May 2008 in order to enhance the recreational experience of users of the Dublin Mountains.  Its members include representatives of government agencies, local authorities and recreational users. [124 ] DMP has restored trails and developed hiking trails, orienteering courses and a mountain bike course. 
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- Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 9.
- ^ Jump up to: ab “About Dublin Mountains Partnership”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Jump up ^ “activities”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.