Derry (/ d ɛ r ɪ /  ), officially Londonderry (/ l ʌ nd ə n ˌ d ɛ r ɪ /  ), is the second largest city in Northern Ireland   and the fourth largest town on the island of Ireland.  the name Derry is a Anglicisation of the Irish nameDaire or Doire meaning ‘Oak Grove’.   in 1613, the town was granted a royal charter from king James and got “London” prefix to reflect the financing of the construction of the London guilds. While the city is usually known colloquially as Derry,   Londonderry is also common, and remains the legal name.
The old walled town lies on the western bank of the River Foyle, which is spanned by two bridges and a causeway. The city now covers both banks (Cityside to the west and Waterside to the east). The population of the city was 83,652 at the 2001 census, while Derry Urban Area had a population of 90,736.  The area is managed by Derry City and Strabane contains both Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport.
Derry is near the border with County Donegal, with which it has had a close connection to many centuries. The person traditionally regarded as the founder of the original Derry is Saint Colmcille, a holy man from Tír Chonaill, the old name for almost all modern County Donegal, including the west bank of the Foyle was a part before 1610. 
In 2013 it was Derry inaugural UK City culture, has been awarded the title in 2010.  
Main article: Derry / Londonderry name dispute
Road signs in Ireland (County Donegal shown) use Derry and Irish Doire
According to the city’s Royal Charter of 10 April 1662, is the official name “Londonderry”. This was confirmed in a High Court decision in 2007 when Derry City Council sought guidance on how to accomplish a name change.  The Council had changed its name from “Londonderry City Council” to “Derry City Council” in 1984,  legal cases searched asking whether this had also changed the name of the city. The decision of the court was that it was not but it was made clear that the correct procedure to do that was through a petition to the Privy Council.  Derry City Council then started this process and were involved in implementing the report on equality impact assessment (EQIA). [18 ] , first held a poll of district residents in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics and 77% of nationalists found the amendment acceptable, compared with 6% of Protestants and 8% of the unionists.  as was EQIA two consultative forum, and ordered public comment on whether the city should have its name changed to Derry.  a total of 12.136 comments were received, of which 3108 were broadly in favor of the proposal, and 9028, in contrast to it.  July 23 in 2015, the Council voted in favor of a motion to change the official name of the city of Derry and write to Mark H Durkan, Northern Ireland Environment Minister, to ask how the change would take place. 
Despite the official name, the city is more commonly called “Derry”,  which is a Anglicisation of the Irish Daire or Doire , and can be translated as “oak -grove / oak-wood”. The name comes from the settlement’s earliest references Daire Calgaich ( “oak-grove Calgach”).  The name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the City of London guilds.  
The name “Derry” preferred by nationalists and it is broadly used throughout Northern Ireland Catholic community,  , as well as that of Ireland, while many members prefer the “Londonderry”,  but in everyday conversation Derry is used by most Protestant residents of the city.  Linguist Kevin McCafferty asserts that “it is not, strictly speaking, the right to Northern Ireland Catholics call it Derry, while Protestants uses Londonderry form, although this pattern has become increasingly common locally since the mid-1980s when the council changed its name by dropping the prefix “. In McCafferty survey of language use in the city, “only a few interview all Protestants use the official form”. 
Aside from the name of Derry City Council, the city is usually  called Londonderry in official use in the UK. In Ireland, the city and county are almost always called Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation.  In April 2009, however, the Republic of Ireland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, Micheál Martin announced that Irish passports born it can record either Derry or Londonderry as their birthplace.  reasons, official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those in Northern Ireland to bear Londonderry (sometimes abbreviated to “L’Derry”), although some of them have been wiped out by reference to the London obscured.  usage varies between local organizations, with both names are used. Examples are the City of Derry Airport, City of Derry Rugby Club, Derry City FC and the Protestant Apprentice Boys of Derry, in contrast to Londonderry Port, Londonderry YMCA Rugby Club and the Londonderry Chamber of Commerce.  Most companies in the city of selecting local the name of the area as Penny Burn, Rosemount or “Foyle” from the river Foyle to avoid alienating the second society. Londonderry railway station is often called the Waterside railway station in the city but called Derry / Londonderry at other stations. The Council changed the name of the local government district covering the city of Derry 7 May 1984 therefore baptized Derry City Council. This does not change the name of the city, but the city is coincident with the area, and by law the city council is also “Corporation of Londonderry” or more formally, the “Mayor, Aldermen and the citizens of the city of Londonderry”.  form “Londonderry” used for mail city of Royal mail,  but the use of Derry will still ensure delivery.
The city is also nicknamed the Maiden city due to its walls never broken despite besieged on three different occasions in the 17th century, the most notable is the siege of Derry in 1688-1689.  It is also nicknamed Stroke town through local programs Gerry Anderson, because of the “politically correct” use of the oblique notation Derry / Londonderry  (which term itself has been used by BBC Television  ). A new addition to the landscape has been the construction of several large stone pillars on the main roads into the city welcoming drivers, euphemistically that “the walled city”.
The name Derry is very popular in use throughout Ireland for the naming of places, and there are at least six cities that bears this name and at least a further 79 seats. The word Derry are usually part of the city name, such Derrybeg, Derryboy, Derrylea and Derrymore.
The names Derry and Derry are not limited to Ireland. There is a town called Derry is located right next to another town called Londonderry in New Hampshire in the United States. There are also Londonderrys in Yorkshire, England, iVermont, United States, Nova Scotia, Canada and in the northern and eastern Australia. Londonderry Island is located off Tierra del Fuego in Chile.
Derry is also a fictional town in Maine, USA, which is used in some Stephen King novels. 
Derry is the only remaining fully intact walled city in Ireland and one of the finest examples of a walled city in Europe.    The walls form the largest monuments in state care in Northern Ireland and, as the last walled city will be built in Europe, stands as the most complete and spectacular. 
The walls were built 1613-1619 by The Honourable The Irish Society in defense of the early 17th century settlers from England and Scotland. The walls, which are about 1 mil (1.6 kilometers) in circumference and varying in height and width between 3.7 and 10.7 meters (12 and 35 feet), is completely intact and form a walkway around the inner city. They provide a unique walk to show the layout of the original town which still preserves its Renaissance-style town plan. The four original gates to the walled city’s Bishopsgate, Ferryquay Gate, Butcher Gate and Shipquay Gate. Another three gates were added later, Magazine Gate, Castle Gate and New Gate, which makes a total of seven gates. Historic buildings within the walls include a 1633 Gothic cathedral of St Columb, The Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall and courthouse.
It is one of the few cities in Europe that never saw its fortifications breached, withstanding several sieges including one in 1689 that lasted 105 days, hence the city’s nickname, The Maiden City. 
Main article: History of Derry
Derry is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Ireland.  The earliest historical references date to the 6th century when a monastery was founded there by St. Columba or Colmcille, a famous saint from what is now County Donegal, but for thousands of years before that people had lived nearby.
Before leaving Ireland to spread Christianity elsewhere, Colmcille founded a monastery in Derry (then called Doire Calgach ), on the west bank of the Foyle. According to oral and recorded history, the site was granted Colmcille by a local king.  The monastery then remained in the hands of the federation of Columban churches who regarded Colmcille as their spiritual mentor. Year 546 is often referred to as the date of the original settlement was founded. However, it is now accepted by historians that this was an incorrect date assigned by medieval chroniclers.  It is agreed to between the 6th century and 11th century, was Derry known primarily as a monastic settlement. 
The town became strategically important during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and came under frequent attack. During O’Doherty rebellion in 1608 it was attacked by Sir Cahir O’Doherty, Irish hövdingInishowen, which burned a large part of the town and killed the governor George Paulet.  The soldier and statesman Sir Henry Docwra made vigorous efforts to develop the city, earning the reputation as “the founder of Derry”; but he was accused of not preventing O’Doherty attack, and returned to England.
What was the city of Derry was part of the relatively new County Donegal until 1610.  That year, the west bank of the future city were conducted by the English crown to the Honourable The Irish Society  and combined with County Coleraine, part of County Antrim and a large part of County Tyrone forming County Londonderry. Planters organized by London livery companies through The Honourable The Irish Society arrived in the 17th century as part of the Plantation of Ulster, and rebuilt the city with high walls to defend it from the Irish rebels who opposed the plantation. The aim was to solve the Ulster with a population supports the crown.  It was then that the name “Londonderry”.
This city was the first planned city in Ireland: it began in 1613, with walls, completed in 1619, at a cost of £ 10,757.  The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defense. The grid will subsequently much copied colonies of British North America. The Charter initially defined the city that extends treirländska miles (about 6.1 km) from the center.
The modern city preserves the 17th century layout of four main streets radiating from a central diamond to four gateways – Bishopsgate, Ferryquay Gate, Shipquay Gate and Butcher’s Gate. The oldest preserved building was also constructed at this time: 1633 Plantation Gothic Cathedral St Columb.On the porch of the cathedral is a stone that records completed with the inscription: “. If stones could Speake, then London prayse to be heard, who built this church and Cittie from grounde ” 
During the 1640s, the city suffered in the wars of the Three Kingdoms, which began with the Irish rebellion in 1641, when the Gaelic Irish insurgents made an unsuccessful attack on the city. In 1649 the city and its crew, who supported the Republican Parliament in London, besieged by Scottish Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I. Parliamentarians besieged Derry was relieved of a strange alliance of Roundhead troops under George Monck and the Irish Catholic General Owen Roe O’Neill. These temporary allies soon fight each other again, but after landing in Ireland in the New Model Army in 1649. The war in Ulster finally end when parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic Ulster army at the Battle of Scarrifholis, close to Letterkenny in County Donegal near the 1650th
During the Glorious Revolution, only Derry and nearby Enniskillen had a Protestant garrison in November 1688. An army of about 1,200 men, mostly “redshank ” (Highlanders), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, slowly organized (those listed on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry began. In April 1689 James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The king was rebuffed and the siege lasted until the end of July with the arrival of a relief vessel.
18th and 19th centuries
The town was built in the 18th century with many of its fine Georgian style houses still survive. The city’s first bridge across the River Foyle was built in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants setting out for North America. Some of these colonies founded by Derry and Londonderry in the state of New Hampshire.
Even during the 19th century, it became a destination for migrants fleeing areas harder hit by the Irish potato famine.   One of the most notable lines were McCorkell course run by Wm. McCorkell & Co. Ltd. from 1778. The McCorkell most famous ship was Minnehaha, who was known as the “Green Yacht from Derry”. 
The beginning of the 20th century
World War I
The city contributed over 5,000 men in the British Army from the Catholic and Protestant families.
During the Irish War of Independence, the area was rocked by sectarian violence, partly prompted by the guerrilla war raging between the Irish Republican Army and British forces, but also affected by the economic and social pressures. In mid-1920 there were severe sectarian riots in the city.   Many lives were lost and in addition many Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during this common concern. After a week of violence, a truce negotiated by local politicians on both the union and republican sides.
In 1921, after the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish division, became unexpectedly a “border town”, separated from a large part of their traditional economic hinterland in County Donegal.
During World War II, the city played an important role in the Battle of the Atlantic.  Ships of the Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and other allied navies were stationed in the city and the United States established a military base. Over 20,000 Royal Navy, 10000 Royal Canadian Navy, and 6,000 US Navy personnel stationed in the city during the war.  The establishment of the US presence in the city was the result of a secret agreement between the Americans and the British before the Americans entered the war.   it was the first US naval base in Europe and the terminal for US convoys on their way to Europe.
The reason for such a high degree of military and naval activity was self-evident: Derry was Britain’s westernmost port; In fact, the city was the westernmost Allied port in Europe thus Derry was a key jumping-off, along with Glasgow and Liverpool, for freight convoys that ran between Europe and North America. The large number of military personnel in Derry significantly changed the character of the city, which in some off color to the local area, as well as some cosmopolitan and financial buoyancy in these years. Several airports were built in outlying areas of the city at this time, Maydown, Eglinton and Ballykelly. RAF Eglinton went on to become City of Derry Airport.
The city contributed large numbers of men to the war effort during the services, especially the 500 men in the 9th (Londonderry) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, called “Derry Boys”. This regiment served in North Africa, Sudan, Italy and mainland Britain. Many others served in the merchant participates in convoys that supplied Britain and Russia during the war.
The border location in the city, and the influx of trade from the military convoys allowed for significant trafficking to develop in the city.
At the end of World War II, eventually some 60 submarines of the German Kriegsmarine ended in the city’s port at Lisahally after their surrender. The original rendition attended Admiral Sir Max Horton, Commander-in-Chief of the Western Approaches, and Sir Basil Brooke, the third Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. 
The end of the 20th century
1950s and 1960s
The city languished after World War II, with unemployment and stagnating development. A major campaign led by the University Committee for Derry, Northern Ireland other universities in the city, ended in failure.
Civil Rights Movement
Derry was a focal point for the emerging civil rights movement in Northern Ireland.
Bogside area, seen from the walls
Catholics discriminated against under Unionist government in Northern Ireland, both politically and economically.     In the late 1960s, the city became a flashpoint of conflicts of institutional gerrymandering.Political scientist John Whyte explains that:
All allegations of gerrymandering, virtually all complaints on housing and regional policy, and a disproportionate share of the fees for public and private employment comes from this area. The area – which consisted of counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, Londonderry County Borough, and parts of County Londonderry and Armagh – had less than a quarter of the total population in Northern Ireland generated yet not nearly three quarters of the complaints of discrimination. ..The Union government must bear its share of responsibility. It puts through the original gerrymander supported so many of the subsequent irregularities, and then, despite repeated protests did nothing to stop these irregularities continue. The most serious accusation against Northern Ireland government that it was not directly responsible for the widespread discrimination, but that it allowed discrimination on such a scale over a substantial part of Northern Ireland. 
A civil rights demonstration in 1968 led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was banned by the government and blocking the use of force by the Royal Ulster Constabulary.  The events that followed the August 1969 Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the Bogside, when Catholic rioters battled police, leading to widespread civil disorder in Northern Ireland and is often the starting point as föroroligheterna.
On Sunday, January 30, 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the Bogside area. Another 13 were wounded and another person died later of his injuries. This event became known as Bloody Sunday.
Main article: Troubles in Derry
“Free Derry Corner” in the corner of the Lecky Road and Fahan Street in the Bogside. The slogan was first painted in January 1969 by John Casey.
The conflict that became known as the Troubles generally considered to have started in Derry with the Battle of the Bogside. The civil rights movement had also been very active in the city. In the early 1970s, the city was heavily militarized, and there was widespread unrest. Several districts of the city constructed barricades to control access and prevent government forces from entering.
Violence eased towards the end of the unrest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney argues in “The Secret History of the IRA” that Republican leaders which negotiated a de facto ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not, made the city look less bloodshed at this time than Belfast or other resorts.
The city was visited by a killer whale in November 1977 at the height of the troubles; it was dubbed Dopey Dick thousands who came from miles around to see him. 
The local council is the Derry City Council, which consists of five electoral areas: Cityside, Northland, Rural, Shantallow and the Waterside. Council 30 members are re-elected every four years. Starting with the 2011 election, 14socialdemokratiska and Labour Party (SDLP) members, ten Sinn Féin, five Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) represent the Council. [ Need to update ] mayor and deputy mayor are elected annually by council .
The municipality limits correspond to the Foyle constituency of the UK Parliament and the Foyle constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. In the European Parliament elections is part of the Northern Ireland constituency.
Arms and motto
The units on the city’s coat is a skeleton and a three-towered castle on a black field, with the boss or the top third of the screen showing the arms of the City of London: a red cross and sword on white. In the middle of the cross is a gold harp. The blazon of the arms are as follows:
Sobel, a human skeleton or sitting on a mossy stone properly and in dexter chief a castle triple-towered argent on a chief argent a cross gules also then a harp or, and in the first quarter a sword erect gules 
According to documents in the College of Arms in London and the Chief Herald of Ireland in Dublin, where the arms of the city was confirmed in 1613 by Daniel Molyneux, Ulster King of Arms.  The College of Arms document states that the original arms of the city of Derry where you picture of death (or skeleton) of a Moissy stone and sea Dexter pointing a castle and that the granting of a charter of incorporation and change the name of the city as Londonderry this year’s first mayor had requested that a “chief of London”.  [ 69]
Theories have been put forward to the meaning of “old” arms Derry, before adding the head bears the arms of the City of London:
- A proposal has been made to the castle is related to an early 14-century castle near Green belongs to the Anglo-Norman Earl of Ulster Richard de Burgh. 
- The most popular theory of the skeleton is that it’s like a Norman De Burgh knight who was starved to death in the castle dungeons in 1332 on the orders of her cousin above the Earl of Ulster.  Another explanation put forward was that it depicted Cahir O’Doherty (Sir Charles O’Dogherty), who was killed by Derry invested by the English army in 1608 during the days avGerrymandering and discrimination against the Catholic population in Derry, Derry Roman Catholics often used to claim the dark wit that the skeleton was a local waiting for help from the Council bureaucracy. 
1979 Londonderry City Council, as it was then called, commissioned a report into the city’s arms and insignia, as part of the design process for a heraldic emblem. The published report found that there was no basis for any of the popular explanations for the skeleton and that it was “purely symbolic and does not refer to any identifiable person”. 
The 1613 register of arms depicted a harp in the middle of the cross, but was omitted from later depictions of the city arms, and in the patent confirming arms to Londonderry Corporation in 1952.  In 2002, Derry City Council applied to the College of Arms to have the harp restored to the city arms and garters and Norroy & Ulster Kings of Arms accepted the 17th century certificate issuing letters patent in force in 2003. 
The motto attached to the coat of arms reads in Latin, “Vita Veritas, Victoria.” This translates to English as “Life, Truth Victory”. 
Council elected in 2014 to the city are:
Derry is characterized by its distinctive hilly topography.  The River Foyle forms a deep valley that runs through town, making Londonderry a place of very steep streets and sudden, startling views. The original walled city of Londonderry lies on a hill on the western banks of the River Foyle. In the past, branched river and closed this wooded hill as an island; over the centuries, but the western branch of the river dried up and became a low-lying and marshy district, which is now called the Bogside. 
Today extends contemporary Derry far north and west of the city walls and east of the river. Half of the city west of the Foyle called Cityside and the area east called the Waterside. The Cityside and Waterside are connected by the Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge and a footbridge in the center of the city known as the Peace Bridge. The district also extends into the countryside to the southeast of the city.
As much town, but remains often characterized by extremely steep hills, which forms a large part of the terrain on both sides of the river. A notable exception to this is on the northeastern outskirts of the city, on the shores of Lough Foyle, where large expanses of sea and mudflats were recovered in the mid 19’s. Today, these countries Slob protected from the sea by miles of dykes and embankments. The area is an internationally important bird sanctuary, ranked among the top 30 wetland areas in the UK. 
Other important nature reserve located on Ness Country Park, , 10 miles (16 km) east of Derry; and at Prehen wood,  in the city’s southeastern suburbs.
Derry has, like most of Ireland, a temperate coastal climate  according to the Köppen climate classification system. The nearest official Met Office weather station that climate data are available are Carmoney,  just west of the city of Derry Airport and about 5 miles (8 km) northeast of downtown.But observations ceased in 2004 and the nearest weather station is currently Ballykelly, because of 12 miles (19 km) east northeast.  Typically 27 nights of the year will report an air frost in Ballykelly, and at least 1 mm rainfall will be reported at 170 days (average 1981-2010).
The lowest temperature recorded at Carmoney was -11.0 ° C (12.2 ° F) of 27 December 1995. 
Derry Urban Area (DUA), including the city and neighboring settlements Culmore, new and Strathfoyle, classified as a city by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) since its population exceeds 75,000.On census day (27 March 2011) there were 105.066 people living in Derry Urban Area. Of these, 27% under 16 and 14% were aged 60 and over, 49% of the population were male and 51% were women; 75% were from a Catholic background and 23% (up three percent from 2001) were from a Protestant background. 
In mid-2006 population estimate for the wider Derry City Council area was 107,300.  Population growth in 2005/06 was driven by natural change, with net migration of about 100 people. 
The city was one of the few in Sweden to experience a population increase during the Irish potato famine immigrants who came to it from other, harder-hit areas. 
Concerns have been raised by both communities across the increasingly fragmented nature of the city. There were about 17,000 Protestants on the west bank of the River Foyle, 1971.  The proportion decreased rapidly during the 1970s,  census in 2011 recorded 3,169 Protestants in the West Bank, compared to 54.976 Catholics,  and it is feared that the city can become permanently assigned.  
However, the joint efforts made by the local community, church and political leaders from both traditions to remedy the problem. A conference bringing together key stakeholders and promote tolerance was held in October 2006. The Rt Rev. Dr. Ken Good, the Church of Ireland Bishop of Derry and Raphoe, said he was happy living on the mountain peaks. “I feel a part of it. It is my city and I would encourage other Protestants to feel exactly the same, “he said. 
Support for Protestants in the region has been strong from the former SDLP Mayor Helen Quigley. Cllr Quigley has made integration and tolerance central themes in her mayoralty.Borgmästaren Helen Quigley said that it is time for “everyone to take a stand to stop the scourge of sectarian and other violence in the city.” 
The economy of the area significantly based on the textile industry until relatively recently. For many years, women were often the only employees who work in shirt factories while men predominantly in comparison had high unemployment.  This led to significant male emigration.  The history of the shirt do in the city goes back as far as 1831 and is said to have initiated by William Scott and his family who first exported shirts to Glasgow.  within 50 years, shirt making in the city was the most productive in the UK with garments that are exported worldwide. It was known so well that the industry got a mention in Das Kapital by Karl Marx, when discussing the factory system:
The shirt factory masters. Tille in Londonderry, which employs 1,000 workers in the factory itself, and 9,000 people scattered up and down the country and working in their own houses. 
The industry reached its peak in the 1920s and employs some 18,000 people. In modern times, but the textile industry declined because of the most expensive Asian wages. 
A long-term foreign employer in the area is DuPont, which has been based on Maydown since 1958, the first European production facility.  Originally made of neoprene Maydown and then followed avHypalon. Recently, Lycra and Kevlar production units were active.  Thanks to a healthy global demand for Kevlar made at the plant, the plant recently completed a £ 40 million upgrade to expand its global Kevlar production. Du Pont has stated that the factors contributing to their continued commitment to Maydown is “low labor costs, excellent transport links and duty free, easy access to the UK and the European continent.”
Over the past 15 years there has been an effort to increase foreign investment in the city, more recently concentrating on digital industries.Currently, the three largest private employers are US firms.  Economic successes have included call centers and a major investment by Seagate, which has operated a plant in Spring Industrial Estate since 1993. Seagate currently employs over 1000 people, producing more than half of the company’s total requirements for hard disk read-write heads.
A controversial new employer in the area was Raytheon Systems Limited, a software division of the US defense contractor, established in Derry in 1999. Although some of the locals welcomed the jobs increase, others in the area were opposed to the jobs provided by a company participates heavily in the arms trade.  after four years of protests from the Foyle Ethical Investment campaign, 2004 Derry City council passed a motion declaring the district an “a” No – Go “area for arms trade”,  and 2006 office was briefly occupied by anti-war protesters who became known as Raytheon ninth in 2009, the company announced that it was renewing the lease when it expired in 2010 and was looking for a new location for their business. 
Major multinational employers in the region include First Source in India, DuPont, INVISTA, Stream International, Seagate Technology, Perfecseal, NTL, Raytheon and Northbrook Technology in USA, Arntz Belting and InVision Software in Germany, and homeloan handling of Britain. Great local business employers include Desmond, Northern Ireland’s largest privately owned companies, manufacturing and purchasing clothing, E & I Engineering, St.Brendans Irish Cream Liqueur and McCambridge Duffy, one of the largest bankruptcy practice in the UK. 
Although the city offers cheap labor by the standards of Western Europe, critics have noted that the contributions offered by the Northern Ireland Industrial Development Board has helped land jobs for the area that only lasts as long as the funding lasts.  This was reflected in questions to the Secretary of State Northern Ireland, Richard Needham, 1990.  it was noted that it costs £ 30,000 to create a job in an American company in Northern Ireland.
Critics of the investment decisions that affect the district often point to the decision to build a new university building near (mainly Protestant) Coleraine rather than developing the University of Ulster Magee Campus.Another important government decisions affecting the city was the decision to create the new city of Craigavon outside Belfast, which again was detrimental to the development of the city. Also in October 2005, it was perceived prejudice against the comparatively poor northwestern province, with a large public administration employment contract comes to Belfast.Mark Durkan, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) leader and Member of Parliament (MP) for Foyle was quoted in the Belfast Telegraph as saying:
In fact, there has been consistent under-investment in the North West and a reluctance of staff to see or support anything west of the Bann, except for interest rate increases, then they treat us equally.
In July 2005, the Irish Finance Minister, Brian Cowen that called for a joint task force driving economic growth in the border region. This would have implications for County Londonderry, Tyrone and Donegal across the border.
Austins department store
The city is the Northwest’s premier shopping district, housing two large shopping malls along with many retail packed streets serve much of the greater region, as well as Tyrone and Donegal. While retail development in Letterkenny has reduced cross-border traffic from north County Donegal, [citation needed ] the weak British pound over the course of 2009, the border towns such as Derry attractive to buyers from south of the border.  
The city center has two large shopping centers; Foyle Shopping Centre which has 45 shops and 1430 parking spaces, and Richmond Centre, which has 39 retail units. Kaj shopping center also serves the city side and there is also Lisnagelvin Shopping Centre in the Waterside. These centers, as well as local-owned enterprises, a large number of national and international stores.A new addition was the Crescent Link Retail Park is located in Waterside with many international retailers, including Homebase, Currys and PC World (stores combined), Carpet Right, Maplin, Argos Extra, Toys R Us, Halfords, DW Sports (formerly JJB Sports) pets at home, Next, Starbucks, McDonalds, Tesco Express and M & S simply food. During the short time the site has been in operation, it has quickly grown to become the second largest trading area in Northern Ireland (second only to Spruce Field in Lisburn).  Plans have also been approved for Derry first Asda store, which will lie on the retail park sharing a unit with Homebase.  Sainsbury also applied for planning permission for a store at Crescent Link, but Environment Minister Alex Attwood said no. 
Until March 2016, when it closed, the town was also home to the world’s oldest independent department store, Austin. Founded in 1830, Austin preceding Jenners of Edinburgh by 5 years, Harrods in London with 15 years and Macy’s in New York for 25 years.  The store’s five-story Edwardian building is located in the walled city in the area known as The Diamond.
Derry is renowned for its architecture. This can primarily be attributed to the formal planning of the historic walled city of Derry in the center of the modern city. This is centered on the diamond with a collection of late Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian buildings maintain the grid of the main thoroughfares (Shipquay Street, Ferryquay Street, Butcher Street and Bishop Street) to the City Gates. St Columb’s Cathedral does not follow the grid pattern is strengthening its civil status. The Church of Ireland Cathedral was the first Post-Reformation cathedral built an Anglican church. The construction of the Roman Catholic St Eugene’s Cathedral in the Bogside in the 19th century was another major architectural additions to the city. The latter padding buildings within the walls are of varying quality and in many cases was low quality hastily constructed remuneration for the 1970 bomb damaged buildings. [ Citation needed ] townscape Heritage Initiative has funded the restoration work to write listed buildings and other older structures.
In the three centuries since their construction, the city wall adapted to meet the needs of a changing city. The best example of this adaptation is the introduction of three additional ports – Castle Gate, New Gate and Magazine Gate – in the walls during the 19th century. Today, the fortifications form a continuous walk around the city center, complete with cannons, roads by mature trees and views of Derry. Historic buildings within the city walls include St. Augustine Church, which sits on the city wall near the site of the original monastic settlement; copper dome Austin stores, claiming that the oldest such store in the world; and the impressive Greek Revival Courthouse on Bishop Street. The red brick late Victorian Guildhall, also crowned by a copper dome stands just beyond Shipquay Gate and near the river front.
There are many museums and places of interest in and around the city, including the Foyle Valley Railway Centre, Amelia Earhart Centre and Wildlife Sanctuary, the Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall, Ballyoan Cemetery, The Bogside, many murals of the Bogside Artists, Derry Craft Village, Free Derry Corner , O’Doherty Tower (now home to some of the Tower Museum), Guildhall, Harbour Museum, Museum of Free Derry, Chapter House Museum, Work Museum, the Nerve Centre, St. Columb’s Park Leisure Centre, St Eugene’s Cathedral, Creggan Country Park, the Millennium Forum and Foyle and Craigavon bridges.
The city has seen a large increase in its economy in terms of tourism in recent years. [ Citation needed ] Cheap flights offered by budget airlines has attracted many people to visit the city. Tourism is mainly focused around the pubs, mainly those in Waterloo Street. [ Citation needed ] Other attractions include museums, a vibrant shopping and trips to the Giant’s Causeway, which is about 50 miles (80 km) away, but poorly connected by public transport.Lonely Planet called Londonderry, the fourth best city in the world to see in 2013. 
Future projects include the Walled City Signature Project, which aims to ensure that the city walls become a world leading tourist experience.  The Ilex Urban Regeneration Company is charged with delivering several landmark redevelopment. It has taken control of two former British army barracks in the center of the city. The Ebrington site is nearing completion and is linked to the center of the new Peace Bridge.
The transport network is built of a complex set of ancient and modern roads and railways throughout the city and county. The city’s road network also makes use of two bridges that cross the River Foyle, the Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge, the longest bridge in Ireland. Derry also serves as a major hub for travel throughout the nearby County Donegal.
Although it is the second city of Northern Ireland (and it is the second largest city in all of Ulster), road and rail links to other cities is below par for its position. Many business leaders argue that public investment in the city and the infrastructure has suffered lacking. Some have said that this is due to its peripheral border location, while others have cited a sectarian bias against the region west of the River Bann because of its high proportion of Catholics.   There is no direct motorway link to Dublin or Belfast .Järnvägsförbindelsen Belfast has been downgraded over the years so that at present it is not a viable alternative to the roads for the industry to rely on.There are currently plans for a £ billion transport infrastructure investments in and around the area.  Planned upgrades to A5 Dublin route agreed part of the Good Friday Agreement and the St Andrews Talks fell through when the Government of the Republic of Ireland withdrew its funding cite the recent economic crisis. 
Most public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by subsidiaries Translink. Originally the city’s internal bus network run by Ulsterbus, which still gives the city’s connections with other towns in Northern Ireland. The city bus is now run by Ulsterbus Foyle,  just as the Trans Metro now provides bus service in Belfast. The Ulsterbus Foyle network offers 13 routes throughout the city in suburban areas, excluding a Easibus link that connects to the Waterside and Drumahoe,  and a free Rail Link shuttle bus runs from Waterside railway station to the city center. All buses depart from Foyle Street bus station in the city center.
Long distance buses depart from Foyle Street bus station to destinations throughout Ireland. Buses operated by both Ulsterbus and Bus Eireann cross paths. Lough Swilly is driven earlier buses to Co. Donegal, but the company went into liquidation and is no longer in operation. There is a half-hourly service to Belfast every day, called the Maiden City Flyer, which is the Goldline Express flagship route. There are hourly services to Strabane, Omagh, Coleraine, Letterkenny and Buncrana, and up to twelve services a day to bring people to Dublin. There is a daily service to Sligo, Galway, Limerick and Shannon Airport.
Main article: City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport, Council-owned airport near Eglinton, has increased in recent years with new investments in the extension of the runway and the plan to build the terminal.  It is hoped that the new investment will increase the airport’s currently limited collection of domestic and international flights and reduce the annual contribution £ 3.5 million from the municipality.
The A2 Maydown to Eglinton, cafeteria airport has recently become a dual carriageway.  City of Derry Airport is the main regional airport for County Donegal, County Londonderry and West County Tyrone and Derry City itself.
The airport is served by Ryanair with scheduled flights to Birmingham International Airport, Glasgow Airport, Liverpool,  and London Stansted all year round with a summer schedule to Alicante and Faro.
Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) has a single route from Londonderry Railway Station (also known as Waterside Station) at Waterside to Belfast Great Victoria Street through Coleraine, Ballymena, Ballymena, Antrim, Mossley West ochBelfast Central. The service, which had been allowed to deteriorate in the 1990s, has since been improved through increased investment.
In 2008, the Department of Regional Development announced plans to have traces reversed between Derry and Coleraine in 2013, adding a passing track to increase traffic capacity and increase the number of trains by introducing additional tvådieseldrivna units.  The £ 86 million plan will reduce travel time Belfast 30 minutes and allow commuter trains to arrive before 9:00 for the first time.  Many people still do not use the train because of over two hours, the slower the city-center to city center than 100 minutes Ulsterbus Goldline Express. 
Ireland networks in 1906
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city was served by four different railways between them linked the city with a large part of the province of Ulster, plus a port railway network that linked the other four lines. There was also a tram on the city side of the Foyle.
19th and 20th century growth
Derry first railway was Irish meter (5 ft 3 in (1600 mm)) Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway (L & S). Construction began in 1845 from a temporary station at Cow Market on the city side of the Foyle reached Strabane in 1847 and was extended from cow market to its permanent terminus at Foyle Street in 1850.  L & S reached Omagh in 1852, Enniskillen in 1854, [ 127] and was absorbed in the northern railway (Ireland) Good 1883. 
The Londonderry and Coleraine Railway (L & CR), also Irish gauge reached the city in 1852 and opened its terminus at Waterside.  The Belfast and northern counties järnvägsleasade line from 1861 and took over the 1871st
The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway opened between Farland Point Lough Swilly and a temporary terminus at Penny Burn in 1863.  In 1866, expanded from Penny Burn to its permanent terminus at the dry port.  L & LSR was Irish gauge until 1885, when it converted to 3 feet (914 mm) narrow gauge for by driving at Letterkenny Railway.
The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) linked drydock and Foyle Road station with a railway through the Middle East Quay in 1867, and linked this line with Water station by a railway of the new Carlisle Bridge in 1868.  The bridge was replaced in 1933 with the double-decker Craigavon Bridge, with LPHC railway on the lower deck.
In 1900, the 3-foot (914 mm) gauge Donegal Railway extended from Strabane to Derry, establishing a terminus at Victoria Road. This was next to Carlisle Bridge and had a cross with LPHC railway.  The LPHC line was changed to dual gauges that allow 3 feet (914 mm) gauge traffic between Donegal Railway and L & LSR as well as the Irish gauge traffic between GNR and B & NCR . In 1906, the North County Committee (NCC, the successor to the B & NCR) and GNR took joint Donegal railway, making the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC).
The British government subsidized both L & LSR and Donegal Railway to build long extensions in remote areas of County Donegal. In 1905 they served a large part of the county,  making Derry (and Strabane) an important railway junction for the county.
The City of Derry Tramways opened in 1897.  This was a standard gauge (1435 mm (4 ft 8 1 / two in)) line is served by trams and horse never electrified. The tramway had only one line was 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) long, and ran along the city side of the Foyle alongside LPHC line on the side of the river.  it was closed in 1919. 
20th century decline
The partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the border with County Donegal for an international border. This change in trade patterns for the expense of rail and put border posts on each line to and from Derry except route NCCColeraine.  L & LSR crossed the border between Penny Burn and Bridge End CDRJC crossed just beyond Strabane, and GNR line crossed twice between Derry and Strabane.  Stops for customs controls severely delayed trains and disrupted the timing.
In the coming years customs agreement between the two modes GNR trains to and from Derry to pass through the state without control, unless they were scheduled to serve the local stations on the west bank of the Foyle, and for goods of all railways being transported between different parts of Free State pass Northern Ireland under customs bond. But continued local passenger and freight traffic to be delayed by customs investigations.
In the 1920s and 30s and again after World War II, the railways also face increasing road competition. L & LSR closed its line in 1953, followed by CDRJC 1954.  The Ulster Transport Authority took over NCC in 1949 and GNR lines in Northern Ireland in 1958. UTA also took over LPHC railway, which it closed in 1962.  in accordance with Benson report is sent to Northern Ireland in 1963, UTA closed the former GNR line to Derry in 1965.  
Since 1965, the former L & CR line has been Derry sole rail connection. As such it has implemented not only passenger services between Derry and Belfast but also Cie freight traffic with the help of Derry as a railhead for Donegal.
The road network has been historically under-investment and lacked good road links to both Belfast and Dublin for many years. [ Citation needed ] long ago, is the largest road investments in the Northwest history now (2010) is done with the construction of the “A2 Broad Maydown to City of Derry Airport dual development project  and the announcement of the “A6 Londonderry to Dungiven dual Ling Scheme”  which will help to reduce the journey time to Belfast.  the latter project provides a dual carriageway link between Northern Ireland’s two largest cities a step closer. The project will cost £ 320 million and is expected to close during in 2016.
In October 2006 the Irish government announced that it was investing 1 billion € in Northern Ireland,  and one of the planned projects will be “A5 Western Transport Corridor”,  complete upgrade of the A5 Derry – Omagh – Aughnacloy (- Dublin ) road, about 90 kilometers (56 miles) long, to the dual carriageway. standard 
It is not yet known if these two separate projects will join at any time, although there have been calls for some kind of connection between the two lines. In June 2008, Conor Murphy, Minister for Regional Development, announced that it will be a feasibility study to connect the A5 and A6. Would it continue the system would likely run from Drumahoe to the south of Prehen along the south east of the city. [124 ]
Londonderry Port of Lisahally is Britain’s most westerly port and has capacity for 30,000 tons vessels. The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) announced record sales, record profits and record tonnage figures for the fiscal year ending March 2008. The figures are the result of a major program investment for the period 2000-2007 of about one million £ 22. The amount managed by LPHC increased almost 65% between 2000 and 2007, according to the latest [ when? ] Annual profit.
The port gave decisive Allied service in the longest campaign World War II, the Battle of the Atlantic, and saw the surrender of the German U-Boat fleet at Lisahally May 8, 1945. 
Tidal River Foyle is navigable from the coast at Derry to about 10 miles (16 km) inland. 1796, the Strabane Canal was opened, continue navigation 4 miles (6 km) south of Strabane .Kanalen closed 1962nd
Derry is home to Magee campus of the University of Ulster, Magee College earlier. But Lockwood  to the 1960 decision to locate Northern Ireland’s other universities in Coleraine rather than Derry helped contribute to the formation of the civil rights movement that eventually led to the troubles.Derry city was closer associated with higher education, with Magee College already more than a century old at the time.   In the mid-1980s, a half-hearted attempt was made to correct this mistake by forming Magee College as a campus of the University of Ulster, but this has not stifle calls for the establishment of an independent university in Derry that can grow to the full potential.  campus has never flourished, and currently has only 3,500 students out of a total Ulster University students at 27.000. Ironically, although Coleraine blamed by many in the city for “stealing the university, it has only 5,000 students, and the remaining 19,000 based in Belfast. 
The North West Regional College is also based in the city. In recent years it has grown to nearly 30,000 students. 
One of the two oldest high schools in Northern Ireland is located in Derry, Foyle and Londonderry College. It was founded in 1616 by Merchant Taylors and is still a popular choice. Other high schools include St. Columb’s College, Oakgrove Integrated College, St Cecilia’s College, St. Mary’s College, St.Joseph’s School for Boys, Lisneal College, Thornhill College, Lumen Christi College and St. Brigid College. There are also many schools.
The Derry GAA team for the 2009 National League finals.
The city is home to sports clubs and teams. Both association football and Gaelic football is popular in the area.
In the context of football, the city’s most prominent clubs include Derry City who play in the National League in Ireland, the Institute of NIFL Championship ochOxford United Stars and Trojans, both Northern Ireland Intermediate League. In addition to these clubs, who all play in the national leagues, are other clubs based in the city. The local football league is controlled by the IFA’s northwestern Junior League, which includes many clubs from the city, such as BBOB (Boys Brigade Old Boys) and Lincoln Courts. The city’s second junior’s Derry and District League and the team from the city and surrounding areas to participate, including Don Bosco and Creggan Swifts. The Foyle Cupfotbollsturnering held annually in the city. It has attracted many famous teams in the past, including Werder Bremen, IFK Gothenburg and Ferencvaros.
Derry City tar på Paris Saint-Germain på Brandywell Stadium under 2006 UEFA-cupen
In Gaelic football Derry GAA is the county team and play in the Gaelic Athletic Association’s National Football League, the Ulster Senior Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The field also throw teams in the same tournaments. There are many Gaelic games clubs in and around the city, such as Na Magha CLG, Steeltown GAC, Doire Colmcille CLG, Seán Dolan’s GAC, Na Piarsaigh CLG Doire Trasna and Slaughtmanus GAC.
There are many boxing clubs, the most famous is The Ring Boxing Club , which is associated with Charlie Nash  and John Duddy,  among others.
Rugby Union is also very popular in the city, with the City of Derry Rugby Club is not far from the city center.  City of Derry won both the Ulster Towns Cup and Ulster Junior Cup 2009. Londonderry YMCA RFC is another rugby club and its based in Drumahoe located just outside the city.
The city’s only basketball club is Northstar Basketball that have teams in basketball Northern Ireland senior and junior leagues. 
Cricket is also a popular sport in the city, especially in the Waterside. The city is home to two cricket clubs, Brigade Cricket Club and Glendermott Cricket Club, who both play in the North West Senior League.
Golf is also a sport that is popular among many in the city. There are two golf clubs are in the city, City of Derry Golf Club and Foyle International Golf Centre.
In recent years, the city and the surrounding countryside has become famous for its artistic heritage, producing the Nobel laureate poet Seamus Heaney, poet Seamus Deane, playwright Brian Friel,  writer and music critic Nik Cohn, artist Willie Doherty, socio-political commentator and activist Eamonn McCann  and the band the Undertones. The major political gable murals of the Bogside Artists, Free Derry Corner, the Foyle Film Festival, Derry walls, St. Eugene and St. Columb cathedral and the annual Halloween street carnival  are popular tourist attractions. In 2010 Derry named Britain’s tenth most musical ‘City by PRS for Music.  
In May 2013 which Eternal Peace Flame monument was unveiled by Martin Luther King III and Presbyterian Minister Rev. David Latimer. The flame was lit by children from both traditions in the city and is one of only 15 such flames all over the world.  
Local papers Derry Journal (known as the Londonderry Journal to 1880) andLondonderry Sentinel reflect the shared history of the city: the Journal was founded in 1772 and is Ireland’s second oldest newspaper,  the Sentinelnewspaper was founded in 1829 when the new owner of the Journalembraced the Catholic Emancipation , and the editor left the magazine to set the Sentinel . There are many radio stations receivables: the main stations based in the city are BBC Radio Foyle  and the commercial station Q102.9.  There was a locally based television station, C9TV, one of only two local or “limited” TV services in Northern Ireland, which ceased broadcasting in 2007.
The city’s nightlife is focused primarily on the weekends, with several bars and clubs that provide “student nights” during the week. Waterloo Street and Strand Road provide the main venues. Waterloo Street, a steep street lined with both traditional and modern Irish pubs often have live rock and traditional music at night. The city is known for producing talented musicians and many bands perform in places around the city, such as the Small Town America duo, fighting with Wire and jetplane landing. A large number of other young local and indeed international bands perform at the Nerve Centre.
- 2013 Derry became the first city to be designated UK Capital of Culture, has been awarded the title in July 2010.  
- Also in 2013 the city hosted Radio 1 Big Weekend  and the Lumiere festival. 
- “Banks of the Foyle Hallowe’en Carnival” (known in Irish as Feile na Samhna) in Derry is a major tourism boost for the city. The carnival is promoted as the first and longest Halloween carnival in all of Ireland,  It is called the biggest street party in Ireland, Derry Visitor & Convention Bureau with more than 30,000 macabre revelers take to the streets every year. 
- In March, the host city of the Big Tickle Comedy Festival, 2006, Dara Ó Briain and Colin Murphy. In April, the city hosts the City of Derry Jazz and Big Band Festival and in November the Foyle Film Festival, the biggest film festival in Northern Ireland.
- Every summer the town hosts Tomo-Dachi, Ireland’s largest anime convention, which in July 2006 was held at Magee College, University of Ulster. 
- The Siege of Derry is celebrated annually by the fraternal organization the Apprentice Boys of Derry in the week-long Maiden City Festival.
- Instinct Festival is an annual youth festival celebrates the Arts. It is held around Easter and has proven a success in recent years.
- Celtronic is a major annual electronic dance festival held at locations around the city. 2007 Festival featured DJ Erol Alkan.
- The Millennium Forum is the most important theater in the city, it has many applications every week.
- On 9 December 2007 Derry into the Guinness Book of Records when 13,000 Santas gathered to break the world record beating the previous record held by Liverpool and Las Vegas. 
- Winner of the 2005 Britain in Bloom competition (City category).Runner-up in 2009.
Notable people who were born or lived in Derry include:
- Frederick Hervey, Bishop of Derry and 4th Earl of Bristol
- Edward Leach, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- The Restoration playwright George Farquhar
- Author Joyce Cary, Seamus Deane Jennifer Johnston and Nell McCafferty
- Poet and Nobel Laureate Seamus Heaney
- Social Democratic and Labour Party founder and Nobel Peace Prize winner John Hume
- Scientists and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners William C. Campbell  
- Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness
- Ireland national football team head coach Martin O’Neill
- Everton player Darron Gibson
- Actresses Amanda Burton and Roma Downey
- Girls Aloud medlem Nadine Coyle
- Neil Hannon singer of The Divine Comedy
- Eurovision Song Contest winner and former politicians Fashion
- The band undertones and their one-time singer Feargal Sharkey
- Jimmy McShane of Baltimora
- Triathlete Aileen Morrison
- Tom McGuinness, Gaelic football 
- Damian McGinty and Keith Harkin, vocalist with the group Celtic Thunder
- John Park, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Daniel Quigley (World ISKA Professional Super Heaveyweight Kickboxning Champion) 
- Miles Ryan, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Institute FC
- List of abbeys and priories in County Londonderry
- List of cities and villages in Northern Ireland
- Scouting i Nordirland
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- Jump up ^ World Championship Kickboxing comes to the “The Venue” – Derry Journal