CategoryCounty Kerry

Valentia Island

Valentia Island (Irish: Dairbhre ) is one of Ireland’s most westerly points outside the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry. It is linked to the mainland by the Maurice O’Neill Memorial bridge at Portmagee. A car ferry also depart from Reenard Point to the Knights, the island’s main settlement, from April to October. A second, smaller village called Chapel is at about the midpoint of the island, three kilometers (1.9 miles) from the bridge. The resident population of the island is 665 (from 2011 CSO Census)[2] , and the island is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) long and nearly three kilometers (2 miles) wide.

History

Telegraph Field, Valentia Island: Foilhommerum is the site of the first permanent communication link between Europe, as America. In October 2002, for a memorial to mark the laying of the transatlantic cable to your heart’s content, Newfoundland unveiled atop Foilhommerum Cliff. Made of Valentia slate and designed by local sculptor Alan Ryan Hall, [3] the memorial highlights the importance of the site to telegraph communications with North America from 1857 onwards and to accurately link the longitude measurements in North America at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich in 1866.

Valentia was the eastern terminus [4] of the first commercially viable transatlantic telegraph cable. The first attempt in 1857 [5] to land a cable from Ballycarbery Beach on the mainland just east of Valentia Island ended in disappointment. After the subsequent failure of cables landed on the Knights in 1858 and Foilhommerum Bay in 1865, [6] the great effort finally resulted in commercially viable transatlantic telegraph messages from Foilhommerum Bay to your heart’s content, Newfoundland 1866. transatlantic telegraph cables operated from Valentia Island for a hundred-year , ending with Western Union International end its cable business in 1966.

Prior to the transatlantic telegraph, US longitude measurements had a 2800 foot (850 m) uncertainty with respect to the European longitude. Because of the importance of accurate longitudes for safe navigation, the US Coast Survey mounted an expedition in 1866 to link the longitude longitudes in the US exactly to the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. Benjamin Gouldoch his partner in Mosman reached Valentia 2 October 1866 they built a temporary longitude observatory next to the Cable Station Foilhommerum to support synchronized longitude observations with the heart’s desire, Newfoundland.After many rainy and cloudy days, the first transatlantic longitude signals exchanged between Foilhommerum and dryers on October 24, 1866.

In 1993 discovered a shallow geology student fossil tetrapod tracks (51 ° 55’51 “N 10 ° 20’38” W), footprints in the mud preserved in Devonian rocks on the north coast of the island. Around 385 million years ago, a primitive vertebrate passed along a muddy shoreline in the equatorial swampland that is now southwestern Ireland and left prints on the wet concrete. The prints were preserved by silt overlying them, and converted to rock of all time. The Valentia Island tracks are among the oldest signs of vertebrate life on land. [Citation needed ]

Tourist attractions

Valentia Harbour from the north shore of Valentia Island (Photo taken at the top of the Catholic cemetery at Kylemore)

The combined features and history of the island makes it an attractive tourist destination, easily accessible from the popular Ring of Kerry route.

  • Geokaun Mountain and Fogher Cliffs: the highest mountain on Valentia Island and sea cliffs (180 m) 600 feet on its northern face.
  • On the northeast of the island stands Glanleam House amongst subtropical gardens. Protected by shelter from the Atlantic storms and never touched by frost, these gardens provide the mildest microclimate in Ireland. From 1830’s, Sir Peter George Fitzgerald, 19 Kerry Knight (1808-1880), [7] planted these gardens and stocked them with a unique collection of rare and tender plants from the southern hemisphere, which is normally grown in greenhouses Ireland. The gardens are laid out in a naturalistic style of a series of walks. There are plants from South America, Australia, New Zealand (the tallest tree ferns in Europe), Chile and Japan. The gardens are memorialized in a selected golden variegated Luma apiculata “Glanleam gold” which originated as a sport in the garden. The gardens are open to the public.
  • Slate quarry reopened in 1998 provided slate for the British Houses of Parliament. [8]
  • The island also hosts a heritage center [9] , which tells the history of geology, human, natural and industrial history of the island, with exhibits on the cable station, marine radio station and sValentia RNLI lifeboat station.
  • Telegraph Field (or Longitude Field) is the site of the first permanent communication link between Europe and North America transatlantic telegraph cables operated from Valentia Island from 1866. [6]
  • Dolmen Rock, western slope of Mt.Geokaun
  • Balleyhearney House, Balleyhearney East. “Famine Era” hospital adjacent to the Knight’s Wood.
  • Rare snowy day, Main Road, Valentia Island sees the Knights, Valentia Harbour, Cahirciveen
  • Part of the view from the top of Mt. Geokaun ( “yo-Kawn”). Valentia Harbour, Cahirciveen is in the background
  • Part of the view from the top of Mt. Geokaun ( “yo-Kawn”). Valentia Harbour and the letter is in the background
  • View from Culloo Rock.Dingle Peninsula, Dingle Bay and the north shore of Valentia Island (including Folger rocks) are in the background.
  • Bray Head views looking west with the Skellig Islands in the distance
  • View of the Port Channel looking south-east from Bray Head

Weather station location and climate

The Valentia Island weather station located 51 ° 56 ’23 “N, 10 ° 14’40” W and is 25 meters (82 feet) above sea level. It is one of the 22 coastal weather stations whose reports are transmitted as part of the BBC shipping forecast.Valentia Observatory is part of Met Éireann, Irish meteorological service.The observatory was established in August 1868. Valentia island is on average the wettest weather station in Ireland. The monthly averages of sunshine and rainfall are based on 2010 statistics are around average except for July, which received only 40% of its normal sunshine hours and 219% of its normal rainfall. Valentia island also has a station NAVTEX transmissions.Valentia Island is located on the eastern edge of the Atlantic Ocean.Although it is on the same latitude as St. Anthony in Newfoundland on the opposite side of the Atlantic, it has much milder winters thanks to the moderating effect of the prevailing west or southwest winds, and the effects of the warming Gulf Stream current. Snow and frost are rare, and because of this island can support many kinds of subtropical plants.

Sport

Valentia Young Islanders GAA is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club.

Valentia is a popular fishing spot, and Valentia water keeps the Irish records for conger eel, sea bream, sea bream and lesser spotted dogfish. [ Citation needed ]

Notable people

Valentia was considered home to Mug Ruith, a powerful blind druid in Irish mythology.

The O’Sullivan, headed by O’Sullivan Beare, owned much of Valentia until the 17’s. [10]

Noted naturalist Jane Maude Delap lived and worked in the Knights, performs important research in the marine life around Valentia and identify many new species. [11]

Valentia is home to former Gaelic footballer Mick O’Connell and the birthplace of John J “Sceilig” O’Kelly, leader of Sinn Fein from 1926th

Gaelic footballers Provides O’Driscoll was born in Valentia Island.

The American solo mountain climber Michael Reardon died July 13, 2007 at the Fogher Cliffs Valentia Island when he was swept out to sea after a successful climb.

Gerald Spring Rice, 6th Baron Monteagle of Brandon was raised on the island, as well as many other members of the Spring Rice family. [12]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • islands portal
  • List of RNLI stations

References

  1. Jump up ^ Charles Knight. The English Cyclopaedia: geography. Pulled 10/26/2015.
  2. Jump up ^ Electoral Division Valencia (CSO Area Code ED 19025).Census of Ireland 2011 (Report). 1 – Population Classified by Area.Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Valencia.
  3. Jump up ^ Alan Ryan Hall.
  4. Hoppa upp^ The Atlantic Cable , Smithsonian Institution , USA.
  5. Jump up ^ John R. Isaac, 1857 – Laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable from Ship to Shore, History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b The Telegraph Field.
  7. Jump up ^ Fitzgerald (Knights of Kerry) paper (MIC / 639 and T / 3075), the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, UK.
  8. Jump up ^ http://www.cromane.net/valentia.htm
  9. Jump up ^ Valentia Heritage Centre website. [ Where? ]
  10. Hoppa upp^ Toby Barnard, ” O’Sullivan Beare, Philip (bc1590, d. I eller efter 1634), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004
  11. Jump up ^ Mulvihill, Mary (2003). Ingenious Ireland: A County-by-County Exploration of Mysteries and Marvels of the ingenious Irish.Dublin: Simon and Schuster. pp. 397-398. ISSN 0684020947th Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  12. Hoppa upp^The Guards Magazine , kapten Lord Monteagle av Brandon ” http://guardsmagazine.com/obits_lordmonteagle.html

Tralee

Tralee (/ tr æ. I L /; Irish: TRA LI (formerly Traigh LI) , which means “string of Lee (river)”) is the county town in County Kerry in southwest Ireland. The city is located on the north side of the neck of the Dingle Peninsula, and is the largest town in County Kerry. The town’s population including suburbs was 23,693 as of the 2011 census, making it the seventh largest city, and 13 th largest urban area in Ireland. [2] Tralee is well known for the Rose of Tralee International Festival which has been held annually in August since 1959.

History

Located at the confluence of some small rivers and adjacent to marshy ground at the head of Tralee Bay Tralee is located at the foot of a very old road that leads south across the Slieve Mish Mountains. On this old track is a large boulder sometimes called Scotia grave, said the burial place of an Egyptian Pharaoh’s daughter.

Anglo-Normans founded the city in the 13th century, which became a stronghold of the Earls of Desmond, who built a castle. John Fitz-Thomas FitzGerald founded the monastery of the Dominican order and was buried there in 1260. [3] The medieval town was burned in 1580 in retaliation förDesmond revolt against Elizabeth.

Elizabeth In 1587, Tralee granted to Edward Denny, and it was recognized in 1613 by Royal Charter. Sir Edward was the first of Denny to settle in Tralee;Denny does not occupy the castle of the Earls of Desmond until 1627. Sir Edward’s son, Arthur Denny, in whose life the city charter was granted by King James, which includes the right to elect two MPs. The third English settlers, another Sir Edward, married Ruth Roper, whose father Thomas Roper was lease holder of the Herbert estate centered on Castle. This Sir Edward was a royalist. He fought for the king in the war in 1641. He died in 1646, before the triumph of Oliver Cromwell, the issues in the UK and Ireland.

He granted “the circuit Abbey” to the company established under the Charter, in exchange for fees in the city clerk. His son Arthur Denny married Ellen Barry, the grandson of Richard Boyle. . They later held many land titles in West Kerry and also claimed the property in Tralee Sir Edward Denny, 4th Baronet was a remarkable landlord at the time: during the time of the great famine, he maintained rentals to suit their tenants, while other landowners increased them. He was a notable Plymouth Brother.

The modern layout of Tralee was created in the 19th century. Denny Street, a wide Georgian street was completed in 1826 on the site of the old castle. A monument in memory of the 1798 uprising, plus uprisings in 1803, 1848 och1867 – a statue of a Pikeman – stands in Denny Street. First presented in 1905, was the original Pikeman until the Irish War of Independence. In 1921, Black and Tans drew it from its pedestal and destroyed it. In June 1939 a replacement Pikeman installed, created by renowned sculptor Albert Power Dublin and was unveiled by Maud Gonne. [4]

Tralee Courthouse was designed by Sir Richard Morrison and built in 1835. It is a monument of two cannons commemorating the Kerrymen who died in the Crimean War (1854-1856) and the Indian Uprising (1857). Bally barracks was the depot of the Royal Munster Fusiliers. [5]

 

The Tralee Ship Canal was built to accommodate larger ships in Tralee, because the current quay in Blennerville was becoming blocked due to siltation. The House approved a first-team by the Parliament in June 1829 for the channel, with work starting in 1832. Problems with financing meant that the canal was not completed until 1846 when it was opened. The channel was 2 miles long with a new canal basin was built in Tralee, and sluice gates and a wooden swing bridge constructed in Blennerville. But not long after the canal opened also began to suffer from siltation.

By the 1880s, Fenit Harbour was built as a deep-water port; it does not suffer from siltation. A railway line was constructed between the port and Tralee to carry cargo and freight from ships moored there. The canal fell into disuse and neglect, and finally shut down in the middle of the 20th century. After the restoration of Blennerville Windmill in the early 1990s, the local authorities planned restoration of the channel for use as a tourist attraction.In 1999, the Office of Public Works (OPW) started a restoration project of the canal at a cost of IR £ 650.000.Området canal basin then rebuilt apartment blocks were built as part of a proposed port. The towpath along the canal was upgraded and now used by people as a nice amenity as part of the Dingle Way. [6] [7] [8]

Dominican Holy Cross Church was designed by the Irish Gothic Revival architect George Ashlin 1866 and built by the 1871st

The war years

Tralee saw much violence during the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War of 1919-1923. In November 1920 Black and Tans besieged Tralee in revenge for the IRA abduction and killing of two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men. The Tans closed all the businesses in the city and did not let any food for a week. They burned several houses and all businesses connected with Irish Republican Army (IRA) activists. During the week, they shot dead three local people. The events caused a huge international outcry that the press reported that almost starvation conditions prevailing in Tralee by the end of the week.

The Ashe Memorial Hall was built in 1928 at the end of Denny Street, is dedicated to the memory of Thomas Ashe, an Irish volunteer officer in the Easter Rising of 1916. The building is built of local sandstone. It is the headquarters förKerry County Council and Tralee Urban council; Both have now moved to other premises. Since 1992, it has housed the Kerry County Museum, which includes a reconstruction of Tralee in 1450, prior kolonisering.I August 1922 during the Irish Civil War, Irish Free State troops landed at nearby Fenit and took Tralee from his garrison Anti-Treaty. Nine pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty three soldiers were killed in the fighting in the city before the anti-Treaty forces withdrew. Republicans continued a guerrilla campaign in the surroundings. In March, 1923 the Free State troops nine anti-Treaty IRA prisoners from the prison in Tralee and blew them up with a landminai near Ballyseedy.

Climate

The climate in Tralee, like the rest of Ireland, which is classified as a maritime temperate climate ( Cfb ) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Met Éireann has a climatological weather station on Valentia Island, 50 km southwest of the city. It is mild and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of extreme temperatures. The hottest months of the year is July, August and September with temperatures around 17-18 degrees Celsius. Tralee is rain throughout the year, and the wettest months are October, November, December and January.

local authorities

Tralee had a city council of twelve members until the 2014 local elections was held on 23 May 2014. These elections were held after the changes made by the Municipal Reform Act 2014. The law abolished local and introduced municipal districts. County Kerry were divided into four municipal districts, which is identical to the local election areas (LEA) used for selection of advised. The municipality Tralee has 9 seats on the Kerry County Council with the following Council back after the local elections in 2014.

Council members from the 2014 elections
Local area Electoral name name
tralee Toiréasa Ferris Ourselves
Pa Daly Ourselves
norma Foley Fianna Fail
Terry O’Brien Labour party
jim Finucane Fine Gael
Pat McCarthy Fine Gael
Thomas McEllistrim Fianna Fail
Graham Spring Labour party
Sam Locke Independent

Tourist attractions

Tralee is a tourist destination and has seen some 55 million € of tourism investments in recent years.

The city has developed a range of attractions.

  • Kerry County Museum: incorporate the theme park ‘Kerry: The Kingdom’ and an exhibit which depicts life in medieval Geraldine Tralee.
  • Siamsa Tire: Ireland National Folk Theatre, which offers traditional music and plays in Irish.
  • Blennerville Windmill: located about 2 km outside the city, Ireland’s largest working windmill.
  • Tralee Aquadome: A large indoor water leisure complex with a miniature golf course.
  • Ballyseedy Wood: Located 2 km outside Tralee off the N21. It consists of 32 hectares of forest dating from the 16th century where Kerry County Council has developed public entrances on the north and south of wood with parking spaces and 4 km of gravel road winding roads. Ash, oak and beech is part of the wood are a number of ruins and folllies, dating from the 17th century, with the River Lee (Tralee from which derives its name) forming forests northern border. [14] [15]
  • Tralee Town Park : Tralee har en stadspark som ligger i centrum (mittemot Kerry County Museum) med en rosenträdgård som omfattar över 5000 rosor i olika sorter. Parken är platsen för den årliga Féile na mBláth / Tralee Garden Festival -. Fri midsommarhelgen festival omfattande trädgårds demonstrationer, blomsterarrangemang, trädgård turer, musikaliska och choral händelser bland andra aktiviteter, som anordnas av Tralee Town Council [16]

The Basin, Tralee Ship Canal

  • Tralee Bay Wetlands and natural reserve: Tralee Bay nature reserve is an area of great international importance. It covers about 2500 hectares (8000 acres) and extends from Tralee town westwards to Fenit Harbour and Cloghane, covering Tralee Bay, Brandon Bay and Magharees peninsula. It contains extensive mudflats on the eastern side, the beaches of Derrymore Island, dunes and lagoons in Magharees peninsula. Both the River Lee and Brandon (Owenmore) estuaries have large expanses of protected tidal flats, often rimmed with salt marsh vegetation. Wetlands Centre which opened in 2012 is designed as a microcosm of the wild nature reserve where visitors are introduced to the fresh and saltwater miljöer.Besökare can go on a safari boat ride through the recreated reeds and freshwater canals in the center. [17]
  • Tralee Ship Canal: Opened in 1846, this two-mil-long canal connecting the Tralee to Tralee Bay where it passes through the Blennerville Windmill. Dingle Way runs along the towpath of the canal.
  • Dingle Way (Irish: Sli Chorca Dhuibhne) A 162 km (101 mil) long marked National Trail which begins and ends in Tralee and usually within eight days.

Rose of Tralee

See also: Rose of Tralee (festival) and Rose of Tralee (vocals)

Rose of Tralee festival is an international event that is celebrated among Irish communities worldwide. The festival, which is held annually in August since 1959, takes its inspiration from a nineteenth century ballad of the same name about a woman named Mary, who because of their beauty called The Rose of Tralee. The competition, broadcast over two nights by RTÉ is one of the highest watched show on Irish TV with over a million people watching.

To celebrate the Rose of Tralee tradition, the Rose Garden in Tralee Town Park home to a life-size bronze statue of the original Rose of Tralee Mary O’Connor and author of the Rose of Tralee ballad William Pembroke Mulchinock sculpted by an Irish sculptor Jeanne Rynhart ( unveiled in 2009[18] ), as well as Rose Wall of Honour – a series of glass panels that will contain the name of each Rose who has participated in the festival since 1959 (unveiled in 2013 on the 55th anniversary of the Rose of Tralee International Festival). Both statues commissioned by Tralee Town Council.

archaeological sites

  • Casement Fort: an old Ring Fort where Roger Casement was hiding when arrested.
  • Sheela na Gig: now in the Christian Round Tower at Rattoo, Ballyduff, a few kilometers north of Tralee.
  • Monument to Saint Brendan the Navigator at Fenit: with reproductions of ancient Irish structures.
  • Caherconree: Iron Age Fort overlooking Tralee Bay

In addition to the above, a large number of archaeological sites around Tralee and throughout the county of Kerry, in particular ring forts, listed for preservation in the Kerry County Development Plan 2009-15. [19]

Media

  • The city has two local weeklies, the Kerryman and Kerry eye while Tralee Outlook and Tralee advertisers are also published every week.
  • The city has a commercial radio station, Radio Kerry, which started operations in 1990. Spin South West also has a studio on Castle Street, which opened in 2016
  • The city has a daily online news service, traleetoday.ie

Transport

Road

Tralee is served by National primary and secondary roads and local roads. A 13.5 km bypass Tralee consisting of dual and single carriageway was opened August 16, 2013. It connects four of the five main routes – the N21, N22, N69 and N70 -. Which ends in Tralee [20] [21]

N21 / N69 Tralee Bypass

National primary routes:

  • east / northeast to Limerick
  • Southeast Killarney and Cork

National secondary roads:

  • north to Listowel, Tarbert, Foynes and Limerick
  • southwest Killorglin, Ring of Kerry on the Iveragh Peninsula and Kenmare
  • west to Dingle

Regional roads:

  • north / northwest Tarbert via Ardfert, Ballyheigue, Ballybunion and Ballylongford
  • north to Abbeydorney (it links up with R551 to Ballybunion)
  • west to Fenit Harbour

Buss

The bus station in Tralee is a regional hub for Bus Eireann, which provide services to Dublin, Limerick, Galway, Cork, Killarney and Dingle. The existing bus station was opened on February 26, 2007. [22]

Several local lines radiate from Tralee and a number of them have had their frequency increased in recent years. local roads and 285 (Kerry Airport via Castle).

Rail

A train to Killarney railway station, Cork and Dublin Heuston operated by the national railway operator Iarnród Éireann. Tralee railway station was opened July 18 1859. [23]

There are connecting trains at Limerick Junction Clonmel train station and Waterford and Limerick, and the line to Ennis, Athenry, Oranmore and Galway.

The Tralee and Dingle Light Railway was once one of Europe’s most Western Railway when it opened March 31, 1891 connects Tralee and Dingle by train along the Dingle Peninsula before closing in June 1953. In 1993, a 3 km long stretch was opened as a preserved line between Aquadome Tralee and Blennerville Windmill. From 2013 this railway is no longer in operation. A train used to drive to Fenit Harbour from Tralee before closing in June 1978. Currently has restored a part of this railway as a walk / cycle way in Tralee town and it is hoped in the future that this will extend out to Fenit in line with the Great Southern Trail is in West Limerick.

Air

Kerry Airport, located 20 km from Tralee in Farranfore, providing air services to Dublin, London Luton, London Stansted, Frankfurt Hahn and seasonal, Alicante and Faro. Connecting trains run from Farranfore railway station to Tralee.

Hav

The local port for Tralee is Fenit, about 10 km west of the city on the north side of the estuary. Catering for ships of up to 17,000 tons, the port is a picturesque mixed-use harbor with fishing boats and a thriving marina (136 berths).

Healthcare

  • Kerry General Hospital: Opened in 1984 is the third largest acute hospitals in the Health Service Executive South Region. It serves as the largest hospital in County Kerry and also serves people in parts of the northern West Cork and Limerick.
  • Bon Secours Hospital: Founded in 1921 it is a private hospital owned by the Bon Secours Catholic sisters who provides health care to privately insured patients. It is part of denBonSecours Health System, the largest private hospital network in Ireland.

Training

Like all parts of Ireland, most schools at all levels in Tralee are managed and owned by the churches. Tralee Educate Together School is multidenominational, and neither owned nor managed by any church. At the secondary level, most schools are explicitly Catholic in ethos, except Gaelcholáiste Chiarraí.

primary level

  • CBS (CBS), Clounalour (Roman Catholic)
  • Gaelscoil Casement, Success Ronan (iriska – katolik)
  • Holy Family, Balloonagh (Roman Catholic)
  • Presentation Primary School (Sacred Heart), Castle Street (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Ita’s and St Joseph’s, Balloonagh (special needs – Catholic)
  • St Johns, Ashe Street (Church of Ireland)
  • St Johns, Balloonagh (Roman Catholic)
  • St Mary, Moyderwell (Roman Catholic)
  • Tralee Educate Together, Killeen (non-denominational)

secondary education

  • Brookfield College, Mona Valley (non-denominational)
  • Kerry secondary, Moyderwell (iriska)
  • Mercy Secondary School, Mounthawk (Roman Catholic)
  • Presentation Secondary School, Castle Street (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Ita’s and St Joseph’s, Balloonagh (special needs – Catholic)
  • Maria CBS (The Green) (Roman Catholic)
  • Coláiste Gleann LI Post Primary School (formellt Tralee Community College), Clash

third level

  • Institute of Technology, Tralee (ITT or IT Tralee) is the main third level institution in County Kerry. It was founded in 1977 as the Regional Technology, Tralee but got its present name in 1997. It has an enrollment of approximately 3,500 students in fields such as business, computers, science, technology and health. The Institute has two campuses- North Campus (opens in Dromtacker 2001) and south campus (opened in Clash 1977) which is about 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from each other.
  • Kerry College of Further Education (KCFE) is the premier provider of further education programs in Kerry. School offers a range of Level 5 and Level 6 programs on the NFQ.

Sport

Gaelic Athletic Association

  • Austin Stack Park is the most important Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) stadium in Tralee. The ground is named after Austin Stack, an Irish revolutionary and All-Ireland winning captain Kerry Gaelic football in 1904. It is located in the center of Tralee. It hosts many Kerry GAA home games, mostly football league matches and both league and championship hurling. The County Championship football and hurling finals are normally held here.
  • Austin Stacks GAA club based at the top of the mountain and is known for players like Mikey Sheehy, Ger Power, John O’Keeffe and Kieran Donaghy.
  • John Mitchels GAA club based in Boherbee and Camp Area in Tralee.
  • Kerins O’Rahilly’s GAA club based in Beach Road area of the city.
  • Na Gaeil GAA club based in the Oakpark area of Tralee.
  • St Patricks, Blennerville is a GAA club is located 1 km outside of Tralee but has one player catchment area in the city.
  • Tralee Parnell is a GAA club promoting underage hurling in Tralee.
  • Tralee IT GAA är GAA laget i Institute of Technology, Tralee .
  • Fitzgerald-Jones Handball Club is based at the Sports Complex in Tralee.
  • Tralee Mitchels and Tralee Celtic is previously GAA clubs.

Athletics

  • Tralee Harriers Athletics Club
  • Tralee Triathlon Club was formed in 1999.

Football

  • The Kerry District League is based in Mount Hawk Park, Tralee
  • Tralee Dynamos is Tralee chief football club, playing in the Kerry District League.
  • St. Brendan’s Park FC also play in the Kerry District League.
  • Spa Road FC
  • FC classic
  • CSKA Tralee
  • Shankill Athletic
  • Balloonagh FC
  • Tralee Athletic
  • valley Wanderers
  • Tralee Celtic
  • Mitchels Avenue
  • Strand Road FC

Rugby

  • Tralee Rugby Football Club ground in Ballyard.

Tennis

  • Tralee Tennis Club is based at Dan Spring Road.

Badminton

  • County Badminton Club meets in the Presentation High School gym.

Cricket

  • County Kerry Cricket Club

Greyhound Racing

  • Tralee Greyhound Racing har en arena på Brewery Road.

Biking

  • Chain Gang Cycling Club is a Tralee-based cycling club was founded in 2008.
  • Tralee Bicycle Club established in 1992.
  • Tralee Cycling Club, the oldest of the four was founded in 1953.
  • Kingdom Cycling Club

Basket

  • St. Brendan’s Basketball playing in the national leagues.
  • Tralee Imperial
  • Tralee tigers

Golf

  • Tralee Golf Club is based in Barrow and Arnold Palmer designed course is consistently voted one of the best links in the world.

Pitch and putt

  • Tralee Pitch och Putt Club ligger på Collis Sandes House i Killeen.

Rowing, sailing and swimming

  • Kingdom Swimming Club bygger på Sports Complex i Tralee.
  • Tralee Bay Sailing Club baserad i Fenit .
  • Tralee Rowing Club was founded in 2004 and is located in the basin.
  • Tralee Bay Swimming Club baserad i Fenit.

Notable people

Notes Tralee persons include:

  • (Saint) Brendan, monasteries saint and navigator
  • Danny Barnes, rugby player for Newcastle Falcons
  • Joe Barrett, footballer
  • Denis Behan. footballer
  • Daniel Bohan, footballer
  • Leonard Boyle, priest and scientist
  • Bryan Cooper , jockey
  • Billy Dennehy, soccer player
  • Darren Dennehy, soccer player
  • Kieran Donaghy, football
  • Ultan Dillane, rugby player for Connacht and Ireland
  • Michael Dwyer , journalist
  • Mike Finn, former Gaelic and Australian Rules football
  • Robert D. FitzGerald, surveyors, botanists
  • Rea Garvey, lead singer of Reamonn
  • Shane Guthrie, footballer
  • Christie Hennessy , singer / songwriter
  • Richard Johnson, president of the Irish High Court
  • Tracey K, musician
  • Barry John Keane, footballer
  • Richard Kelliher, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Joan Kennelly, photographer and founder of Kerry’s eye [24]
  • Padraig Kennelly, founder and editor of Kerry’s eye [24]
  • Joe Keohane, footballer
  • William Kirby, footballer
  • John Joseph Lee, an Irish historian and former senator
  • Gareth Mannix, sound engineer / producer
  • David Moran, footballer
  • Maurice Moynihan, Governor of Central Bank
  • Albert Ghearbhuigh not, poet
  • David O’Callaghan, footballer
  • Sean O’Callaghan, the Provisional IRA member
  • Graham O’Connell, footballer
  • Denis O’Donnell, businessman
  • Patrick Denis O’Donnell, military / historian (and known locally as Paddy, or PD)
  • Dan O’Keeffe, footballer
  • John O’Keeffe, footballer
  • Arthur O’Leary, composer and pianist
  • Aisling O’Sullivan, actor
  • John O’Sullivan, rugbyspelare
  • Provides Power, footballer
  • Declan Quill, footballer
  • Micheál Quirke, footballer
  • Boyle Roche, politician
  • Eric Roche, finger guitar
  • Billy Sheehan, footballer
  • Mikey Sheehy, footballer
  • Dan Spring, politicians, footballers and rugby players
  • Dick Spring, politicians, footballers and rugby players
  • Austin Stack, revolutionary and footballer
  • Barry John Walsh, footballer
  • Tommy Walsh, footballer

Twin

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Tralee is twinned with the following places:

  • Westlake , Ohio , USA [25]

Gallery

  • Dominick Street, Tralee
  • Ashe Memorial Hall
  • tralee Courthouse
  • Dominikanska Church of Holy Cross
  • Tralee from the International Space Station

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Kerry)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Banna Strand
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Tralee (UK parlamentvalkretsen)

References

  1. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – Population Classified by Table 6, the population of each province, county, city, urban, rural and selection division, in 2006 and 2011, p.97
  2. Jump up ^ “Legal Tralee Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  3. Jump up ^ genealogical and family history of northern New York
  4. Hoppa up^ http://www.historyireland.com/18th-19th-century-history/the-pikeman-of-tralee-a-tale-of-continuity-and-change/
  5. Jump up ^ Harris, Major Henry Edward David (1968). The Irish regiments in the First World War. Mercier Press. pp. 216-217 (Annex II).
  6. Hoppa upp^ http://www.focuskerry.com/james/canal.html
  7. Hoppa up^ http://www.askaboutireland.ie/learning-zone/primary-students/looking-at-places/kerry/kerry-transport/tralee-ship-canal/
  8. Jump up ^ http://debates.oireachtas.ie/dail/1999/01/27/00439.asp
  9. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  10. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  11. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  12. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  13. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  14. Hoppa upp^ http://www.ballygarryhouse.com/ballyseedy-wood.html
  15. Hoppa up^ http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/greening-communities/going-greener/biodiversity/biodiversity-woodland-dev/
  16. Jump up ^ http://townmaps.ie/tralee.html
  17. Hoppa upp^ http://www.traleebaywetlands.org/about.html
  18. Hoppa upp^http://www.independent.ie/regionals/kerryman/news/unveiling-of-statue-at-town-park-27386239.html
  19. Jump up ^ “Kerry County Council – County Development Plan 2009-2015”. Kerry County Council.
  20. Hoppa upp^http://www.kerrycoco.ie/en/allservices/roads/n22traleebypass/thefile,7358,en.pdf
  21. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dttas.ie/press-releases/2013/varadkar-welcomes-opening-%E2%82%AC97m-tralee-bypass
  22. Hoppa upp^ http://www.transport.ie/viewitem.asp?id=8863&lang=ENG&loc=2137
  23. Jump up ^ “Tralee station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 4 September of 2007.
  24. ^ Jump up to: ab Lucey, Anne (23 May 2011). “Former editor of” Kerry Eyes “die”. The Irish Times. Be checked out three June 2011.
  25. Jump up ^ “Tralee twins with Westlake, Ohio -“. The town of Tralee.

Skellig Michael

Skellig Michael (Irish: Sceilig Mhichil ), also called the large Skellig (Irish:Sceilig Mhor ), is the larger of the two Skellig Islands, 11.6 km (7.2 mi) west of the Iveragh Peninsula igrevskapet Kerry. Ireland [2] A Christian monastery was founded on the island sometime between the 6th and 8th century and remained continuously occupied until it was abandoned in the late 12th talet.Resterna of the monastery, and most of the island, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site 1996. [2]

History

Pre-monastiska

Skellig Michael was uninhabited before the monastery was founded. [2]Folklore claims that Ir, son mil Espáine, was buried on the island, and a text from the 8th or 9th century claim that Duagh, King of West Munster, fled to ” Scellecc “after a dispute with Kings of Cashel, although it is not known whether the events actually occurred. [3]

Monastiska

The monastery date of foundation is not known. [3] The first definite reference to the monastery activity on the island is a record of death “Suibhini of Skelig” dating from the 8th century; However, Saint Fionán allegedly founded the monastery in the 6th century.

Kloster location on the island is on a terraced shelf 600 feet (180 meters) above sea level, and develops between the sixth and eighth centuries. It contains six beehive cells, tvåOratories well as a number of stone crosses and plates. It also includes a later medieval church. The cells and oratories are all dry corbel-built construction. A carefully designed system of collection and treatment of water in cisterns developed. It has been estimated that no more than twelve monks and an abbot lived here at one time. [4] The State Hermitage Museum is at the southern tip.

The diet of the monks who live in the North Atlantic islands were somewhat different than those who lived on the mainland. With less arable land to grow grain, vegetable gardens became an important part of monastic life. Of necessity, fish and meat and eggs of birds nesting on the islands became staples. [5]

The “Annals of Inisfallen” play a Viking attack in 823. The place was dedicated to St Michael with at least 1044 (when the dead “Aedh of Scelic-Mhichí” record). [1] [3] However, this commitment may have occurred as early as 950, around which time a new church was added to the monastery (typically done to celebrate an inauguration) called St. Michael’s church. [2]

The monastery remained continuously occupied until the 12th or 13th century. [2] During this time, the climate around the Skellig Michael became colder and more prone to storms, and this, together with changes in the structure of the Irish Church, announced the community to abandon island and move to the abbey in Ballinskelligs. [3]

Post-monastiska

Skellig Michael remained in the possession of the Catholic Canons Regular, until the dissolution of Ballinskelligs monastery during the Protestant Reformation of Elizabeth I in 1578. [2] [6] The ownership was then transferred to the Butler family with whom it stayed until the early 1820s when the Corporation for to maintain and improve the port of Dublin (the predecessor to the Commission of Irish Lights) bought the island from the John Butler Waterville in an expropriation. [3] [6], the Corporation constructed two lighthouses on the Atlantic side of the island, and their living quarters, all of which ended 1826th [1] the Office of Public Works took the remains of the monastery of guardianship in 1880, and repaired some collapsed structures, before buying the island (with the exception of lighthouses and associated structures) from the Commission of Irish Lights. [1] [2] [3]

World Heritage listing

Skellig Michael was made a World Heritage site in 1996, at the 20th session of the World Heritage Committee in Merida, Mexico. [7] After being nominated to be October 28, 1995, an evaluation of the site of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (an advisory body world Heritage ~~ POS = TRUNC), recommended that the island be enrolled on the basis of criteria (iii) and (iv) ivärldsarvslistan eligibility criteria, relating to the cultural importance of a website. [6] the Committee approved this recommendation, describes Skellig Michael of ” exceptional universal value “and a” unique example of an early religious settlement “, while noting the site’s conservation as a result of its” unique environment “, and its ability to illustrate” that no other place can the extreme Christian monasteries characterizes large parts of North Africa, the Middle East and Europe. ” [7]

Services and activities

Every year 13 boat licenses granted to tour operators [ citation needed ] that run tours to the Skellig Michael in the summer season (May to October, inclusive), weather permitting. For safety reasons, because the steps up to the monastery is rocky, steep and old, climbing is not allowed under very wet or windy weather. There are diving sites immediately around the mountain.[8]

popular culture

  • The acclaimed 1969 BBC documentary Civilization: a personal view by Kenneth Clark featured a short segment on the use of Skellig Michael in the first episode.
  • Skellig Michael is with the second episode of the BBC documentary series A History of Christianity .
  • The island served as a place for the final scene in Heart of Glass by Werner Herzog.
  • The island served as a filming location for the final scene of Star Wars: The Force wakes . [9] [10] It was also used for the next film in the series,Star Wars: Episode VIII . [11] This caused concern [12] because of the importance of the site as a special protection [13] for its colonies of puffins, Manx Shearwater and storm petrel.
  • Skellig Michael is a great influence on the fictional Skellige in the award-winning series The Witcher , which has similar landmarks and the islands, and the inhabitants of which share a culture and accent with that of the Gaels. [ Citation needed ]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • medieval portal
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Kerry)
  • List of World Heritage in Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd Edward Bourke; Alan R. Hayden; . Ann Lynch “Skellig Michael Co. Kerry: Monastery and South Peak “(PDF). Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). “Skellig Michael.” UNESCO. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abcdef Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht.”Skellig Michael: Historical Background”. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “Skellig” pin Kerry
  5. Hoppa upp^ Horn, Walter, Jenny Vit Marshall, och Grellan D. RourkeThe Forgotten Hermitage av Skellig Michael , Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0520064102
  6. ^ Jump up to: abc International Council on Monuments and Sites (October 1996). “The World Heritage List: Skellig Michael” (PDF).International Council on Monuments and Sites. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab World Heritage Committee. (10 March 1997), “Convention on the World Cultural and Natural Heritage” (PDF). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. pp. 68thRetrieved 31 May 2012.
  8. Jump up ^ “Diving around Skellig Michael” Ballinskelligs Water , http: //www.skelligboats.com/diving.htm, accessed October 27, 2010
  9. Jump up ^ O’Sullivan, Majella (29 July 2014). “And … Action! New ‘Star Wars’ movie recording starts at Skellig Michael. ” Irish Independent.Independent News & Media. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  10. Jump up ^ Gettell, Oliver (4 January 2016). “JJ Abrams can not believe he did shoot at Skellig Michael.” Entertainment Weekly . Taken six januari2016.
  11. Jump up ^ Breznican, Anthony (9 September 2015). “Updated: Star Wars: Episode VIII will shoot in Ireland this month.” Entertainment Weekly . (Entertainment Weekly). Collect nine July september2015.
  12. Jump up ^ Siggins, Lorna (13 February 2016). “Concerns about the” incidents “in the” Star Wars “filming on Skellig Michael.” IrishTimes.com. Irish Times .Hämtad February 15, 2016.
  13. Jump up ^ “National Parks and Wildlife Service.” National Parks & Wildlife Service .

The Skellig Islands

The Skellig Islands (Irish: Na Scealaga ), once known as “Skellocks,” are two small, steep and rocky islands located about 13 km west of Bolus Head on the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The larger of the two isSkellig Michael (also known as Great Skellig ) and together with Little Skellig, is at the center of a 364 hectare (900 acre) Important Bird Area established by BirdWatch Ireland in 2000. [1] Skellig Michael is also known for an early Christian monastery that is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Little Skellig

Main article: Little Skellig

The smaller of the two islands is Little Skellig ( Sceilg Bheag in Irish). [2] (grid reference V268618) It is closed to the public, and as is Ireland’s largest gannet ( Morus anus ) colony with almost 30 thousand pairs, it is also one of the world’s largest, and is of international importance. [3] the island is 134 meters high and is about 1.5 kilometers east-northeast of Skellig Michael.

Skellig Michael

Main article: Skellig Michael

Also known as Great Skellig ( Sceilg Mhichil in Irish [4] ), this is the larger of the two islands, with two peaks rising to over 230 meters above sea level.With a sixth century Christian monastery perched at 160 meters above sea level on a ledge near the top of the lower peak, Great Skellig is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

BirdWatch Ireland were concerned that the Irish government must shoot at a seabird sanctuary without the third party’s consent. During the 2014 nesting season, kittiwakes were chicks in nests swept into the sea by the downdraft from a helicopter and devoured by seagulls. [5] [6]

Wildlife

Both of the Skellig islands are known for their seabird colonies, and together comprise one of the most important seabird sites in Ireland, both for the population size and the diversity of species. Among nesting birds are storm petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ), gannets, fulmars ( Fulmarus glacialis ), the Manx Shearwater ( Puffinus Puffinus ), kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla ) guillemots ( Uria aalge ), Razorbill ( Alca torda ) and puffin ( Fratercula arctica ) ( with 4000 or more puffins on Great Skellig only). chough (pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax ) and Peregrine ( Falco peregrinus ) can also be seen.

The surrounding waters are rich in wildlife with many gray seal ( Halichoerus grypus ). Basking shark ( Cetorhinus maximus ), minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ), Dolphins (Delphinidae), beaked whales and leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) have also been recorded. The islands have many interesting recreational diving sites because of the clear water, an abundance of sea life, underwater cliffs down to 60 meters (200 feet).

Gallery

  • SE landing on Great Skellig
  • Skellig Michael
  • Little Skellig
  • Little Skellig seen frånSkellig Michael
  • The beehive-style huts on Skellig Michael

popular culture

Skellig Islands prominently in a sequence at the end of 1976 the German filmHerz aus Glas ( Heart of Glass ) by Werner Herzog.

Irish group Clannad wrote a song “Skellig” for their 1987 album Sirius .

Canadian singer / songwriter Loreena McKennitt wrote the song “Skellig” for her 1997 album, The Book of Secrets.

The title character in 1998 children’s book Skellig by David Almond is named after islands.

Tristan Jones, in his sailing / travel novel ICE! , Writes about a visit to the Skellig Islands route from England to North America in 1961. [7]

The final scene in Star Wars: The Force wakes shot at Skellig in July 2014 with additional recording is done in September 2015. The remains of Skellig Michael monastery appears in the film, which corresponds to an old Jedi.Temple [8] [9]

Skellig Islands has also inspired Skellige Archipelago in The Witcher novels and video games.

The Japanese manga Berserk mention the Skellig Islands where the fictional kingdom of fairies, Elfhelm located.

1969 BBC television documentary, ‘Civilisation: a personal view from Kenneth Clark “(episode 1) Skellig Michael and its monastery as an example of how, during the Dark Ages” [For] over a hundred years, Western Christianity survived by clinging to places like this. ”

References

  1. Jump up ^ BirdWatch Ireland. “The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig” .Birdlife International. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ logainm.ie
  3. Jump up ^ “Little Skellig, Co. Kerry.” BirdWatch Ireland. Hämtad19 September 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ logainm.ie
  5. Jump up ^ Star Wars: Habitats Directive “infringed” on Skellig Michael , The Irish Times, 17 December 2015
  6. Jump up ^ “Jedi threat to seabirds.” New Scientist. 227 (3039): 7. 19 September 2015.
  7. Jump up ^ “ICE” by Tristan Jones ISBN 0-7592-0772-0
  8. Jump up ^ O’Sullivan, Majella (29 July 2014). “And … Action! New ‘Star Wars’ movie recording starts at Skellig Michael. ” .Independent Irish Independent News & Media. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  9. Jump up ^ “BirdWatch Ireland have great concern about the Star Wars film on Skellig Michael.” BirdWatch Ireland. 8 September 2015.Hämtadnitton September 2015.

Daniel O’Connell

Daniel O’Connell ( Irish : Dónall Ó Conaill , 6 aug 1775 – 15 Maj 1847), ofta kallad The Liberator [1] eller den Emancipator , [2] var en irländsk politisk ledare under första halvan av 19-talet. Han kämpade för katolska frigörelse -inklusive rätten för katoliker att sitta i Westminster parlamentet , förnekade i över 100 år-och avskaffandet av Act of Union som kombinerade Storbritannien och Irland .

early life

O’Connell was born on Carhan near Cahersiveen, County Kerry, the O’Connells of Derrynane once a wealthy Roman Catholic family, who had been deprived of their lands. Among his uncles, Daniel Charles, Count O’Connell, an officer in the Irish Brigade in the French army. A famous aunt was Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill, while Sir James O’Connell, 1st Baronet, was his younger brother. Under the patronage of his wealthy bachelor uncle, Maurice “Hunting Cap” O’Connell, he studied at Douai in France and was adopted as a lawyer tillLincolns Inn in 1794, transferring to Dublin’s King’s Inns two years later. In his early years, he became familiar with the pro-democracy groups of the time and undertook to bring equal rights and religious tolerance to his own country. [3]

While in Dublin studying for the law, was O’Connell in his uncle Maurice instructions not to engage in any militia activity. NärWolfe Tone’s French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay in December 1796, O’Connell found himself in a dilemma. Politics was the cause of his unsettlement. [4] Dennis Gwynn in hisDaniel O’Connell: The Irish Liberator suggest unsettlement was because he was enrolled as a volunteer to defend the government, but the government was intensifying its persecution of the Catholic population he was one. [4] he wanted to get into parliament, but every contribution that Catholics had been led to predict, two years earlier, was now flatly veto. [4]

As a law student O’Connell was aware of their own talents, but the higher ranks of the Bar was closed for him. He read the Jockey Club as an image of the ruling class in England and was persuaded by that, “Vice reigns triumphant in the English court on this day. The spirit of freedom shrinks to protect property from attacks by French innovators. The corrupt higher order tremble for their wicked pleasures. ” [4]

O’Connell studies at the time had concentrated on the legal and political history of Ireland, and the debates in the Historical Society relevant items of governments, and from this he would stop, according to one of his biographers “in Ireland throughout government policy was to suppress the people and for maintaining domination by a privileged and corrupt minority.” [4]

On January 3, 1797 in an atmosphere of alarm over the French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay, he wrote to his uncle says he was the last of his colleagues to join the volunteer corps and “to be young, active, healthy and the only thing he could offer no reasonable excuse. [5] Later that month, for the benefit of convenience, he joined the lawyer’s Artillery Corps. [6]

On 19 May 1798 O’Connell was called to the Irish Bar and became a lawyer.Four days later, the United Irishmen staged their rebellion was put down by the British with great blodspillan.O’Connell did not support the uprising; he believed that the Irish would have to assert themselves politically rather than by force.

He went on the Munster circuit, and for over a decade, he went into a fairly quiet period of private law practice in the south of Ireland. [3] He is said to have the highest income of any Irish lawyer but because of the natural extravagance and a growing family , usually in debt his brother remarked caustically that Daniel was in debt all his life from seventeen years ålder.Även if he was ultimately inherit Derrynane from his uncle Maurice, the old man lived to be almost 100 and the Daniels legacy not cover their liabilities.

He also condemned Robert Emmet’s rebellion of 1803 Emmet, a Protestant, he wrote: “. A man who coolly could prepare so much bloodshed, so many murders and such horrors of all kinds have ceased to be an object of compassion. ” [7]

Despite his opposition to the use of violence, he was willing to defend those accused of political crimes, especially if he suspected that they had been falsely accused, as iDoneraile conspiracy trials in 1829, his last notable court appearance. He was noted for his fearlessness in court: if he thought poorly of a judge (which was very often the case), he had undoubtedly make this clear. Most famous perhaps was his reply to Baron McClelland, who had said that a lawyer he would never have taken the course O’Connell had adopted: O’Connell said McClelland had never been his model as a lawyer, nor would he take directions. from him as a judge [8] He did not lack the ambition to become a judge for yourself: in particular, he was attracted by the position of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, but even if he was offered it more than once, finally refused.

Campaign for Catholic emancipation

O’Connell returned to politics in the 1810s. In 1811 he founded the Catholic Board, who fought for Catholic emancipation, that is, the ability of Irish Catholics to become MPs. In 1823 he founded the Catholic Association, which included other aims to better Irish Catholics, such as: electoral reform, reform of the Church of Ireland., Tenants’ rights and economic development [9]

The association is funded by membership dues of one penny per month, a minimum amount designed to attract Catholic peasants. Subscription was very successful, and the association took up a large amount of money in its first year. The money was used to campaign for Catholic emancipation, especially finance pro-liberation of parliament (MPs) who represent the British House of Commons. [10]

Members of the association were subject to prosecution under an eighteenth-century law, and the Crown moved to suppress the compound through a series of prosecutions, with mixed success. O’Connell often briefed for the defense, and showed extraordinary force in pleading the rights of Catholics to argue for emancipation. He clashed repeatedly with William Saurin, the Attorney General for Ireland and the most influential figure in the Dublin administration and political differences between the two men driven by a bitter personal antipathy. [11]

In 1815 a serious event in his life occurred. Dublin Corporation was considered a stronghold of the Protestant Ascendancy and O’Connell, in a 1815 speech referred to it as a “beggarly company”. [12] Its members and leaders were outraged and because O’Connell would not apologize, a of their number, the noted DUELLIST John D’Esterre, challenged him. The duel had filled Dublin Castle (from which the British government administered Ireland) with eager excitement at the prospect that O’Connell would be killed. They regarded O’Connell as “worse than a public nuisance”, and would have welcomed any prospect of seeing him off at this point. [13]

O’Connell met D’Esterre and mortally wounded him (he was shot in the hip, the ball then accommodation in the stomach), in a duel in Oughterard, County Kildare. His conscience was bitterly hurt by the fact that not only had he killed a man, but he had left his family nearly destitute. [14]

O’Connell offered to “share their income” with D’Esterre’s widow, but she declined; However, she agreed to accept a compensation for his daughter, who O’Connell regularly paid for more than thirty years until his death. The memory of the duel haunted him for the rest of his life, and he refused ever to fight another, are prepared to risk accusations of cowardice rather than kill again. [13]

As part of his campaign for Catholic Emancipation, O’Connell created the Catholic Association in 1823; This organization acted as a pressure group against the British government in order to achieve liberation. The Catholic Fair, which was formed in 1824 by O’Connell and the Catholic Church collected funds O’Connell could help to finance the Catholic Association in its push for emancipation. Official opinion gradually turn toward liberation, as evidenced by the dismissal of William Saurin, the Attorney General and a bigoted opponent of religious tolerance, which is O’Connell called “our mortal enemy.”

O’Connell stood in a by-election to the British House of Commons in 1828 for County Clare for a seat vacated by William Vesey Fitzgerald, another supporter of the Catholic Association.

After O’Connell won the election, he was unable to take their place as members of parliament had to take the Oath of Supremacy, which was incompatible with Catholicism. The Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington, and Interior Minister SirRobert Peel, although they opposed the Catholic participation in parliament, saw that denying O’Connell his seat would cause outrage and could lead to another rebellion or insurrection in Ireland, which was about 85% Catholic . [15]

Peel and Wellington managed to convince George IV that Catholic emancipation and the rights of Catholics and Presbyterians and members of all other than the established Christian religions Church of Ireland to sit in parliament needed to be established; using Whigs, it became law 1829th

However, the emancipation of the law is not made retroactive, which means that O’Connell had either to seek re-election or try to take oath of supremacy. When O’Connell tried of 15 May to take place without taking oath of supremacy, [16] Solicitor General Nicholas Conyngham Tindal moved his seat declared vacant and ordered another election; O’Connell was elected unanimously July 30, 1829. [17]

He took his place when Parliament resumed in February 1830 when Henry Charles Howard, 13, the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Surrey, has already become the first Catholic to have taken advantage of the Emancipation Act and sit in Parliament. [18] [19]

“Wellington is the King of England”, King George IV once complained, “O’Connell is king of Ireland, and I’m just dean of Windsor.” Regal chaff expressed admiration for O’Connell at the height of his career.

The Catholic liberation campaign led by O’Connell served as a precedent and model for the emancipation of British Jews, the subsequent Act Jews Relief 1858 allowing Jewish MPs to omit the words of the oath of allegiance “and I make this statement on the true faith of a Christian” . [20]

tithe War

Ironically, considering O’Connell’s commitment to peaceful methods of political agitation, [21] his greatest political achievement ushered in a period of violence in Ireland. There was an obligation for those who work in the country to support the established church ( ie , the United Church of England and Ireland) through payments called tithing. The fact that the vast majority of those working the land in Ireland was Catholic or Presbyterian tenants, supporting what was a minority religion in this island (but not in the UK as a whole), had caused tensions for some time. [22]

In December 1830, he and several others tried to hold a meeting of an association or assemblages in violation of the orders of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but the charter expired in connection with the judgment and the prosecution ended the judiciary. [23]

Initially peaceful campaign for non-payment turned violent in 1831 when the newly formed Irish Constabulary were used to seize property in lieu of payment will result in the tenth War of 1831-1836.

Also in contrast to the use of force, O’Connell successfully defended participants in the Battle of Carrickshock and all the accused were acquitted.Yet William O’Connell rejected Sharman Crawford’s call for the complete abolition of the tenth year, 1838, because he felt that he could embarrass the Whigs (the Lichfield House Compact secured an alliance between Whigs, radicals and Irish MPs in 1835). [22]

In 1841 Daniel O’Connell became the first Catholic mayor of Dublin since the reign of James II, who had been the last Catholic monarch of England, Ireland and Scotland. [3]

Campaign for the repeal of the Union

After Catholic Emancipation was achieved, O’Connell campaign for the repeal of the Act of Union, which in 1801 had merged parliamentary Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland to bildaFörenade Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. To push for repeal, O’Connell set up the Repeal Association. He argued for the re-creation of an independent Kingdom of Ireland to govern itself, with Queen Victoria, Queen of Ireland.

To promote this, he held a series of “Monster Meetings” during a large part of Ireland outside the Protestant and Unionist-dominated province of Ulster. [24]The so-called because each attended by around 100,000 people. These meetings concerned the British government and the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, banned one such proposed monster meeting at Clontarf, County Dublin, just outside Dublin in 1843. This move was made after the biggest monster held at Tara.

Tara was of great importance for the Irish population as it was the historic seat of högkung. Clontarf was symbolic because of its connection with the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, when the Irish king Brian Boru defeated his rival Maelmordha, although Brian himself died during the battle. Despite pleas from his supporters, O’Connell refused to defy the authorities and he was called off the meeting because he was unwilling to risk bloodshed and had no other. [3] He was arrested on charges of conspiracy and sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of £ 2000, although he was released after three months, the House of Lords, which overturned the judgment and severely criticized the unfair trial. After having deprived himself of his most potent weapon, the monster meeting, O’Connell with his health failing had no plan and discord broke out in the Repeal Association. [3]

Legacy

O’Connell died of softening of the brain (cerebral softening) in 1847 in Genoa, Italy, while on a pilgrimage to Rome at the age of 71, his time in prison had seriously weakened him, and the terrible cold weather he endured on his journey was probably the last battle. According to his last wishes, his heart was buried in Rome (in Sant’Agata dei Goti, when the chapel of the Irish College), and the rest of his body in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin, during a round tower. His sons are buried in its crypt.

On August 6, 1875 Charles Herbert Mackintosh won gold and silver medals offered by the St. Patrick’s Society during O’Connell centenary of Major’s Hill Park in Ottawa, Ontario for a prize poem entitled The Irish Liberator . [25]

O’Connell’s philosophy and career have inspired leaders across the world, including Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) and Martin Luther King (1929-1968).He was told by William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863) “You have done more for your nation than any man since Washington ever done.” William Gladstone (1809-1898) described him as “the greatest popular leader the world has ever seen. “Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) wrote that” Napoleon and O’Connell were the only big men 19th century had ever seen. “Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné (1794-1872) wrote that” the only man as Luther in the power he brought was O’Connell. “William Grenville (1759-1834) wrote that” history will speak of him as one of the most remarkable men that ever lived.”O’Connell met, befriended, and became a great source of inspiration for Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) a former American slave who became a very influential leaders of the abolitionist movement, a social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. [26] [27] O ‘ Connell attacks against slavery made with his usual force, and often gave great offense, particularly in the US, he called George Washington a hypocrite, and challenged to a duel by Andrew Stevenson, the American minister, he was reported to have called a slave breeders.

But the founder of the Irish Labour Party and executed Easter Rising leader James Connolly, devoted a chapter in his 1910 book “Labour in Irish History” entitled “A chapter of horrors. Daniel O’Connell and the working class “in which he criticized O’Connell parliamentary record, accusing him of siding consistently with the interests of the propertied classes in the UK. [28] And Patrick Pearse, Connolly, sister leaders of the Easter Rising, wrote:” The leaders in Ireland almost always left people in the critical moment (…) O’Connell flinched before the cannon at Clontarf “but adding” I do not blame these men .. you or I could have done the same, it’s a terrible responsibility, founded on a man, that the bidding cannon speak and grape pour “. [29]

In O’Connell lifetime goals for his Repeal Association -An independent Kingdom of Ireland governing itself but to keep the British monarch as its head of state-proved too radical for the British government of the time to receive, and brought over O ‘Connell persecution and oppression.

O’Connell is known in Ireland as “The Liberator” or “The Great Emancipator” for his success in achieving Catholic Emancipation. O’Connell admired Latin American liberator Simón Bolívar, and one of his sons, Morgan O’Connell, was a volunteer officer in Bolívar’s army in 1820, aged 15. [30] The main street in the center of Dublin, previously called Sackville Street, renamed O’Connell Street in his honor in the early 20th century after the irish free state came into being. [31] his statue (made by sculptor John Henry Foley, who also designed the sculptures of the Albert Memorial in London) stands at one end of the street , with a statue of Charles Stewart Parnell at the other end. [32]

The main street in Limerick is also named after O’Connell, also with a statue at the end (in the middle of the Crescent). O’Connell Street is also in Ennis, Sligo, Athlone, Kilkee, Clonmel ochWaterford.

There is a statue that honors O’Connell outside St Patrick’s Cathedral in Melbourne, Australia, which until the 1950s, the Archdiocese of Melbourne was almost entirely composed of Irish immigrants and Australians of Irish descent. [33] There is a museum in memory him in Derrynane House, near the village of Derrynane, County Kerry, who once owned by his family. [34] He was a member of the literary Association of the Friends of Poland as well. [35]

Family

In 1802, O’Connell married his third cousin, Mary O’Connell. It was a love marriage, and to persevere in it was an act of great courage, because Daniel’s uncle Maurice was upset (as Mary had no fortune) and for a time threatened to destroy them. [36] They had four daughters (three survivors ), Ellen (1805-1883), Catherine (1808), Elizabeth (1810), and Richard (1815), and four sons.The sons- Maurice (1803), Morgan (1804), John (1810), and Daniel (1816) -All sat in Parliament. The marriage was happy and Mary’s death in 1837 was a blow from which her husband never fully recovered. He was a devoted father;O’Faolain suggest that despite his broad acquaintance he had few close friends and therefore the family circle meant a lot to him. [37]

Connection with the licensed trade

O’Connell assisted her younger son, Daniel, junior, to acquire Phoenix Brewery in James Street, Dublin, 1831. [38] The brewery produced a brand known as “O’Connell’s Ale” and enjoyed some popularity. By 1832, O’Connell was forced to conclude that he would not be a political patron of the brewing trade or his son’s company until he was no longer a Member of Parliament, especially because O’Connell and Arthur Guinness was political enemies.Guinness was “moderate” liberal candidate, O’Connell was “radical” liberal candidate. The rivalry caused tens Irish companies to boycott Guinness in 1841 Repeal election. It was at this time that the Guinness was accused of supporting the “Orange” system, and its beer was known as the “Protestant porter”. When O’Connell family left was bridged rights to “O’Connell Dublin Ale” sold to John D’Arcy. The brewing business proved unsuccessful however, and after some years was taken over by the chief, John Brennan, while Daniel junior embraced a political career. Brennan changed the name back to Phoenix Brewery but continued to brew and sell O’Connell’s Ale. When the Phoenix Brewery was effectively closed after being absorbed in the Guinness complex in 1909, was the brewing of O’Connell’s Ale conducted by John D’Arcy and Son Ltd at the Anchor Brewery in Usher Street. In 1926 D’Arcy ceased trading and the firm of Watkins, Jameson and Pim worn on the bridge until they succumbed to the pressure of trying to compete with Guinness. [39] [40]

Daniel junior was chairman of the licensed trade association for the period and provided significant and valuable support to Daniel O’Connell in his public life. Some time later there was an altercation and O’Connell turned his back on the association and became a strong advocate of temperance.During the period, Fr. Mathew is total abstinence crusade many temperance meetings held, the most notable being a huge rally held in St. Patrick’s Day, 1841. Daniel O’Connell was a guest of honor at another such rally held at the rotunda hospital. [40] [41]

Comments to liberation

O’Connell is on the left edge of the painting of the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention. [42] Move the cursor to identify him or click on the icon to enlarge

Michael Doheny, in his The Felon Track , says that a lot of character liberation has adopted an ” exaggerated and false cover story ” and that it is wrong to call it liberation. He agreed that it was neither the first nor the last or even the most important of the concessions have the right to the name of liberation, and no one remembered the men whose efforts ” wrung from the reluctant spirit of a much darker time the right to live, to worship , to enjoy the property, and exercising the franchise . ” [43] Doheny said that the penalties for” criminal laws “had long been abolished and barbaric code had been compressed in the cold and sluggish exclusivity and yet Mr. O’Connell monopolized all of its notoriety. [43] the position that John Mitchel, also one of the leading members of the Young Ireland movement, in his “Jail Journal,”[44] was that there were two distinct movements in Ireland during this period, which awaken the people, was a Catholic relief Agitation (led by O’Connell), who were both open and legal, the other was the secret society known as the ribbon and white-boy movements. [45] first proposed the inclusion of professional and distinguished Catholics to Parliament and honor of the profession, all under British law the other, originating in an utter horror and defiance of British law, considered nothing less than a social, and ultimately, a political revolution. [45] According to Mitchel, for fear that the latter, UK with a “very ill grace gave to the first.” Mitchel agree that Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington said they brought in this action, in order to avoid civil war; but says that “no British statesman ever tell the official truth, or assign any act its real motive.” [45] Their real motive was, according to Mitchel, to buy into the British interests, landed and educated Catholics, these “respectable Catholics” would then be satisfied, and “become West Brits” from that day. [45]

Political commitment and programs

“Daniel O’Connell: The Champion of Liberty” poster published iPennsylvania, 1847

A critic of violent insurrection in Ireland , O’Connell once said that “the altar of freedom falters when it tough only with blood” and even as late as 1841, O’Connell had whipped his MPs in line to hold the “Opium War” going In China. Territories at the time had proposed a motion of censure on the war, and O’Connell had to call on their MPs to support the Whig government. As a result of this intervention, the Government was saved. [46]

Politically, he focused on parliamentary and populist methods to force change and made regular declarations of their loyalty to the British crown.He often warned British establishment that if they do not reform the governance of Ireland, the Irish would start listening to “counsel of violent men.” Successive British governments continued to ignore this advice, long after his death, although he managed to get out of sheer force and power of the Catholic peasants and priests much of what he wanted, ie , eliminating disability Catholics; ensure the legally elected Catholics could serve their constituencies in the British Parliament (until the Irish Parliament was restored); and amending allegiance to remove clauses offensive to Catholics who could then take the oath in good conscience. [3]

Although a native speaker of Irish, O’Connell encouraged Irish people to learn English better themselves. [3] Although he is best known for the campaign for Catholic emancipation; He also supported similar efforts for Irish Jews. At his insistence, in 1846, the British law “The Judaismo” which prescribed a special dress for Jews, was repealed. O’Connell said :. “Ireland has debts on your old race, is the only country that I know of unsullied by any act of persecution of the Jews” [47]

O’Connell citat

  • “The altar of freedom falters when it tough only with blood” [Written in his Journal, Dec. 1796 and one of O’Connell’s most famous quotes.Quoted by O’Ferrall, F., Daniel O’Connell , Dublin, 1981, p.12]
  • “Gentlemen, you may soon have the option to live as slaves or die as free men” (speaking in Mallow)
  • “Oh my God, what a brute you get when ignorant and oppressed. Oh Freedom! What horrors are committed in thy name! May every virtuous revolutionary remember the horrors of Wexford ‘! [Written in his Journal, January 2, 1799, with reference to the latest 1798 Rebellion.Quoted from Vol I, p. 205 of O’Neill Daunt, WJ, personal memories of the late Daniel O’Connell , MP, 2 vols, London, 1848.]
  • “My days-flowers of my youth and the prime of my manhood-has been obscured by the boredom of slavery. In this land of my birth-in the land of my fathers-I is destroyed without fault as a stranger and an outcast. “[July 1812, aged 37, to reflect on the failure to ensure equal rights or Catholic Emancipation of Catholics in Ireland. Quoted from Vol I, p.185 O’Connell, J. (ed.), The Life and Speeches of Daniel O’Connell , 2 Vols, Dublin, 1846)]
  • “How cruel the penal laws that exclude me from a fair trial with the men that I consider so much my subordinates …”. [O’Connell correspondence, Letter No. 700, Vol II]
  • “… I want to make the whole of Europe and America knows it-I want to make England feel her weakness, she refuses to give justice we [Irish]-demand restoration of our national parliaments …”. [Speech at a “monster” meeting in Drogheda, June 1843]
  • “It is an utter ignorance of and indifference to the sufferings and hardship … What care they for us, provided we be submissive, paying taxes, providing recruits for the army and navy and bless champion who either despise or oppress or combine both? Apathy that exists Ireland respects is worse than the national antipathy they carry us. ” [Letter to TM Ray, 1839, in English attitudes towards Ireland (O’Connell correspondence, Vol VI, Letter No. 2588)]
  • “No one knows better than you do that the dominance of England is the only and blighting curse in this country. It is mara sitting on our energy, stops the pulsation of the heart of the nation and leave Ireland not gay vitality but horrid convulsions a troubled dream “. [Letter to Bishop Doyle, 1831 (O’Connell correspondence, Vol IV, Letter No. 1860)]
  • “The principle of my political life … is that all ameliorations and improvements in the political institutions may be obtained by persevering in a completely peaceful and legal course, and can not be obtained by force or if they could be obtained by force such funds to create more evil than cure, and leave the country worse than they found it. “[Writing in The Nation magazine 18 November 1843]
  • “No man was ever a good soldier, but the man who goes into battle determined to conquer, or not to come back from the battlefield (cheers). No other principle makes a good soldier. “O’Connell recalls spirited actions of Irish soldiers in Wellington’s army, at Monster meeting Mullaghmast. [48] [49]
  • “The poor old Duke [Wellington] What should I say about him? To be sure that he was born in Ireland, but to be born in a stable does not make a man a horse. ” Shaw Authenticated report of the Irish State Trials(1844), p. 93
  • “Every religion is good every religion is true to him in good care and conscience believe it.” (As a defender in R. v Magee (1813), calls for religious tolerance.) [50]
  • “Ireland is too poor for a bad team.” (In response to the Poor Law of 1839 sets up the workhouses.) [51]

See also

  • Ireland’s history (1801-1922)
  • Irish nobility
  • List of people on stamps of Ireland
  • Daniel O’Connell Heritage Summer School

Footnotes

  1. Jump up ^ “O’Connell, Daniel – Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City area.” Irish-society.org.
  2. Jump up ^ A Brief History of Ireland
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g. Boylan, Henry (1998) A Dictionary of Irish Biography (3rd ed.). Dublin: Gill och MacMillan. s. 306. ISBN 0-7171-2945-4 .
  4. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e Dennis Gywnn, Daniel O’Connell Den irländska Liberator , Hutchinson & Co. Ltd pg 71
  5. Jump up ^ O’Connell correspondence, Vol I, Letter No. 24a
  6. Hoppa upp^ O’Ferrall, F., Daniel O’Connell, Dublin , 1981, s. 12
  7. Jump up ^ O’Connell correspondence, Vol I, Letter 97
  8. Jump up ^ O’Faolain, Sean King of the Beggars- a life of Daniel O’Connell in 1936 Alan Figgis reissue p.97
  9. Jump up ^ Britain and the Irish question 1798-1922 , Paul Adelmann, Robert Pearce, Hodder Murray, London, ISBN 0-340-88901-2 .pg 33
  10. Jump up ^ Geoghegan, Patrick M. King Dan Gill and Macmillan 2008 Dublin p.168
  11. Jump up ^ O’Faolain pp.151-179
  12. Jump up ^ Solingen, John Gideon (1841). The history of duels: including, the stories of the most remarkable personal meetings that have taken place from the earliest period to the present, Volume second R. Bentley. p. 215.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Dennis Gywnn, Daniel O’Connell, the Irish Liberator , Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. pp 138-145
  14. Jump up ^ Geoghegan King Dan P155
  15. Jump up ^ Oliver MacDonagh, The Life of Daniel O’Connell in 1991
  16. Jump up ^ “This day, the 15th May in history jew”. Cleveland Jewish News.
  17. Jump up ^ History of Parliament 1820-1832 Vol VI, pp. 535-6.
  18. Jump up ^ History of Parliament 1820-1832 Vol Ip. 253rd
  19. Jump up ^ “The Grail Chapter Eight”. Deskeenan.com.
  20. Jump up ^ “Jews Relief Act 1858”. Legislation.gov.uk.
  21. Hoppa upp^ “Catholic Encyclopedia: Daniel O’Connell” . Newadvent.org .
  22. ^ Jump up to: ab Stewart, Jay Brown (2001). The national churches in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1801-1846. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 20-45. ISBN 0-19-924235-6.
  23. Jump up ^ State Trials (New Series) II, 629
  24. Jump up ^ “in favor of the repeal of the Union by Daniel O’Connell.Ireland (1775-1902). Vol. WE. Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The world’s most famous Orations “. Www.bartleby.com. Pulled 03/18/2016.
  25. Hoppa upp^Canadian Illustrated News 28 08 1875 vol.XII, nej. 9, 136 Library & Archives Kanada 3682 Canadian Illustrated News
  26. Jump up ^ Douglass, Frederick (1882). The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass: From 1817 to 1882. p. 205. Eight Retrieved December 2010.
  27. Jump up ^ Chaffin, Tom (25 February 2011). “Frederick Douglass Irish freedom.” The New York Times. Taken 26 februari2011.
  28. Jump up ^ James Connolly. “James Connolly: Labour in Irish History – Chapter 12”. Marxists.org.
  29. Jump up ^ Seán Cronin, our own red blood, the Irish Freedom Press, New York, 1966, pg.15
  30. Hoppa upp^Brian McGinn (November 1991). “Venezuelas irländska arv” . Irish America Magazine (New York) Vol. VII, nr XI. Hämtad 18 april 2007 .
  31. Jump up ^ Sheehan, Sean; Levy, Patricia (2001). Dublin’s Guide: travel guide. Footprint handbooks. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-900949-98-9.
  32. Jump up ^ Bennett, Douglas (2005). Encyclopedia of Dublin. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-7171-3684-1.
  33. Jump up ^ O’Farrell, Patrick (1977). The Catholic Church and the community in Australia. Thomas Nelson (Australia), West Melbourne.
  34. Jump up ^ “Derrynane House.” Derrynane House. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  35. Jump up ^ Marchlewicz K: Pro-Polish Loby in the lower house and upper house during the 1830s and 1840s. Przeglad Historyczny (Historical Review): 2005, vol: 96, number: 1 pages: 61-76
  36. Jump up ^ Geoghegan King Dan pp.94-7
  37. Jump up ^ O’Faolain p.87
  38. Hoppa upp^Irish Whiskey: En 1000-årig tradition , Malachy Magee, O’Brien Press, Dublin, ISBN 0-86278-228-7 . pg 68-74.
  39. Jump up ^ T. Halpin: The story of the Irish brewing industry, 1988
  40. ^ Jump up to: ab History of Brewing in Dublin
  41. Hoppa upp^ St Martin Magazine (ISSN 1393-1008) i juni 2003 St Martin apostolaten, Dublin
  42. Jump up ^ Association Convention, 1840 Anti-Slavery, Benjamin Haydon, 1841, National Portrait Gallery, NPG599, Given by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1880
  43. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b Michael Doheny s Den Felon Track , MH Gill & Son, Ltd., 1951, sid 2-4
  44. Jump up ^ John Mitchel’s Jail Journal which first aired as a series in his first New York newspaper The Citizen , from January 14, 1854 and August 19th 1854. The book referenced is an exact reproduction of Jail Journal , as it first seemed.
  45. ^ Jump up to: abcd John Mitchel, Prison Journal, or five years in British jails , MH Gill & Son, Ltd., 1914, pp XXXIV-XXXVI.
  46. Jump up ^ Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations With Carlyle (1892), with Introduction, Stray thoughts on Young Ireland , Brendan Clifford, Athol Books, Belfast, ISBN 0-85034-114-0 .pg 17 & 21
  47. Jump up ^ Jewish Ireland
  48. Jump up ^ Envoi, Taking Leave Roy Foster , Brendan Clifford and Julianne Herlihy, Aubane Historical Society, Cork.pg 16
  49. Jump up ^ Allen, Edward Archibald; William Schuyler (1901). David Josiah Brewer, ed. The world’s best orations: from the earliest period to the present. 8 . FP Kaiser. p. 3,101th Retrieved March 23 of 2010.
  50. Jump up ^ O’Faolain p.163
  51. Jump up ^ Angus McIntyre, “The Liberator Daniel O’Connell and the Irish Party 1830-1847”. Published London, 1965, pp. 211-18.

References

  • Fergus O’Ferrall, Daniel O’Connell (Gill irländska liv serien), Gill & MacMillan, Dublin, 1981.
  • Seán O’Faoláin , King of the Beggars: Ett liv i Daniel O’Connell , 1938.
  • Maurice R. O’Connell, korrespondens Daniel O’Connell (8 vol), Dublin, 1972-1980.
  • Oliver MacDonagh, O’Connell: Livet av Daniel O’Connell 1775-18471991.
  • J. O’Connell, red., Livet och Tal av Daniel O’Connell (2 vol), Dublin, 1846.
  • Sister Mary Francis Cusask, Life of Daniel O’Connell, the Liberator: His Times – political, social and religious. New York: D. & J. Sadlier & Co.1,872th
  • h-net.org

Cahersiveen

Cahersiveen [7] [8] (Irish: Cahersiveen , som betyder “Little Sophie’s STens Ringfort”) -alternate stavningar Cahirsiveen , Cahirciveen ellerCaherciveen -On en stop in Regionen Skellig Kerry, County Kerry, Irland.Det ligger på och är floden Fertha of Staden in Iveragh halvön viktigaste.Nara Cahersiveen Valentia Island och är är av ansluten till denirländska vägnätet N70 VAG. Den har på en befolkning 1294 (CSO 2006).

The Catholic Church in the city is the only one in Ireland named for a layman, Daniel O’Connell. It is located on the slopes of Beentee. [8] It also includes a utrangeradeRoyal Irish Constabulary barracks, now a heritage center, which according to legend was built from plans for a British barracks in India who got mixed up (a very common myth that occur in many Irish garrison towns).

Cahersiveen was where the first shots of the Fenian Rising kicked in in 1867.

schools

The towns of primary school Scoil Saidbhín opened in September 2015. This school is an amalgamation of Scoil Mhuire, boys school and St.Joseph’s Convent, girls’ primary school. There are four primary schools in total in the parish Cahersiveen, including schools in the outskirts of the city: Aghatubrid National School, Coars National School, and Foilmore National School. The Aghatubrid school was founded in 1964 and has about 88 students.

Cola ice tea Na Sceilge is co-ed school is located in Cahersiveen. Over 530 students attend Coláiste Na Sceilge. Students from around the Iveragh attend school. For students who are interested in speaking their mother tongue is a t-Aonad LAN Ghaeilge. It is an all Irish-speaking class for the first to third year students, where students do all their learning through Irish. In 2012/2013 there were 26 students enrolled in a t-Aonad LAN Ghaeilge. The school’s website is http://colaistenasceilge.ie/ You can find a list of the schools and their contact details at Coláiste Na Sceilge website.

People

  • Thomas O’Brien Butler, composer of the opera Muirgheis
  • Cornelius Casey, American football player
  • Sigerson Clifford, author and poet
  • Maurice Fitzgerald, football
  • Fionán Lynch , TD
  • John Robert Monsell, children’s book illustrator and author
  • John Murphy, founder of a construction contractor firm
  • Daniel O’Connell, 19th century Irish politician and champion of Catholic Emancipation and Repeal of the 1801 Act of Union
  • John O’Donoghue Previous TD
  • Hugh O’Flaherty, Monseigneur called Vatican scarlet pimpernel
  • Jack O’Shea, footballer
  • John O’Shea, CEO of GOAL humanitarian organization
  • Patrick O’Sullivan, railway author and historian.
  • Bernard O’Connor, footballer

Gallery

  • Gate på New Street
  • Cahersiveen barracks
  • Cahersiveen Main Street
  • Caherciveen, Main Street / O’Connell Street
  • Cahersiveen, O’Connell Street
  • Cahersiveen West Main Street

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Cahirciveen railway station

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-14.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  4. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab Ordnance Survey Ireland – Online map viewer

The Ring of Kerry

The Ring of Kerry (Irish: Mórchuaird Chiarraí ) is a 179 km long circular tourist route in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. Clockwise from Killarney follow the N71 to Kenmare, then N70 runtIveragh peninsula Killorglin – pass Sneem, Waterville, Cahersiveen and Glenbeigh – before returning to Killarney via the N72.

Popular points include Muckross House (near Killarney), Staigue stone fort and Derrynane House, home of Daniel O’Connell. Just south of Killarney, Ross Castle, Lough Leane, ochLadies View (panoramic viewpoint), all located in Killarney National Park, are major attractions located along the Ring. A more complete list of the major attractions along the Ring of Kerry include: Gap of Dunloe, Bog Village, Kerry Woollen Mills, Rossbeigh Beach, Cahersiveen Heritage Centre, Derrynane House, Skellig Experience, Staigue Fort, Kenmare Lace, Moll Gap, Ladies View, Torc Waterfall, Muckross House, the Blue Pool, Ross Castle, Ogham stones, St Mary’s Cathedral, Muckross Abbey, Franciscan Friary, Kellegy Church, O’Connell Memorial Church, Sneem Church and Cemetery, Skellig Michael beehive cells and stone pillars marking an important tomb . [1]

There is also an established walking path named The Kerry Way, which takes its own path, and a signposted Ring of Kerry cycling path which uses older quieter roads where possible. Kerry Way roughly follows the scenic driving route of the Ring of Kerry.

There are many variations of the route taking St. Finian’s Bay and Valentia Island which the official driving ring misses (the official cycling route takes in Valentia Island). Like the beaches, it also offers the Gap of Dunloe, Bog Village, Derrynane House, the Skellig Experience, Valentia Island, Molls Gap, Torc Waterfall, Muckross House and Ross Castle.

“The Ring” is a popular day trip and numerous bus companies offer circuits during the summer months. As the narrow roads make it difficult for tour buses that pass all the tour buses run in a clockwise (or counterclockwise) direction, traveling via Killorglin first. Some recommend that motorists traveling in the opposite direction, going first to Kenmare to avoid delays caused by tour buses. Other advise traveling counterclockwise to avoid passing buses. In 2008, satellite navigation systems were blamed for directing bus drivers clockwise around the route. [2]

References

  1. Jump up ^ Ring of Kerry
  2. Jump up ^ Sat-navs send Kerry bus driver lost

MacGillycuddy’s Reeks

MacGillycuddy’s Reeks (Irish: Na Cruacha Dubha , meaning “black bars”) are a mountain range in County Kerry, Ireland. Stretching over 19 km (12 mi), it contains the highest peaks in Ireland and the only peaks on the island which is over 1000 meters (3300 feet). The maximum of these is Carrauntoohil (1038 m), followed by Beenkeragh (1010 m) and Caher (1001 m). The range also includes many other Hewitt (peaks over 2,000 feet). The mountains, part of the Armorican Highlands, are of glacial -carved Devonian sandstone and is påIveragh Peninsula near the Lakes of Killarney.

The name of the area goes to the 18th century. It is derived from the family or clan name Mac Giolla Mochuda (anglicised MacGillycuddy) is September 1 of O’Sullivan’s. The clan chief, the McGillycuddy Reeks, owned land in this part of Munster for a long time before, and continued to do so until to the end of the 20th century. The word reek is a Irish English version of the English word rick , means a staple.

“MacGillycuddy stinks” is also the name of a song of Warren Zevon album My Ride is here . [1] The song is on the Iveragh Peninsula and also mentions “Killarney shore” and Innisfallen .It was co-written by the Ulster poet Paul Muldoon.

List of peaks

# Top Other names Height
1 Corran Tuathail Carrauntoohil 1,038m [2]
2 Sheep sentenced Beenkeragh, Benkeeragh 1,010m [3]
3 City Deal Caher 1,001m [4]
4 Hill tapeworm Knocknapeasta 988 [5]
5 West city Caher West 975 [6]
6 Maolan BUI 973 [7]
7 The Bones Carrauntoohil tand, Knockoughter 959 [8]
8 Hill en Chuillin 958 [9]
9 In Gunna Mór The Big Gun, Lackagarrin, Foilnabreachaun 939 [10]
10 steel Mhor 932 [11]
11 Hill en Kilcullen East Hill en Kilcullen East 926 [12]
12 Hill West womb Knockbrinnea West 854 [13]
13 Top Stump River 851 [14]
14 Screig Mhor Skregmore 848 million[15]
15 Womb Hill East Knocnbrinnea East 847 [16]
16 Wave Hill 845 [17]
17 Lower hill 747 [18]
18 Hill en Bhráca 731 [19]
19 Hill dTarbh 655 [20]
20 Stumpa in tSaimh /
Stuimpín in Daimh
Hag tooth
Stumpeenadaff
650m [21]
21 hill Breasail Brassel 575 [22]
22 Little Screig Skregbeg 573 [23]
23 Binn Bhan 461 [24]
24 Black sentenced 452m [25]
25 Red sentenced Beendarrig, Bendarrig 451 [26]
26 Struicín Strickeen 440m [27]
27 hill Mosaic Knockbrack 425 [28]

See also

  • List of mountains in Ireland
  • List of Irish counties with the highest point

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Billboard May 25, 2002
  2. Jump up ^ mountainviews

The Iveragh Peninsula

The Iveragh Peninsula (Irish: Uibh Ráthach ) is located in County Kerry in Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in southwestern Ireland. A mountain range, the Macgillycuddy stinks, located in the center of the peninsula.Carrauntoohil, its highest mountain, is also the highest peak in Ireland.

The cities on the peninsula include Killorglin, Cahersiveen, Ballinskelligs, Portmagee, Waterville, Waterville, Sneem and Kenmare.

The Ring of Kerry, a popular tourist trail, circles the coastline and the Skellig Ring, beginning and ending at Killarney, just east of the peninsula.

Valentia Island is located off the northwestern tip of the peninsula. It is connected with the peninsula by a bridge at Port village, but it can also be reached by ferry from Renard Point on the mainland and the Knights of the island.

The Skellig Islands, located about 12 kilometers (7.5 statute miles or 6.4 nautical miles) off the west coast and is known for its monastery buildings and birdlife.

Kerry Geopark is a community initiative on the Iveragh Peninsula which aims to promote Geotourism in this area of high geological importance. Some of the interest features are Kenmare Bay (a drowned river valley or ria), signs of past glaciation and volcanic activity and 400 million year old fossil tetrapod tracks.

See also

  • Corcu Duibne
  • Dingle Peninsula
  • Beara Peninsula
  • Valentia Harbour Railway Station

further reading

  • John Crowley och John Sheehan. Iveragh halvön: En kultur Atlas of the Ring of Kerry, 2009 . Cork University Press . ISBN  978-1-85918-430-1 .

Ross Castle

Ross Castle (Irish: Caislean an Rois ) is a 15th century tower house and stay on the edge of Lough Leane, in Killarney National Park, County Kerry. Ireland[1] It is the ancestral home of the O’Donoghue clan, [2] although it is better known for its association with the Brownes of Killarney who owned the castle until recently.

The castle is run by the Office of Public Works, [2] and is open to the public seasonally with guided tours. [3]

History

Ross Castle was built in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the O’Donoghues Mor (Ross), though ownership changed hands during the Second Desmond Rebellions of the 1580s tillMacCarthy mother. He then leased the castle and lands to Sir Valentine Browne, ancestor of the Earls of Kenmare. The castle was among the last to surrender to Oliver Cromwell’s Roundhead During the Irish League of war, [4] and only removed when the artillery was taken by boat through the River Laune. Lord Muskerry (MacCarty) held the castle against General Ludlow who marched to Ross with 4,000 foot soldiers and 200 horse; However, it was the water that he attacked the stronghold. The Irish had a prophecy that Ross could never be taken until a warship could swim in the lake, incredible views. The sight of the ships’ unnerved spectators and the castle soon enter.

At the end of the wars, the Brownes were able to demonstrate that their heir was too young to have participated in the uprising, and they retained countries. By about 1688 they had constructed a building near the castle, but their connection to James II of England allowed them to exile. The castle became a military installation, which remained so until the early 19th century. The Brownes not return to live at Ross but built Kenmare House near Killarney.

There is a legend that O’Donoghue jumped or was sucked out of the window of the big house on top of the castle and disappeared in the water in the lake along with his horse, his table and his library. It is said that O’Donoghue now lives in a large palace at the bottom of the lake where he keeps an eye on everything that he sees.

Defensive characteristics

basic structure

The castle is typical of fasteners Irish chieftains that were built during the Middle Ages. The tower houses had square bartizans at diagonally opposite corners and a thick end. The tower was initially surrounded by a square Bawn defended by round corner towers at each end. [3]

The structure is stacked and mortared stone with thick walls and provides five internal stories plus roof.

The front entrance

The front entrance was a small hall is secured by an iron grill or “yett” on the outer wall. The yett can be closed from the inside by a chain which can then be secured even if the door was stängd.Detta room provided little side access holes and a “murder hole” over which allowed the defenders to attack someone in the room.

The front door, on the inside of the hall, was constructed of two layers of Irish oak, a layer 90 degrees to the other with boards riveted together. If the door was a single layer of wood fibers in a single direction, it would have been possible to divide the door. The second cross-layer is prevented. The door opened inward and was supported by two heavy beams mounted in the stone structure.

Windows

Windows on the lower levels were thin vertical slits prevents entry into the structure but allows people inside to aim and fire arrow or weapon against attackers. The windows on the upper levels was greater to let in light. It was felt that the attacker would be able to scale the heights as larger windows were secure.

Staircase

The spiral staircase, located in the left front corner, built in a clockwise direction. Attackers, rising up would have his sword in his right hand and would be hindered by the middle structure of the stairs. Defenders, down, would have their swords swinging at the outer part of the staircase gives them an advantage.

In addition, the stairs were uneven height to throw away an attacker charging by disturbing its course.

Machicolation

Machicolations was stone structures at the top of the castle projecting from the wall with a hole in the floor. There are two at Ross Castle, one of the front door and another on the rear wall. The front would allow defenders to drop the stones or boiling oil on attackers at the front door, the only entrance to the castle.

Parapet

The railing on the roof level “crenellated” give up, “merlons” ups and downs, “crenels”, allowing defenders to hide behind merlons while shooting arrows or guns through the crenels.

Inner room

The first floor was used for storage.

The second floor was a living place for the house attendants and guards.Straw was spread on the floor to sleep on. It was typical no furniture.

The third floor was for preparation and living and eating space for the house attendants and guards.

The fourth floor was the sleeping and living space for the governor and his family. The fourth floor had a vaulted stone ceiling supports a stone floor in the fifth story, compared with wood beam floors in the lower stories.

The fifth floor was the large room where the governor and entertained. This room was also the last refuge which had a stone floor as a fire break from the fire in the lower floors.

Gallery

  • Sketch of Ross Castle, 1830
  • Ross Castle at dusk in 2012
  • Ross Castle

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ “Ross Castle page (Killarney National Park site).” National Parks & Wildlife Service. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Killarney Ross Castle reopened for the tourist season.”Independent News & Media. 30 November 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b“Heritage Irland – South-West – Ross Castle” . OPW (National Monument och National Historic Properties) . Hämtad sexton maj 2014 .
  4. Jump up ^ “” Ross Castle “- Gulliver is introduced.” Retrieved May 16, 2014.

Torc Waterfall

Torc Waterfall (Irish: Easach Toirc ) is a waterfall at the base of Torc Mountain, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. [2]

Painting of Torc Waterfall by Mary Balfour Herbert, who lived nearby at Muckross House.

Falls is one of the landmarks of 200 kilometers Kerry Way walking, [2] and is covered in Killarney National Park. [3] Red deer are often seen and heard in the area. [4]

Easy access and parking make the area popular with hikers and tour bus groups, [5] who frequently visit as part of the Ring of Kerry tour.

A public trail extending from the water to the top of Torc Mountain. [2]

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Harry Mountain (1998). The Celtic Encyclopedia. 5 .Universal Publishers. Pulled 07/31/2016.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abc Killarney to Torc Waterfall
  3. Jump up ^ Ireland for Dummies Elizabeth Albertson, Liz Albertson P290
  4. Jump up ^ The Irish Coast to Coast Walk by Paddy Dillon (P156)
  5. Jump up ^ Frommer’s Ireland Day by Day by Christi Daugherty, Jack Jewers to 289

Muckross House

Muckross House (Irish: Teach Mhucrois ) is located on the small Muckross Peninsula between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane, two of the lakes of Killarney, 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) from the town of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. In 1932 it was presented by William Bowers Bourn and Arthur Rose Vincent to the Irish nation. It thus became the first national park in the Irish Free State (now Ireland) and formed the basis for today’s Killarney National Park.

History

Muckross House is a mansion designed by the British architect William Burn, built in 1843 for Henry Arthur Herbert and his wife, watercolourist Mary Balfour Herbert.

With sixty-five rooms were built in Tudor style. Extensive improvements were carried out in 1850 in preparation for a visit by Queen Victoria in 1861. It is said that these improvements for the Queen’s visit was a contributing factor in economic difficulties hit the Herbert family, which resulted in the sale of the yard. In 1899 was bought by Arthur Guinness, 1st Baron Ardilaun who wanted to preserve the dramatic landscape. He did not live in the house itself, but are leased to wealthy groups as a hunting lodge.

In August 1911 not long before the First World War, Muckross House and its demesne re-sold to William Bowers Bourn, a rich Californian mining magnate. He and his wife went to their daughter Maud and her husband Arthur Rose Vincent as a wedding gift. The couple lived there until Maud’s death from pneumonia in 1929.

1932 her parents Mr. and Mrs. Bourne and their son-in-law Arthur Vincent decided to present Muckross House and its 11,000 acres of property to the Irish nation. Called the “Bourne Vincent Memorial Park”, it was therefore the first national park in Ireland and was the basis for today’s Killarney National Park. In recent years the park has greatly expanded through the acquisition of land from the former Earl of Kenmare’s property.

Description of Muckross House

The interior

The front porch has a plethora of mounted trophy heads, including a huge rack of antlers Irish Elk (extinct) was found preserved in a local bog.

See also

  • Muckross Abbey

External links

  • Muckross House official website

The Lakes of Killarney

The Lakes of Killarney is a scenic attraction located near Killarney, County Kerry, Ireland. They consist of three lakes – Lough Leane, Muckross Lake (also called Middle Lake) ochUpper Lake.

Lough Leane (from Irish Loch Lein , which means “lake of learning”) is the largest of the three lakes. The River Laune drains Lough Leane to the north towards Killorglin and Dingle Bay.

The lakes located in a mountain-ringed valley starting in the Black Valley.Area includes:

  • Carrauntoohil 1,038 meters (3,406 ft) (Ireland’s highest mountain)
  • Purple Mountain (832 meter (2.730 ft))
  • Mangerton Mountain (843 meter (2.766 ft))
  • Torc Mountain (535 meter (1,755 ft))

Ladies View is a scenic stopping point on the N71 road from Killarney to Kenmare, offering views of the lakes and valleys.

Gallery 

  • The lakes from nearby Torc Mountain.
  • View from the hill fort Castlelough the Lough Leane
  • Lakes of Killarney seen from Ladies View.
  • Another perspective from Ladies View.
  • Muckross Lake .
  • The bridge “where the water meets,” Lough Leane and Muckross Lake

See also 

  • List of Loughs in Ireland

Killarney National Park

Killarney National Park (Irish: Pairc Náisiúnta Chill Airne ), near the town of Killarney, County Kerry, was the first national park in Ireland, created when Muckross Estate was donated to the Irish state in 1932. [1] The park has since been substantially expanded and covers of 102.89 km 2 (25,425 acres) of diverse ecology, including the lakes of Killarney, oak and yew forests of international importance, [2] and the mountain peaks. [3] It is Ireland’s only native herd of red deer [4] and the most extensive coverage of native forest remaining in Ireland. [5] the park is of high ecological value because of the quality, diversity and scope of many of its habitats and the many different species that they accommodate a portion of which ärsällsynta. The park was designated a UNESCO biosphere 1981. [6] The park is part of a SAC.

The National Parks and Wildlife is responsible for the management and administration of the park. [7] Environmental Protection is the main purpose of the park, and ecosystems in their natural state are highly valued. [8] The park is also known for its beautiful nature. [9] recreation and tourism facilities there also. [3]

Climate and geography

Killarney National Park is located in the southwest of Ireland, near the island’s westernmost point. [1] The Lakes of Killarney and Mangerton, Torc, Shehy and purple mountains in the park. [4] elevations in the park ranging from 22 meters (72 ft) to 842 meters (2,762 ft). [10] A major geological boundary between the Devonian old red sandstone and Carboniferous limestone is located in the park. The underlying geology of the majority of the park’s sandstone, limestone pavements occur in the low eastern shore of Lough Leane. [3]

The park has a maritime climate, heavily influenced by the Gulf Stream. The experience mild winters (6 ° C (average 43 ° F) February) and cool summers (15 ° C (average ° F) July 59). [11] Average daily temperatures range from a low of 5.88 ° C (42 , 58 ° C) in January to a high of 15.28 ° C (59.50 ° F) in July. The park experiences high rainfall and interchangeable fronts, [12] with light showery rain is frequent throughout the year. [11] The average rainfall is 1,263 millimeters (49.7 inches) per year, [2] 223 days per year typically has more than one millimeter (0.039 inches) precipitation. [12] The average number of frost days is 40. [2]

The geological boundary, the park’s wide range of altitudes and climatic influence of the Gulf Stream combine to give the park a varied ecology. [1]These ecosystems inkluderarmyrar, lakes, moors, mountains, rivers, forests, parks and gardens. [5] rocks, cliffs and cliffs are characteristic of the park. [3]over 200 meters (660 feet), mountain sandstone areas support large areas of blanket bog and heath. [12]

History

The early history

Killarney National Park is one of the very few places in Ireland that have been continuously covered by forests since the end of the last ice age, [13]about 10,000 years ago. People have lived in the area since at least the Bronze Age, about 4,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found evidence that copper mining took place in the Ross Island area during this period, indicating that the area was of great importance to the Bronze Age people.The park has numerous archaeological features, including a well-preserved stone circle on Lissivigeen. [1] The forest park has been disturbed and cleared during different periods since the Iron Age. This has caused a gradual decline in the diversity of tree species in the park. [13]

Some of the most impressive archaeological sites in the park are from the early Christian period. The most important of these features are Inisfallen Abbey, the ruins of a monastic settlement on Inisfallen Island in Lough Leane. It was founded in the 7th century CE St. Finian the Leper and was occupied until the 14th century. [14] The Annals of Inisfallen , a record of the early history of Ireland as it was known by the monks, written in the monastery from the 11th to 13th centuries. [4] It is believed that the monastery gave rise to the name Lough Leane, which means “Lake of Learning”. [14]

Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 by Observantine Franciscans and is also still there, despite the fact that the damaged and reconstructed several times when its inhabitants plundered. “Friars Glen” on Mangerton Mountain usually said to have been one of the places that the monks would flee to when the monastery was attacked. The central feature of Muckross Abbey is a central courtyard containing a huge yew surrounded by a domed monastery. [14] It is traditionally said that this tree is as old as Muckross Abbey itself. [1] The monastery was the burial place for local chiefs. In the 17th and 18th centuries in Kerry poets O’Donoghue Seafraidh, Aogán Ó Rathaille and Eoghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin buried there. [4]

After the Norman invasion of Ireland, the land around the lakes owned by McCarthy and O’Donoghues. [4] Ross Castle is a 15th-century tower house on the shores of Lough Leane. It was once the residence of the governor O’Donoghue Mór. The castle was extended in the 17th century. It has been restored and is open to the public. [14] A 1580 Century Elizabethan Military records describe the Killarney area meagrely inhabited wilderness forest and mountains. [13]

From the 18th century the country in today’s park was divided between two large estates, the Herberts of Muckross and Browne (Earls of Kenmare).During the 17th and 18th centuries the forest was largely used for local industries, including coal production, cooperage and tanning .Trycket the forest intensified during the latter part of the 18th century. [13] The main reason for Oakwood destruction in Killarney in the 18th century was the production of charcoal fire smelter used in the local iron industry. About 25 tons of oak needed to produce one ton of cast iron. [15] In 1780, Young described notoriously Derrycunihy wood that “a large swath of mountains, covered partly in wood, hanging in a very noble way, but some cut back, much of the wounded, and the rest is inhabited by coopers, boat builders, carpenters and turners … ” [13]

Forest land use increased again during the Napoleonic era in the early 19th century, probably because of the high prices as oak commanding at this time. The replanting and management of oak groves promoted at that time.It was a large-scale felling of oak trees on Ross Island in 1803, Glena in about 1804 and 1805. Tomies Tomies then replanted with three-year-old oak and Glena were coppiced. These activities have increased the relative abundance of oak in the park during the past 200 years. [13] Since most of the oak trees in the forest today is about 200 years old, it is likely that most of them were planted, and oak forests that have never disturbed by humans are limited to a few isolated pockets in remote areas such as mountain valleys. [15]

Herbert family owned land on the Muckross Peninsula from 1770 onwards.They became very rich from the copper mines of this land. Henry Arthur Herbert and his wife in the water colourist Mary Balfour Herbert -finished build Muckross House in 1843. The Herbert financial situation was uncertain at the end of the 19th century, [16] and Muckross estate was bought by Lord Ardilaun of the Guinness brewing family, 1899.

Creation of the park

In 1910, the American William Bowers Bourn bought Muckross Estate as a wedding gift to his daughter Maud on her marriage with Arthur Vincent. [17]They spent £ 110,000 to improve the farm between 1911 and 1932 to build the Sunken Garden, Stream Garden, and a rock on an outcrop of limestone. [16]

Maud Vincent died of pneumonia in 1929. [16] 1932, Arthur Vincent and his parents swear muck Estate donated to the Irish state in her memory. The 43.3 square kilometer (10,700-acre) property was baptized as Bourn Vincent Memorial Park. The Irish government created the National Park by sending Bourn Vincent Memorial Park Act 1932. [7] The law requires the Commissioners of Public Works to “maintain and operate the park as a national park in order to reproduce and enjoyment of the public. ” [16] The memorial park is the core of today’s enlarged national park. [7]

Initially, the Irish government was unable to provide much financial support to the park, so it worked mainly as a farmhouse that was open to the public.[7] Muckross House was closed to the public until 1964. [18]

Around 1970 there was public concern about the threat to the Bourn Vincent Memorial Park. The Irish authorities looked at international practice to classify and manage the national parks. It was decided to expand and appoint a new park as a national park which was broadly similar ICUN category II. It was also decided to set up other national parks in Ireland. [8] Nearly 60 square kilometers (15,000 acres) have been added to the original park, including the three lakes, Knockreer Estate, Ross Island, Innisfallen, and the townlands of Glena,. Ullauns and Poulagower [4] The park is now more than twice as large as it was in 1932. [19] that the Irish economy became richer and views on the role of national parks has changed, much more money available for the park. [7]

Lakes of Killarney

Lakes of Killarney are Lough Leane (the Lower Lake), Muckross Lake (mid-lake), and the upper lake. These lakes are interconnected and together make up almost a quarter of the park’s area. Although linked, each lake has a unique ecosystem. The lakes attend the Meeting of the Waters, a popular tourist area. [20] Sport angling on the lakes has been a popular pastime for generations, exploiting the lakes large populations of trout and salmon.

Lough Leane is approximately 19 square kilometers (4,700 acres) in size and is by far the largest of the three lakes. [20] It is also the largest fresh water in the region. [21] It is also the lake richest in nutrients. It has become eutrophic due to phosphates from agricultural and domestic pollution into Lough Leane Reed, an important habitat on the edge of Lough Leane. This nutrient enrichment has caused several algal bloom in later years. The blooms have not yet had a serious impact on the lake’s ecosystem. To prevent further pollution which causes a permanent change in the lake’s ecosystem, a review of land use in the catchment area is carried out. [20] The water quality in the lake seems to have improved since phosphates were removed from wastewater in 1985. [6] from August 2007 several large hotels and businesses stated their intention to stop using phosphate detergents in an effort to preserve the quality of sea water.

Muckross Lake is the deepest of the three lakes. [20] It has a maximum depth of 73.5 meters (241 feet), [12] near where the steeply sloping side of Torc Mountain into the lake. [20] The lake is on geological boundary between sandstone mountains in the south and west and limestone in the north. [12]

Lough Leane and Muckross Lake is the geological boundary. The presence of limestone causes both lakes be slightly richer in nutrients than the upper lake. There are many caves in the limestone at lake level, created by the waves in combination with the resolution of the effect of lakes “acidic water on rock. These caves are found on the northern shores of Muckross Lake. [20]

From the meeting Waters a narrow channel called the Long Range leads to the Upper Lake, the smallest of the three lakes. This lake is located in the rugged mountain scenery in the upper Killarney / Black Valley. The rapid runoff in the catchment area can cause the level of the lake to rise by up to a meter in a few hours under heavy rain. [20]

Muckross Lake and Upper Lake are high quality oligotrophic systems, with water that is slightly acidic and low in nutrients. This is caused by runoff from the upland sandstone and blanket bogs in their catchment areas. [20]They have diverse aquatic vegetation, including quillwort ( Isoetes lacustris ), shoreweed ( Littorella uniflora ) and water lobelia ( water lobelia ). [3]

All three lakes are very acid-sensitive and therefore vulnerable to afforestation within their catchment areas. [6]

Woodlands

Killarney possesses the most extensive area (about 120 square kilometers (30,000 acres)) of semi-natural native forest (forest dominated by native species) remain in Ireland. Most of this forest is surrounded by the national park. There are three main types of forest land in the park: acidophilous oak forests ( Quercus petraea Holly ) Devonian sandstone, moss rich yew forest (Taxus baccata ) in Carboniferous limestone outcrops, [5] and wet woodland (also called Carr) is dominated by al on lowland swampy limestone soils on the lake edges. [15] forest of the park falls naturally into two sectors, along the geological divide. [5] the oak and yew forests are of international significance.[2]

Mixed woodland and conifer plantations also exist in the park. [3] The mixed forest on Ross Island has one of the richest herb layers in the park’s forest. [6]

Bait and rhododendron invasion threaten the park’s forests. Rhododendron affects about two thirds of oak woodlands. A rhododendron removal programs under way in the park. Yew forests negatively affected by heavy grazing for many years. [6]

Eklandskap

The park is perhaps best known for its oak woodlands, [3] which is about 12.2 square kilometers (3,000 acres) in size. [13] They represent the largest area of native forest remaining in Ireland and is a remnant of the forest that once covered large parts of Ireland. Derrycunihy Wood is perhaps the most natural sessile oak ( Quercus petraea ) wood in Ireland. Most of the oak landscape located on the lower slopes of the mountain Shehy and Tomy, adjacent Lough Leane. They are usually dominated by sessile oak, which favors the acidic soils of sandstone mountains. [15] The forest is Annex I status in the EU Habitats Directive because of their diverse and rich flora, mainly their bryophytes (mosses and liverworts). [2]

The oak landscape usually has a story of holly ( holly ). Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo ) is a significant part of these forests. There are also scattered yews. [3] The field layer contains blueberries and wood rush. [15] The herb layer is rich in species. [6]

Mosses, lichens and filmy ferns ( hymenophyllaceae ), thrives in moist maritime climate. Species with limited Atlantic advantage grows in the forest. [2] The mosses in these forests is perhaps the most developed Atlantic moss community in Europe. [3] Remote Glaism na Marbh Valley has a particularly rich flora of mosses, some of which are scarce or absent in other parts of the forest. [13] mosses, ferns and liverworts often occur as epiphytes, attached to the trunks and branches of oak trees. [15] Rare species that grow in the forest include Cyclodictyon laetivirens , Daltonia splachnoides ,lejeunea flava , Radula carringtonii and Sematophyllum demissum . [6]

Species living in the oak forest includes blue tit, Chaffinch, Goldcrest, robins and wrens. Mammals include the badger, fox, marten, red deer, sika deer, and squirrel. Insects include many species of the parasitiskagallsteklar and Purple Hairstreak butterfly whose larvae are completely dependent on oaks.[15]

The introduced common rhododendron is a great danger to certain areas of the oak forest. [15] For example, it is common throughout Camillan Wood despite ongoing attempts to control it. [2]

Yew woodlands

The yew woodland in the park called Reenadinna Wood. It is approximately 0.25 square kilometers (62 acres) in size and is located on the lowland karst limestone pavement between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane Muckross Peninsula. [2] Yew woodland is the rarest habitat in the park. [22] Yew forests is a of the rarest types of forest land in Europe, mostly limited to the West of Ireland and southern England. It has priority habitat status under Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive. [2] Reenadinna Wood is also one of the largest forests dominated by common yew ( Taxus baccata L.) in the UK and Ireland.[23] It is the only significant area of yew forest in Ireland and is one of only three pure yew forests in Europe. [22] It is of great ecological and conservation interest, the yew is rarely a forest dominant. The western border of the wood is located along the geological boundary of the Devonian Old Red Sandstone. The wood is limited to the east of the park where the limestone is no longer outcrops. Muck bog, a bog 0.02 square kilometers (4.9 acres) in the area, in the southern part of the wood. There are voids between the limestone outcrops. Deep rendzina soils have developed in some of the cavities. It is estimated that the wood developed 3000-5000 years ago. [23]

Yew is a native evergreen trees that grow best in high humidity, mild maritime climate, which makes Killarney a very appropriate place. [24] The soil in the forest is mostly thin and in many places the trees are rooted to the cracks in the bare limestone. [22] Yew has an extensive horizontal root system. In Killarney woods, roots scattered across the rock surface and penetrates deep into the cracks in the limestone. [24] The wood has a low ceiling of 6-14 m (20-46 ft). [2] Yew extreme tolerance the dense shade of its canopy creates the made it possible to out compete other species to create the pure yew forest here today. [24] this dense shade prevents flowering plants from establishing themselves in these woods and prevents herb layer from developing. Mosses, however abundant and thrive in wet and cold conditions.In some parts of the wood are continuous dense blankets of moss that can be up to 152 cm (60 inches) deep. [22] The moss species present are primarilyThamnium alopecurum with Eurhynchium striatum and Thuidium tamariscinum . [24]

Some of the trees in the Re-united inna wood is two hundred years old. [3]There has been little regeneration of yew trees in the wood. Pickling of the forest floor sika deer can be part of the reason for this, but small pieces of wood that has been fenced since 1969 has had a very small yew renewal. The dense canopy created by the yew tree which allows very little sunlight through to the forest floor can also prevent the growth of yew plants. [22]

Despite its toxic properties, yew very sensitive to browsing and bark stripping by deer, rabbits, hares, and domestic animals. It is one of the most sensitive pasture tree in Killarney woodlands. Sika deer killed yews by scoring trees with their antlers. [24]

Sumpskogar

Wet woodland (also called Carr) on the swampy lowland limestone areas of Lough Leane’s floodplain is about 1.7 square kilometers (420 acres) in size.[25] This is one of the most extensive areas of this forest type in Ireland. The dominant canopy species here is al ( alder ), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), downy birch ( Betula pubescens ) and willow ( Salix spp.). [3] The areas regularly covered by water is rich in species, including grasses, rushes , sedges, and flowers such as marsh bedstraw, meadow sweet, and water mint. [15]

Red deer and sika deer heavily uses wetland forest that cap, and bare muddy “deer wallowing” is a distinctive feature. Rhododendron is the biggest threat to these forest lands. They are invading the forests, using raised areas such as tufts or tree bases where the floor is too wet seedlings to establish. Although some games have occurred reinvasion continues. [25]

Myrmark

While the lower slopes of the mountains are dominated by sessile oak (Quercus petraea ), over 200 meters (660 feet) mountains are virtually treeless and dominated by blanket bog and wet heath. [12] The marshes in the park mostly have a distinctive flora that includes species of heather ( Calluna vulgaris ), bell heather ( Erica cinerea ) and Western gorse ( Ulex gallii ), with the occasional blueberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ). Large-flowered butterwort ( Pinguicula grandiflora ) is vanligt.Myrarna also supports a number of notable species including mosses ( Sphagnum pulchrum , S. fuscum , S. platyphyllum , S. strictum , S. contortum and spoon mosses stramineum ), liverworts ( Cladopodiella Francisci and sack mosses Azurea ) and lichen (Cladonia mediterranea , C. macilenta , C. rangiferina , C. arbuscula andCetraria islandica ). [3]

The remoteness of some of the mountain areas facilitates the survival of Ireland’s only remaining wild herd of native red deer. [1] The marshes are threatened by grazing, turbary, burning and reforestation. [6]

Flora

A large number of plant and animal species of interest are present in the area, including most of the native Irish species of mammals, several important fish species including trout, and a variety of rare or scarce species.[3] A number of animal and plant species in the park has a Hiberno- lusitanean distribution, which means that they only occur in the southwest of Ireland, northern Spain and Portugal. The main reason for this is the effect of the Gulf Stream in the southwest of Ireland’s climate. [26] The park has been designated a Biosphere Reserve because of the presence of such rare species.

Significant amounts of plant species found in the park have unusual geographic distributions and are of local events in Ireland. These plant species grouped in four main categories: arctic-alpine plants, Atlantic species, the North American species and very rare species. Atlantic species are species that otherwise are found mainly in southern and western Europe, such as arbutus, St. Patrick cabbage and major urban area. North American species is blue-eyed grass ochpipewort. [4]

Mosses

Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) thrive in the park, due in part to the area’s mild maritime climate. The park is internationally important for mosses. Many of the bryophytes found in the park are not found elsewhere in Ireland. [26] mosses, ferns, such filmy ferns and liverworts growing luxuriantly. Many of them live as epiphytes, growing on branches and tree trunks. [4]

Other plant species

Killarney fern ( trichomanes speciosum ) is probably the rarest plant species in the park. It is a film-like fern that grows in the splash zone of waterfalls and other damp places. Although it was once quite common, it was picked up almost to extinction when the pickers congregate there to be sold to tourists. The few places where this fern still tend to be isolated mountain areas where pickers never found it. [26]

Although the strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo ) are relatively common in the park, it is one of Ireland’s rarest native tree species and is found in a few locations outside Killarney. In the park it is on the rocks and edges of woods around the lake. [26]

Killarney rowan ( Sorbus anglica ) is a shrub or small tree that grows on rocks near the lake shores. It is only in Killarney. The common Irish rowan ( Sorbus hibernica ) are also in the park. [26]

The larger butterwort ( Pinguicula grandiflora ) (also known as Kerry violet) is a carnivorous plant found in bogs. It melts insects to supplement the poor availability of nutrients (especially nitrogen) available from the bog. Its spectacular purple flowers bloom in late May and early June. [26]

Irish spurge ( Euphorbia hyberna ) is an Atlantic species in Ireland only in the southwest. Previously, the milky sap from the strain used to cure warts.Fishermen used it to catch fish, utilizing compounds in the sap that prevents fish gills from functioning properly and suffocates the fish. [26]

A number of rare species of myxomycete fungi have been recorded in the park. These are Collaria arcyrionema , Craterium muscorum , Cribraria microcarpa (the only known site in Ireland), C. rufa , C. violacea , Diderma chondrioderma , D. lucidum , D. ochraceum , Fuligo muscorum and Licea marginata . [6] The park has a very diverse lichen flora. [26]

Fauna

Mammal

Most mammals native to Ireland, and long established introduced species found in the park. [4] The vole was first identified in 1964 in the North West Kerry. Its scope has now expanded and now includes the Park. [4] Mardar another remarkable species in the park. [6]

Deer

The park has Ireland’s only remaining wild herd of domestic deer ( Cervus elaphus ), comprising about 700 people. [27] an increase of 110 people in 1970. [28] They are found in mountain areas in the park, mostly on Mangerton and Torc mountains. This crew has been continuously in Ireland 4,000 years, since the return of red deer to the island, possibly with the help of the people, after the last ice age, [4] about 10,500 years ago. [27] They were protected earlier by Kenmare and Muckross Estate. The herd is not completely clean because deer were introduced to the crew to improve antler quality in the 19th century. [28]

Pregnant hinds from low-lying areas often go to the mountains to give birth in early June. National Park staff tags calves. Although red deer and sika deer are capable of crossing, no cases of crossover recorded in the park. High priority is given to maintaining the genetic purity of the native red deer herd.Red deer are fully protected by law, and their hunting is not allowed. [27]

Sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) were introduced to the park from Japan in 1865. Their population has grown considerably since then. [2] Within the park they are both on the open mountain areas and woodlands. [4]

Bird Species

[21] The Park has a variety of bird life, and is of ornithological interest as it supports a wide variety of birds. 141 bird species have been observed in the park, [29] , including mountain areas, woodland and wintering waterfowl species. [6] Several species that are otherwise rare in Ireland is present, especially forest species Redstart (1-2 pairs), wood warbler (1-2 pairs) ochträdgårdssångare (possibly up to 10 pairs). The red grouse and Ring Ouzel is on the IUCN Red List of species of high conservation concern (1-2 pairs each). Greenland white-fronted goose, merlin and peregrine falcon is listed on Annex I of the Directive EU Birds. [3] Other notable species found in the park are chough, nightjar and osprey. Osprey passes sometimes through the park that migrate between North Africa and Scandinavia. Historical accounts and place names suggest that the osprey bred in the area earlier. Golden eagles once nested in the park, but was eradicated in 1900 as a result of the disturbance, nest robbing and persecution. [29]

The most common bird species in mountain areas, meadow pipit, ravens and Stonechats. [4] Rare species Merlin (up to five pairs) and the peregrine falcon (at least a few). [6]

Chaffinches and robins are the most common species in the forest. [4] Other nesting species include the black cap and Garden Warbler. The rare redstart and wood warbler is believed to have a few breeding pairs in the park’s forests. [6]

Heron, little grebe, mallard, water rails, dippers and kingfishers live on the park’s waterways. [4]

Lough Leane and other lakes in less supports wintering birds traveling south from higher latitudes. [3] These species are Redwing, Fieldfare, golden plover and sea birds such as teal, goldeneye, wigeon, pochard and whooper swans.[29] The park’s native bird populations enhanced by migratory species in both winter and summer. A small flock of Greenland white-fronted geese ( Anser albifrons flavirostris ) from the world’s population of about 12,000 [4] migrate to winter in bogs [6] in Killarney Valley in the park. [4] The figures in this bird that stays in the park are currently low, less than twenty people. This population is important because it is the southernmost in Ireland and one of the few remaining populations are left to feed entirely on marshland, [6] and the habitat almost entirely within a protected area. [26]

Other wintering waterfowl is the coot, cormorant, goldeneye, mallard, pochard, teal and tufted duck. Other species that live on the lakes is headed gulls, little grebe and mute swan. [3]

Species that migrate from Africa in the summer includes cuckoos, swallows and sailors. Some species are vagrants that appear sporadically, for example, when there is stormy weather or an unusual cold snap in continental Europe.[29]

The park is also the site of a project to reintroduce the eagles, which began in 2007 with the release of fifteen birds. The project will last for a number of years with many more eagles released. The species had become extinct in Ireland in the 19th century after persecution by landowners. Fifteen chicks will then be brought in annually for the next five years. [30] Despite a poisoning incident in 2009, the program continues [31] and birds introduced in the area has now been traced to Wicklow and Donegal.

fish Species

Lakes of Killarney contains many trout and an annual run of salmon. Rare species found in the lakes are char and Killarney shad. [20] The lakes have natural populations of trout and salmon that can be caught, with only the usual Irish rules salmon license. [4]

The lakes contain trout ( Salvelinus alpinus L.), usually found much further north in subarctic lakes. [4] It is a relict species left in the area after the last ice age, and is therefore a sign of clean environment conditions. Although they were once widespread, they are now confined to isolated populations in inland freshwater lakes that have a suitable habitat. They are isolated in their respective lakes since the last ice age. They are extremely sensitive to environmental changes when they’re as far south as Ireland, where they are on the southern edge of the species range. The greatest threats to their survival in Ireland introduced fish species, eutrophication, acidification and climate change. The rate of extinction of the entire population in Ireland has increased in recent decades. [32]

Killarney shad (or goureen) ( Alosa fallax killarnensis ) is a landlocked lake living subspecies of twaite Shad, a mostly marine species. It is unique to the Lakes of Killarney. It is rare because it feeds mostly on plankton and thus are rarely caught by fishermen. It is listed in the Irish “Red Data Book” of endangered species. [26] It is stated in Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive. [6]

Invertebrates

Several unusual invertebrates can be found in Killarney valley. Some of these species, including northern emerald dragonfly ( gloss dragonflies arctica ) and several caddisfly and stonefly species are usually found much further north in Europe. They are believed to be relict species that was left in Killarney after the final retreat of the ice. [26] The north or moorland emerald dragonfly, the rarest Irish Dragonfly, restricted to the park. It breeds in shallow pools in bogs. [33]

Oak forest in the remote Glaism na Marbh Valley is a stronghold of Formica lugubris Zett. , A wood ant species that are rare both in Killarney and woods in Ireland as a whole. [13]

The Kerry Slug ( Geomalacus maculosus ) is a Hiberno-lusitanean species. It appears in Killarney frequent rains to graze on lichens on rcks and tree trunks. It is said to be the only slug capable of rolling into a ball. It is in both Annex II and Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. [26]

Hot conservation

The park has a number of conservation and management challenges. One of these is the park’s proximity Killarney town, one of Ireland’s most famous tourist destinations. Killarney has hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. Most of these visitors spend time in the park. It requires careful management to ensure minimal conflict between conservation and recreation. [1]

The earlier introduction of several exotic species to the park is a more human impact on the area. These species has damaged natural ecosystems in Killarney. The most notable of these species is the common rhododendron ( Rhododendron ponticum ), which has affected large parts of the national park and sika deer, which overgraze the forest floor and poses a potential threat to the genetic integrity of native red deer. Both rhododendrons and sika deer can have a negative effect on the native flora by inhibiting regeneration. A newer, unintentional introduction, mink, which are now established in the park with native otters. Extinctions caused by humans includes the wolf ( Canis lupus L. ) and golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos L. ).[14]

Fires caused by human activity occurs with some frequency in the park.Despite the humid climate, they can spread very quickly to cover large areas.These fires rarely penetrate areas covered by dense forests, but they burn easily through stands of open forest. [13]

The main land use in the area of grazing sheep. [6] Deer grazing is also common. The woods in the park currently heavily grazed by sika deer. [9] The grazing has caused damage to many land areas, heath and blanket bog to degrade and prevent forest regeneration. In mountain areas erosion caused by grazing exacerbated by the exposed nature of the terrain. [6] The pressure from domestic grazers like deer and Irish hare has risen since the main natural predators, wolves and golden eagles, died out. [2] Bait and disturbance of vegetation improves greatly spread of rhododendron. [9]

The common rhododendron is perhaps the greatest threat to the ecology of the park. [34] It is an evergreen shrub with a natural distribution in the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. [35] Rhododendron died out in Ireland because of climate change thousands of years ago. [34] it was introduced in the Killarney area during the 19th century, and quickly took hold. It has spread through their large amounts of very small light scattered seeds. It shades the soil flora and so prevents the regeneration of native woody species. [9] More than 6.5 square kilometers (1,600 acres) of the park is now totally infested. They have had a devastating effect on some parts of the park. Because light can not penetrate the dense thickets of rhododendron, very few plants living under it. Oak woods park is long term danger because they can not recover. It is a policy for the control and eradication of rhododendron in the park. [34]

Tourism

The park is open year-round tourism. [4] There is a visitor and education center at the Muckross House. Visitor attractions in the park include Dinis Cottage, Knockreer Demesne, Inisfallen Island, Ladies View, meeting Waters and the Old Weir Bridge, Muckross Abbey, Muckross House, Muckross Peninsula, the Old Kenmare Road, O’Sullivan’s Cascade, Ross Castle and Ross Island, Tomies Oakwood and Torc waterfall. There is a network of surfaced paths in Knockreer, Muckross and Ross Island areas that can be used by cyclists and hikers. Old Kenmare Road and trails around Tomies Oakwood has a spectacular view of Lough Leane and Killarney. Boat trips on the lakes there. [11]

Muckross House is a Victorian mansion, close to Muckross lake’s eastern shore, in light of Mangerton and Torc mountains. The house has now been restored and attracts more than 250,000 visitors per year. Muckross Gardens is known for its collection of rhododendrons, hybrids and azaleas, and exotic trees. Muckross Traditional Farms is a farm project that recreates rural Ireland in the 1930s, before electrification. Knockreer House is used as the National Park Education Centre. [4]

See also

  • National Parks in Ireland
  • Muckross House
  • Ross Castle
  • Lakes of Killarney
  • killarney
  • Purple Mountains
  • Berg East Kerry
  • Muckross Abbey
  • Aghadoe
  • Killarney House
  • Kenmare House

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdefg duchas. “If the Killarney National Park.” Archived from the original September 29, 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  2. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g h i j k lPerrin, Philip M .; Daniel L. Kelly; Fraser JG Mitchell (1 december 2006).”Long-term rådjur utslagning i idegran trä och Oakwood miljöer i sydvästra Irland: Naturlig föryngring och stå dynamik”. Skogens ekologi och skötsel . 236 (2-3): 356-367. Doi : 10,1016 / j.foreco.2006.09. 025 .
  3. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnop National Parks and Wildlife Service (1 April 2005). “Killarney National Park Site Story” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) of 19 November 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnopqrstu national parks and wildlife. “Killarney National Park” .Arkiveras from the original on 28 September 2007.Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  5. ^ Jump up to: abcd Kelly, Daniel L. (July 1981). “The Native Forest Vegetation in Killarney, Southwest Ireland: An ecological account”. The Journal of Ecology. 69 (2) :. 437-472 doi: 10.2307 / 2259678 .JSTOR 2,259,678.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR . National Parks and Wildlife Service (5 December 2005) “Killarney National Park, Macgillycuddy’s Reeks and Caragh River basin Site Story” (PDF) .Arkiveras from the original (PDF) of 19 November 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  7. ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “History of the Park”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab . Craig, A. (2001) The role of the state to protect natural areas in Ireland: 30 Years of Progress (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
  9. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c dCross, JR (november 1981). “Etableringen av Rhododendron ponticum i Killarney Oakwoods, SW Irland”. The Journal of Ecology . 69 (3):. 807-824 doi : 10,2307 / 2.259.638 .JSTOR  2.259.638 .
  10. Jump up ^ UNEP (3 June 2004). “Killarney National Park”. World Database on Protected Areas .Hämtad 1 July 2007.
  11. ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Visiting the Park”. Archived from the original The 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 juli2007.
  12. ^ Jump up to: abcdef Power, M.; F. Igoe; S. Neylon. Dietary analysis of sympatric char and trout in Lough Muckross, Southwest Ireland.
  13. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g h i jO’Sullivan, Aileen; Daniel L. Kelly. En historik av bergek (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) – Dominerade Woodland i Killarney, SW Irland, Baserat på Tree-Ring analys . Arkiveras från originalet den 17 maj 2011.
  14. ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “Cultural heritage”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  15. ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh In duchas. “Killarney, Oakwood”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  16. ^ Jump up to: abcd Muck Research Library. “Earlier Muck owner”.Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ Duchas. “Muckross House, Gardens and Traditional Farms”.Archived from originaletden 14 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  18. Jump up ^ Thomas, Rhodri; Marcjanna Augustyn (2006). Tourism in New Europe: perspectives on SME policies and practices. Elsevier. p. 262. ISBN 0-08-044706-6.
  19. Jump up ^ Murphy, Mary (30 September 2004). “Park managers outline aimed at the future.” The Kingdom. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  20. ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh In duchas. “The Lakes”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Hämtat1 July 2007.
  21. ^ Jump up to: ab Department of Environment and Local Government. “To live with nature: Designation of Nature Conservation sites in Ireland” (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  22. ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “Reenadinna”. Archived from the original February 6, 2007. Hämtat1 July 2007. Cite error: Invalid tag; name “Reenadinna” is defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). <ref>
  23. ^ Jump up to: ab . Mitchell, FJG (1990) “History and vegetation dynamics of a yew tree (” Taxus baccata “L.) in SW Ireland” (abstract). New Phytologist. 115 (3): 573- 577. doi: 10.1111 / j.1469-8137.1990.tb00486.x.
  24. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d eThomas, PA; En Polwart (2003). ” ” Taxus baccata “L”. Journal of Ecology . 91 (3):. 489-524 doi : 10,1046 / j.1365-2745.2003.00783.x .
  25. ^ Jump up to: ab Kelly, Daniel L.; Susan F. Iremonger (1997). Irish Wetland Woods: The Plant communities and their ecology (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
  26. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijkl duchas. “Remarkable species”. Archived from the ursprungligaDen 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  27. ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Red Deer”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  28. ^ Jump up to: ab Nolan, LM; JT Walsh (2005). Wild Deer Management in Ireland: Stalker Training Manual (PDF).
  29. ^ Jump up to: abcd duchas. “The bird life in the park.” Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  30. Jump up ^ RTÉ News – Rare eagle was reintroduced to Ireland – August 2007
  31. Jump up ^ update of white tailed eagles April 2009
  32. Jump up ^ Igoe, Fran; Johna Hammar (2004). The char Salvelinus Alpinus (L.) Art Complex in Ireland: a mysterious and threatened glacial relic (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
  33. Jump up ^ ENFO. “Dragonflies & Damselflies” (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  34. ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Rhododendron Infestation”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  35. Jump up ^ Erfmeier, Alexandra; Helge Bruelheide (2004). “Comparison of native and invasive” Rhododendron ponticum “populations: growth, reproduction and morphology under field conditions”. Flora. 119 (2) :.120-133 doi: 10.1078 / 0367-2530-00141.

Killarney

Killarney (Irish: Cill Airne , meaning “church of sloes” pronounced [cɪl̠ʲ aːɾˠnʲə]) is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. The city is located on the northeastern shore of Lough Leane, part of the Killarney National Park, and is home to St. Mary’s Cathedral, Ross Castle, Muckross House and Abbey, the Lakes of Killarney, MacGillycuddy stinks, Purple Mountain, Mangerton Mountain, the Gap of Dunloe and Torc waterfall. Its natural heritage, history and location on the Ring of Kerry, Killarney makes a popular tourist destination. [7]

Killarney won the best-preserved city Award 2007, in a cross-border competition jointly organized by the Department of Environment and Northern Ireland convenience Council. In 2011 it was named Ireland’s tidiest town and cleanest city in the country by Irish Business Against Litter. [8]

History

Killarney has a prominent place in early Irish history, with religious settlements plays an important part of its history. Its first significant historic settlement was monastery at nearby Innisfallen Island was founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, [9] , which was occupied for about 850 years.

Innisfallen or Inishfallen (from Irish: Inis Faith Linn, meaning “Faith Linn island”) [1] is an island in Lough Leane, one of the three lakes of Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. It is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains from the early Christian period are the Killarney National Park. The monastery was founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper and occupied for about 850 years. During a period of about 300 of these, the monks wrote the Annals of Innisfallen, which chronicles the early history of Ireland as it was known to the monks. The monks were displaced by the monastery August 18, 1594 by Elizabeth I.

The location of the monastery on the island is believed to have given rise to the name Lough Leane (Irish Loch Lein), which in English means “Lake of Learning”. According to tradition, were Irish king Brian Boru their education at Innisfallen according Maelsuthain O’Carroll. [2] Maelsuthain has been credited as the possible author of the Annals. [3]

It is possible for tourists to visit the island during the summer months, with boats leaving from Ross Castle all day.

Aghadoe, the local townland which overlooks today’s Killarney, may have started as a pagan religious site. [10] The site also has been associated with the 5th century missionary St. Abban, but the 7th century Ogham stones mark the first clear evidence of Aghadoe used as an important place. [11]According to legend, St. Finian founded a monastery at Aghadoe in the 6th or 7th century. The first written mention of ettkloster is from 939 AD in the Annals of Innisfallen where Aghadoe monastery as’ old Abbey. ” [11]

After the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, the Normans built Parkavonear Castle, also at the Aghadoe. The castle was perhaps intended as an outpost for early warning because of its views over the valley and Killarney Lakes.

Ross Castle was built on the lake shore in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the O’Donoghues Mor (Ross). Ownership of the castle changed hands underDesmond rebellion of the 1580s to the Mac Carty Mor.

Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan friary Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor. The monastery was burned down avCromwellian forces under General Ludlow in 1654, and today is still a ruin.

Killarney was deeply involved in the Irish War of Independence. The city, and indeed the whole county, had strong Republican ties, and skirmishes with the British forces happened on a regular basis. The Great Southern Hotel (now renamed as Malton Hotel) was a while taken over by the British, [12] both as offices and barracks, and to protect the nearby railway station. A notable event during the war was Head Ambushnär IRA Attacke a railway train a few miles from the city.

But divisions among former colleagues were quick to develop after the truce and treaty, and Killarney, as in many others, suffered rashes increasing atrocities during the civil war. One day after Ballyseedy massacre, five Republican prisoners were murdered in Killarney in retaliation.

The history of tourism

Killarney tourism history goes back at least to the mid-18th century, when Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (Lord Kenmare), began to attract visitors and new residents to the city. The date of 1747 was used for the last 250 years celebration to honor the history of Killarney tourism. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1861 gave the city some international exposure.

Killarney benefited greatly from the arrival of the railroad in July 1853. British trade directory publishers Isaac Slater noted that there were three hotels in the city in 1846 [13] , but in 1854, a year after the arrival of the railway, James Fraser named seven hotels and described their places:

Railway Hotel opposite the train station; Kenmare weapons and Hibernia is on the main street and immediately opposite the church … Victoria which is about a mil west of the city on the shore of the Lower Lake; Lakeview is about the same distance east of the city and also on the banks of the Lower Lake; Muckross about two and a half miles away and close to Muckross Lake and Torc occupying an elevated site about one and a half from the city on the hill that rises immediately over Lake Hotel and mil. [14]

1858, Irish born Victorian journalist, Samuel Carter Hall named O’Sullivan’s Hotel and Innisfallen rather than Hibernia and Torc, but Isaac Slater also the name Hibernia in 1846. At the time he wrote, tours of the Ring of Kerry was already an industry and Killarney considered the starting point for the hundred and ten mil detour. He was fascinated by the horses’ endurance at two-day trip, leaving clear advice for visitors;

It is a common sense, designed for those who do this tour, and are not pressed for time, renting carriage at the hotel in Killarney and continue all the way around. “It’s wonderful what these mountain-bred horses can get through” thinking nothing “of thirty miles days together, or even fifty miles in a single day. [15]

As part of the trip, he noted that there were hotels in Glenbeigh and Waterville along with a “comfortable inn”, which is now The Butler Arms Hotel.

Transport

Road

Killarney is served by National Primary Route N22 (north to Tralee and Castle and east to Cork); the national secondary roads N72 (west Killorglin) and N71 (south to Bantry).

Rail

Killarney train station (operated by Iarnród Éireann) has direct connections to Tralee, Cork and Dublin, with connections to the rest of the rail network.

Buss

Bus Eireann provides bus services to Limerick (and on to Dublin), Tralee, Cork, Kenmare and Skibbereen.

Air

Kerry Airport (17 km), in Farranfore between Tralee and Killarney, provides an increasing number of carriers with connecting train from Farranfore railway station to Killarney railway station. Cork Airport (89 km), easily reachable by bus or train, also serves the Kerry region.

Sport

Football

Killarney has three football clubs-all that competes in the Kerry District League.

Killarney Athletic was founded in 1965. Originally the club played in the center of Killarney, but has since moved to a modern facility (with two seats) in the Woodlawn area of the city.

Killarney Celtic was founded in 1976. The club bought their own land in 1993, and has invested in its facilities since then. [16] There is a green and FIFA 1-Star full synthetic all weather pitch (both lit to match the default), 1:50 x 80 meter grass training pitch and a 70 x 35 meter synthetic training pitch which is also fully illuminated.

Cedar Galaxy was formed in 2011 and plays in the Kerry District League Division 2B. The team spent two seasons improving his game in Division 2b before achieving promotion to Division 2A of the 2013/14 campaign.

Biking

Ring of Kerry cycle, a charity cycle around the ring (175 km) takes place every first Saturday in July. In recent years, the numbers involved have risen to 12,000 and the event has raised millions for local charities. There is also a club in Killarney called Killarney Cycling Club and is very successful in road and mountain biking. The club has a strong youth side and adult side and compete regelbundet.Klubben had a team in the An Post RAS 2014, and every year in Ras Mumhan. On the mountain side, they had a national championship winner in adolescents and adults.

In 2011 Killarney due to a host a round of the UCI Mountain Bike Championship but unfortunately the construction of the stadium never began because of complications. The construction of the proposed € 430,000 tracks, which is a joint initiative of Kerry County Council, Cycling Ireland and local landowners Mr. Con O’Donoghue then pushed back to December 2012, as of December 2015 no construction has started and the original planning permission has expired. The fate of the project is unknown.

Gaelic game

Killarney has three Gaelic football team: Dr. Crokes, Killarney Legion and Spa. In rural areas the interior has a large number of football team, as Kilcummin, Fossa, Firies, Glenflesk and Gneeveguilla. All these teams compete in the Kerry League and East Kerry Senior Football Championship (O’Donoghue Cup) and the league.

Dr. Crokes is the most successful of these teams, with the most notable victories are the capture of the All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship in 1992 and Munster Senior Club Football Championship 1991 1990 and 2007. The club also won the County Championship on seven separate occasions, the last being in 2010. Dr. Crokes the only club in Killarney with a hurling team, which has had some notable successes, most recently winning the Kerry Intermediate Hurling Championship in 1999 and 2001.

Rodd

There are six active rowing clubs in the city, which share a common history of Ireland’s oldest surviving regatta, Killarney Regatta, held annually on the first or second Sunday in July. The six clubs Commercial RC (Killarney), Flesk Valley RC, Fossa RC, RC Muck, St. Brendan RC and RC workers. The style of rowing regatta is seen on traditional, fixed seat rowing in the wide, wooden six-person boats. Since the eighties, a number of clubs moved towards the coastal type rowing and modern “slide” or Olympic style rowing.

Muckross Rowing Club is the largest and most successful clubs, has developed into a full-time “gliding” club with 32 SM (since 1996) at different levels from junior to senior. A number of members of the club have also been selected to row for Ireland and has competed successfully in the Home International Regatta, the Coupe de la Jeunesse, the world championships in rowing and the Olympics. Paul Griffin, Sean Casey and Cathal Moynihan members of Muckross Rowing Club, the Olympics and the World Cup Irish rowers. Paul Griffin, racing in Irish Men lightweight four, finished sixth at the 2004 Olympics in Athens, won a silver medal at the 2005 World Championships and a bronze at the 2006 World Cup. As a member of the Lightweight Four, Paul was overall category winner of the 2006 Rowing World Cup series. Sean Casey represented Ireland in Men Classic four at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. In the same crew, Sean also won the “B” final (seventh overall) in the 2006 World Cup and won bronze in the 2006 Munich World Cup Regatta. Cathal Moynihan joined Paul Griffin in the Irish Lightweight Four, who competed at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Cathal made his senior international debut in Men lightweight four at the 2007 World Cup Regatta in Linz, Austria and went on to peace as part of the Irish Men lightweight four at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing – the same boat as Club-Mate Paul Griffin.

Rugby

Killarney RFC play in the Munster Junior League. The club’s 1st XV won promotion to Division 2 in 2009-10. [17] , while the same season the club put a 2nd XV for the first time. The club also has a large youth and minors set-up catering for all young enthuasists from the city and surrounding areas.

Judo

Killarney Judo Club has been active in Killarney since the late 1960s. The club has had several winners All Ireland in its history with international competition winners. The club caters to people from the town and surrounding areas for everyone over 6 years.

Golf

Killarney Golf & Fishing Club attracts various national competitions such as the Irish Open. Ross Golf Course is a 9-hole golf course less than a mil from the center of the city.

Horse racing

Killarney Race Course is located just outside the town and is flat and national hunt meetings.

Killarney in song

In the early 20’s, when music-hall songs in England about “Good Old Ireland” was all the rage, a number of these songs included reference to Killarney, especially “My father was born in Killarney – do not run down the Irish” (1910 ), “Too Ra Loo Ra Loo Ral” (1914), “Killarney and you” (1916), “my little cottage home in sweet Killarney” (1917), “Oh my Lily of Killarney” (1917). [needed citation ]

“It’s just a Killarney” is a song that was written by Irish songwriter Dick Farrelly and recorded by Irish tenor Patrich O’Hagan. Killarney is also displayed in the “How can you buy Killarney” written by Kennedy, Steel, Grant Morrison, and recorded by Joseph Locke, among others. Killarney is also mentioned in “Christmas in Killarney” (written by Redmond, Cavanaugh and Weldon) and “Did your mother come from Ireland?” (Written by Kennedy and Carr), both mainly recorded by Bing Crosby. “Some say the devil is dead” by Derek Warfield contains the line “Some say the devil is dead and buried in Killarney / More say he rose again and joined the British Army.” [18] In the chorus of Celtic Rock band, Gaelic Storm is, let Raised on Black and Tans , the singer explains his Irish heritage by saying “my mother’s brother’s cousin’s sister, Auntie Uncle Barney’s brother had a cousin from Killarney.”

In James Joyce’s story “A Mother”, one of the contestants on a singing contest singing a song about Killarney.

Industry

Lord Kenmare based linen factories in the 1740s as part of its efforts to increase the population and the economy in Killarney.

Socks manufacturing and shoemaking were major industries in the city over the past century, but has since seen decline.

Liebherr Cranes have had a presence in Killarney since 1958, with a total production / research and development facility in the city of manufacturing container cranes. In honor of its founder, got a street named Dr Hans Liebherr Road.

Tricel formally known as Killarney Plastics was founded in 1973 by Anne & Con Stack. This successful multinational has operations in 5 countries and employs 300 people. Dollinger-SPX, a filtration products company, has production facilities in local IDA Industrial Estate. Domestic companies Torc Engineering and the National Organic products have established small industries in Killarney.

Monex Financial Services operate a facility that specializes in processing credit card payments worldwide at Killarney Technology Park.

Muck ceramics and Muckross Weavers based next to Muckross House is a small porcelain and wool activities aimed at the tourist market, carrying a neighboring bookbinding facility the book and manuscripts restoration and bind quality books for universities, publishers and libraries.

Kerry Woolen Mills is a family company that manufactures hats, gloves, sweaters, women’s fashion, blankets, scarves and socks in their facilities near Beaufort.

The Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism has also moved to Killarney, a major beneficiary of decentralization of the civil service departments outside the capital Dublin. Some parts of the Justice Department has been located in Killarney for a number of years.

Tourism

Tourism is by far the largest industry in Killarney. With the exception of Dublin, there are more hotel beds in Killarney than in any other Irish town or city. The tourist population is increasingly diverse, but most tourists come from the USA, Ireland, UK, Germany and other European countries.

During the summer months, Killarney is busy with tourists who visit the city’s many shops and tourist attractions. Many stores are tourist-oriented, with many gift shops around town. The center also offers a wide choice of hotels, pubs and restaurants. Killarney is known for its excursion trolley (horse drawn carriages) run by local jarvies.

Sporting events during the festival include Ring of Kerry Charity Cycle, Killarney Regatta, 5 km Summer Fun Run and Killarney Races.

Conference and events

INEC (Ireland National Events Centre) Killarney Convention Centre has a capacity of 2500 and has hosted many major conferences and events since it opened in 2001. Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, the Labour Party has had its annual conferences in the INEC has the main ~~ POS = TRUNC unions and associations. Google, IBM, GSK has used the center for large events. The venue has also hosted major sporting events, including Tae-Kwon-Do, snooker, boxing, and concerts with major national and internationally renowned artists such as Willie Nelson, Cliff Richard, The Script, Snow Patrol, Bob Geldof, Billy Connolly, Kenny Rogers and José Carreras.

Tourist attractions

  • Aghadoe
  • Killarney National Park
  • Lakes of Killarney
  • Muckross House
  • Ross Castle
  • St Marys katedral
  • The Black Valley

Nightlife

Killarney is a popular destination for party goers. Killarney night is often busy seven days a week during the summer months and weekends throughout the year when the population of the city and the surrounding area will increase significantly. INEC host major national and international artists.

Car rally

Until the early 1980s, Killarney was the destination of the Circuit of Ireland Rally, held every year during the Easter holiday weekend. Nowadays, on the first weekend of May each year, the town plays host to the International Rally lakes.

People

  • Eoin Brosnan Gaelic football
  • Jessie Buckley, singer, actor and finalist , I would do something the BBC series
  • Paul Coghlan , Senator
  • Colm Cooper, Gaelic footballer
  • Edward Eagar, lawyer and convict
  • Michael Fassbender, an actor
  • Dick Fitzgerald, Kerry Gaelic footballer
  • Hugh Kelly, author
  • Seán Kelly, MEP, former President of the GAA and Chairman of the Irish Institute of Sport
  • Tadhg Lyne, three times All-Ireland Senior Football Championship winner with Kerry GAA Gaelic football
  • Michael McElhatton, soccer player
  • Brendan Moloney, soccer player
  • Michael Moynihan, former TD
  • Marcela Moynihan-Cronin, TD tidigare
  • Diarmuid O’Carroll, soccer player
  • Monsignoren Hugh O’Flaherty ,
  • John O’Leary, former TD
  • Gillian O’Sullivan, athlete, race walker – former Olympians, world record holder and silver medalist at the World Championships in Athletics in 2003.
  • John M. O’Sullivan , TD
  • Tom Osander, percussionist
  • Eileen Sheehan , poet

International relations

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Twin cities

Killarney is twinned with:

Castiglione di Sicilia, Sicilien, Italien

Pleinfeld , Bayern , Tyskland

Concord, North Carolina , USA

Cooper City, Florida , USA

Springfield, Illinois , USA

Myrtle Beach, South Carolina , USA

Kendal, England

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Ring of Kerry
  • St. Brendans, Killarney

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Legal Killarney Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  2. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.”. Cso.ie. Pulled 01/05/2012.
  3. Jump up ^ “histpop.org”. Histpop.org.
  4. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census website.” Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. Hämtas2012 / 05/01.
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ “best destination in Ireland – Travellers’ Choice Awards – TripAdvisor”. Tripadvisor.ie.
  8. Jump up ^ “Killarney named Ireland’s tidiest town.” RTE News. 5 September 2011. Taken 2011-09-05.
  9. Jump up ^ “Saint Finian, name Lobhar or leper March 16 Rev. Alban Butler 1866 Volume III: … March lives of the saints “.Bartleby.com. Pulled 01/05/2012.
  10. Jump up ^ Long, Tom. “Track our faith.” Fossa & Aghadoe: Our heritage and history . oath. Jim Larner. Fossa Historical Society.2007.ISBN 978-0-9557739-0-7. p. 1
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab long, first
  12. Jump up ^ “Notes from Joe Wilkie – Killarney memories- page 2”.Rootsweb.ancestry.com. Pulled 01/05/2012.
  13. Jump up ^ Slater, Isaac. Slater’s Directory. In 1846.
  14. Jump up ^ Fraser, James. Guide to Killarney. 1854
  15. Jump up ^ Hall, Carter. A week in Killarney . 1858
  16. Jump up ^ “Killarney Celtic Football Club.” Killarneyceltic.com. 19 January 2006. Taken 2012-05-01.
  17. Jump up ^ “Heroic Killarney win promotion.” UK. 15 April 2010.
  18. Jump up ^ “Some say the devil is dead.” Kinglaoghaire.com. May 25, 1944. Taken 2012-05-24.

The Dingle Peninsula

The Dingle Peninsula (Irish: Corca Dhuibhne – anglicised as Corkaguiny , the name of the corresponding barony) is the northernmost of the major peninsulas in County Kerry. It ends outside the town of Dingle at Dunmore Head, the westernmost point of Ireland, and arguably Europe. [1]

Name

Dingle Peninsula is named after the town of Dingle. The peninsula is also commonly called Corca Dhuibhne (Corcu Duibne) even when they refer to it speak English. Corca Dhuibhne , [2] which means “seed or tribe Duibhne” [3](an Irish personal name), takes its name from Tuath (people nation) ofCorco Dhuibhne who occupied the peninsula during the Middle Ages and who also held a number of areas in the south and east of County Kerry.

Geography

Peninsula exists because of the band of sandstone rock that forms the Slieve Mish Mountains in the neck of the peninsula, in the east, and the unnamed central mountain range to the west. Ireland’s highest mountain outside Macgillycuddy stinks, Mount Brandon at 951 m, is part of a beautiful high ridge with spectacular views of the peninsula and North Kerry.

Conor Pass, which runs from Dingle in southwest end of the peninsula towards Brandon Bay and Castlegregory in the northeast, is the highest mountain pass in Ireland, [ citation needed ] a narrow, winding road; it weaves its way around the sharp cliffs and past the high Corrie lakes. Vehicles over two tons of weight are forbidden to use this scenic road to avoid difficulties in passing.

The Blasket Islands lie off the west coast. They are known for the literary and linguistic heritage of the former residents. However, these remote islands have been uninhabited since the 1950s following an evacuation.

Culture and language

The western part of the peninsula is a Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking area) that has produced a number of nationally known writers and poets, Ó Siochfhradha and Peig Sayers among andra.Detta is the most western part of Ireland, and the village of Dún Chaoin is often joking referred to as “the next parish to America. ”

Archeology

The peninsula is the site of many prehistoric and early medieval remains including:

  • Ferrites’s Cove, on the western tip of the peninsula, and
  • Gallarus Oratory in the very west of the peninsula near the village ofBaile an Fheirtéaraigh in Ard na Caithne .

Musaem Chorca Dhuibhne, located in the village of Baile an Fheirtéaraigh (Ballyferriter) has exhibits detailing the archeology and history of the peninsula. Some of the exhibits include Ogham stones, objects from excavations at the nearby monastery site Riasc (Reask) and objects on loan from the National Museum of Ireland. [4]

In the movie

David Lean’s 1970 film Ryan’s daughter takes place at a village on the Dingle peninsula in the immediate aftermath of the 1916 Easter Rising, and partly shot on location near Dun Chaoin, Coumeenole Beach, Slea Head and Inch Strand. [5] Far and Away , a 1992 film directed by Ron Howard was partly filmed on the peninsula. [6]

The movie Leap Year is partly situated in Dingle Peninsula, but none of the filming took place in the area. [7]

Gallery

A panoramic view of the Dingle Peninsula.

  • Dingle Peninsula as seen from Banna Strand.
  • Dingle Peninsula kust.
  • Minard Castle, Lispole ,County Kerry .
  • Eask Tower, with the tip of the Ring of Kerryi background.
  • The animals in the Dingle Peninsula.
  • The Ranga , pictured here in 1986, sank in 1982.
  • Beaches near Dunmore Head.

See also

  • Beara Peninsula
  • requirement Tornet
  • Iveragh Peninsula
  • Mount Brandon
  • Munster Irish
  • MV Ranga , a ship sank near the Coumeenole Beach, near Slea Head, Dingle

References

  1. Jump up ^ MacCulloch, JR (1837). Statistical Account of the British Empire (Volume 1). London: Charles Knight & Co. p. 345th Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  2. Jump up ^ Suzanne Barrett Ireland for the visitors, April 2009
  3. Jump up ^ Ireland’s Dingle Peninsula Tourism, April 2009
  4. Jump up ^ “Musaem Chorca Dhuibhne: exhibitions”. Musaem Chorca Dhuibhne. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ “Ryan’s Daughter (1970): Locations”. IMDB. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ “by far (1992): Locations”. IMDB. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  7. Jump up ^ “Leap Year (2010/1): Places”. IMDB. Retrieved 31 May 2011.

Dingle

Dingle (Irish: Daingean Ui Chui known locally as An Daingean , meaning “Ó Cuis” fast “) [7] is a town in County Kerry, Ireland. The only town on the Dingle Peninsula, sits on the Atlantic coast, about 50 kilometers (30 mi) southwest of Tralee and 71 kilometers (40 mi) northwest of Killarney. [8]

The main industries in the town are tourism, fishing and agriculture: Dingle Mart (cattle market) serves the surrounding countryside. In 2006 Dingle had a population of 1920. [1] Dingle is located in a Gaeltacht region. There used to be two high schools, but they have now merged to produce Pobalscoil Chorca Dhuibhne. An adult bottlenose dolphin named Fungie has been courting human contact in Dingle Bay since 1983rd

History

Development of the port

In Ireland, the town developed as a port after the Norman invasion of Ireland.By the thirteenth century more goods were exported through the Dingle than Limerick, and in 1257 the Order of Henry III imposed the duty on the port’s exports. [9] of the fourteenth century, imports wine was a big business.Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond, who held Palatine powers in the region imposed a tax on the business around 1329. [10] By the sixteenth century, Dingle was one of Ireland’s most important trading ports, exporting fish, and hides and importing wines from the European continent . French and Spanish fleets used the city as a base. [10]

Relations with Spain was particularly strong, and in 1529 Thomas Fitzgerald, 11 Earl of Desmond and Ambassador Charles V of Spain signed the Treaty of Dingle. [11] Dingle was also a major embarkation port for pilgrims traveling to the shrine to Saint James in Santiago de Compostela. The parish church was built in the sixteenth century during the ‘Spanish patronage “and dedicated to the saint. [12] [13]

In 1569 trade in the city was raised when it was listed as one of the fifteen towns or cities that would have a monopoly on the import of wine. [10]

Other Desmond Rebellions

Dingle Peninsula was the scene of much of the military activity from 1579 to 1580. On July 17, 1579 James Fitzmaurice FitzGerald took a small fleet of ships to Dingle. He reached the country, to launch the second Desmond Rebellions, but was to die soon after in a minor skirmish with the forces of a cousin. [14] The fleet left the city after three days, anchoring on Dun An Oir in the western part of the peninsula, leading eventually the siege of Smerwick the 1580th

Walled city and chartered town

Residents in Dingle applied in 1569 for a “Murage contribution” to construct walls around the city. The grant was not forthcoming on this occasion. After the defeat of the Desmond Rebellions, Queen Elizabeth directed that a royal charterbeviljas to incorporate the city as a city, and to allow the construction of walls. Traces of these city walls can still be seen, while the street layout preserves the pattern burgage plots. [13]

Even Elizabeth intended to provide a charter, the document was only obtained in 1607. On 2 March the same year, her successor, James I, sealed the Charter, although the city and its companies had already existed for twenty-two years. [15] The head of the company was great , fulfilling the role of a mayor. In addition to the sovereign, elected annually at the Feast of St. Michael the company consisted of twelve burghers. The area of competence the company was all land and sea within two miles of the Irish parish church.The district also had an admiralty jurisdiction over Dingle, Dingle, Smerwick and Ferrite Creek “as far as an arrow would fly.” [15]

The Charter also created a parliamentary Dingle town, or constituency, the election of two members to the lower house of parliament in Ireland. [15]

Us

Dingle suffered greatly in nine years of war and wars of the Three Kingdoms, burned or fired on a number of occasions. The city began to recover in the eighteenth century, thanks to the efforts of the Fitzgerald family, Knights of Kerry, who established themselves in “The Grove” at this time. Robert Fitzgerald imported flax seed and by 1755 a thriving linen industry had been established, with fabric worth £ 60,000 annually produced. Trade collapsed after the industrial production of cotton in the UK, and was almost extinct by 1837. [16] The city fell victim to a cholera plague 1849th

fishing

Dingle is an important fishing port, and the industry dates back to around 1830. 1870 saw great development, when “Nobby” Marines from the Isle of Man, came in search of mackerel. Lowestoft herring trawlers later joined the Navy, which allows a longer fishing season. The pier and marina facilities developed by the Congested Districts Board, and the arrival of the railway transport in 1891 allowed for the transport of fish in the country, and the preservation and curing industry developed. [17]

Tourist attractions

Dingle St Mary was a neo-Gothic church built to designs by JJ McCarthy and O’Connell. The foundation stone was laid in 1862. It was originally a ship and aisles separated by arcades, supported on pillars covered with octagonal peaks. Arcade demolished in one of the most radical Rearrange the systems have been implemented in Irland.Projektet also saw the demolition of the exterior walls below the original clerstory level and, above all, in the attic and upper ranges in the west elevation.

There are many opportunities to hear traditional Irish music in the city, especially during the summer tourist season. Dingle has a number of pubs and restaurants and cafes. There is also an aquarium “Ocean World Aquarium” in the city, and a number of art and craft shops.

Dingle Distillery -one of only five in Ireland-launched in Dingle 2012.

Sport

Dingle is home to Dingle GAA club, who play the popular [18] traditional Irish game of Gaelic football. The most high-profile tournament where Dingle raced Football Championship Kerry Senior. [19] [20] Cuman Rugbai Chorca Dhuibhne, the local rugby team, and Dingle Bay Rovers FC are based in the area.

People

  • Known Gaelic Athletic Association commentator MICHEAL Ó Muircheartaigh was born east of Dingle, near Lios Poil 1930th
  • Also from Dingle, Joe O’Toole, Senator, Pauline Scanlon, singer, and Joe Higgins TD
  • PAIDI Ó Sé, Kerry football and Senior Manager, born in Ventry, west of Dingle,
  • Go on cars band members are from Dingle

Twin cities

Land Place County / District / Region / State Originally twinned with date
usa Saint Barbara California Dingle 2003
Italy Tolfa lazio Dingle 1974

Transport

Dingle was formerly the western terminus of the narrow gauge Tralee and Dingle Light Railway.

The railway station was opened April 1, 1891 closed to passenger traffic April 17, 1939 for regular freight March 10, 1947 finally completely closed July 1, 1953 at which time a cattle train once a month, was the only operation. [21]

Name

Spray-painted street sign

In 2005, the Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs Éamon Ó CUÍV announced that anglicisedortnamn (eg “Dingle”) of the Gaeltacht towns and villages were no longer on the official signs, and only the irländskaspråknamn seems. The English version of its name then officially dropped in early 2005, with virtually colloqial Irish name An Daingean is advanced.

Regarding Dingle, the move was particularly controversial, because the city is heavily dependent on tourism, and there was fear that change may prevent visitors to find the city. Detractors noted that tourists can not recognize the Irish names on the sign-posts, and that it also could be confused with a similarly named town (Daingean) in County Offaly. Supporters rejected that argument, pointing out that there are many cities in Ireland with similar names. The minister added that the controversy by suggesting a name change to English can be accomplished by removing the city’s Gaeltacht status and thus lose its entitlement to government support for Irish-speaking areas.

In late 2005, Kerry County Council approved the holding of a referendum for the name change to the bilingual “Dingle / Daingean Uí Chui” [22] , which took place in October 2006. [23] The results were published on 20 October, and 1005 of the 1,086 returned ballots ( voters: 1222) favored the amendment of the bilingual version. [24] [25] Éamon Ó CUÍV stated, however, that there was no mandate to act on the results of the referendum. But in 2008 the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government John Gormley, announced its intention to amend the local government laws to allow the name chosen by referendum to replace any placental orders under the Official Languages in 2003. [26] This would mean that ” Daingean Uí Chui “would be the official name of the city in Ireland, with the” Dingle “the official name in English. However, the city’s name on road signs in the Gaeltacht continue to display the name of the town in Irish only. Meanwhile, some locals took matters into their own hands by spray painting “Dingle” on road signs that bore only the Irish version of the name.

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Dingle (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Munster Irish
  • requirement tower
  • MV Ranga , a ship sank near Slea Head, Dingle
  • Wild Atlantic Way

References

Remarks

  1. ^ Jump up to: abc “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Retrieved May 7 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  4. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LAirländska population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ McKenna 1986: 10-11
  8. Jump up ^ Kerry County Council 2006: 1
  9. Jump up ^ McKenna, 1986: 19-20, Coppage et al 1986: 380
  10. ^ Jump up to: abc McKenna 1986: 20
  11. Jump up ^ “Treaty Dingle remember.” The Kerryman. 29 April 2009.Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  12. Jump up ^ McKenna 1986: 60
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Coppage et al, 1986: 381
  14. Jump up ^ McKenna 1986: 23
  15. ^ Jump up to: abc McKenna 1986: 31-33
  16. Jump up ^ McKenna, 1986: 45-47
  17. Jump up ^ Daniel Graham (1996). “History of Fishing on Ireland’s Dingle Peninsula”. Dingle Peninsula Tourism. Are downloaded December 2009.
  18. Jump up ^ “GAA attendance figures” (PDF). Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  19. Jump up ^ “Dingle football match report.” “The Kingdom” magazine.July 2005. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  20. Jump up ^ “Murphy and Griffin appears to Kerry in the All-Ireland football final.” RTE News. September 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  21. Jump up ^ “Dingle station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 23 September of 2007.
  22. Jump up ^ “CC Kerry votes to keep Dingle referendum”. RTE News. 17 October 2005. Hämtad24 July 2007.
  23. Jump up ^ “Dingle so good they can name it twice”. Irish Independent.October 9, 2006. Taken 24 juli2007.
  24. Jump up ^ “90% vote for An Daingean name change”. RTE News. 20 October 2005. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  25. Jump up ^ “You know the way to An Daingean?”. BBC News. 20 October 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  26. Jump up ^ “Gormley proposes amendments to legislation changing placenta – and Dingle Daingean Ui Chui to be the official name of An Daingean”. Municipalities News. Dept. Environment. April 2008.

County Kerry

County Kerry (Irish: Contae Chiarraí ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is located in South-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. It is named after the Ciarraigesom lived in a part of the present county. Kerry County Council is the local authority for the county and Tralee serves as the county seat. The population of the county was 147,554 years in 2016, according to the 2016 Census.

Geography and political subdivisions

Kerry is the fifth largest of the 32 counties of Ireland by area and the 15th largest by population. [1] It is the second largest of the six Munster counties by area and the fourth largest by population. Uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties: County Limerick in the east and County Cork to the southeast. The county town is Tralee. Diocesan see, Killarney, which is one of Ireland’s most famous tourist destinations. The Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty is located in Killarney National Park. The tip of the Dingle Peninsula, the westernmost point of Ireland.

Baronies

There are nine historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by the placenta Orders made since 2003, where the official Irish name baronies listed under “administrative units”.

The Three Sisters, West Kerry.

  • Clanmaurice – Family Morris
  • Corkaguiny – Dingle
  • Dunkerron North – Dunkerron North
  • Dunkerron South – Dunkerron South
  • Glanarought – Glen Ruachtaí
  • Iraghticonnor – Oireacht O’Connor
  • Iveragh Peninsula – Uibh Ráthach
  • Magunihy – Mayo gCoinchinn
  • Trughanacmy – Triúcha en Class

Towns and Villages

  • Abbeydorney – Mainistir Ó dTorna
  • Annascaul – River en Scal
  • Ardfert – Ardfert
  • Asdee – Falls didl
  • Donegal Town – Home Donegal
  • Ballinskelligs – Home en Skellig
  • Ballybunion – Home en Ballybunion
  • Bally – An Baile Dubh
  • Home en Fheirtéaraigh – home en Fheirtéaraigh
  • Ballyhar – Ballyhar
  • Ballyheigue – Ballyheigue
  • Ballylongford – Ballylongford
  • Ballymacelligott – Newton Eileagóid
  • Barraduff – Top Black
  • Beaufort – Lios in Phuca
  • Blennerville – Blennerville
  • Brosna – Brosnach
  • Caherdaniel – Caherdaniel
  • Cahersiveen – Caherciveen
  • Camp – En With
  • Castlecove – En Shop Black
  • Castlegregory – Castlegregory
  • Castle – study Kerry
  • Castle – Caislean na Mainge
  • Pedestrian – A Tóchar
  • Chapel – En Sound
  • Cloghane – En Clifden
  • Cordal – Cordal
  • Cromane – En segmental
  • Currans – Na Coirríní
  • Currow – Run
  • Derrymore – Derrymore
  • Derrynane – Derrynane
  • Dingle – Dingle
  • Duagh – Duagh
  • Dún Chaoin – Dún Chaoin
  • Farranfore – En Land Cold
  • Fenit – In Fhianait
  • Feothanach – En Fheothanach
  • Fieries – After Foidhrí
  • Finuge – Fionnúig
  • Foilmore – Chance moir
  • Fybagh – En problematic
  • Glenbeigh – Glen Birch
  • Glencar – Glen McCarthy
  • Glenflesk – Glenflesk
  • Gneeveguilla – Action Gå Leith
  • Tum – Realize
  • Kenmare – Neidin
  • Kilcummin – Kilcummin
  • Kilflynn – Cell Flann
  • Kilgobnet – Cell Ghobnait
  • Kilgarvan – Kilgarvan
  • Killarney – Cill Airne
  • Killorglin – Killorglin
  • Kilmorna – Cell Nesbitt
  • Kilmoyley – Cell Mhaoile
  • Knights – Baile en fault
  • Knocknagoshel – Knocknagashel
  • Knockanure – Hill en Newry
  • Lauragh – Immediately
  • Lerrig – En Leirg
  • Lispole – Lios Poil
  • Lisselton – Lisselton
  • Listowel – Listowel
  • Lixnaw – nolsyra Pool
  • Lyracrumpane – Ladhar in Chrompáin
  • Milltown – Baile en Mill
  • Moyvane – Rathea
  • Port – An Caladh
  • Rathmore – En Great Ráth
  • Scartaglen – offal en Glen
  • Smerwick – Smerwick
  • Sneem – A tSnaidhm
  • Spa (Tralee) – a special protection
  • Spa (Killarney) – a special protection
  • Stradbally – En Village
  • Tarbert – Tarbert
  • Templenoe – En Team Nua
  • Tralee – BETWEEN THEM
  • Tuosist – North O Siosta
  • Valentia Island – Valentia
  • Ventry – Ceann Between
  • Waterville – En Waterville

Townlands

For a more comprehensive list, see List of townlands in County Kerry.

  • Coolgarriv – En 3Chúil Rough
  • Aghadoe – Achadh Deo
  • Maglass

other areas

  • Ard na Caithne (previously known as Smerwick )
  • Sliabh Luachra (border counties of Kerry, Cork and Limerick County known Irish folk)
  • Dingle (Dingle Peninsula Gaeltacht region på)
  • Bounard

physical geography

Close Teeravane, County Kerry, Ireland

Kerry faces the Atlantic Ocean and typical for the East Atlantic coastal region, has many peninsulas and bays, mainly Dingle, Iveragh Peninsula and the Beara Peninsula. The county is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north of the River Shannon. Kerry is one of the most mountainous regions in Ireland and includes two of the three highest mountain, Carrauntoohil, part of Macgillycuddy’s Reeks range, and Mount Brandon, part of the Slieve Mish range.

Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island and the Skelligs. Skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the island’s cliffs. The county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, part of Blaskets. The westernmost inhabited area in Ireland Dun Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula.The river Feale the River Laune and Roughty River flow through Kerry, in the Atlantic Ocean.

Dingle Peninsula

Climate

  • The North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream flowing north past Kerry and Ireland’s west coast, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude. This means attsubtropiska plants such as strawberry trees and tree ferns, not typically found in northern Europe, thrives in the area.
  • Because of the mountainous area and the prevailing south-westerly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland.Because of its location, there has been a weather reporting station at Valentia for many centuries. The Irish record for rainfall in a day is 243.5 mm (9.59 inches), recorded on Cloore Lake in Kerry in 1993. [2]
  • In 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley passed over Kerry as an extratropical storm caused extensive rainfall, flooding and damage.

History

[View] Historical population

Kerry (Irish: Ciarrai or more prejudiced Ciarraighe ) signifies “people of Ciar” which was the name of a pre-Gaelic regulars who lived in a part of the nuvarande Dala. The legendary riska founders of the tribe was Ciar, son till Fergus Mac Róich. [4] In forniriska “Ciar” meant black or Mörkbruna, och word still in use in modern irländsk as one adjective that describes a mörk high. [5] suffix raighe , the wild saga Människor / regulars , finns i olika -ryortnamn in Ireland, such OsryOsraighe Deer People / Tribe . Länets smeknamn passionate kungariket . [6]

Lordship of Ireland

On August 27, 1329 by Letters Patent, Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond was confirmed in the feudal tree for the entire county palatine of Kerry, to him and his heirs male, holding the crown of the service of a knight avgift.I the 15th century, most of the area now known as County Kerry was still part of the county Desmond, west Munster seat of the Earl of Desmond, a branch of Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, known as Geraldine.

Kingdom, Ireland

Little Skellig, as seen from Skellig Michael.

1580, during the Second Desmond Rebellions, one of the most infamous massacres of the sixteenth century, the Siege of Smerwick, took place on Dun An Oir near Ard na Caithne (Smerwick) at the tip of the Dingle Peninsula. 600-strong Italian, Spanish and Irish papal invasion force by James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald besieged by English forces and massacred.

1588, when the fleet of the Spanish Armada in Ireland returned to Spain during stormy weather, many of its ships sought shelter on the Blasket Islands and some wrecked.

During the nine-year war, Kerry was once again the site of the conflict, as O’Sullivan Beare Clan joined the uprising. 1602 its Castle Dunboy was besieged and taken by the English troops. Donal O’Sullivan Beare, in an attempt to escape the English retaliation and achieve their allies in Ulster, marched all the clan members and relatives of Northern Ireland. Because of harassment by hostile forces and freezing weather, very few of the 1,000 O’Sullivan indicated reached its destination.

In the aftermath of the war, much of the native-owned land in Kerry seized and given to English settlers or “planters”. The head of the MacCarthy Mor family, Florence MacCarthy were jailed in London and his lands were divided between his family and settlers from England, which Browne family.

In the 1640s, Kerry was engulfed by the Irish rebellion in 1641, an attempt by Irish Catholics take power in the Protestant Kingdom Ireland. The uprising in Kerry led by Donagh McCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry. McCarthy kept the county during the subsequent Irish League of war and his forces were among the last to surrender to the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1652. The last stronghold to fall was Ross Castle near Killarney.

UK

In the 17th and 18th centuries Kerry became increasingly populated by poor crofters, who came to rely on potatoes as their main food source. As a result, when the potato crop failed in 1845, Kerry was very hard by the Great Irish Famine of 1845-49. In the wake of famine, many thousands of poor peasants emigrated to seek a better life in America and elsewhere. Kerry was to remain a source of emigration until recently. Another long-term consequence of famine were land wars of the 1870s and 1880s, where tenants agitated, sometimes violently for better terms from their landlords.

War and the Civil War

Ross Castle och Lough Leane, Killarney National Park.

In the 20’s, Kerry was one of the counties hardest hit by the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) and the Irish Civil War (1922-1923). In the war of independence, the Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against the Royal Irish Constabulary and the British military. One of the more prominent events in the conflict in Kerry was “the siege of Tralee” in November 1920, when the Black and Tans placed Tralee under curfew for a week, burned many homes and shot dead a number of locals in revenge for the IRA killing of five local police officers the night before. Another was Headford Junction ambush in the spring of 1921, when the IRA units ambushed a train with British soldiers outside Killarney. A dozen British soldiers, three civilians and two IRA men were killed in the ensuing firefight. Violence between the IRA and the British ended in July 1921, but nine men, four British soldiers and five IRA men were killed in a shoot-out in the Castle the day of the truce itself, indicating the bitterness of the conflict in Kerry.

After the Anglo-Irish Treaty, most of Kerry IRA units opposed the deal. One exception was in Listowel where a garrison pro-Treaty established by local Flying Column Commander Thomas Kennelly in February 1922. This unit consisted of 200 regular soldiers with officers. A batch of rifles, machine guns and a Crossley tender was sent from Dublin. Listowel would remain a base for those who support the Treaty throughout the conflict. [7] The city was eventually overcome by superior number of anti-Treaty forces belong to Kerry No 2 and 3 brigades in June 1922. In the ensuing civil war between pro- and anti- treaty elements, Kerry was perhaps the worst affected area in Ireland. Initially, the county was held by anti-Treaty IRA but it was for the Irish Free State after the seaborne landings by the National troops at Fenit, Tarbert and Kenmare in August 1922. Subsequently, the county saw a bitter guerrilla war between the men who had been companions just a year earlier.The Republicans, or “irregulars”, mounted a number of successful actions, such as attacking and short repayment takes Kenmare in September 1922. In March 1923 Kerry saw a series of massacres of Republican prisoners from the National Army soldiers in retaliation for the ambush of their men-the most infamous is the killing of eight men with mines Ballyseedy near Tralee. The internecine conflict ended in May 1923 that right was restored after the death of the IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch, and the order of Frank Aiken to dump all weapons.

local authorities

County Council

Main article: Kerry County Council

The main municipality of Kerry County Council. The Council provides a number of services, including planning, road maintenance, fire brigade, municipal housing, water supply, waste management, recycling and disposal, the contribution of higher education and funding for arts and culture. [8]

Town councils

A further group of municipalities were in the three largest cities in the county, Killarney, Listowel and Tralee until 2014 local elections was held on 23 May 2014. These elections were held after the changes made by the Municipal Reform Act 2014. The act abolished the city council and introduced municipal districts. County Kerry were divided into four municipal districts, which is identical to the local election areas (LEA) used for selection of the Council. [9]

Parlamentarisk representation

After boundary changes in 2016, Kerry is represented in Dáil Éireann five TDs returned from a single parliamentary constituency. TDS was elected to the 32nd Dáil Éireann at the 2016 general election were:

Kerry :

  • John Brassil (Fianna Fáil)
  • Martin Ferris (Sinn Fein)
  • Brendan Griffin ( Fine Gael )
  • Danny Healy-Rae (independent)
  • Michael Healy-Rae (independent)

Culture

As a region at the end of Ireland, culture Kerry was less sensitive to external influences and has kept the Irish, Irish music, song and dance. The Sliabh Luachra area of northeastern Kerry, adjacent Limerick and Cork, is known for its traditional music, dance and song, especially its slides, polkas and violin playing. The Siamsa Tire in Tralee town center is a hub of traditional Irish pastime. Corca Dhuibhne and Uibh Ráthach ansesGaeltacht regions and Irish culture is also very strong in these areas. Blasket Islands off the Dingle Peninsula is famous for its rich literary heritage; writers like Peig Sayers, Muiris Ó Suilleabhain and Tomas O’Crohan have all written books about life on the islands, which were evacuated in 1953. John B Keane, born in Listowel, considered one of Ireland’s greatest playwrights and is known for his works such as The Field , Sive and Big Maggie .

Sport

Gaelic Games

Kerry is known for its leading Gaelic football. Gaelic football is by far the dominant sport in the county, and Kerry has been the most successful of all football team; Kerry footballer has won the Sam Maguire cup 37 times, with the next closest team Dublin on 24 wins. [10] Hurling is popular at club level in the North Kerry, although the county has just won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, in 1891 the leading the team currently compete iChristy caller Cup. [11]

The compound football

The Kerry District League is the most important competition for association football in the county. Tralee Dynamos has represented Kerry in a championship, while the Killarney Celtic and also competed in the Munster Senior League in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Cricket

A transition to the further growth of cricket in the county going after Ireland’s performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup. [12]

Irish

There are 6.083 Irish language speakers in County Kerry, with 4.978 native speakers in the Kerry Gaeltacht. This does not count the 1105 attending the four Gaelscoils (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary schools) outside the Kerry Gaeltacht. [13]

Tourist attractions

Lakes of Killarney

Kerry, with its mountains, lakes and the Atlantic coast is among the most scenic areas in Ireland and are among the most important tourist destinations in Ireland. Killarney’s center for tourism, which is an important part of the economy in Kerry. The Kerry Way, the Dingle Way and Beara Way walking routes in the county. The Ring of Kerry on the Iveragh peninsula is a popular route for tourists and cyclists. The pedestrian version is the scenic Kerry Way which follows ancient paths generally higher than that adopted by the Ring of Kerry.

Tourist attractions:

  • Ballinskelligs
  • Banna Strand
  • Blasket islands
  • Blennerville Windmill
  • Carrauntoohil
  • Conor Pass
  • Dingle Peninsula
  • Eightercua
  • Ecclesiastical sites at Ardfert
  • Fenit Harbour
  • Gallarus Oratory
  • Killarney National Park
  • Kerry County Museum
  • The requested Kerry Mills
  • Lakes of Killarney
  • Maharees
  • Mount Brandon
  • Muckross House
  • Rattoo Round Tower and Sheela na Gig
  • Ring of Kerry
  • Ross Castle
  • Scotia Grave
  • Siamsa Tire
  • Skellig Michael
  • Torc vattenfall
  • Uragh Stone Circle

Media

County Kerry has two local newspapers, The Kerryman and Kerry eye , both published in Tralee.

The county has a commercial radio station, Radio Kerry, which started operations in 1990. RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta has a studio in ballydavid in west Kerry Gaeltacht. [14]

infrastructure

Road

National primary routes:

The most important national primary routes in Kerry is the N21 road from Limerick and the N22 road from Cork, each ending in Tralee. Kerry Airport is located on the N23 road between the castle and Farranfore which connects the N21 and N22.

National secondary roads:

In Kerry the most important national secondary roads include the famous Ring of Kerry following the N70 road that circles around the Iveragh Peninsula and links on Kenmare with the N71 en route to West Cork. The N86 road linking the Tralee to Dingle along the Dingle Peninsula, while the N69 road from Limerick links Listowel and Tralee through North Kerry.

Rail

Killarney railway station

Kerry served by the railway station in Tralee, Farranfore railway station, Killarney railway station and Rathmore train station that connects to Cork and Dublin Heuston viaMallow.

Branch services were to each one of the peninsulas (Beara, Iveragh and Dingle) and also the northern part of the county. They were closed in the rationalization of the 1950s and 1960s.

  • Tralee and Dingle Light Railway: a narrow gauge railway that closed in July in 1953.
  • Kenmare via Headford Junction: (8 miles outside Killarney) closed in February in 1960.
  • Valentia Harbour through Farranfore: closed even in February 1960. (The Gleesk viaduct near Kellsis still exists.)
  • Listowel served via North Kerry line, which stretched from Tralee to Limerick. Passenger services ceased in 1963, shipping in 1983, the lines were drawn in, 1988.
  • Fenit served through a branch outside North Kerry line until 1978;runners are still in place.

Listowel Ballybunion difference had to run experimental Lartigue Monorail services from 1882 to 1924. A 500 section was restored in 2003. A road-car route, the Prince of Wales Route , was a link from Bantry to Killarney, which is run by Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway as a service to tourists.

Buss

Bus Eireann operates an extensive bus network of roads throughout the county, with the connecting hub in Killarney and Tralee.

Air

Kerry Airport is located at Farranfore in the middle of the county and has operated a regular service since 1989. Destinations served by the 2014 London (Stansted and Luton), Frankfurt-Hahn, Faro, Alicante Portugaloch all operated by Ryanair. Aer Lingus Regional also operates a year-round service to Dublin.

The airport is served by Farranfore railway station.

Hav

Fenit harbor near Tralee is a regional port can handle ships of up to 17,000 tons. Large container cranes from Liebherr in Killarney regularly exported worldwide. A rail link to the port was closed in the 1970s. The port of Dingle is one of Ireland’s secondary fishing ports [ citation needed ] . In the northern part of the county, operates a ferry service from Tarbert to Killimer iCounty Clare.

Hospital

See also: List of hospitals in Ireland

Hospitals in Kerry include public Kerry General Hospital, which is the second largest acute hospitals in the Health Service Executive South Region. It serves as the largest hospital in County Kerry and also serves people in parts of the northern West Cork and Limerick. Other hospitals include private Bon Secours Hospital in Tralee and community hospitals in Cahirciveen, Dingle, Kenmare, Killarney and Listowel.

Training

The Institute of Technology, Tralee (IT Tralee) is the main third level institution in the county. It was founded in 1977 as the Regional Technology, Tralee but got its present name in 1997. It has an enrollment of approximately 3,500 students. The Institute has two campuses: North Campus (opens in Dromtacker 2001) and South campus (opened in Clash 1977), about 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from each other.

SEPTS, families and titles

A number of Irish surnames derived from SEPTS hail from Kerry area, such as Falvey, Foley, McCarthy, Murphy O’Connor, O’Moriarty, Clifford, Kennelly, McGrath, O’Carroll, O’Sullivan O’Connell, O ‘Donoghue, O’Shea, Quill, Scannell, Stack, Sugrue and Tangney.

The area was also home to the Hiberno-Norman families, Fitzmaurices and Desmond, a branch of the Fitzgeralds.

Titles in the British Peerage of Ireland with a family place in Kerry’s

  • the Knight of Kerry – a branch of the Fitzgeralds had lands on Valentia Island
  • the Earl of Kenmare (also Viscount Castlerosse, Viscount Kenmare and Baron Castlerosse ) – descendants of Sir Valentine Browne was awarded lands in Killarney
  • The Earl of Desmond – Desmond Fitzgerald who had lands in North Kerry until they were arrested in late Desmond Rebellions
  • the Marquess of Lansdowne (also Earl of Shelburne, Baron Dunkeron ) – descendants of Sir William Petty allotted lands in Kenmare and elsewhere
  • den Earl of Kerry (även Baron Kerry , Viscount Clanmaurice ) – den Fitzmaurice familjen
  • den Earl of Listowel – Hare familjen
  • the Baron Ventry – Mullins family who had lands in Dingle Peninsula, including Dingle

Viscount Valentia seems to be related to lands in County Armagh, rather than Kerry.

People

Associated People:

  • Roger Casement
  • Wolfe Tone
  • Cearbhall Daly

Historic:

  • Daniel O’Connell
  • Thomas Ashe
  • Tom Crean
  • with Cremin
  • Austin Stack
  • horatio Kitchener
  • Richard Kelliher
  • jennifer Musa
  • Charlie Daly
  • maurice Moynihan
  • Patrick Edward Connor
  • William Melville
  • Richard Cantillon
  • John Connors
  • Trevor Chute
Literary & Musical:

  • with Houlihan
  • Thomas O’Brien Butler
  • julia Clifford
  • Jerome Connor
  • Canon James Goodman
  • John B. Keane
  • brendan Kennelly
  • Denis Murphy
  • Thomas MacGreevy
  • Thomas Criomhthain
  • Owen Roe O’Sullivan
  • Padraig O’Keeffe
  • Arthur O’Leary
  • Maurice O’Sullivan
  • Aogán O’Rahilly
  • Peggy Sayers
  • Larry Mathews
  • Christie Hennessy
  • John Moriarty
  • paddy Cronin
  • Patrick S. Dinneen
Political:

  • Martin Ferris
  • Jackie Healy-Rae
  • Joe Higgins
  • Dick Spring

Mode:

  • Don O’Neill

Sport:

  • colm Cooper
  • mick Galwey
  • mick Doyle
  • Maurice Fitzgerald
  • Paul Galvin
  • Tadhg Kennelly
  • bryan Cooper
  • mick O’Connell
  • mick O’Dwyer
  • Gillian O’Sullivan
  • Paul Griffin
  • Darragh Ó Sé
  • Pat Spillane
  • Jack O’Shea
Film / Scenes / Radio:

  • Michael Fassbender
  • eamon Kelly
  • Fodhla Cronin O’Reilly
  • Richard Wall
  • Jessie Buckley

See also

  • High Sheriff of Kerry
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Kerry)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Kerry
  • Regional accents of English
  • Wild Atlantic Way

References

  1. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists . Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  2. Jump up ^ “Rain – Climate – Met Éireann – The Irish Meteorological Service Online”. Met.ie . Retrieved May 23, 2012 .
  3. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures. For 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14 1865.t for a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee, “On the accuracy of Pre-famine Irish bills Irish population , economy and society “, published by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) p.54, and even” the latest developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850 “by Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada in the Economic history Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473-488.
  4. Jump up ^ TJ Barrington, discovering Kerry, its history Heritage and toponymy , Dublin, 1976
  5. Jump up ^ Gearrfhoclóir Gaeilge applications English , Dublin, 1981
  6. Jump up ^ Mary Tossell. “History, geography, Facts about County Kerry.” Rootsweb.ancestry.com . Retrieved May 23, 2012 .
  7. Jump up ^ Listowel and its vicinity. Anthony Gaughan. In 1973.
  8. Jump up ^ “All Services”. Kerry County Council . Retrieved February 11, 2011 .
  9. Jump up ^ “SI No. 51/2014 – County Kerry local electoral areas and municipal Order 2014”. Irish Statute Book . The Office of the Attorney General . Retrieved May 19, 2014 .
  10. Jump up ^ “Roll of Honour”. Cumann Lúthcleas Geal . Retrieved 26 August September 2008 .
  11. Jump up ^ “Kerry GAA – Hurling – clubs and information”. gaainfo.com. Retrieved 26 August September 2008 .
  12. Jump up ^ “Cricket comes to Kerry.” www.sportsnewsireland.com .Retrieved 11 April 2011 .
  13. Hoppa upp ^ “Irish Medium Education in Ireland in Pale, 2010-2011” (PDF) (på iriska). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011 . Hämtat 9 januari 2012 .
  14. Jump up ^ “Labhair Linn”. RTE Raidió na Gaeltachta . Retrieved December 19, 2010 .

© 2018 victoriasway.eu

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑