Killarney National Park (Irish: Pairc Náisiúnta Chill Airne ), near the town of Killarney, County Kerry, was the first national park in Ireland, created when Muckross Estate was donated to the Irish state in 1932.  The park has since been substantially expanded and covers of 102.89 km 2 (25,425 acres) of diverse ecology, including the lakes of Killarney, oak and yew forests of international importance,  and the mountain peaks.  It is Ireland’s only native herd of red deer  and the most extensive coverage of native forest remaining in Ireland.  the park is of high ecological value because of the quality, diversity and scope of many of its habitats and the many different species that they accommodate a portion of which ärsällsynta. The park was designated a UNESCO biosphere 1981.  The park is part of a SAC.
The National Parks and Wildlife is responsible for the management and administration of the park.  Environmental Protection is the main purpose of the park, and ecosystems in their natural state are highly valued.  The park is also known for its beautiful nature.  recreation and tourism facilities there also. 
Climate and geography
Killarney National Park is located in the southwest of Ireland, near the island’s westernmost point.  The Lakes of Killarney and Mangerton, Torc, Shehy and purple mountains in the park.  elevations in the park ranging from 22 meters (72 ft) to 842 meters (2,762 ft).  A major geological boundary between the Devonian old red sandstone and Carboniferous limestone is located in the park. The underlying geology of the majority of the park’s sandstone, limestone pavements occur in the low eastern shore of Lough Leane. 
The park has a maritime climate, heavily influenced by the Gulf Stream. The experience mild winters (6 ° C (average 43 ° F) February) and cool summers (15 ° C (average ° F) July 59).  Average daily temperatures range from a low of 5.88 ° C (42 , 58 ° C) in January to a high of 15.28 ° C (59.50 ° F) in July. The park experiences high rainfall and interchangeable fronts,  with light showery rain is frequent throughout the year.  The average rainfall is 1,263 millimeters (49.7 inches) per year,  223 days per year typically has more than one millimeter (0.039 inches) precipitation.  The average number of frost days is 40. 
The geological boundary, the park’s wide range of altitudes and climatic influence of the Gulf Stream combine to give the park a varied ecology. These ecosystems inkluderarmyrar, lakes, moors, mountains, rivers, forests, parks and gardens.  rocks, cliffs and cliffs are characteristic of the park. over 200 meters (660 feet), mountain sandstone areas support large areas of blanket bog and heath. 
The early history
Killarney National Park is one of the very few places in Ireland that have been continuously covered by forests since the end of the last ice age, about 10,000 years ago. People have lived in the area since at least the Bronze Age, about 4,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found evidence that copper mining took place in the Ross Island area during this period, indicating that the area was of great importance to the Bronze Age people.The park has numerous archaeological features, including a well-preserved stone circle on Lissivigeen.  The forest park has been disturbed and cleared during different periods since the Iron Age. This has caused a gradual decline in the diversity of tree species in the park. 
Some of the most impressive archaeological sites in the park are from the early Christian period. The most important of these features are Inisfallen Abbey, the ruins of a monastic settlement on Inisfallen Island in Lough Leane. It was founded in the 7th century CE St. Finian the Leper and was occupied until the 14th century.  The Annals of Inisfallen , a record of the early history of Ireland as it was known by the monks, written in the monastery from the 11th to 13th centuries.  It is believed that the monastery gave rise to the name Lough Leane, which means “Lake of Learning”. 
Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 by Observantine Franciscans and is also still there, despite the fact that the damaged and reconstructed several times when its inhabitants plundered. “Friars Glen” on Mangerton Mountain usually said to have been one of the places that the monks would flee to when the monastery was attacked. The central feature of Muckross Abbey is a central courtyard containing a huge yew surrounded by a domed monastery.  It is traditionally said that this tree is as old as Muckross Abbey itself.  The monastery was the burial place for local chiefs. In the 17th and 18th centuries in Kerry poets O’Donoghue Seafraidh, Aogán Ó Rathaille and Eoghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin buried there. 
After the Norman invasion of Ireland, the land around the lakes owned by McCarthy and O’Donoghues.  Ross Castle is a 15th-century tower house on the shores of Lough Leane. It was once the residence of the governor O’Donoghue Mór. The castle was extended in the 17th century. It has been restored and is open to the public.  A 1580 Century Elizabethan Military records describe the Killarney area meagrely inhabited wilderness forest and mountains. 
From the 18th century the country in today’s park was divided between two large estates, the Herberts of Muckross and Browne (Earls of Kenmare).During the 17th and 18th centuries the forest was largely used for local industries, including coal production, cooperage and tanning .Trycket the forest intensified during the latter part of the 18th century.  The main reason for Oakwood destruction in Killarney in the 18th century was the production of charcoal fire smelter used in the local iron industry. About 25 tons of oak needed to produce one ton of cast iron.  In 1780, Young described notoriously Derrycunihy wood that “a large swath of mountains, covered partly in wood, hanging in a very noble way, but some cut back, much of the wounded, and the rest is inhabited by coopers, boat builders, carpenters and turners … ” 
Forest land use increased again during the Napoleonic era in the early 19th century, probably because of the high prices as oak commanding at this time. The replanting and management of oak groves promoted at that time.It was a large-scale felling of oak trees on Ross Island in 1803, Glena in about 1804 and 1805. Tomies Tomies then replanted with three-year-old oak and Glena were coppiced. These activities have increased the relative abundance of oak in the park during the past 200 years.  Since most of the oak trees in the forest today is about 200 years old, it is likely that most of them were planted, and oak forests that have never disturbed by humans are limited to a few isolated pockets in remote areas such as mountain valleys. 
Herbert family owned land on the Muckross Peninsula from 1770 onwards.They became very rich from the copper mines of this land. Henry Arthur Herbert and his wife in the water colourist Mary Balfour Herbert -finished build Muckross House in 1843. The Herbert financial situation was uncertain at the end of the 19th century,  and Muckross estate was bought by Lord Ardilaun of the Guinness brewing family, 1899.
Creation of the park
In 1910, the American William Bowers Bourn bought Muckross Estate as a wedding gift to his daughter Maud on her marriage with Arthur Vincent. They spent £ 110,000 to improve the farm between 1911 and 1932 to build the Sunken Garden, Stream Garden, and a rock on an outcrop of limestone. 
Maud Vincent died of pneumonia in 1929.  1932, Arthur Vincent and his parents swear muck Estate donated to the Irish state in her memory. The 43.3 square kilometer (10,700-acre) property was baptized as Bourn Vincent Memorial Park. The Irish government created the National Park by sending Bourn Vincent Memorial Park Act 1932.  The law requires the Commissioners of Public Works to “maintain and operate the park as a national park in order to reproduce and enjoyment of the public. ”  The memorial park is the core of today’s enlarged national park. 
Initially, the Irish government was unable to provide much financial support to the park, so it worked mainly as a farmhouse that was open to the public. Muckross House was closed to the public until 1964. 
Around 1970 there was public concern about the threat to the Bourn Vincent Memorial Park. The Irish authorities looked at international practice to classify and manage the national parks. It was decided to expand and appoint a new park as a national park which was broadly similar ICUN category II. It was also decided to set up other national parks in Ireland.  Nearly 60 square kilometers (15,000 acres) have been added to the original park, including the three lakes, Knockreer Estate, Ross Island, Innisfallen, and the townlands of Glena,. Ullauns and Poulagower  The park is now more than twice as large as it was in 1932.  that the Irish economy became richer and views on the role of national parks has changed, much more money available for the park. 
Lakes of Killarney
Lakes of Killarney are Lough Leane (the Lower Lake), Muckross Lake (mid-lake), and the upper lake. These lakes are interconnected and together make up almost a quarter of the park’s area. Although linked, each lake has a unique ecosystem. The lakes attend the Meeting of the Waters, a popular tourist area.  Sport angling on the lakes has been a popular pastime for generations, exploiting the lakes large populations of trout and salmon.
Lough Leane is approximately 19 square kilometers (4,700 acres) in size and is by far the largest of the three lakes.  It is also the largest fresh water in the region.  It is also the lake richest in nutrients. It has become eutrophic due to phosphates from agricultural and domestic pollution into Lough Leane Reed, an important habitat on the edge of Lough Leane. This nutrient enrichment has caused several algal bloom in later years. The blooms have not yet had a serious impact on the lake’s ecosystem. To prevent further pollution which causes a permanent change in the lake’s ecosystem, a review of land use in the catchment area is carried out.  The water quality in the lake seems to have improved since phosphates were removed from wastewater in 1985.  from August 2007 several large hotels and businesses stated their intention to stop using phosphate detergents in an effort to preserve the quality of sea water.
Muckross Lake is the deepest of the three lakes.  It has a maximum depth of 73.5 meters (241 feet),  near where the steeply sloping side of Torc Mountain into the lake.  The lake is on geological boundary between sandstone mountains in the south and west and limestone in the north. 
Lough Leane and Muckross Lake is the geological boundary. The presence of limestone causes both lakes be slightly richer in nutrients than the upper lake. There are many caves in the limestone at lake level, created by the waves in combination with the resolution of the effect of lakes “acidic water on rock. These caves are found on the northern shores of Muckross Lake. 
From the meeting Waters a narrow channel called the Long Range leads to the Upper Lake, the smallest of the three lakes. This lake is located in the rugged mountain scenery in the upper Killarney / Black Valley. The rapid runoff in the catchment area can cause the level of the lake to rise by up to a meter in a few hours under heavy rain. 
Muckross Lake and Upper Lake are high quality oligotrophic systems, with water that is slightly acidic and low in nutrients. This is caused by runoff from the upland sandstone and blanket bogs in their catchment areas. They have diverse aquatic vegetation, including quillwort ( Isoetes lacustris ), shoreweed ( Littorella uniflora ) and water lobelia ( water lobelia ). 
All three lakes are very acid-sensitive and therefore vulnerable to afforestation within their catchment areas. 
Killarney possesses the most extensive area (about 120 square kilometers (30,000 acres)) of semi-natural native forest (forest dominated by native species) remain in Ireland. Most of this forest is surrounded by the national park. There are three main types of forest land in the park: acidophilous oak forests ( Quercus petraea Holly ) Devonian sandstone, moss rich yew forest (Taxus baccata ) in Carboniferous limestone outcrops,  and wet woodland (also called Carr) is dominated by al on lowland swampy limestone soils on the lake edges.  forest of the park falls naturally into two sectors, along the geological divide.  the oak and yew forests are of international significance.
Mixed woodland and conifer plantations also exist in the park.  The mixed forest on Ross Island has one of the richest herb layers in the park’s forest. 
Bait and rhododendron invasion threaten the park’s forests. Rhododendron affects about two thirds of oak woodlands. A rhododendron removal programs under way in the park. Yew forests negatively affected by heavy grazing for many years. 
The park is perhaps best known for its oak woodlands,  which is about 12.2 square kilometers (3,000 acres) in size.  They represent the largest area of native forest remaining in Ireland and is a remnant of the forest that once covered large parts of Ireland. Derrycunihy Wood is perhaps the most natural sessile oak ( Quercus petraea ) wood in Ireland. Most of the oak landscape located on the lower slopes of the mountain Shehy and Tomy, adjacent Lough Leane. They are usually dominated by sessile oak, which favors the acidic soils of sandstone mountains.  The forest is Annex I status in the EU Habitats Directive because of their diverse and rich flora, mainly their bryophytes (mosses and liverworts). 
The oak landscape usually has a story of holly ( holly ). Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo ) is a significant part of these forests. There are also scattered yews.  The field layer contains blueberries and wood rush.  The herb layer is rich in species. 
Mosses, lichens and filmy ferns ( hymenophyllaceae ), thrives in moist maritime climate. Species with limited Atlantic advantage grows in the forest.  The mosses in these forests is perhaps the most developed Atlantic moss community in Europe.  Remote Glaism na Marbh Valley has a particularly rich flora of mosses, some of which are scarce or absent in other parts of the forest.  mosses, ferns and liverworts often occur as epiphytes, attached to the trunks and branches of oak trees.  Rare species that grow in the forest include Cyclodictyon laetivirens , Daltonia splachnoides ,lejeunea flava , Radula carringtonii and Sematophyllum demissum . 
Species living in the oak forest includes blue tit, Chaffinch, Goldcrest, robins and wrens. Mammals include the badger, fox, marten, red deer, sika deer, and squirrel. Insects include many species of the parasitiskagallsteklar and Purple Hairstreak butterfly whose larvae are completely dependent on oaks.
The introduced common rhododendron is a great danger to certain areas of the oak forest.  For example, it is common throughout Camillan Wood despite ongoing attempts to control it. 
The yew woodland in the park called Reenadinna Wood. It is approximately 0.25 square kilometers (62 acres) in size and is located on the lowland karst limestone pavement between Muckross Lake and Lough Leane Muckross Peninsula.  Yew woodland is the rarest habitat in the park.  Yew forests is a of the rarest types of forest land in Europe, mostly limited to the West of Ireland and southern England. It has priority habitat status under Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive.  Reenadinna Wood is also one of the largest forests dominated by common yew ( Taxus baccata L.) in the UK and Ireland. It is the only significant area of yew forest in Ireland and is one of only three pure yew forests in Europe.  It is of great ecological and conservation interest, the yew is rarely a forest dominant. The western border of the wood is located along the geological boundary of the Devonian Old Red Sandstone. The wood is limited to the east of the park where the limestone is no longer outcrops. Muck bog, a bog 0.02 square kilometers (4.9 acres) in the area, in the southern part of the wood. There are voids between the limestone outcrops. Deep rendzina soils have developed in some of the cavities. It is estimated that the wood developed 3000-5000 years ago. 
Yew is a native evergreen trees that grow best in high humidity, mild maritime climate, which makes Killarney a very appropriate place.  The soil in the forest is mostly thin and in many places the trees are rooted to the cracks in the bare limestone.  Yew has an extensive horizontal root system. In Killarney woods, roots scattered across the rock surface and penetrates deep into the cracks in the limestone.  The wood has a low ceiling of 6-14 m (20-46 ft).  Yew extreme tolerance the dense shade of its canopy creates the made it possible to out compete other species to create the pure yew forest here today.  this dense shade prevents flowering plants from establishing themselves in these woods and prevents herb layer from developing. Mosses, however abundant and thrive in wet and cold conditions.In some parts of the wood are continuous dense blankets of moss that can be up to 152 cm (60 inches) deep.  The moss species present are primarilyThamnium alopecurum with Eurhynchium striatum and Thuidium tamariscinum . 
Some of the trees in the Re-united inna wood is two hundred years old. There has been little regeneration of yew trees in the wood. Pickling of the forest floor sika deer can be part of the reason for this, but small pieces of wood that has been fenced since 1969 has had a very small yew renewal. The dense canopy created by the yew tree which allows very little sunlight through to the forest floor can also prevent the growth of yew plants. 
Despite its toxic properties, yew very sensitive to browsing and bark stripping by deer, rabbits, hares, and domestic animals. It is one of the most sensitive pasture tree in Killarney woodlands. Sika deer killed yews by scoring trees with their antlers. 
Wet woodland (also called Carr) on the swampy lowland limestone areas of Lough Leane’s floodplain is about 1.7 square kilometers (420 acres) in size. This is one of the most extensive areas of this forest type in Ireland. The dominant canopy species here is al ( alder ), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), downy birch ( Betula pubescens ) and willow ( Salix spp.).  The areas regularly covered by water is rich in species, including grasses, rushes , sedges, and flowers such as marsh bedstraw, meadow sweet, and water mint. 
Red deer and sika deer heavily uses wetland forest that cap, and bare muddy “deer wallowing” is a distinctive feature. Rhododendron is the biggest threat to these forest lands. They are invading the forests, using raised areas such as tufts or tree bases where the floor is too wet seedlings to establish. Although some games have occurred reinvasion continues. 
While the lower slopes of the mountains are dominated by sessile oak (Quercus petraea ), over 200 meters (660 feet) mountains are virtually treeless and dominated by blanket bog and wet heath.  The marshes in the park mostly have a distinctive flora that includes species of heather ( Calluna vulgaris ), bell heather ( Erica cinerea ) and Western gorse ( Ulex gallii ), with the occasional blueberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ). Large-flowered butterwort ( Pinguicula grandiflora ) is vanligt.Myrarna also supports a number of notable species including mosses ( Sphagnum pulchrum , S. fuscum , S. platyphyllum , S. strictum , S. contortum and spoon mosses stramineum ), liverworts ( Cladopodiella Francisci and sack mosses Azurea ) and lichen (Cladonia mediterranea , C. macilenta , C. rangiferina , C. arbuscula andCetraria islandica ). 
The remoteness of some of the mountain areas facilitates the survival of Ireland’s only remaining wild herd of native red deer.  The marshes are threatened by grazing, turbary, burning and reforestation. 
A large number of plant and animal species of interest are present in the area, including most of the native Irish species of mammals, several important fish species including trout, and a variety of rare or scarce species. A number of animal and plant species in the park has a Hiberno- lusitanean distribution, which means that they only occur in the southwest of Ireland, northern Spain and Portugal. The main reason for this is the effect of the Gulf Stream in the southwest of Ireland’s climate.  The park has been designated a Biosphere Reserve because of the presence of such rare species.
Significant amounts of plant species found in the park have unusual geographic distributions and are of local events in Ireland. These plant species grouped in four main categories: arctic-alpine plants, Atlantic species, the North American species and very rare species. Atlantic species are species that otherwise are found mainly in southern and western Europe, such as arbutus, St. Patrick cabbage and major urban area. North American species is blue-eyed grass ochpipewort. 
Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) thrive in the park, due in part to the area’s mild maritime climate. The park is internationally important for mosses. Many of the bryophytes found in the park are not found elsewhere in Ireland.  mosses, ferns, such filmy ferns and liverworts growing luxuriantly. Many of them live as epiphytes, growing on branches and tree trunks. 
Other plant species
Killarney fern ( trichomanes speciosum ) is probably the rarest plant species in the park. It is a film-like fern that grows in the splash zone of waterfalls and other damp places. Although it was once quite common, it was picked up almost to extinction when the pickers congregate there to be sold to tourists. The few places where this fern still tend to be isolated mountain areas where pickers never found it. 
Although the strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo ) are relatively common in the park, it is one of Ireland’s rarest native tree species and is found in a few locations outside Killarney. In the park it is on the rocks and edges of woods around the lake. 
Killarney rowan ( Sorbus anglica ) is a shrub or small tree that grows on rocks near the lake shores. It is only in Killarney. The common Irish rowan ( Sorbus hibernica ) are also in the park. 
The larger butterwort ( Pinguicula grandiflora ) (also known as Kerry violet) is a carnivorous plant found in bogs. It melts insects to supplement the poor availability of nutrients (especially nitrogen) available from the bog. Its spectacular purple flowers bloom in late May and early June. 
Irish spurge ( Euphorbia hyberna ) is an Atlantic species in Ireland only in the southwest. Previously, the milky sap from the strain used to cure warts.Fishermen used it to catch fish, utilizing compounds in the sap that prevents fish gills from functioning properly and suffocates the fish. 
A number of rare species of myxomycete fungi have been recorded in the park. These are Collaria arcyrionema , Craterium muscorum , Cribraria microcarpa (the only known site in Ireland), C. rufa , C. violacea , Diderma chondrioderma , D. lucidum , D. ochraceum , Fuligo muscorum and Licea marginata .  The park has a very diverse lichen flora. 
Most mammals native to Ireland, and long established introduced species found in the park.  The vole was first identified in 1964 in the North West Kerry. Its scope has now expanded and now includes the Park.  Mardar another remarkable species in the park. 
The park has Ireland’s only remaining wild herd of domestic deer ( Cervus elaphus ), comprising about 700 people.  an increase of 110 people in 1970.  They are found in mountain areas in the park, mostly on Mangerton and Torc mountains. This crew has been continuously in Ireland 4,000 years, since the return of red deer to the island, possibly with the help of the people, after the last ice age,  about 10,500 years ago.  They were protected earlier by Kenmare and Muckross Estate. The herd is not completely clean because deer were introduced to the crew to improve antler quality in the 19th century. 
Pregnant hinds from low-lying areas often go to the mountains to give birth in early June. National Park staff tags calves. Although red deer and sika deer are capable of crossing, no cases of crossover recorded in the park. High priority is given to maintaining the genetic purity of the native red deer herd.Red deer are fully protected by law, and their hunting is not allowed. 
Sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) were introduced to the park from Japan in 1865. Their population has grown considerably since then.  Within the park they are both on the open mountain areas and woodlands. 
 The Park has a variety of bird life, and is of ornithological interest as it supports a wide variety of birds. 141 bird species have been observed in the park,  , including mountain areas, woodland and wintering waterfowl species.  Several species that are otherwise rare in Ireland is present, especially forest species Redstart (1-2 pairs), wood warbler (1-2 pairs) ochträdgårdssångare (possibly up to 10 pairs). The red grouse and Ring Ouzel is on the IUCN Red List of species of high conservation concern (1-2 pairs each). Greenland white-fronted goose, merlin and peregrine falcon is listed on Annex I of the Directive EU Birds.  Other notable species found in the park are chough, nightjar and osprey. Osprey passes sometimes through the park that migrate between North Africa and Scandinavia. Historical accounts and place names suggest that the osprey bred in the area earlier. Golden eagles once nested in the park, but was eradicated in 1900 as a result of the disturbance, nest robbing and persecution. 
The most common bird species in mountain areas, meadow pipit, ravens and Stonechats.  Rare species Merlin (up to five pairs) and the peregrine falcon (at least a few). 
Chaffinches and robins are the most common species in the forest.  Other nesting species include the black cap and Garden Warbler. The rare redstart and wood warbler is believed to have a few breeding pairs in the park’s forests. 
Heron, little grebe, mallard, water rails, dippers and kingfishers live on the park’s waterways. 
Lough Leane and other lakes in less supports wintering birds traveling south from higher latitudes.  These species are Redwing, Fieldfare, golden plover and sea birds such as teal, goldeneye, wigeon, pochard and whooper swans. The park’s native bird populations enhanced by migratory species in both winter and summer. A small flock of Greenland white-fronted geese ( Anser albifrons flavirostris ) from the world’s population of about 12,000  migrate to winter in bogs  in Killarney Valley in the park.  The figures in this bird that stays in the park are currently low, less than twenty people. This population is important because it is the southernmost in Ireland and one of the few remaining populations are left to feed entirely on marshland,  and the habitat almost entirely within a protected area. 
Other wintering waterfowl is the coot, cormorant, goldeneye, mallard, pochard, teal and tufted duck. Other species that live on the lakes is headed gulls, little grebe and mute swan. 
Species that migrate from Africa in the summer includes cuckoos, swallows and sailors. Some species are vagrants that appear sporadically, for example, when there is stormy weather or an unusual cold snap in continental Europe.
The park is also the site of a project to reintroduce the eagles, which began in 2007 with the release of fifteen birds. The project will last for a number of years with many more eagles released. The species had become extinct in Ireland in the 19th century after persecution by landowners. Fifteen chicks will then be brought in annually for the next five years.  Despite a poisoning incident in 2009, the program continues  and birds introduced in the area has now been traced to Wicklow and Donegal.
Lakes of Killarney contains many trout and an annual run of salmon. Rare species found in the lakes are char and Killarney shad.  The lakes have natural populations of trout and salmon that can be caught, with only the usual Irish rules salmon license. 
The lakes contain trout ( Salvelinus alpinus L.), usually found much further north in subarctic lakes.  It is a relict species left in the area after the last ice age, and is therefore a sign of clean environment conditions. Although they were once widespread, they are now confined to isolated populations in inland freshwater lakes that have a suitable habitat. They are isolated in their respective lakes since the last ice age. They are extremely sensitive to environmental changes when they’re as far south as Ireland, where they are on the southern edge of the species range. The greatest threats to their survival in Ireland introduced fish species, eutrophication, acidification and climate change. The rate of extinction of the entire population in Ireland has increased in recent decades. 
Killarney shad (or goureen) ( Alosa fallax killarnensis ) is a landlocked lake living subspecies of twaite Shad, a mostly marine species. It is unique to the Lakes of Killarney. It is rare because it feeds mostly on plankton and thus are rarely caught by fishermen. It is listed in the Irish “Red Data Book” of endangered species.  It is stated in Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive. 
Several unusual invertebrates can be found in Killarney valley. Some of these species, including northern emerald dragonfly ( gloss dragonflies arctica ) and several caddisfly and stonefly species are usually found much further north in Europe. They are believed to be relict species that was left in Killarney after the final retreat of the ice.  The north or moorland emerald dragonfly, the rarest Irish Dragonfly, restricted to the park. It breeds in shallow pools in bogs. 
Oak forest in the remote Glaism na Marbh Valley is a stronghold of Formica lugubris Zett. , A wood ant species that are rare both in Killarney and woods in Ireland as a whole. 
The Kerry Slug ( Geomalacus maculosus ) is a Hiberno-lusitanean species. It appears in Killarney frequent rains to graze on lichens on rcks and tree trunks. It is said to be the only slug capable of rolling into a ball. It is in both Annex II and Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive. 
The park has a number of conservation and management challenges. One of these is the park’s proximity Killarney town, one of Ireland’s most famous tourist destinations. Killarney has hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. Most of these visitors spend time in the park. It requires careful management to ensure minimal conflict between conservation and recreation. 
The earlier introduction of several exotic species to the park is a more human impact on the area. These species has damaged natural ecosystems in Killarney. The most notable of these species is the common rhododendron ( Rhododendron ponticum ), which has affected large parts of the national park and sika deer, which overgraze the forest floor and poses a potential threat to the genetic integrity of native red deer. Both rhododendrons and sika deer can have a negative effect on the native flora by inhibiting regeneration. A newer, unintentional introduction, mink, which are now established in the park with native otters. Extinctions caused by humans includes the wolf ( Canis lupus L. ) and golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos L. ).
Fires caused by human activity occurs with some frequency in the park.Despite the humid climate, they can spread very quickly to cover large areas.These fires rarely penetrate areas covered by dense forests, but they burn easily through stands of open forest. 
The main land use in the area of grazing sheep.  Deer grazing is also common. The woods in the park currently heavily grazed by sika deer.  The grazing has caused damage to many land areas, heath and blanket bog to degrade and prevent forest regeneration. In mountain areas erosion caused by grazing exacerbated by the exposed nature of the terrain.  The pressure from domestic grazers like deer and Irish hare has risen since the main natural predators, wolves and golden eagles, died out.  Bait and disturbance of vegetation improves greatly spread of rhododendron. 
The common rhododendron is perhaps the greatest threat to the ecology of the park.  It is an evergreen shrub with a natural distribution in the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas.  Rhododendron died out in Ireland because of climate change thousands of years ago.  it was introduced in the Killarney area during the 19th century, and quickly took hold. It has spread through their large amounts of very small light scattered seeds. It shades the soil flora and so prevents the regeneration of native woody species.  More than 6.5 square kilometers (1,600 acres) of the park is now totally infested. They have had a devastating effect on some parts of the park. Because light can not penetrate the dense thickets of rhododendron, very few plants living under it. Oak woods park is long term danger because they can not recover. It is a policy for the control and eradication of rhododendron in the park. 
The park is open year-round tourism.  There is a visitor and education center at the Muckross House. Visitor attractions in the park include Dinis Cottage, Knockreer Demesne, Inisfallen Island, Ladies View, meeting Waters and the Old Weir Bridge, Muckross Abbey, Muckross House, Muckross Peninsula, the Old Kenmare Road, O’Sullivan’s Cascade, Ross Castle and Ross Island, Tomies Oakwood and Torc waterfall. There is a network of surfaced paths in Knockreer, Muckross and Ross Island areas that can be used by cyclists and hikers. Old Kenmare Road and trails around Tomies Oakwood has a spectacular view of Lough Leane and Killarney. Boat trips on the lakes there. 
Muckross House is a Victorian mansion, close to Muckross lake’s eastern shore, in light of Mangerton and Torc mountains. The house has now been restored and attracts more than 250,000 visitors per year. Muckross Gardens is known for its collection of rhododendrons, hybrids and azaleas, and exotic trees. Muckross Traditional Farms is a farm project that recreates rural Ireland in the 1930s, before electrification. Knockreer House is used as the National Park Education Centre. 
- National Parks in Ireland
- Muckross House
- Ross Castle
- Lakes of Killarney
- Purple Mountains
- Berg East Kerry
- Muckross Abbey
- Killarney House
- Kenmare House
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefg duchas. “If the Killarney National Park.” Archived from the original September 29, 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g h i j k lPerrin, Philip M .; Daniel L. Kelly; Fraser JG Mitchell (1 december 2006).”Long-term rådjur utslagning i idegran trä och Oakwood miljöer i sydvästra Irland: Naturlig föryngring och stå dynamik”. Skogens ekologi och skötsel . 236 (2-3): 356-367. Doi : 10,1016 / j.foreco.2006.09. 025 .
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnop National Parks and Wildlife Service (1 April 2005). “Killarney National Park Site Story” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) of 19 November 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnopqrstu national parks and wildlife. “Killarney National Park” .Arkiveras from the original on 28 September 2007.Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcd Kelly, Daniel L. (July 1981). “The Native Forest Vegetation in Killarney, Southwest Ireland: An ecological account”. The Journal of Ecology. 69 (2) :. 437-472 doi: 10.2307 / 2259678 .JSTOR 2,259,678.
- ^ Jump up to: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR . National Parks and Wildlife Service (5 December 2005) “Killarney National Park, Macgillycuddy’s Reeks and Caragh River basin Site Story” (PDF) .Arkiveras from the original (PDF) of 19 November 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “History of the Park”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: ab . Craig, A. (2001) The role of the state to protect natural areas in Ireland: 30 Years of Progress (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
- ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c dCross, JR (november 1981). “Etableringen av Rhododendron ponticum i Killarney Oakwoods, SW Irland”. The Journal of Ecology . 69 (3):. 807-824 doi : 10,2307 / 2.259.638 .JSTOR 2.259.638 .
- Jump up ^ UNEP (3 June 2004). “Killarney National Park”. World Database on Protected Areas .Hämtad 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Visiting the Park”. Archived from the original The 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 juli2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcdef Power, M.; F. Igoe; S. Neylon. Dietary analysis of sympatric char and trout in Lough Muckross, Southwest Ireland.
- ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g h i jO’Sullivan, Aileen; Daniel L. Kelly. En historik av bergek (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) – Dominerade Woodland i Killarney, SW Irland, Baserat på Tree-Ring analys . Arkiveras från originalet den 17 maj 2011.
- ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “Cultural heritage”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh In duchas. “Killarney, Oakwood”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcd Muck Research Library. “Earlier Muck owner”.Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Jump up ^ Duchas. “Muckross House, Gardens and Traditional Farms”.Archived from originaletden 14 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Jump up ^ Thomas, Rhodri; Marcjanna Augustyn (2006). Tourism in New Europe: perspectives on SME policies and practices. Elsevier. p. 262. ISBN 0-08-044706-6.
- Jump up ^ Murphy, Mary (30 September 2004). “Park managers outline aimed at the future.” The Kingdom. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh In duchas. “The Lakes”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Hämtat1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: ab Department of Environment and Local Government. “To live with nature: Designation of Nature Conservation sites in Ireland” (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abcde Duchas. “Reenadinna”. Archived from the original February 6, 2007. Hämtat1 July 2007. Cite error: Invalid tag; name “Reenadinna” is defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). <ref>
- ^ Jump up to: ab . Mitchell, FJG (1990) “History and vegetation dynamics of a yew tree (” Taxus baccata “L.) in SW Ireland” (abstract). New Phytologist. 115 (3): 573- 577. doi: 10.1111 / j.1469-8137.1990.tb00486.x.
- ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d eThomas, PA; En Polwart (2003). ” ” Taxus baccata “L”. Journal of Ecology . 91 (3):. 489-524 doi : 10,1046 / j.1365-2745.2003.00783.x .
- ^ Jump up to: ab Kelly, Daniel L.; Susan F. Iremonger (1997). Irish Wetland Woods: The Plant communities and their ecology (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
- ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijkl duchas. “Remarkable species”. Archived from the ursprungligaDen 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Red Deer”. Archived from the original The 15 June 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: ab Nolan, LM; JT Walsh (2005). Wild Deer Management in Ireland: Stalker Training Manual (PDF).
- ^ Jump up to: abcd duchas. “The bird life in the park.” Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Jump up ^ RTÉ News – Rare eagle was reintroduced to Ireland – August 2007
- Jump up ^ update of white tailed eagles April 2009
- Jump up ^ Igoe, Fran; Johna Hammar (2004). The char Salvelinus Alpinus (L.) Art Complex in Ireland: a mysterious and threatened glacial relic (PDF). Royal Irish Academy.
- Jump up ^ ENFO. “Dragonflies & Damselflies” (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: abc duchas. “Rhododendron Infestation”. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Jump up ^ Erfmeier, Alexandra; Helge Bruelheide (2004). “Comparison of native and invasive” Rhododendron ponticum “populations: growth, reproduction and morphology under field conditions”. Flora. 119 (2) :.120-133 doi: 10.1078 / 0367-2530-00141.