CategoryCounty Galway

Lough Corrib

Lough Corrib ( / l ɒ x k ɒr ᵻ b / lokh korr -ib , Irish : Loch Coirib ) är en sjö i västra Irland . Den floden Corrib eller Galway floden förbinder sjön till havet vid Galway . Det är den näst största lough i ön Irland (efter Lough Neagh ). Det omfattar 176 km² och ligger främst i County Galway med ett litet område av sin nordöstra hörnet i County Mayo .

The first channel on the island of Ireland was cut in the 12th century. Known as Friar Cut, allowed the boats to pass from Lough Corrib to the sea at Galway.

William Wilde, father of Oscar Wilde wrote a book about the lake, first published in 1867. He built a summer on the shores of the lake, calledMoytura House .

Lough Corrib was designated a Ramsar site 16 June 1996. It has also been designated a Special Area of Conservation.


Loch Coirib is a corruption of Loch Oirbsean . According placename lore, this refers Oirbsen or Oirbsiu-another name for the Tuatha Dé Danann figure Manannan -As believed to have been a god of the sea. The Irish lough is also called a Choirib ( “Corrib”).

Marine archeology and charts

Investigations have been made since 2007 by a local surveyor / cartographer to create updated charts of Lough Corrib. [3] These have revealed a large number of objects of historical significance that have been investigated by the Underwater Archaeology Unit of the National Monuments Service. [4]These include many bronze age and iron age vessels (dugout canoes), the “Annaghkeen Boat ‘to be 40 feet long and beautifully carved, [5] the” Carrowmoreknock Boat “an incredibly preserved 10th century vessel carrying three Viking battle axes, [6] and the wreckage of a Victorian pleasure yacht .The lake is now of international importance as a marine archaeological site.All historic shipwrecks in the lake is protected, and a license to dive those required by the National Monuments Service. [7]


There is an abundance of wildlife in Lough Corrib including birds and hawks, otters, mink, ermine, frogs, bats, and more. The dawn chorus in early spring are spectacular to listen to. [ Citation needed ] Lough Corrib can be divided into two parts: a smaller shallower basin in the south and a larger deeper pool in the north. These two parts are connected by a narrow channel. In the southern and eastern parts of the lake, the lake bottom is dominated by limestone bedrock covered by deposits of marl deposited. The surrounding land is mostly pastoral farmland in the south and east and the bog in the west and north. Besides the lake basis, certain areas of scientific interest bordering the lake, such as forest, grassland callows, and bog, have been incorporated into the special area of conservation.

Threats to ecology

In addition to being an internationally recognized attraction for tourists and fishermen, Lough Corrib recently become more known for its many unwelcome visitors. In early 2007, a large number of protozoan parasiteCryptosporidium was detected in water from the lake, leading to contamination of the public water supply in the city of Galway, and an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. Another unwelcome visitors is the highly invasive species lagarosiphon major (also known as “curly leaf water plague” or “South African nate), which destroys fish habitat, and zebra mussel.

Cryptosporidium outbreaks

March 21, 2007 Cryptosporidium was confirmed to be present in drinking water in Galway City, Moycullen, Oughterard and Headford, who had been commissioned six days earlier to boil their water before drinking. The water is taken from Lough Corrib was likely contaminated by the migration of animal and human feces. Dick Roche, the environment minister announced an additional allocation of € 48 million to deal with the issue.

Galway City Council announced a one-for-one system April 10, 2007 by which they would bear the cost of a second bottle of water, if one bought.Other measures include upgrading existing water treatment and filtration systems, as well as the proposed importation of water from nearby Luimnagh, Tuam, County Galway. This beachfront Luimnagh have modern facilities for Cryptosporidium eradication and filtration.

Community Care Organization, Cope, delivered bottled water to their elderly customers from 30 March 2007. [8]

A lobby group founded on 8 April 2007 to highlight the issue. One aspect of the group is an account on MySpace social networks. [9]


While Lough Corrib is said to have 365 islands, a new more accurate figure of the creator of the lists of the lake is 1327 [10] The most famous of the islands are Inchagoil Island, halfway between Cong ochOughterard. It is one of the largest of the many wooded islands along Lough Corrib. The island has a spectacular view of Maumturk range, Joyce country and the mountains of Connemara. There are some secluded beaches and enchanting forests with a variety of walks around the island. There are signs of an early settlement monas still mostly remains a mystery. There are two churches remain, St. Patrick’s and 12’s church called “holy” church. There are several routes around the island, an old cemetery and the remains of four or five cabins that housed the few inhabitants.

Another noted the island’s Caislean-na-Circe, between Maam and Doon.This part of Lough Corrib is free of islands with the exception of the mountain that the old hen castle of O’Connor and O’Flaherty stands. The castle was home to pirate queen Gráinne O’Malley, who lived in the time of Queen Elizabeth I of England. 1225 caused Lord Justice Odo O’Flatherty giving up Kirk Castle to Odo O’Connor, King of Connaught, in order to declare their allegiance. Castle of Hen considered [ by whom? ] To be the oldest fortress of its kind in Ireland, and it is undoubtedly one of the best built. [Citation needed ] When first built, and well defended, with good supermarkets, this castle must have been impregnable. [ citation needed ] the stones hillside suddenly in the water on all sides. It is available only in some places. The castle is steeped in history and legend. Cruises on the lake can be enjoyed on the basis of Cong, Ashford Castle, Galway City, and Oughterard.

annalistic references

Se Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI1027.9 Muiredach Ua Flaithbertaig besieged Cathal, son Ruaidrí on Inis Crema Loch Oirbsen, and shared his country in spite of him.

See also

  • Lista över Loughs i County Mayo
  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak


  1. Jump up ^ lagarosiphon major – an aggressive invasive species in Lough Corrib
  2. Jump up ^
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  4. Jump up ^ Underwater Archaeology Unit and Ireland Submerged Cultural Resources National Monuments Service
  5. Hoppa upp^
  6. Hoppa upp^
  7. Hoppa upp^
  8. Jump up ^ “Community Catering and Galway Spring Water partners to deliver clean water to Galway city’s older.” Done.
  9. Jump up ^ “Galway water crisis”. MySpace.
  10. Hoppa upp^


Loughrea (/ l ɒ xr eɪ / lokh- ray Irish: Baile Locha Riach , which means “city of a gray lake”) is a city in County Galway, Ireland. The town lies north of a series of wooded hills, the Slieve Aughty mountains and lake from which it takes its name. The city is also famous for its cathedral (see Loughrea Cathedral) which dominates the city skyline. The city has expanded greatly in size in recent years as it increasingly becomes a commuter town for Galway city. [2]


The town got its name from the Loch Riach (Irish for “the gray lake”) as it is.It is also suggested that the city’s name derives from Loch Riabhach(meaning “speckled lake”). This alternative Irish name used in the name of the local Irish-language multi-religious elementary school. Gaelscoil Riabhach [3] The city is located in an area historically called Trícha Máenmaige.


Loughrea was traditionally a farming town that cut its teeth with industrial Tynagh mines, 6 km (3.73 mi) to the east. There is now a gas-fired power station on the site of the mines. Besides being a bedroom community for Galway, Loughrea now host to a number of pharmaceutical and data processing industry. Loughrea tourism infrastructure is supported by several hotels, a country resort, as well as the many bed-and-breakfasts, restaurants, cafes and pubs.

Tourist attractions

Transportation Cathedral of St. Brendan at the lake, in the center, is considered an important repository of Celtic-revival art and architecture in Ireland. [9] St. Brendan Catholic cathedral was designed by William Byrne in 1897 and completed five years later. Its double transepts is an unusual architectural feature. It contains some very nice interior decoration. The spring-fed, Loughrea Lake is overlooked by Knockash popular for trout, pike and perch fishing. [10] The lake is home to many water birds. Migratory birds from Europe live at the lake during the winter, and it gives other species nest during the summer. The lake is listed as a site of international importance for the spoon and an area of national interest for tufted duck and coot. [11]Moreover, often used for water sports and swimming. Immediately behind Loughrea Boathouse is the remains of an ancient Crannog. The Loughrea staying in another time would have sought protection from raiders by living in the comparative safety of the lake.

Loughrea is connected to the M6 motorway Dublin-Galway via the N65. The city was historically served by the Midland Great Western Railway and the railway industry from Attymon Junction, [12] in use until 1975. This line was Ireland’s last operational rural railway branch line have survived most other countries, the rail lines of this type of 10 -20 years, even survivors have diesel trains used on it. The link road from Ballinasloe – motorway to Galway Loughrea removed most of the remains of the original roadbed. Loughrea railway station opened on December 1 in 1890 and finally closed on November 3, 1975. [13]

Sport and culture

Loughrea GAA Club was Galway Senior Hurling Championship management, including Pat O Conner and Mick Kelly and 2006 Connacht hurling champions. They also reached the 2007 All-Ireland Club Hurling Championship finals, but lost to Ballyhale Shamrocks. Loughrea has a Rugby Club, a football club, a Gaelic Football Club, a golf course with 18 holes and an athletic club. Loughrea Cricket Club is currently one of the leading clubs in Connacht and Captain local man Matthew Kearns. Actor Kiefer Sutherland has a love for the city, twice visiting family as a young boy, and said to have been surprised by the skill of the players down on the handball alley.

Every year in October, the town plays host to the International Poetry Festival BAFFLE ( Loughrea also has a musical and dramatic Society, Historical Society, and an active community association.In 2006, the National Glor na nGael awards for “Irish in local communities”, was Loughrea’s “Glor committee” won the first prize. The city is home to the nightclub where Ringo’s famous producer DJ Alligator once performed. Glor has an umbrella committee involving local organizations in the promotion of the Irish language. [ Citation needed ] . A local group, Gaeilge Locha Riach Loughrea promote the Irish language among the community and businesses.[14] There is also a large, live Foróige youth club in the city.

annalistic references

  • 797 (802). Loughrea av av Rivningen Muirghius, for Tomaltach.
  • 821. Fergal, for Catharnach, Loughrea herre dog.
  • 823. Fergal, for Cathasach, Loughrea herre dog.
  • 881. Cormac, son Ceithearnach Prior of Tir Da Ghlas and Cluain Fearta Brenainn and other gentleman who was over Loch Riach at the time, died.
  • 1408. O’H-Echeidhein slaughtered O’Dalys the plain Moinmoy.

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Galway)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Marquis de St Ruth


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-19.
  2. Hoppa upp^
  3. Jump up ^ – Loughrea Multi-faith Gaelscoil
  4. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
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  6. Jump up ^ “archived copy”. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  8. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^ [1]
  11. Hoppa upp^
  12. Jump up ^ Photographs of Attymon Junction Loughrea railway trackbed Archive September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Jump up ^ “Loughrea station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Pulled 03/11/2007.
  14. Jump up ^ Loughrea retailers use cúpla focal length

NUI Galway

NUI Galway (Irish OE Gaillimh ) is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. It is located in Ireland’s western city of Galway. A tertiary-level educational institution, it ranks among the top 2 percent of universities in the world. [2]

The University was founded in 1845 as Queen’s College, Galway , and more recently known as University College, Galway ( UCG ) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG ) .Alumni include the incumbent Prime Minister and the President of Ireland, Enda Kenny and Michael D. Higgins, respectively as well as many other prominent politicians. Other senior figures in Irish official life have trained here include Attorney General Máire Whelan and the Comptroller and Auditor General Seamus McCarthy.

NUI Galway is a member of the Coimbra Group, a network of 40 long-established European universities.


The university was opened for teaching in 1849 as Queen’s College, Galway with 37 professors and 91 students. A year later became part of the Queen’s University of Ireland .The Irish Universities Act (1908) made this college a constituent college of the new National University of Ireland, and under a new statute name of the university was changed to University College, Galway . It was given special statutory responsibility under the College, Galway Act (1929) with respect to the use of the Irish language as a working language of the college. It retained the title of University College, Galway Universities Act (1997) changed it to the National University of Ireland, Galway . [ Citation needed ]

Located near downtown, stretching along the River Corrib. The oldest part of the university, the Quadrangle building with its Aula Maxima was designed by John Benjamin Keane; There is a copy of Christchurch, one of the colleges at Oxford University. The stone which it is built was transferred locally. [ Citation needed ]

More modern parts of the university sprang up in the 1970s and designed by architects Scott Tallon Walker. In the 1990s also significant developments, including the conversion of an old munitions factory in a student center.Developments 21st century include a state-of-the-art University Sports Centre (Ionad Spóirt), Áras Moyola, a new Health Science Building, Cairnes School of Business and Public Policy, the new Engineering Building, BioSciences Research Building and Life Course Institute and newly opened Lambe Institute. A new Human Biology Building is under construction in the current situation. [3] The highly toxic substance asbestos was removed from the campus on 13 occasions between March 2010 and June 2014. [4]

Fine Gael’s youth wing took a grip on the university in 1973 under Liam Cosgrave-led Fine Gael / Labour coalition government with Enda Kenny and Madeleine Taylor Quinn among those behind the establishment there. [5]

Nelson Mandela made a memorable appearance at the university in 2003. It was his last visit to Ireland, Mandela condemned US foreign policy and an honorary doctorate from NUI Chancellor Garret FitzGerald. [6]

In 2008, Éamon Ó CUÍV allegedly involved in a brawl with a protesting student because of the university. [7] Ó CUÍV the Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Minister at the time and would go on to become deputy leader of Fianna Fáil. [ Citation needed ]

In 2009, former Prime Minister Bertie Ahern was forced to flee a public discussion in NUI Galway after being jostled by students who oppose the proposed reintroduction of college fees. [8] Shortly thereafter announced the university’s withdrawal of support for the student union -run RAG week.Student Union President said she did not think the decision was justified, with more than € 20,000 has been raised for charity in 2009. [9]

NUI Galway has also announced details of plans to make the university a “campus of the future” at a cost of approximately € 400 million. [10] Data on the future plans of the University also shows a Human Biology building which will include Anatomy, Physiology and other human sciences fields. [11]It formed a strategic alliance medUniversity of Limerick in 2010, which allows for shared resources. It launched its strategic plan “Vision 2020” (for the period 2015-2020) in 2015.


Like the other constituent universities of the National University of Ireland, is the university common college structure. The Five Colleges of the University are:

  • College of Arts, Social Sciences and Celtic Studies
  • College of Business, Public Policy and Law
  • College of Engineering and Informatics
  • College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences
  • College of Science [ citation needed ]

Since January 2006 the St. Angela College, Sligo has a college of the National University of Ireland, Galway; It was formerly a recognized college of the National University of Ireland. Students in St. Angela College, Sligo are registered as students at the National University of Ireland, Galway. [12]degrees awarded are from the National University of Ireland. [13]

Since 2015 Shannon College of Hotel Management is fully incorporated into the university. [14] Shannon College of Hotel Management is now part of the College of Business, Public Policy and Law at NUI Galway. This integration formally marked by Minister of Education and competence in January O’Sullivan TD at a ceremony in Shannon College November 9, 2015. All staff in Shannon College of Hotel Management is now Staff NUI Galway and all students in the Shannon College of Hotel Management students in NUI Galway. [15]


Opening schools in the affected schools are:

  • School of Business and Economics
  • School of Chemistry
  • School of Education
  • School of Geography and Archaeology
  • School of Health
  • Department of Humanities
  • School of Languages, Literatures and Cultures
  • School of Law
  • Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics
  • School of Medicine
  • Department of Science
  • School of Nursing
  • School of Physics
  • School of Political Science and Sociology
  • Department of Psychology


Galway University Foundation (GUF) was established in 1998 with the aim of generating financial support from individuals and institutions for NUI Galway. It nurture relationships with donors to the NUI Galway approach to education appeals. The newly built [ when? ] Life Course Institute, within this building GUF has many priority projects under development. [16]

student Life

NUI Galway has more than 110 active communities and more than 50 sports clubs. Five types of input society exists: Debate policy; Artistic & Performing; Social & Gaming; Religious & Socially conscious; Academic.[17]

The oldest community on campus is the Literary and Debating Society, which was founded in 1846. Another of the campus’s oldest communities is (appropriately enough) devoted to the subject’s history, Cumann Staire (or History Society). It is a leading member of Comhaltas na gCumann Staire – Irish History Students’ Association and international students in History Association. A distinguished and influential community NUIG’s “Dram Soc” (Drama Society), which played a role in the formation of the Druid Theatre Company, Macnas and the Galway Arts Festival. [18]

Film Society produces original films and founded NUI Galway Student Cinema; one of the most popular meeting places for students with several movies per week. Computer Society (one of the oldest Computer Societies in the country) is worth all the other communities, e-mail and Web pages, and has one of the largest membership. Style Society, a part of the international family of Rotary, hosted the annual charity fashion show. Rubbers, pulling University Musical Society crowds to their annual musicals in Dubhlann / Black Box Theatre. [ Citation needed ]

The Christians and LGBT communities have recently engaged in a fierce rivalry and were involved in a showdown over same-sex marriage in 2014. [19]The incident provoked by Enoch Burke Accountant in Christian society, run for the position Equality Officer in that year’s student union elections. [20]Earlier in the latter part of 2013, the university suspended the Legion of Mary Society after it failed to adequately explain its connection to the posters with information about a Christian support group for homosexual persons.[21]


International students make up 12 percent of the students at NUI Galway. [22]


Main article: List of NUI Galway people


Martin Ryan Marine Science Institute

Áras Moyola, Health Science Building

JE Cairnes School of Business & Economics

New Engineering Building, North Campus

Name President Year
Rev. Dr Joseph W. Kirwan 1845-1849
Edward Berwick 1850-1877
Sir Thomas William Moffett 1877-1897
WJM Starkie 1897-1899
Dr Alexander Anderson in 1899-1934
Monsignor John Hynes 1934-1945
Monsignor Pádraig de Brún 1945-1959
Dr Martin J. Newell 1960-1975
Dr Colm hEocha 1975-1996
Dr. Patrick F. Fottrell 1996-2000
Dr. Ignatius G. Tribute 2000-2008
Dr James J. Browne 2008 to present
  • ^ A physicist Alexander Anderson is credited as the first person to suggest that there are black holes. [23]


Leading professors of note include Professor Nicholas Canny, a historian known for his work with early modern Ireland and the UK, Professor Alan Ahearne, an economist working with the International Monetary Fund (IMF),[24] and Gerard Quinn, a global authority on international and comparative disability law and policy. [25] Michael D. Higgins showed in college before he became the ninth President of Ireland. [26]

Physicist George Johnstone Stoney, who was the first Professor of Science at the then new University, introduced the concept of the electron as the “basic unit amount of electricity.” [27]

The geologist William King was the first (1864) to suggest that the bones found in Neanderthal, Germany in 1856 was not of human origin, but by a distinct species: Homo neanderthalensis , whose name he proposed at a meeting of the British Association in 1863, with the written version was published in 1864. [28]


For a more detailed list, see List of NUI Galway Alumni § people.

  • General Bindon Blood – British military commanders
  • Nicholas Canny – a historian and noted authority on early modern Ireland and the UK
  • Joseph R. Fisher – lawyer, editor of the Belfast News Letter , author, and the union’s commissioner on Irish Boundary Commission
  • Ciaran Fitzgerald – Former British and Irish Lions and the Triple Crown -winning Ireland rugby captain [29]
  • Eamon Gilmore – former Tánaiste, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and Labor Party leader
  • Michael D. Higgins – ninth President of Ireland
  • Garry Hynes – Tony Award -winning director and founder of the Druid Theatre Company [30]
  • Enda Kenny – Taoiseach and leader of Fine Gael
  • Mick Lally – actor, icon theater [31]
  • Sean McCann – former Chief of Staff of the Irish Defence Forces [32]
  • Mark mellett – Chief of Staff of the Irish Defence Forces
  • Michael Beary – Irish Army and UNIFIL Commander Major General
  • Kieran Brennan – Irish Army General and former Kilkenny hurler
  • Seamus McCarthy – the Comptroller and Auditor General Ireland [33]
  • Antony MacDonnell, 1st Baron MacDonnell – British colonial administrator [34]
  • Mr MacKernan – diplomatic, Irish Ambassador to the United States and France, the EU and the Secretary General of the Department of Foreign Affairs [35]
  • Mick Molloy – appointed to the IRB Medical Officer in 2005 [36]
  • Colm Murray – program [37]
  • Wilfrid Napier – Cardinal, Archbishop of Durban [38]
  • TP O’Connor – journalist [34]
  • Valentine O’Hara – writer on Russia and the Baltics
  • Had on him – författare
  • Sean O’Rourke – broadcasters [39]
  • Martin Sheen – Hollywood actor, enrolled at NUI Galway in 2006 for a semester to study philosophy, English literature and oceanography [40] [41]
  • Máire Whelan – Attorney General of Ireland [42]
  • Iarfhlaith Davoren – Irish football

In literature

James Joyce donated an original edition of Pomes Penyeach to the university’s James Hardiman Library in 1932 after the publication in Paris. [43] The library contains unique archival collections dating from the 15th century. [43]

Other examples include:

  • Lig Sinn i gCathú


The Sunday Times University Guide heter universitetet som irländska University of the Year 2002-2003, 2009-2010 . [44] På senare tid, NUI Galway var den enda irländska universitet för att flytta upp i 2014/2015 Times Higher Education (THE) Världen University betyg. Efter att ha ökat 53 platser på sin 2013/2014 läge, rankas NUI Galway nu på 261:e i världen enligt rankingen, och den placerades på 280: e i världen i QS World University Rankings för 2014/2015. [45]

Training in IrlandSe also

  • List of Universities in Ireland
  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  • NUI Galway Student
  • his newspaper
  • University College Galway RFC


  1. ^ Jump up to: abc “Report of the President 2011-2012” (PDF).
  2. Jump up ^ “About NUI Galway.” Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ “New technology building at NUI Galway show green ethos”.July 15, 2011. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway asbestos allays fears on campus.” May 2, 2015. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ “Young Fine Gael”. Archived from the original June 3, 2015.
  6. Jump up ^ “Mandela’s attack on the United States during the Iraq invasion recalled NUI Galway.” The Irish Times. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  7. Jump up ^ McDonald, Brian; Brennan, Michael (11 December 2008). “O CUÍV defends the use of violence on the demonstrators.” Irish Independent.
  8. Jump up ^ “The anti-fees demo forces Ahern to abandon the public interview.” The Irish Times. February 3, 2009. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  9. Jump up ^ “NUIG withdraws its support for rag week because of” unruly behavior “.” The Irish Times. 26 February 2009.
  10. Jump up ^ “Campus of the Future” (PDF).
  11. Jump up ^ “Campus of the Future” (PDF).
  12. Jump up ^ “Medical history in the making as local college going NUIG.”Sligo Champion. March 29, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  13. Jump up ^ “strategic partnership – NUI Galway.” St. Angela College website. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  14. Jump up ^ “Education marks the first merger in Ireland, the Shannon College of Hotel Management becomes part of NUI Galway.” NUI Galway.10 November 2015.
  15. Jump up ^ “Shannon College Integration”. NUI Galway.
  16. Jump up ^ “Galway University Foundation.”
  17. Jump up ^ “Coordination Group University Societies (USCG)”.
  18. Jump up ^ “Dram Soc”.
  19. Jump up ^ “Rival protests over gay marriage at NUI Galway.” RTE News. March 12, 2014.
  20. Jump up ^ “Gardai were called to NUI Galway students confront Christian activists”. March 12, 2014.
  21. Jump up ^ “NUIG suspends the Legion of Mary college community of brochures”. RTE News. 5 December 2013.
  22. Jump up ^ “International students”.
  23. Jump up ^ “Interesting facts and history of NUI Galway.” Archived from the original May 30, 2015.
  24. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway economist appointed advisor to the IMF.” June 16, 2014. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  25. Jump up ^ “Prof. Gerard Quinn. ” The Prime Minister’s Office. 3 March 2015.
  26. Jump up ^ “Saw Doctors are ready to rock in the USA”. The Irish Echo.February 15, 2012. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. In one of his most obvious references to Irish society and culture, the band recorded a song titled “Michael D. Rocking in the Dail ‘in 1994, celebrating the man who now holds the Irish Presidency. Moran remains loyal to President Higgins, who taught him when he was a student at NUI Galway.
  27. Jump up ^ Mulvihill, Mary (15 February 2011). “The man who” invented “the electron”. Archived from the original June 4, 2015.
  28. Jump up ^ “William King.” History of NUI Galway, Faculty of Science and related research. Archived from the original July 16, 2012.
  29. Jump up ^ “Ciaran Fitzgerald”. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. He studied at University College Galway, get a BComm in 1973 and played for the University College Galway RFC
  30. Jump up ^ “Druid’s Garry Hynes inspire Galway business”. Tuam Herald. February 23, 2011. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. Born in Ballaghaderreen, Co. Roscommon Garry moved to Galway with his family in 1965. In 1971, she started an Arts Degree (History and English) in College Galway, NUI Galway now.
  31. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway President pays tribute to actor Mick Lally.”August 31, 2010. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. He was born in Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Mick Lally, graduated from the University with a BA in 1969, HDip Ed 1970, and an honorary MA in 1999 for his contribution to Irish theater, at home and abroad. […] His national and international reputation earned him status as an icon of Irish theater.
  32. Jump up ^ Byrne, Cormac (10 June 2010). “McCann will take over as armed forces chief.” Evening Herald. Major General McCann lives in Newbridge, Co Kildare, but was born in Cork in 1950 and grew up in Tipperary, where he was trained in Thurles CBS and the Cistercian College Roscrea. He went to college at University College Galway and is a graduate of the US Command and General Staff College.
  33. Jump up ^ “Seamus McCarthy, Comptroller and Auditor General”.Standards in Public Office Commission. Archived from the original June 3, 2015.
  34. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b. Brillman, Michael (2009) “Bengal tiger, Celtic Tiger: The Life of Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, 1844-1925” . ProQuest. s. 334. TP O’Connor, irländsk ledamot för Liverpool och en högskola, Galway klasskompis av MacDonnell s …
  35. Jump up ^ Finnegan, Patrick (26 June 2009). “TEXT OF keynote speech delivered in connection with the granting of a doctorate in Law, honoris causa on Padraic MACKERNAN” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) 30 May 1959 2015.År came Padraic MacKernan to Galway from his native Limerick and began studies as a basis for UCG. […] Paddy has maintained strong links with Galway and the University during his busy career and he is a worthy member of the cohort of Galway academics, Tadhg O’Sullivan, Noel Dorr, John Oliver Burke and Sean Ó hUigin, which has driven prominent diplomatic career in the service of their country.newline in at position 89 (help) | quote =
  36. Jump up ^ “Molloy given new IRB medical role”. BBC Sport. October 12, 2005.
  37. Jump up ^ “Aer Arann Alumni Award for Sports Achievement and Leadership” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) of 30 May 2015. BA in 1972 […] After his Leaving Certificate in 1969, he wrote as an Arts student in UCG He graduated with a degree in English, French and history in 1972 …
  38. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway Graduate appointed Cardinal.” February 6, 2001. Archived from the original May 30, 2015.
  39. Jump up ^ “So much I know: Seán O’Rourke, Broadcaster”. Irish Examiner. February 13, 2015. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. When I went to University College Galway, it was always my intention to make a career in journalism degree.
  40. Jump up ^ “CAIRDE” (PDF). January 2007.
  41. Jump up ^ Steinberg, Jacques (10 April 2006). “” West Wing “write new way to pick the president.” The New York Times. Archived from the original June 4, 2015. And Mr. Sheen? At 65, he decided to make good on a promise he made himself a long time ago: to record, for the first time in college. […] He began taking classes next fall – in English literature, philosophy, and he hopes, oceanography – at National University of Ireland in Galway
  42. Jump up ^ “What our students are up to.” Archived from the original May 30, 2015.
  43. ^ Jump up to: ab “NUI Galway Archives gives you the Night of Culture 2012”. August 28, 2012. Archived from the original May 19, 2015.
  44. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway is the Sunday Times University of the Year for the second time.”
  45. Jump up ^ “NUI Galway is the only Irish university to rise in the latest world rankings, taking third place nationally.” October 2, 2014.


Galway (/ ɡ ɔ lw eɪ /; Irish: Gaillimh , pronounced [ɡalʲɪvʲ]) is an emerging center of town in the west of Ireland in the province of Connacht. Galway City Council is the local authority for staden.Galway located on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay and is surrounded by County Galway. It is the fourth most populous urban area in the Republic of Ireland and the sixth most populous city in the island of Ireland.

According to the 2016 Irish census, Galway has a population of 79,504;However the rural county agglomeration much greater at 179 048 [3]

Galway will be European Capital of Culture in 2020, along with Rijeka, Croatia.

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The city’s name comes from the river Gaillimh (River Corrib) that formed the western boundary of the earliest settlement, which was called Dún Bhun na Gaillimhe ( “Fort at the mouth of the Gaillimh”). [4] The word Gaillimh means “stony” as in “Stony River” (the mythical and alternative derivations are given in History of Galway). Historically, the name Anglicized as Galliv , [5] which is closer to the Irish pronunciation which is the city’s name in Latin, Galvia.

Like many old cities, Galway has its own myth of origin. According to this mythic version, named for Galway Gaillimh (Galvia), daughter of a local chieftain, Breasail, who drowned in the River Corrib.

The city also bears the nickname “The City of Tribes” (Irish: Cathair na dTreabh ) because “fourteen tribes” of merchant families [6] led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. The term Tribes was often a derogatory one in Cromwellian times. The merchants would have seen themselves as Irish gentry and loyal to the King. [ Citation needed ] They later adopted the term as a badge of honor and pride in violation of the city Cromwellian occupier.Residents of the town calls itself “Galwegians” and, to a lesser extent, “Tribesmen”. [ Citation needed ]


Main article: History of Galway

The walled city in 1651 (North is to the left). The river Corribär in the foreground, crossed by what is now “O’Brien’s Bridge,” which leads to the Main Guard Street.

Dun na Bhun Gaillimhe ( “Fort at the mouth (bottom) of the Gaillimh”) was constructed in 1124 by the King of Connacht, Ua Tairrdelbach Conchobair (1088-1156). Eventually, a small settlement around this fort. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Galway fort was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, who had led the invasion. Since the Burghs eventually became Gaelicised, merchants in the city, the tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control of the walled city. [ Citation needed ]

[View] Historical population

This led to their complete control over the city and the granting of mayoral status of the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relationships with their Irish neighbors. A notice of the western gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Oge Martyn, stated “From the Ferocious O’Flahertys may God protect us.” A law forbade native Irish (as opposed to Galway’s Hiberno-Norman citizens) unlimited access to Galway, says “neither O ‘or Mac should strutte or swagger through the streets of Galway” without permission.

During the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen [6]merchant families (12 of Norman origin and two of Irish origin). These were “tribes Galway”. The city flourished in the international trade and in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France.The most famous reminder of those days Ceann an Bhalla ( “the end of the wall”), now known as the Spanish Arch, built during the mayoralty of Wylliam Martin (1519-1520). 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway, possibly stopping on a trip to Iceland or the Faroe Islands. Seven or eight years later, he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi :

Men of Cathay has come from the West. [For] we have seen many signs. And especially in Galway, Ireland, a man and a woman of extraordinary appearance, has come to land on two tree trunks [or hours? or a boat made of such?]

The most likely explanation for these agencies is that they were Inuit swept eastward by the North Atlantic Current. [4]

During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part, even during the Gaelic resurgence, perhaps due to survive. But by 1642 the city had allied with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the war the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege. At the end of the 17th century the town supported the Jacobites in Williamite war in Ireland and was captured by Williamites after a short siege, not long after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691. The large families Galway destroyed, and, having declined due to the potato famine of 1845- in 1852, the city did not fully recover until the great economic bubble of the late twentieth century.


Like many old European ports, is the patron saint of the city (since the 14th century), St. Nicholas of Myra. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Galway was established in 1831 AD after the abolition of the Holy See iWardenship Galway. It was associated with the pin Kilmacduagh (est. 1152 AD) and given administratorship in the diocese of Kilfenora (est. 1152 AD) in 1883. Its full name is the Diocese of Galway, Kilmacduagh and apostolic Administratorship Kilfenora (in Irish – Deoise na Gaillimhe, Chill Mac Duach agus Riarachán Aspalda Cill Fhionnúrach, in Latin – Diocesis Galviensis, Duacensis ac Admini Apostolica Finaborensis). The pin is under the patronage of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St. Nicholas (Galway), Saint Fachanan (Kilmacduagh) and St Colman (Kilfenora). Since the pin Kilfenora is the ecclesiastical province of Cashel Metropolitan Bishop of Galway is its apostolic administrator rather than its bishop. The pins in Galway and Kilmacduagh is the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Tuam. The current bishop is the most Rev. Martin Drennan installed July 3, 2005. Of the 38 parishes in the RC pin 14 is located in the city and is divide into two deaneries – Deanery in Galway City West and Galway City East. In each Deanery a Vicar Forane exercise limited privileges on behalf of the bishop.

In the Church of Ireland, Galway is a parish in the Diocese of Tuam, Killala and Achonry. The main church in the parish is St. Nicholas’ Collegiate Church (founded in 1320). Russian, Romanian, Coptic, and the Mar Thoma Syrian Orthodox churches use the facilities of St. Nicholas Collegiate Church for their services. The Ahmadiyya -run Galway mosque, opened in 2014, is the only purpose-built mosque in Galway. [8]


local authorities

See also: Galway City Council and Mayor of Galway

With a population of 75,529, Galway is the fourth most populous city in the state and the 23rd most populous municipalities. [9] services such as waste management, recycling, traffic, parks and homes controlled by a fifteen member council was elected five years time through proportional representation by means of single transferable vote PR-STV. The municipal council headed by a mayor elected to a one-year term through other råds.Den role as Mayor is primarily ceremonial, although they have the casting vote. The first mayor was Peirce Lynch Fitzjohn, elected in 1485. Cllr.Frank Fahy was elected mayor in June 2015.

The symbols in the office of the mayor and the emblem of dignity council’s Civic Sword (1620) and the great Mace (1710) carried out in procession before the mayor and council solemn civic occasions. When not in ceremonial use they can be seen on the Galway City Museum. 1579, Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the city’s charter and appointed mayor as “Admiral of the Bay and the Aran Islands.” The title, but preserved, rarely used except for purely ceremonial purposes. [ Citation needed ]

Galway City is part of Galway West constituency Dáil. Its TDs are:

  • Noel Grealish (Independent). He was born in Carn Mor.
  • Catherine Connolly (Independent). Former Mayor of Galway, and Galway-based.
  • Éamon Ó CUÍV (Fianna Fáil). Corr na Mona (Conamara) based. He is a former minister of social security.
  • Hildegarde Naughton (Fine Gael). Former Senator and Councillor.
  • Seán Kyne (Fine Gael). Based Moycullen. Previous County municipal.

Irish President Michael D. Higgins was TD for Galway West parliamentary constituency, where Galway City is a part, 1981-1982 and from 1987 to 2011. He was also mayor of Galway for two terms, 1981-82 and 1990- 91. [ needed citation]

The highest honor the city can bestow is the freedom of the city. Among the names on the Roll of Honour: Douglas Hyde, President of Ireland, in 1939, Eamonn de Valera, the Prime Minister, 1946; Sean T O’Kelly, President of Ireland, in 1950, Robert F. Wagner, Mayor of New York, 1961; John F. Kennedy, President of the United States, in 1963, Pope John Paul II, in 1979, Ronald Reagan, President of the United States, 1984, Hillary Clinton, 1999;Richard M. Daley, Mayor of Chicago, in 2003, Nelson Mandela, 2003; Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi, the Burmese activist / leaders, 2005; Ms. Garry Hynes, Druid Theatre founder in 2006 and Michael D. Higgins, President of Ireland, 2012. [ citation needed ]


Galway District Court, the main court summary jurisdiction and hear minor cases without a jury. It is responsible for hearing small civil claims, some law cases, family, administers liquor licensing laws and is responsible for accusing the defendant and send them to trial in the Circuit Court and Central Criminal Court. Circuit Court in Galway trying all criminal prosecutions (these cases can be tried by a judge and jury), except murder, rape, treason, piracy and genocide, which are reserved to the Central Criminal Court. It also appeals from the district court. Its decisions can be appealed to the Court of Criminal Appeal. Politely, the court is limited to claims not exceeding € 75,000. Both parties can waive this amount and the Court’s full jurisdiction. Divorce, separation and probate cases can be heard, provided they are within the financial parameters of the courts jurisdiction.Decisions in civil cases can be appealed to the High Court. [ Citation needed ]

The High Court sits four times a year in Galway to hear original actions (actions not appeal from lower courts). It also sits twice a year in Galway to hear appeals from the Circuit Court in civil and family matters. Its decisions can be appealed to the Supreme Court sitting only in Dublin. [ Citation needed ]


Galway has a year-round mild, humid, temperate and changeable climate, due to the prevailing winds North Atlantic Current. The city is experiencing a lack of extreme temperatures, with temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F) and above 30 ° C (86 ° F) are rare. The city receives an average of 1,156 millimeters (45.51 inches) of rainfall annually, which are evenly distributed over the year. The average January temperature in the city is 5.9 ° C (43 ° F) and the average temperature in July is 15.9 ° C (61 ° F). This means that Galway, like most of Ireland, has a maritime temperate climate ( Cfb ) according to the Köppen climate classification system. While extreme weather is rare, city and county experience severe storms which are the result of strong Atlantic depressions that sometimes passes along the north west coast of Ireland. Most of these storms occur between late autumn and early spring. Because of the city’s northern location and its longitude, Galway has long summer days. Daylight at midsummer before 04:20 and lasts until after 23:00. In midwinter, not daylight not until 8:49, 16:19 and gone.

Tourist attractions

Millennium Children’s Park in Galway, next to one of the city’s many canals.

Lynch’s Castle on Shop Street is probably the finest medieval houses in Ireland. [ Citation needed ] It is now a branch of Allied Irish Banks.

The Church of Ireland St. Nicholas’ Collegiate Church is the largest medieval church still in daily use in Ireland. [ Citation needed ] It was founded in 1320 and enlarged in the following two centuries. It is a particularly nice building in the heart of the old city. Its Catholic counterpart, the Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St. Nicholas was inaugurated in 1965 and is a much bigger, more impressive building from limestone. It has an eclectic style, with Renaissance dome, columns and round arches, and a Romanesque portico that dominates the facade – which is an unusual feature in modern Irish church building. It was suggested by a church in the city of Salamanca in Spain.

Not far from the cathedral stands the original quadrangle building of the National University of Ireland, Galway, built in 1849 (during a Gorta Mor, the Great Famine) as one of the three schools in Queens University of Ireland (along with Queen’s University Belfast ochUniversity College Cork). The university holds the UNESCO archive of spoken material for the Celtic languages.

Another of the city’s limestone buildings is the Hotel Meyrick, originally Railway Hotel and then the Great Southern Hotel, built by Great Southern Railway Company in 1845. [10] Sitting at the southern edge of Eyre Square, the city’s oldest hotel still in operation.

The remains of the Menlo Castle can be seen outside the city, on the east bank of the River Corrib. It was one of the ancestral homes of the Blake family, one of the tribes of Galway from c1600-1910. It is best from the West Bank at Dangan or riverside walk at NUIG. The facade of the families townhouses (Blake Castle) can be seen at the Jury’s Hotel at the bottom of Quay Street.

Eglinton Canal , named after a former Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, joins the River Corrib to the sea, and streams for over a kilometer, is a very pleasant walk from the university to the Claddagh.

The Claddagh is the oldest part of Galway but little or nothing left of the old thatched village. But in a side altar of the parish church, on the Hill, St Mary’s late medieval statue of Our Lady of Galway and visitors in mid-August to participate in the ancient ritual of blessing Bay, on the Sunday closest to the feast of the Assumption.

Browne doorway , originally located on the Lower Abbeygate Street, but now stands at the northern end of Eyre Square, the door to the townhouse in the Browne family, one of the fourteen tribes of Galway.

The Lynch Window (on Market Street), celebrates one of the city’s most enduring legends. Here, in 1493, Mayor James Lynch FitzStephen, hung his own son for the murder of Gomez, a young Spanish visitors who had the misfortune to befriend girlfriend mayor’s son. The son, mistaking friendship for love, thrust the Spaniard to death in a fit of jealousy and dumped his body in the River Corrib. The mayor was both judge and executioner in the case that no one else would carry out the execution, according to legend.

Hall Red Earl ( holding a Iarla Rua ) can be seen through a protective glass wall outside Flood Street. It is the earliest medieval settlement fragments survive within the walls of staden.Den built by the Burgo family in the 13th century and was an important municipal building for the collection of taxes, the right exercise and hosting banquets. It was the medieval equivalent of the tax office, courthouse and city hall.


The Galway City Museum has two parts, “Fragments of a City” and “On second thought.” “Fragments of a City” collection is mainly about the heritage of Galway, while “on reflection” is a collection of the most important Irish artists second half of the 20th century. This museum has been designed to allow tourists and local visitors to really get to understand and know the city of Galway. This museum is also the statue of the famous poet, Padraic Ó Conaire which was originally located in Kennedy Park section of Eyre Square, Square before the renovation. Visitors can also see the silver Civic Sword and Great Mace of the city at the museum.

James Mitchell Museum of Geology in NUIG is a restored 19th century museum “in a museum.”

Computer & Communications Museum of Ireland is also housed in NUIG.

The Nora Barnacle House Museum in Bowling Green is the smallest museum in Ireland. Nora was a lover, companion and later, wife of the great 20th century Irish writer James Joyce.


Fort Hill Cemetery, Athalia on Lough Road, is the oldest cemetery still in use in Galway City. Inside the main entrance is a memorial to sailors in the Spanish Armada that was buried here in the 1580s.

Rahoon Cemetery (officially known as Mount St. James Cemetery), Rahoon Road, on the western outskirts of the city offers stunning panoramic views of the city. Among the notable people buried here are (i) Michael Bodkin, an admirer of Nora Barnacle, wife of James Joyce, who was the inspiration for the character, “Michael Furey” in the story The Dead from Dubliners. (Ii) also buried in Rahoon Michael Feeney, the “friend” in Joyce’s poem “She weeps over Rahoon”. (Iii) The actress Siobhan McKenna.

Bohermore Cemetery (or the new cemetery, as it is more popularly known), Cross Cemetery, Bohermore, was opened in 1880. It contains two chapels, and is the burial place of several important Galwegians, including Padraic Ó Conaire Gaelic writer, William Joyce, known as Lord Haw -haw the Nazi propagandist, Augusta, Lady Gregory, one of the founders avAbbey Theatre in Dublin and Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, a senior member of one of the tribes of Galway and former world President of the International Olympic Committee. A memorial to the 91 people who died August 14, 1959, when the Dutch aircraft KLM Flight 607-E crashed into the sea 180 km (112 mi) west of Galway can be seen inside the main gates. Several passengers bodies are buried around the memorial.

Other Funeral There are several smaller cemeteries within the city limits.Some are no longer in use or are used primarily by families with old burial rights. These are St. James Cemetery (Team) in Glenina Heights, Menlo Cemetery near Menlo Castle, Ballybrit Cemetery near the entrance to Galway Race Course, and a very old early Christian cemetery on Roscam near Merlin Park. Several city churches have cemeteries attached previously used for burial of priests and parishioners – Castlegar Church, Claddagh church, St. Patrick’s Church on Forster Street and St. Nicholas’ Collegiate Church.Several bishops are buried in the crypt under the cathedral RC, but this is usually not open to the public.


Galway is known as Ireland’s cultural heart ( CROI Cultúrtha na hÉireann )[11] and is known for its vibrant lifestyle and numerous festivals, celebrations and events. [12] Each November Galway hosted Tulca Festival of Visual Arts as well as numerous festivals.

1 December 2014 Director-General of UNESCO announced the official designation of Galway as a UNESCO City of Film.

In 2004 there were three dance organizations, ten festival companies, two film organizations, two Irish language organizations, 23 music organizations, twelve theater companies, two visual arts groups and four writers groups based in the city. [13]

Additionally, there were 51 places for events, most of which was specialized for a specific area (such as concert halls or galleries, visual arts), but ten were described as “multiple events” arenas. [13] The most important squares of the city’s Eyre Square ( containing the John F. Kennedy Park) in the center of town, and the Spanish Parade beside the Spanish Arch.

In 2007, Galway named one of the eight “sexiest cities” in the world. [14] A 2008 survey ranked Galway as the 42nd best tourist destinations in the world, and 14 in Europe and 2nd in Ireland (behind Dingle). It was ranked ahead of all European capital cities except Edinburgh, and many traditional tourist destinations (such as Venice). [15] The New Zealand Herald quoted Galway as one of “five great cities to visit in 2014”.


Galway City has a reputation among Irish cities to be associated with the Irish language, music, song and dance traditions. It is sometimes called the ‘Bilingual Capital of Ireland’, but as elsewhere in Ireland, people mostly converse in English. The city is known for its “Irishness”, mainly because it has on its doorstep Galway Gaeltacht. Irish theater, television and radio production and Irish music forms a part of Galway city life, with both a Taibhdhearc, National Irish Language Theatre in Galway itself, while TG4 and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta headquarters are in the Connemara Gaeltacht elsewhere in County Galway. Four electoral divisions or districts (out of twenty-two), designated somGaeltachtaí. [13] NUI Galway also has archives of spoken material for the Celtic languages. [16]


On the west bank of the River Corrib as it enters the sea, the old town Claddagh. For centuries it was an Irish-speaking enclave outside the city walls. Claddagh inhabitants were mainly fishermen and people ruled by an elected “king. King of Claddagh settled or arbitrated disputes between locals and had the privilege of a white sail on his fishing boat. The last true king, Martin Oliver died in 1972. The title is still used, but in a purely honorary and ceremonial contexts. The current king is Michael Lynskey. The area is also known for its association with the Claddagh ring.



Among the poets currently writing in Galway Fred Johnston, Patrick Deeley, Rita Ann Higgins, Mary O’Malley, Moya Cannon, Eva Bourke, Ndrek Gjini and Kevin Higgins. Walter Macken, Eilis Dillon, Máirtín Ó Direáin, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Liam O’Flaherty, Padraic Ó Conaire and Ken Bruen’s well-known writer in both English and Irish with a connection to Galway. The infamous author and publisher Frank Harris was born in Galway.

The James Hardiman Library at NUI Galway houses around 350 archived and / or digitized collections, including Thomas Kilroy collection, Brendan Duddy Paper on the Northern Ireland conflict, the John McGahern archives and manuscripts minutes from Galway City Council from 15 to mid 19’s.

literary magazines

Among the literary magazines published in Galway, Galway Review , which is Galway’s leading literary magazine, Crannog Magazine , which describes itself as “Ireland’s premier independent literary magazine since 2002” and theREP , an annual literary magazine published by the students of the MA in literature and publication of NUI Galway.

Galway i litteraturen

Gretta Conroy in James Joyce’s short story “The Dead”, remembers her lover Michael Furey throwing stones at the window of his grandmother’s house on Nun island in the city. The poem “She weeps over Rahoon” by James Joyce, tells of grief Joyce’s wife Nora Barnacle, the death of her one-time boyfriend Michael Bodkin. Both Bodkin and Nora was from Galway and Bodkin is buried in Rahoon cemetery in the western suburbs of the city. [17]

Walter Macken novel “Rain on the Wind” is located in the city that is “Jack Taylor” detective novel by Ken Bruen.

Early 16th century Galway in several of the Burren mysteries Cora Harrison.[18] Her character, Mara, Brehon of the Burren, and the wife of King Turlough Donn O’Brien of Thomond (Toirdelbhach Donn MacTadhg Ó Briain) deals with conflicts between the traditional Irish legal traditions and English law, especially laws in Conflict . [19]


Galway has a permanent Irish theater is located in the city center, Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe (1928), which has produced some of Ireland’s most famous actor. The Druid Theatre Company has won international recognition for his production and direction of the cutting edge.

There are many theaters in the city, including Nun Island Theatre, Bank of Ireland Theatre, The Druid Lane Theatre, The Black Box Theatre and The Town Hall Theatre, a modern art theater with two performance spaces opened in 1995 [20] which has a 52- week program that covers all aspects of the performing arts including ballets, musicals and operas. It has been the site of many Irish film premieres during the Galway Film Fleadh.

Two of the most famous Irish actors of the 20th century, Siobhán McKenna and Peter O’Toole, has strong family connections with Galway. Other well-known players include Mick Lally, Seán McGinley and Marie Mullen, of which all three were the founder of the Druid Theatre Company. Other players with strong Galway connections Pauline McLynn ( Shameless andFather Ted ), Nora Jane Noone and Aoife Mulholland.

Garry Hynes, the first artistic director of the Druid Theatre, has the distinction of being the first woman to win a Tony Award for direction.


Galway has a vibrant and varied music scene. As in most Irish cities, traditional music is popular and is kept alive in pubs and street performers.Notable bands from Galway include The Saw Doctors and the fantastic.Galway Early Music Festival presents European music from the 12 to the 18th century. It encourages not only music, but also dance and costumes.The festival includes both professional and amateur musicians. [21]

Galway Cathedral Recitals is an international series of classical music concerts that have taken place in Galway Cathedral every July and August since 1994. [22]

A number of acclaimed choirs are based in the city. They include Tribal Chamber Choir (founded in 2009), directed by Mark Keane, [23] Galway Baroque Singers (founded 1983), directed by Audrey Corbett; Cois Cladaigh Chamber Choir (founded in 1982), directed by Brendan O’Connor, who sang at the inauguration of President Michael D. Higgins in St Patrick’s Hall, Dublin Castle, November 11, 2011; Galway Gospel Choir (founded in 2001), directed by Michel Durham Brandt; and Galway Choral Association (founded in 1998), directed by Norman Duffy. In addition to his parish choir Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas is home to two other choral groups, the Choral Scholars (adult) and the Schola Cantorum (juvenile).

The Galway Arts Festival ( Féile na Ealaíon Gaillimhe ) takes place in July. It was first held in 1978 and has since grown into one of the largest arts festivals in Ireland. It attracts international artists as well as providing a platform for local and national artists. The festival features parades, street performances and plays, music concerts and comedy acts. Highlights of the festival tend to be performances by Macnas and the Druid Theatre Company, two local performance groups. The Galway Youth Orchestra was formed in 1982.

The famous folk and traditional singer Dolores Keane live in Galway.

Traditional Irish music

Galway is an important center for traditional Irish music. The traditional group De Dannan based in Galway. Musicians Mickey Finn, Frankie Gavin, Johnny (Ringo) McDonagh, Alec Finn, Máirtín O’Connor and Gerry Hanley was born or came to prominence in Galway. Carl Hession, a well-known Irish composer, arranger and traditional musicians also derived from Galway city.

Comhaltas branches operating in several parts of the city, teaching Irish traditional music to children. Dusty Banjos run classes and sessions in the city for adults who switch from other musical traditions of Irish folk music, and for adult beginners and improvers that are not at a level where they could participate in general sessions.

Live music scenes

Traditional and modern music can be heard in many places around the city.Among the more notable are The Crane Bar on Sea Road, Tigh Neachtain Quay Street and Róisín Dubhpå Lr Dominic Street.



Galway has three cinema complex within easy reach of the city center. 11 IMC screen cinema is located across the road from Galway Shopping Centre, Headford Road. The 9-screen cinema EYE, each with Dolby Digital Ex full surround sound and widescreen and Cinemascope, is at Wellpark Dublin Road. There is a six-screen complex IMC in Oranmore.

A new three-screen Arthouse cinema, Solas Picture Palace, currently under construction on Merchants Road, scheduled to open in 2014.

On 1 December 2014, Galway was granted designation as a UNESCO “City of Film”. [24]

Galway is home to the Galway Film Fleadh, Ireland’s premier film festival, which takes place over six days each July. Galway Film Fleadh is a platform for international films in Ireland and an advocate for Irish cinema, where the festival’s identity has become synonymous. [25] The Galway Film Fleadh is an industry festival, with many industry events taking place under the name of the movie Fair Galway, including conferences , screenings, master classes, networking, Ireland’s oldest Pitching Competition and Ireland’s only film market. [26]

In 2014, a movie maker includes magazines panel of American filmmakers, critics and industry executives Galway Film Fleadh on its list of the “25 Coolest Film Festivals in the world”. [27]

Events & Festivals

Salthill is one of Ireland’s most popular holiday destinations

Many sporting, music, art and other events taking place in the city. The largest of these annual events starting with the Galway Film Fleadh and the Galway Arts Festival in July, the Galway Races in August, and Galway International Oyster Festival in September. Other events include Fleadh Imboilg, the Baboró International Children’s Festival, Cúirt International Festival of Literature, Galway Early Music Festival, [28] Seachtain na Gaeilge (March), Salthill Air Show (June) Colours Fringe Festival, Little Havana Festival, the Galway Sessions, [29] Galway Garden Festival, [30] Galway Comedy Festival, Baffle Poetry Festival, Galway Aboo Halloween Festival, Tulca Festival of Visual Arts, Galway Science and Technology Festival Spirit of the Voice Festival, Galway Christmas market, [31] Galway African Film Festival and Galway Pride . [32]

In June 2010, the Super8 Shots Film Festival was launched in Galway, the first Super 8 mm (0.31 inch) film festival take place in Ireland. [33]

Among the festivals that take place within a 90-minute drive from the city are: Cruinniú na mBád (a Galway Hooker festival), held in Kinvara; Cuckoo Festival, also held in Kinvara; The Ballinasloe Horse Fair (October); The Tuam Arts Festival (August); the Clarinbridge Oyster Festival; Féile na nOileáin held in Leitir Moir, Conamara; Feile a Dóilín, held in a Ceathrú Rua;Clifden Community Arts Week and Conamara Pony Show, held in Clifden;and Mountbellew bottling show every July.

Every year in November, Galway hosted The Irish Fly Fair and Angling Show, this means Flyfishing event together Fly sieves, Fly wheels and Fishing Celebrities from many different countries, to demonstrate their craft. [34]



There are only two radio stations based in the city – Galway Bay FM ( 95.8 FM) broadcasts from the city to the county, Flirt FM ( 101.3 FM ), the student radio station for NUIG.


One of the most important regional newspapers for the county, Connacht Tribune who writes two titles each week, the Connacht Tribune on Thursday, and Galway Tribune on Friday. From January 2007, the Tribune one week readers over 150,000. Another Galway-based newspaper the Galway Advertiser , a free paper every Thursday with an average of 160 pages and a circulation of 70,000 copies. It is the main paper of the Advertiser Newspaper Group distributes 200,000 magazines per week and more to a number of other Irish cities. Another free paper the Galway Independent , writing on a Tuesday evening to Wednesday circulation.


Being a city of culture, Galway has a dedicated hub for cultural events and organizations. Galway Hub is a free resource for both practitioners and the public to engage with the arts and cultural events around the city and the county. [35]


Population and Electoral Division of the Galway [3]
Electoral Division Population
Galway City
Galway City West 26189
Galway City Central 23169
Galway City East 25698
TOTAL 75529
County Galway
Furbo 1311
Bearna 3630
Maigh Cuillin 2008
Galway Rural 126
Fourth en Brownstown 918
Baile Uí Clare 2042
In Carn Mor 2609
Home en Temple 1462
Oranmore 4325
Clarin 3271
Annaghdown 1860
TOTAL 23562

Preliminary data from the 2011 census shows Galway City has a population of 75,414, an increase of 3,000 over 2006 census figures. [36]

Based on the 2006 census, the population of Galway city and its environs was 72,729, of whom 72,414 lived in the city limits and 315 live in the city environs in County Galway. [37] If the current growth rate continues the population of the city will hit 100,000 by 2020. [38 ] Galway City is the fourth largest in the Republic of Ireland, and sixth on the island of Ireland.

Approximately 80% of the population of Galway is white Irish, derived from the native Gaelic people and Norman settlers. Additional 2.9% are Black Irish. [39] After an influx of immigrants to Galway in the 2000s, is a non-Irish about 20% of the population. [39] Slightly more than half of this group (11.3%) are white Europeans, who come from Poland and other central European and Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Less number of Asian and African immigrants come from Eastern Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe and Sri Lanka. In the 2006 Census, 15.4% of the population aged 0-14, 76.1% were aged 15-64, and 8.5% were older than 65 years, 51.9% of the population were women, and 48, 1% were men. [40]


Galway City is the capital of Connacht. The city has experienced very rapid growth in recent years. Galway has a strong local economy by supporting industries, including manufacturing, tourism, trade and distribution, education, health care and services, including financial, construction, cultural and professional.

Most (47%) of employees in Galway work in either commerce or industry, with a large number (17%) also used in manufacturing. Most industrial and manufacturing in Galway, as well as the rest of Ireland, is a hi-tech (eg ICT, medical equipment, electronics, chemicals, etc.), because of denkeltiska Tiger boom. Tourism is also of great importance for the city, which had 2.1 million visitors in 2000, and produced a turnover of over € 400 million. [41]



Galway Airport, which is 6 km (3.73 mi) east of the city at Carnmore, ceased to have regular traffic November 1, 2011. [42] Since the track is too short to take modern passenger aircraft, its business is limited. [43] Aerfort na Minna(22 km (13.67 mi) west of the city) operates regular flights to each of the Aran Islands (Oileain Arann) . Shannon Airport (90 km) and Ireland West Airport Knock (86 km) are also within easy reach of the city, both of which have been flying around Ireland and the UK, Continental Europe and North America (Shannon).


Buses are the main form of public transport in the city and county. There are fifteen pathways [44] in the city operated by Bus Éireann and Galway City Direct.

Various bus companies also provide links throughout the county Galway and across the country. [45] These operate from a number of places:

  • The main bus and railway station in the city is Ceannt Station.
  • Galway Coach Station, located in Fairfield, [46] is also a coach transport hub. Scheduled direct and commuter trains operate between Coach Station, Dublin and Dublin Airport, as well as services to Limerick, Cork and Clifden.Dessa run by Gobus and CityLink. [47] [48]
  • Other regional bus company users various bus stops around the center, and many earn NUIG and GMIT campus too.


Galway train.

Galway Station are Ceannt Station ( Stáisiún Cheannt ), which opened in 1851, [49] and was named in honor Eamonn Ceannt 1966. A major adjustment, including a brand new district, Ceannt Station Quarter, [50] [51] have been proposed for the station and adjacent land.

The Midland Great Western Railway reached Galway in 1851, giving the city a direct main line to its Broad Terminal Station in Dublin. As the 19th century progressed, the railway network in Connacht was expanded, making Galway a major railhead. The nearby town of Athenry became a railway junction, providing links Galway to Ennis, Limerick and the south in 1869 and Sligo and the north in 1894. In 1895 MGW opened a branch line between Galway and Clifden.

20th century brought increasing road competition, and this led the Great Southern Railways to close Clifden branch in 1935. In the 1970s, the state railway authority Coras Iompair Éireann closed Sligo -Athenry-Ennis line to passenger traffic. It later closed for freight as well.

Iarnród Éireann, Ireland’s national rail operator, currently operates six return passenger service every day between Galway and Dublin Heuston, also serves intermediate stations. Travel time is below 3 hours. Services on the Galway-Limerick line has now resumed, with 5-6 trains each way per day.

From Galway rail transport along the western rail corridor linking the city with Ennis and Limerick where trains go to Cork via Limerick Junction (Tipperary, Clonmel and Waterford) ochMallow (for Kilarney and Tralee).


Three national primary roads serve the city: the N17 which connects the North West (Tuam, Sligo, Donegal Town, Letterkenny and Derry), the M6 motorway running east / west (Athlone, Dublin), and the highway M18som linking Galway to southern cities (Shannon Town, Shannon and Cork). From 2015, work is underway to expand the M18 north to link to the M6. When complete, the M17 / M18 will reduce the travel time between Limerick and Galway, making the two cities to work closer together. In addition, there are plans for a half ring road of the city, Galway City Outer Bypass. [52] [53] There is also an inner ring road ( cuar Inmheánach ) road that encircles the city center, most of which is pedestrianized.

Galway is considered the gateway to Connemara and the Gaeltacht, including MAM, a Teach Dóite, Cor na Mona, Ros Muc, Bearna and Cheathrú Rua. The N59 along the western shore of Lough Corrib and R337 along the northern shore of Galway Bay, both leading to this largely rural and very scenic region.


The River Corrib is by far the most important waterways in Galway and a number of channels and canals were built above and through the city. . The purpose of these for diverting and directing water from the river, to use their power and to provide a navigable route to the sea [54] Of these were two large systems – one between 1848 and 1858 and the other in the 1950s. The channels as a power source for Galway and was the site of the first industries in the mid 19-talet.Eglinton Canal gave a navigation from the sea (at the Claddagh Basin) to the navigable part of the river (the Salmon Weir Bridge).Most of the plants are still used today for various purposes; For example, NUI Galway is still using a water turbine to generate electricity for their building on Nun Island.

Currently there are four bridges over the Corrib. After the southward flow of the river they are, from the north: the Quincentennial Bridge, the Salmon Weir Bridge, William O’Brien Bridge and Wolfe Tone Bridge. There are plans for a fifth bridge as part of the Galway Outer Bypass project. Clare flows from the northern part of County Galway, Tuam through, Clare Lough Corrib.


Ballyknow Quay, Claddagh

Galway is the most important port on the west coast of Ireland in the sheltered eastern corner of Galway Bay. [ Citation needed ] The port can be used for vessels of up to 10,000 deadweight tons (DWT) and the inner dock can accommodate up to 9 vessels at any time. Pending approval, Galway Harbour see major changes, the € 1.5 billion development plan move forward.

Regular passenger ferry and freight operates between Galway and tourist destinations in the Aran Islands which is home to the World Heritage Dun Aonghasa. The islands also have regular contacts with the cities and Rossaveal Doolin, which is physically closer, but much less.

Commuter ferry services have been proposed to the tourist town of Kinvara, on the opposite side of Galway Bay. [55]

Major work in the port area was conducted in 2009 to accommodate stopover in the Volvo Ocean Race. This was one of the biggest events ever to visit Galway. The event returned to the finals of the competition in June 2012. This was unprecedented in the Volvo Ocean Race history.


National University of Ireland, Galway

In 2002, there were 27 primary schools and 11 secondary schools in Galway.[56]

National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG)

The University was founded in 1845 as Queen’s College, Galway, and more recently known as University College, Galway (UCG). It is divided into several colleges including the College of Arts, Social Sciences and Celtic Studies, College medicine, nursing and health sciences, College of Business, Public Policy and Law College of Science and College of Engineering and Informatics. The university has an enrollment of 16,000 (2010).

The Biomedical Research Building opened in 2014. [ citation needed ] It houses the Regenerative Medicine Institute (Remedi). Also opened in 2014, Hardiman building and a new School of Psychology. The Hardiman Building is home to the university’s collection of more than 350 literary, theatrical, political and historical archives. [ Citation needed ] The building also Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and Whitaker Institute of Innovation and social change. The National Institute of Preventive Cardiology is a subsidiary of NUIG. [ Citation needed ]

The offices in Central Applications Office (CAO) is also located in the city, which is the clearing house for undergraduate college and university programs in Ireland; a related organization, Postgraduate Applications Centre, processes showed some postgraduate courses. [ citation needed ]

Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT)

Institute of Technology, in addition to having two campuses in Galway City, also has campuses in Castlebar, Letter and Mountbellew. [ Citation needed ]


Publicly funded health care and social services provided in Galway HSE (West) division of the Health Services Executive. The main city hospital, University Hospital Galway, located on two campuses -. University Hospital Galway and Merlin Park University Hospital [ citation needed ]

Two private hospitals, Galway Clinic and Bon Secours Hospital, Galway, also works in the city. Galway Hospice provides palliative care for the population of Galway City and County on a housekeeping, inpatient and day care grund.43 General methods work in the city. [ Citation needed ]


Main article: Sports in Galway

Galway has a varied sporting heritage, with a history of sports ranging from horse racing, Gaelic games, soccer and rugby to rowing, basketball, motor racing, greyhound racing and others. The Galway Races are known throughout the world and is the highlight of the Irish racing calendar. Over the years it has grown into an annual festival which lasts seven days.

Gaelic game

Main article: Galway GAA

Both hurling and football are strong in Galway city. Pearse Stadium in Salthill is home to Galway GAA, county Gaelic games body. Galway Hurlers compete annually in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship for the Liam MacCarthy Cup. Despite having won the Cup only four times in its history, Galway is regarded as one of the best teams in the championship.Galway reached the 2012 All-Ireland finals only to draw with Kilkenny to force a replay, the first since 1959, which they eventually lost. The football players will compete annually in the All-Ireland Senior Football Sam Maguire Cup, but are less successful than those hurlers in recent years, football players won the cup nine times with the last one being in 2001.

Association football

Galway United FC is based in the city and play in the League of Ireland Premier Division. The team plays its home games at Eamonn Deacy Park.The club was formed in 2013 and first competed in the 2014 season.

The previous tenants of Eamonn Deacy Park, also known as Galway United, only competed in the League of Ireland in 1977, then known as Galway Rovers . Michael D. Higgins, later elected President of Ireland in 2011, served as president of the club in a ceremonial capacity. The following are struggling with debt, the club was removed at the end of season 2011. Galway United Supporters Trust (GUST) had been many debts of the company and has been able to keep the club liquid for the 2011 season, but it has been effectively abandoned by their directors. GUST withdrew their support for the team and applied for membership in the 2012 League of Ireland as a community enterprise, rather than as a private company, the old club had been. This application was not successful, however.

Galway FC was formed the following year from a merger of GUST with Mervue United and Salt Devon, two other clubs in the city, which had competed in the first division since 2009 and 2010 respectively.



The professional for the province, Connacht Rugby, has its headquarters in the city. The team plays its home games at Galway Sportsgrounds which is the current provincial rugby stadium.

The team participates in the Pro12 League, and in the 2015-2016 season won their inaugural championship by defeating reigning champions Glasgow Warriors in the semifinals and then beat the four times champions Leinster Rugby Grand Final May 28 2016 played at Murrayfield Stadium. [57]

The team will take part in the European Rugby Champions Cup 2016/2017.[58]

Club (Amateur)

There are two leading amateur rugby union team in Galway, Galwegians RFC and Galway Corinthians RFC, who play in the All-Ireland League. There are also two junior clubs, OLBC RFC & NUIG RFC which both participate in Connaught Junior League.

“Barna Knocknacarra Rugby Club” (or Na Bairneachaí), founded in 2007, offers “mini rugby” for children at levels U8 to U12. [59]


Several golf courses earn Galway. Bearna Golf Club, Galway Golf Club, Cregmore Golf Club and Galway Bay Golf Resort are all within 8 km (5 mi) in the center.


Nearby Salthill has a 25m competitive pool in Leisure complex and three competitive swimming clubs (in) Shark Swimming Club, (ii) Laser Swimming Club, and (iii) Galway Swimming Club trains there. There is also a handbolloch racketball club while there are several martial arts clubs in the city. There is a 25m pool at NUI, Galway and one in Renmore’s Kingfisher Club.

Sailing / Rowing

Sailing on both the sea and the lake are popular, such as rowing on the River Corrib with seven clubs provide the necessary facilities and organize rowing competitions. These clubs are: Gráinne Mhaol Rowing Club, Tribesmen Rowing Club, Galway Rowing Club, Coláiste Iognáid (Isa) Rowing Club, St.Joseph’s Patrician College ( ‘The Bish) Rowing Club, NUIG Boat Club and Cumann na Rámhaiochta Choláiste Coiribe.

In 2009, Galway host a stopover in the Volvo Ocean Race and the city was the end of the round the world competition in July 2012.

Greyhound racing

Near the center, on College Road, Sports has greyhound racing every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening. It was renovated by the Irish Greyhound Board, Bord na gCon, and the plant shared with Connacht rugby team.

See also

  • List of twinning in Ireland


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  43. Jump up ^ February 21, 2007 investments in regional airports than support balanced regional development (Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs) “But before any significant change can occur at Galway Airport, the issue of runway length to be addressed Galway Airport. has the second shortest runway length of all regional airports in Ireland which are used for scheduled flights. the total length of the track is 1350 meters, which means that the number of aircraft types that can be used is limited. “- Ministerial Statement.
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The Twelve Bens

The Twelve Bens , or Twelve Pins (Irish: Na Beanna beola ), is a mountain range of sharp peaked quartzite areas located northeast of Roundstone in Connemara in the west of Ireland .Dedikerad fell runners attempt to hike all twelve peaks in a single day. Topographically this area cooperates with Maumturks range on the other side of the single Glen Inagh (road and Western Way long distance path). Frequent rainfall and steep-sided mountain produces an abundance of small rivulets and streams that descend in wide bottom Dalarna below the Twelve Pins to join larger streams with riffles and pools. The highest point in the Twelve Bens is Benbaun at 729 meters (2,392 ft). They provide excellent hiking and climbing opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts.

highest score

The following table shows the 12 highest major mountain peaks of the Twelve Bens mountains, each with a topographic height of at least 516 meters (1,693 ft). There are a number of mountains higher than Benglenisky, but has not sufficiently prominent to be included in this list.

Rang mountain top Elevation english names
1 Binn Bhan 729 m (2,392 ft) Benbaun
2 Sentencing rest 711 m (2,333 ft) Bencorr
3 Black sentenced 696 m (2,283 ft) Bencollaghduff
4 sentenced Broom 691 m (2.267 ft) Benbreen
5 Clare sentenced Derry 677 m (2,221 ft) Derryclare
6 Sentencing will be 664 m (2,178 ft) Bengower
7 Meacanach 654 m (2,146 ft) Muckanaght
8 Binn Fraoigh 638 m (2.093 ft) Benfree
9 en Woman 632 m (2,073 ft) Bencullagh
10 Mosaic sentenced 582 m (1,909 ft) Benbrack
11 Binn Rixy 577 m (1,893 ft) Benrix
12 Glean sweet Water 516 m (1,693 ft) Benglenisky

further reading

  • The Mountains of Connemara : a hill Walker’s Guide” (ISBN 0-9504002-4-6) contains a more useful 1: 50,000 map than OS maps 37 , 38, 44th


Sléibhte Mhám Toirc (The Maumturks / Maamturks , the Turks (fam.) ) Is a picturesque mountain range in Connemara in the west of Ireland. They are less well known than its more famous neighbors, the Twelve Bens on the other side of the Inagh Valley (and Western Way long distance path). They are not very large (up to 702) but a nice climb in good weather, with stunning views and no crowds. Dedicated fell runners run from Maumeen Leenaun in the south to the north in a single day.



  • 1Högsta point
  • 2Bilder
  • 3Externa links
  • 4Lästips

highest score

The table below shows some of the highest major mountain peaks in Maumturk mountains.

Rank mountain top Elevation english names
1 Binn Idir an Da Log 702 m (2,303 ft) Barrslievenaroy
2 Leitir Bhriocáin 667 m (2,188 ft) Letterbreckaun
3 Binn Mhor 661 m (2,169 ft) BinnMhor
4 Binn Chaonaigh 633 m (2,077 ft) Binn Chaonaigh


  • The Maumturk mountains looking over Inagh valley of Ben Corr
  • Peat -cutting near Loch an Imligh

External links

  • climbing Ireland
  • A OIGE / Irish Hostel Assoc. page for County Galway See especially Ben Lettery – Binn Leitri.


A heath is a shrubland habitat is mainly in charge draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterized by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland generally relates to high ground heaths [1] with – especially in the British Isles – a cooler and more humid climate.

Heaths are widespread worldwide, but is fast disappearing and is considered a rare habitat in Europe. [2] They form extensive and very diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas. Fire regimes with recurring burning are required for maintenance of the moors. [3] Even more diverse but less widespread heath communities occur in southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can also be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile and along the shores of the Mediterranean. In addition to these extensive heath vegetation areas are also in dispersed locations on all continents except Antarctica.


Moorland is favored where climatic conditions are usually hot and dry, especially in the summer, and acidic soils, low fertility and often sandy and very free draining, marshes occur where drainage is poor, but is usually only small in scope. Heaths dominated by low shrubs, 20 cm (7.9 inch) to 2 meters (7 feet) long.

Heath vegetation can be extremely plant species rich and heathland in Australia is home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to a large number of less restricted species. [3] The fynbosljunghedar in South Africa is second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7000 species. [4], in sharp contrast, the small pockets of heath in Europe is extremely depauperate with flora mainly consisting of heather ( Calluna vulgaris ), heath ( Erica species) and gorse ( Ulex species).

The bird fauna of the moorlands are usually cosmopolitan species in the region. [3] [4] In depauperate moorland bird species in Europe tend to be more characteristic of society and include Montagu’s harrier and Tree Pipit. In Australia moors avian fauna is dominated by nectar feeding birds such as honey-eaters and lorikeets many other birds from emus to örnarär also common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathland is also home to the world’s only nectar feeding land mammal: the honey possum. The bird fauna of the South African fynbos include sunbirds, singers and siskins. Heather moorland is also an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths, butterflies and wasps with numerous species restricted entirely to it.

anthropogenic heaths

Anthropogenic heath habitats is a cultural landscape that can be found throughout the world in places as diverse as northern and western Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar and New Guinea.

These moors originally created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of natural forests and forest vegetation by grazing and burning. In some cases, the clearance went as far as areas of moorland has given way to open spots of clean sand and dunes, with a very local desert climate, even in Europe, can create local temperatures of 50 ° C (122 ° F) in summer , drying of sand location bordering the moors and further increase its vulnerability to forest fires. Referring to the moors in England, says Rackham “Heath is clearly a product of human activity and must be managed as heaths; if neglected they turn into woodland. ” [5]

In recent years, conservation value, even these artificial heaths have become much more appreciated, [ why? ] [ Citation needed ] and thus most protected heath.They, however, also threatened trees intrusion because of the demise of traditional techniques such as grazing and burning, which brokered landscape. Some are also threatened by urban sprawl. Anthropogenic heathlands maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning (known as swailing [6] ), or (rarely) mowing; if not so maintained the rapid re-colonized by forest or woodland. The re-colonizing tree species will depend on what is available as the local seed sources and therefore can not reflect the natural vegetation before the moors established.

See also

  • plants portal
  • environment portal
  • bolster hed
  • krita hed
  • garrigue
  • stain
  • Matorral
  • buskmark


  1. Jump up ^ Polunin, Oleg; Walters, Martin (1985). A guide to vegetation in the UK and Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0-19-217713-3.
  2. Jump up ^ Anon. “Heath and Moorland”. Field Studies Council. FSC.Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c Specht, RL “Heathlands” i “Australian Vegetation” RH Groves ed. Cambridge University Press 1988
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “Montane fynbos and renosterveld”. Terrestrial ecoregion. World Wildlife Fund.
  5. Jump up ^ Rackham, Oliver (1997). History countryside. Bird Phoenix. p. 282nd
  6. Hoppa upp^


Connemara (Irish: Conamara pronounced [kɔnˠamˠaɾˠa]) is a district in the west of Ireland, the limits of which are not well defined. Some [ who? ] Define it to be the land contained by Killary Harbour, the Maam Valley, Lough Corrib (as far as Moycullen); a line from there to the sea at Barna, and the Atlantic Ocean. The historical territory Connemara, as defined in the 17th century historian Ruaidhrí Ó Flaithbheartaigh in his book vest or H-Iar Connaught , was coextensive Barony Ballynahinch, this is a broad peninsula extending from Killary hamnpå northern to Kilkieran Bay South. The border runs north along the spine of the mountains Maumturk then along a series of small rivers and over mountain west of Maam Cross for eventually Invermore course of the river before meeting the sea west of Ros Muc peninsula.


EtymologiTermen Connemara is the northern part of County Galway west of Lough Corrib. [1] It is also used to describe the Gaeltacht (Irish speaking areas) of western County Galway, although it is argued that this is too inaccurate because some of these areas located outside the traditional boundary of Connemara. [ citation needed ] Some [ who? ] also claims that it is not correct to say that Connemara’s eastern boundary ends around Barna just [vague ] in the outskirts of Galway City, or at Maam Cross. [ citation needed ]

“Connemara” derives from the tribal name Conmacne Mara , who has been appointed a branch of Conmacne, an early tribal group had a number of branches in different parts of Connacht. Because this particular branch of Conmacne lived by the sea, became the so-called Conmacne Mara. (Irish Sea is muir , genitive mara , hence the “sea”.) The area in the eastern part of what is now called Connemara Delbhna Tír DHA Locha.


Green means Joyce Country, with light green shows the greatest extent defined; Red indicates Connemara, [ citation needed ] with pink shows the greatest defined [ citation needed ] scope (excluding those who consider somewhere west of the Corrib be in Connemara)

Connemara Coast consists of several penisulas.The peninsula Iorras Ainbhtheach (sometimes corrupted to Iorras Aithneach) to the south is the largest and includes the villages of Carna and Kilkieran. Peninsula Errismore consists of the area west of the village of Ballyconneely. Errisbeg peninsula lies south of the village of Roundstone. The Errislannan peninsula just south of the town of Clifden. Islands in Kingstown, Coolacloy, Aughrus, Cleggan and Renvyle are in the North West Connemara. Of the many islands off the coast of Connemara, Inishbofin is the largest; other islands include Omey, Inishark, High Island, Friars Island, Feenish and Maínis.

[2] Connemara is in territory Iar Connaught , “West Connaught,” which is the part of County Galway west of Lough Corrib. Connemara traditionally divided into North Connemara and South Connemara. The mountains of the Twelve Bens and Owenglin River, which flows into the sea at a Clochán / Clifden, marked the boundary between the two parts. Connemara is bounded on the west, south and north by the Atlantic Ocean. Connemara land border with the rest of County Galway is marked [ citation needed ] of Invermore River otherwise known as Inbhear Mór [3] (which flows into the northern Kilkieran Bay), Loch Oorid (which is a few miles west of Maam Cross) and the western spine Maumturks of the mountains. In the northern part of the mountains meet the sea border at Killary, a few miles west omLeenaun.

Connemara is composed of the Catholic parishes of Carna, Clifden (Omey and Ballindoon), Ballynakill, Roundstone and Inishbofin. [ Citation needed ] The area contains the civil parishes in Moyrus, Ballynakill, Omey, Ballindoon and Inishbofin (the last parish was for a time part of territory of the Clann Uí Mháille, O Malley of the territory Umhall, County Mayo.)


The Ó Cadhla (Kealy) clan were the rulers of Connemara up until the 13th century, when they were expelled by Ó Flaithbertaighs. The latter had fled to Iar Connacht from Maigh Seola during the English invasion of Connacht in the early 13th century.

Like Ó Cadhla clan, Mac Conghaile (Conneely) clan was a branch of Conmhaicne Mara. [ Citation needed ] Comedian Billy Connolly visiting Connemara, looking for their ancestors during their 2002 World Tour in England, Ireland and Wales series.

The largest town in Connemara is Clifden. The area around the town is rich with megalithic tombs. The famous “green Connemara marble” found outcropping along a line between Stream and Lissoughter. It was a trade tax that is used by the inhabitants in prehistoric times. There continues to be of great value today. It is available in large dimensional sheets suitable for buildings, and for smaller pieces of jewelry. It is used for hanging Scout Ireland Chief Scout Award, the highest award in the Irish scouting.

The first flight across the Atlantic, led by Alcock and Brown landed in Clifden, 1919. [4]


Connemara reached by Bus Eireann and Citylink bus services. From 1895 to 1935 it was served by the Midland Great Western Railway branch that is connected Galway City to Clifden. The railway is still visible on the N59. [Where? ] [ Citation needed ]

A popular alternative route is the coastal road on the R336 from Galway City.This road is also known as the Connemara Loop consists of a 45 km drive where you can see the landscape and nature in Connemara.

Aer Aran Islands serve the Aran Islands from Connemara airport in south Connemara also known as Aerfort na Minna.


The population of Connemara is 32.000. There are between 20.000 to 24.000 native Irish speakers in the region makes it the largest Irish-speaking Gaeltacht.

The enumeration district with the Irish speakers throughout Ireland as a proportion of the population can be seen in the South Connemara area.

Most Irish speakers are of school age (5-19 years). [5]

Notable towns and villages

  • Barna – ( Bearna )
  • Ballyconneely – ( Ballyconnelly / Baile Mhic Connolly )
  • Ballynahinch – ( Baile na hInse )
  • Carna – ( Carna )
  • Carraroe – ( Carraroe )
  • Claddaghduff – ( Claddaghduff )
  • Cleggan – ( The Skull )
  • Clifden – ( Clifden )
  • Inverin – ( Indreabhán )
  • Kilkerren – ( Campbeltown )
  • Leenaun – ( An Lionán / Leenane )
  • Letter – ( Letterfrack )
  • Letter – ( Leitir moir )
  • Lettermullen – ( Lettermullen )
  • Maum – ( Chart MAM , even ‘Maam’)
  • Oughterard – ( Oughterard )
  • Recess – ( Series Dirty ) [6]
  • Renvyle – ( Renville )
  • Rosmuc – ( Ros Muc )
  • Roundstone – ( Cloch na RON )
  • Spiddal – ( The Spittal )

Sheet islands

  • Omey Island – ( contest )
  • Inishbofin – ( Inis Bó Finne ) has been home to fishermen, farmers, exiled monks and fugitive pirates in over 6,000 years, and today the island supports a population of 200 full-time residents

other uses

  • French singer Michel Sardou had an international hit with the song “Les Lacs You Connemara” in 1981.
  • The Irish drinking song “The Hills of Connemara” has been recorded and performed by a number of Irish and Celtic-themed bands.
  • Poet Carl Sandburg’s home of 22 years in Flat Rock, North Carolina, which is now a national monument, is named after the Connemara region.
  • Conamara Chaos is a region of chaotic terrain on Jupiter’s moon Europa.
  • Connemara pony is a breed native to the region.
  • Connemara is also the name of a brand of Irish whiskey produced at the Cooley Distillery.

annalistic references

  • 807. A slaughter was made of Conmaicni by foreigners.

Notable people associated with Connemara

  • John Ford, American film director and winner of four Academy Awards, whose real name was Sean O’Feeney, was the son of John Augustine Feeney from Spiddal, and directed the classic film The Quiet Man in nearby Cong, County Mayo.
  • Máire Geoghegan-Quinn is an Irish politician and former EU commissioner for research, innovation and science was born in Carna.
  • Richard Martin, MP, known as “Humanity Dick”, was born in Ballynahinch Castle Ballynahinch and represented Galway in the house.
  • Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, was president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and lived at the family seat in Spiddal.
  • Patrick Nee, Irish-born American gangster in South Boston, a member of Mullen Gang and employees to the Irish American gangster Whitey Bulger.
  • Máirtín Ó Cadhain was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the 20th century, and wrote the classic Irish Cré na Cille, was born in Connemara.
  • Peter O’Toole, the noted actor of stage and screen, who achieved the status in 1962 playing TE Lawrence in Lawrence of Arabia , was born in Connemara in 1932, according to accounts of his life.
  • Pádraig Pearse who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916, owned a cottage in Rosmuc, where he spent his summers learning the Irish language and writing.
  • Maharaja Jam Sahib of Nawanagar, an Indian prince and cricketer, was the first head of state to make an official visit to the newly formed Irish Free State, bought Ballynahinch Castle estate and visited the area every year until his death in 1932.
  • Tim Robinson, a cartographer, has lived many years in Connemara and published books on the area.
  • Gráinne Seoige, the Irish TV presenter and journalist, who has worked for TG4, RTÉ, SKY and BBC, born in Spiddal.
  • Máirtín Thornton was a heavyweight boxer, nicknamed “Connemara CHRUSHER”, he was punching Irish heavyweight in 1943, and Bruce Woodcock fought for the British heavyweight title in 1945.
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian philosopher, was a temporary resident, for a few months in 1948, at Rosroe of Killary Harbour.
  • Lord Ismay, chairman of the White Star Line, which owned Titanic, lived part of his later life in his lodge in Connemara. Ismay was aboard the Titanic when it sank but was one of the survivors. [7]
  • Sean Mannion, a professional boxer who boxed in Massachusetts and fought for the WBA, was born in Rosmuc.

See also

  • Islands Area
  • Joyce Country
  • Alcock and Brown first non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean crashed near Clifden
  • Connacht Irish
  • Connemara Heritage & History Centre
  • Connemara National Park
  • Lough Corrib
  • The Twelve Pins and Maumturks mountain
  • The Western Way (Long distance tracks)
  • The Connemara Pony
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  • A Chorographical Description of the West or H-Iar Connaught written AD 1684 by Roderic O’Flaherty ESQ with notes and illustrations of James Hardiman MRIA, Irish Archaeological Society, in 1846.
  1. Jump up ^ “Connemara Ireland, to see in Connemara, the map of Connemara Loop, things to do and beaches.”. 04/13/2016.
  2. Jump up ^ “History”. Go Connemara. Pulled 04/13/2016.
  3. Jump up ^ “Full Result”. Pulled 04/13/2016.
  4. Jump up ^ “Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown.” Pulled 04/14/2016.
  5. Jump up ^ “Diversity Ethnicity Languages” (PDF). Irish Census. 2011.Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  6. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey of Ireland map 44 spell it Sraith Salach .
  7. Jump up ^ “Bruce Ismay, 74, the Titanic survivors. Ex-director of the White Star Line, who retired after the Sea Tragedy dies in London. ” The New York Times . October 19, 1937. Joseph Bruce Ismay, former chairman of the White Star Line and a survivor of the Titanic disaster in 1912, died here last night. He was 74 years old.

Galway Bay

Galway Bay (Irish: Loch Lurgan or Cuan na Gaillimhe ) is a large bay (or sea lough) on the west coast of Ireland, from Galway in the province of Connacht to the north and the Burren in County Clare in the province of Munster in the south. Galway city is located on the northeastern side of the bay. It is about 50 kilometers (31 mi) long and 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and 30 kilometers (19 mi) in width. DeAranöarna ( Oileain Arann ) is in the west of the entrance and there are many small islands in the bay.

Access to the bay between the Aran Islands and the mainland are as follows:

  • North Sound ( A Healthy ó Thuaidh ) is between Inishmore and Leitir Mealláin Connemara; known as Bealach Locha Lurgan in Irish.
  • Gregory Sound ( Healthy Ghríoghóra ) is between Inishmore and Inishmaan; known as Bealach na h-Aite in Irish.
  • Foul Sound ( than healthy Salach ) is between Inishmaan and Inisheer;known as Bealach na Fearbhaighe in Irish.
  • South Sound ( A Healthy ó Theas ), known as Bealach na Finnise in Irish, lies between Inisheer and County Clare.

Galway Bay is famous for its unique traditional sailing craft, the Galway Hooker. [ Citation needed ]

Drowning tragedy of 1902

On May 4, 1902 eight fishermen from a nearby village were killed while sailing on Galway Bay, close to Kilcolgan. [1] [2] Seven (Patrick Folan, Patrick Burns, Patrick McDonagh, John Barrett, Michael Burke, Michael Dwyer and Stephen Hynes ) were immersed; Patrick Walsh swam to shore on nearby Kilcolgan, but died of exhaustion on the beach. [2] a fundraiser was held for the families drowned fishermen. [3]

Galway Bay in popular culture


  • From traditional Irish song Rare Old Mountain Dew :

Let the grass grow and the water flow

In a free and easy way

But give me enough of the rare old things

It has made near Galway Bay

  • From John Lennon song Luck of the Irish :

If we could make chains with the morning dew

The world would be Galway Bay

  • From Arthur Colahan song Galway Bay :

If you ever go across the sea to Ireland

Then maybe at the closing of your day

You will go and see the moon rise over Claddagh

Or watch the sun go down on Galway Bay.

  • From a song performed by Sean Connery in Disney’s Darby O’Gill and the Little People :

Have you ever seen the gulls

a flying o’er Heather

eller crimson segel på Galway Bay

fish unfurl?

  • From Steve Earle’s musical tribute to Townes Van Zandt, Ft. Worth Blues :

There is a full moon over Galway Bay in the evening

Silver light on green and blue

And every place I travel through I find

Some kinda sign that you have gone through

Earle also mentions Galway and The Long Walk in his song “Galway Girl”.

  • From the Pogues’ s tale of New York :

Boys in NYPD chorus

still singing “Galway Bay”

And the bells ring out

For Christmas day. “

From roasted Heretic’s Galway Bay :

The sun goes down on Galway Bay

The daughter goes down on me

Her father is not until one or maybe two

And I am glad that I will ever be

Från den Mahones A Drunken Night i Dublin :

One drunken night in Dublin

Ended up in Galway Bay

From The Waterboys ” Spring comes to Spiddal : [4]

On a soft and fresh Atlantic air a mist of pollen floats

In Galway Bay, I spy a cheerfully painted fishing boat

  • Galway Bay is also mentioned in Ireland’s Call , Ireland official rugby anthem, written by Phil Coulter.


  • Map of Galway Bay and surroundings.
  • Galway Bay from Salthill.
  • Galway Bay near County Clare.
  • Galway Bay i december.

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • ö Eddy
  • Galway Bay Boat Company


  1. Jump up ^ The Irish Times , Dublin, Saturday, May 10, 1902.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab Madden, Marie (16 May 2012). “Talking History”.Galway Independent. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ The Irish Times , Dublin, Saturday, May 27, 1902.
  4. Jump up ^ “Spring comes to Spiddal.” Retrieved February 7, 2016.


Gaeltacht or Gaedhealtacht (/ ɡ eɪ lt ə xt /; Irish pronunciation: [ɡeːl̪ˠt̪ˠəxt̪ˠ] or [ɡeːl̪ˠhəxt̪ˠ], plural Gaeltachtaí or Gaedhealtachtaí ) is an Irish-language word used to denote any particular Irish speaking region. In Ireland, the term Gaeltacht refers individually to any, or collectively all, of the district where the government recognizes that detirländska language is the dominant vernacular, or language in the home. [1] The boundaries of the Gaeltacht have included a high proportion of residents speaking since British colonization .

Gaeltacht districts first officially recognized in the 1920s, in the early years of the Irish Free State, after the Gaelic Revival, as part of a state policy aimed at restoring the Irish language. [2]

It is now recognized that the Gaeltacht is threatened with serious language decline. [3] The research published in 2015 showed that of the 155 electoral divisions in the Gaeltacht, only 21 are communities where Irish is spoken daily by 67% or more of the population. [4] [5] 67% is considered by some researchers as a trigger point for language survival. [4]


1926 the official Gaeltacht about after the first report of the Gaeltacht Commission Coimisiún na Gaeltachta . The exact boundaries are not defined. The ratio at the time was 25% + Irish-speaking, but in many cases the Gaeltacht status granted to areas that were linguistically weaker than this. The Irish Free State recognized that there were Irish-speaking or semi Irish-speaking districts in 15 of its 26 counties.

In the 1950s, entered another Gaeltacht Commission to the Gaeltacht boundaries were poorly defined. It is recommended to access the status of an area Gaeltacht based purely on the strength of the language there. Gaeltacht districts initially defined precisely in the 1950s, with the exception of many areas which had witnessed a decline in the language. This left Gaeltacht areas in seven of the state’s 26 counties (nominally Donegal, Galway, Mayo, Kerry, Cork, Meath and Waterford). Gaeltacht boundaries have not officially changed since then, apart from minor changes:

  • The introduction of a Clochán ( Cloghane ) and CE Bhréanainn (Brandon ) in County Kerry in 1974;
  • The introduction of part of West Muskerry in County Cork (although the Irish-speaking population had been severely reduced from what it had been before 1950); and
  • The introduction of Baile Ghib ( Gibstown) and Ráth Chairn (Rathcarran ) in Meath in 1967.

Gaeltacht today

A study in 2005 by an Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta (Education Council for Gaeltacht and Irish-medium schools was established in 2002 under the Education Act 1998) said that Gaeltacht schools were facing a crisis and that without support some of them would be teaching through Irish in 20 year. This would threaten the future of the Gaeltacht. The parents believed that education interrupted their efforts to pass on the Irish as a living language to their children. The study added that a large number of Gaeltacht schools had switched to teaching through English, and others were wavering. [6]

In 2002 the third Coimisiún na Gaeltachta stated in its report [7] to the erosion of Irish in the Gaeltacht was now so it was only a matter of time before the Gaeltacht disappeared. In some areas, the Irish had already ceased to be a community language. Even in the strongest Gaeltacht areas, current patterns of bilingualism leads to the dominance of English. Policies of the state and voluntary groups had no effect. A new language enhancement strategy was required, one that had the confidence of the Community itself.The Commission recommended, among other things, that the boundaries of the official Gaeltacht should be redrawn. It also recommended a comprehensive linguistic study to assess the viability of the Irish language in the remaining Gaeltacht districts.

The study was conducted by Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge (part of the National University of Ireland, Galway), and November 1, 2007 Staidéar Cuimsitheach Teangeolaíoch s USAID na Gaeilge said Ghaeltacht ( “a comprehensive linguistic study of the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht”) appeared. [ 8] As for the Gaeltacht boundaries, it suggested creating three linguistic regions within the Gaeltacht region:

  • A – 67% / + daily Irish language – Irish as the dominant language of the EU
  • B – 44% -66% daily Irish language – Swedish dominant, with large Irish-speaking minority
  • C – 43% / – daily Irish speaking – English dominant, but with Irish-speaking minority much higher than the national average of Irish language

The report proposes that Category A districts should be the state’s priority to provide services through Irish and development activities and the category C areas show a further decline in the use of Irish should lose their Gaeltacht status.

Census data in 2006 show that of the 95,000 people living within the official Gaeltacht, about 17,000 belonged to Category A areas, 10,000 of category B and 17,000 in category C, which means that about 50,000 in Gaeltacht areas that do not meet the minimum criteria. [9 ] in response to this situation, the Government introduced the Gaeltacht Bill 2012. Its stated purpose was to introduce a new definition of limits based on language criteria, but it has been criticized for doing the opposite of this. Critics acclaimed Section 7 of the bill, which stated that all areas “currently in the Gaeltacht” would maintain their current Gaeltacht status, regardless of whether the Irish actually used. This status can only be revoked if the area failed to prepare a language plan (with no necessary relation to the actual number of speakers).[10] The bill was also criticized for placing all responsibility for the maintenance of the Irish on NGOs, with no increase in resources. [11]

The annual report 2012 of the Language Commissioner for Irish reinforced this criticism by emphasizing the failure of the state to provide Irish language services to Irish speakers in Gaeltacht and elsewhere. The report said that the Irish in the Gaeltacht was now the most fragile and that the State could not expect that the Irish would survive as a community language if the state itself is kept forcing English Gaeltacht communities. [12]

Publicerades en rapport som in 2015, Update en Linguistic Study of the Use of Irish in the Gaeltacht: 2006-2011 , att the nuvarande indikatorer Sade, kommer att irländska upphör användas gemenskap en som inom tio språk in Gaeltacht on. [13] Detta konstaterande har inte funnit allmän acceptans.


Road sign, which means “give way” or “Yield”, in County Waterford

The Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, chaired by Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs, is responsible for the overall Irish Government policy in relation to the Gaeltacht, and supervises the work of Údarás na Gaeltachta and other agencies. RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta is Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ) radio station serving the Gaeltacht and Irish speakers in general. TG4 is the television station that focuses on promoting the Irish language and is based in GalwayGaeltacht.

In March 2005, the Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs Éamon Ó CUÍV announced that the government of Ireland would begin listing only irländskaspråkversionerna of place names in Gaeltachtaí as the official name, stripping official Ordnance Survey of their English counterparts, bringing them up to date with the signs in Gaeltacht, which has been in Irish only since 1970. This occurred during a placental orders made under the law on official languages. [14]

Gaeltacht in Irland


At the time of the 2006 census in Ireland, the population of the Gaeltacht was 91,862, [15] about 2.1% of the state’s 4,239,848 people, with large concentrations of Irish speakers located in the western counties of Donegal, Mayo, Galway and Kerry. [16] it were smaller concentrations in the counties of Cork and Waterford in the south and Meath in the east.

The percentage of respondents who said they spoke Irish daily outside the education census 2011.

Gaeltacht districts have historically suffered from mass emigration. [17] to be at the edge of the island they always had fewer railways and roads, and less land to farm. Other influences have been the arrival of families speaking non-Irish, the marginal role of the Irish language in the education system and the general pressure from the English-speaking community. [18] There is no evidence that periods of relative prosperity has considerably improved the situation of the language.

Donegal Gaeltacht

Of Donegal (eller Tyrconnell) Gaeltacht (irländsk: Gaeltacht [County] Donegal eller Donegal Gaeltacht ) [19] [20] har en befolkning på 24.744 [21](Census 2011) och representerar 25% av of totala Gaeltacht befolkningen.Donegal Gaeltacht geografiskt omfattar ETT område av 1502 km 2 (580 sq mi). Detta motsvarar av 26% of totala landyta Gaeltacht. De tre församlingarna in the Rosses, Gweedore Cloughaneely utgör of viktigaste och av centrum befolkningen in Donegal Gaeltacht. Det finns irländska talare over 17.132, 14.500 in områden our 30-100% av det Talas befolkningen av 2500 och in områden our mindre av det Talas 30%. 2.436 on 2006 fanns det en heltid anställda in kapacitet in Gaeltachtakundföretag Authority in Donegal Gaeltacht. Denna är särskilt populärt region in Ulster dialekt studenter bland; varje on tusentals studenter besöka från området Wales.Donegal Gaeltacht regionerna är som Unik in that accent och är dialekt omisskännligt karaktär Norra. Manga har med Språket likheter skotska, som inte är uppenbara in andra irländska dialekter.

Gweedore in County Donegal is the largest Gaeltacht parish in Ireland, which is home to the regional studios RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta . It has produced well-known traditional musicians, including bands Altan and Clannad, as well as the artist Enya.

Galway Gaeltacht

Of County Galway (Irish: Gaeltacht Galway ) och Galway City (Irish:Gaeltacht Galway City ) Gaeltacht [22] har på en sammanlagd befolkning 48.907 [23] och av representerar 47% of totala befolkning Gaeltacht. Galway Gaeltacht geografiskt omfattar ETT område av 1225 km 2 (473 sq mi). Detta motsvarar av 26% of Gaeltacht totala landyta.De flesta högtalare är Regionen belägna in Connemara. By största bostadsområden och är Spiddal Carraroe.Carraroe 48 km (30 mi) vaster om Galway City, medan Spiddal 19 km (12 mi) vaster om Galway City. [ Behövd stämning ] Det finns 30,978 irländska talare in Gaeltacht, 11.000 irländska högtalare in Gaeltacht Connemara och South Connemara området inklusive deAranöarna sträcker Carna sig från och Annan Gap till 5000-7000 in North Connemara (inklusive gränsområdet med County Mayo) cirka 4000 och som bor irländska talare in our språket Talas områden av 30% av mindre befolkningen.

There is also a third level constituent College of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in a Cheathrú Rua and Carna. The national Irish-language radiostationenRaidió na Gaeltachta is situated in Casla, Foinsenewspaper in Carraroe and the national television station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann. Galway is home to the Irish theater Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe.

Kerry Gaeltacht

The Kerry Gaeltacht (Irish: Gaeltacht [Chontae] Chiarraí ) [24] consists of two areas – the western half of the Gaeltacht Corca Dhuibhne ( Dingle ) and the central and western parts avIveragh Peninsula ( Uibh Ráthach ). The largest settlement in Corca Dhuibhne is Dingle and the largest in the Iveragh Peninsula is Ballinskelligs. Kerry Gaeltacht has a population of 8.729 (6185 Irish speakers) [25] and represents 9% of the total Gaeltacht population. Kerry Gaeltacht encompasses a geographical area of 642 km 2 (248 sq mi). This represented 9% of the total Gaeltacht area. [26]

Mayo Gaeltacht

The Mayo Gaeltacht (Irish: Gaeltacht [Chontae] Mhaigh Eo ) [27] in 2011, has a total population of 10,886 [28] and represents 11.5% of total Gaeltacht befolkningen.Mayo Gaeltacht encompasses a geographical area of 905 km 2(349 sq mi). This represents 19% of total Gaeltacht land area and consists of three different areas – Erris, Achill Island and Toormakeady. Béal an Mhuirthead (Belmullet) is the largest city in the Mayo Gaeltacht and is 72 kilometers (45 mi) from Ballina, 80 kilometers (50 mi) from Castlebar, 110 kilometers (68 mi) from Ireland West Airport Knock. [ Citation needed ] it is 6.667[28] Irish speakers, with 4,000 living in areas where the language is spoken by 30-100% of the population in 2500 and live in areas where it is spoken by less than 30%.

Cork Gaeltacht

The Cork Gaeltacht (Irish: Gaeltacht [Chontae] Chorcaí ) [29] consists of two areas – Muskerry and Cape Clear Island. The Muskerry Gaeltacht has a population of 3,895 people (2,951 Irish speakers) [30] and represents 4% of the total Gaeltacht population. Cork Gaeltacht encompasses a geographical area of 262 km 2 (101 sq mi). This corresponds to 6% of the total Gaeltacht area. Muskerry The largest settlements are the villages of Baile Mhic IRE (Ballymakeera), Baile Bhuirne (Ballyvourney) and Béal Átha an Ghaorthaidh (Ballingeary) .Cill na Martra (Kilnamartyra)

Waterford Gaeltacht

The Waterford Gaeltacht ( Waterford Gaeltacht , Irish: Gaeltacht [County] Waterford ) [31] [32] [33] är tio Kilometer (sex miles) om vaster Dungarvan. Det omfattar församlingarna in gCuanach Ui Rinn (Ring) och The Old People (Old Parish). The Waterford Gaeltacht har på en befolkning personer 1,784 (1,271 irländska högtalare) [34] och av representerar 2% of totala befolkning Gaeltacht. The Waterford Gaeltacht geografiskt omfattar ETT område av 62 km 2 (24 sq mi). Detta motsvarar 1% of totala av område Gaeltacht. [ Behövd stämning ]

All education in Gaeltacht na nDéise performed via an Irish. There are two kindergartens, two primary schools national level, a gymnasium, Meánscoil San Nioclás and Coláiste na Rinne, a private boarding school and summer college.Gaeltacht na nDéise was one of the few Gaeltacht areas where the proportion of daily Irish speakers rose in the latest updated comprehensive linguistinc examination of the Gaeltacht.

Meath Gaeltacht

The Meath Gaeltacht (Irish: Gaeltacht [Chontae] na Mi ) [35] is the smallest Gaeltacht area and consists of the two villages Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib.Navan, 8 km (5 mi) from Baile Ghib, the main urban center in the region, with a population of more than 20,000. The Meath Gaeltacht has a population of 1771 [36] , representing 2% of the total Gaeltacht population.Meath Gaeltacht encompasses a geographical area of 44 km 2 (17 sq mi). This represents a% of the total land area Gaeltacht.

The Meath Gaeltacht has a story quite different than the country’s other Irish speaking regions. The two Gaeltachtaí Baile Ghib and Ráth Cairn is resettlement communities. Rath Cairn Gaeltacht was founded in 1935 when 41 families from Connemara in West Galway resettled on land previously acquired by the Irish Land Commission. Each received 9 hectares (22 acres) of the estate. Baile Ghib (formerly Gibbstown) was determined in the same way in 1937, along with Baile Ailin (formerly Allentown). During the first years a large proportion of the population returned to Galway or emigrated, but enough Irish speakers remained to Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib awarded Gaeltacht status in 1967. The original purpose of spreading the Irish language in the local community met with no success, and the colony must be bilingual. [37]

Northern Ireland

See also: Irish division

There were areas in Northern Ireland which would have qualified as Gaeltacht districts (in four of its six municipalities) at the time of partition in 1921, but the government in Northern Ireland passed no legislation to ensure this. The language was banned in state schools within a decade of the partition, and public signs in Irish were effectively banned under laws that Northern Ireland Assembly, which stated that only English could be used. [Citation needed ]

In 2001, however, ratified the British Government European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Irish (Northern Ireland) stated under Part III of the Charter, which provides a status comparable to the Welsh language or Scottish. This included the company in relation to education, the translation of the Constitution, dealing with the authorities, the use of placenta, access to the media, support for cultural activities and other issues. Compliance with the State’s obligations are assessed regularly by an expert committee of the Council of Europe. [38]


The Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast ( Chart Cheathrú Ghaeltachta ) is an area of Belfast where the Irish language is actively promoted. It is generally along the Falls Road and has Gaelscoileanna (Irish-medium primary schools), a Gaelcholáiste (Irish medium school) and Naíonraí (kindergartens), along with a restaurant and a body in which Irish is used and Culturlann , a cultural center that also houses Raidió Fáilte ( Northern Ireland’s only full-time Irish-language broadcast station). This has increased from Shaws Road Gaeltacht in urban southwest of Belfast. St. Mary’s University Belfast, also located on the Falls Road, is the only teaching college with a dedicated Irish Medium Unit. It is also home to a t-Aisionad (resource) that translates literature in Irish and publish it for use in schools and other organizations in Ireland.

County Londonderry

An area in the south of the county Derry centered on Slaghtneill ( Sleacht Neill ) and Carntogher ( Carn Tóchair ), who had gone from being 50% Irish speaking in 1901 to have only a few speakers at the end of the century has seen a language revival since the establishment of a naíscoil 1993, and a Gaelscoil in 1994. in 2008, two local organizations launched a “strategy for the rebirth of the Gaeltacht,” based on Irish medium primary and secondary schools. Speaking at the launch, Éamon Ó CUÍV, Republic Minister for the Gaeltacht, said the area was “an example for other areas throughout Ireland working to reestablish Irish as a community language.” [39]



Dublin and its suburbs reported to be the site of the largest number of daily Irish speakers, with 14.229 people speak Irish daily, which represents 18 percent of all daily speakers. [40] In a survey of a small sample of adults who grew up in Dublin and had completed full-time study, 54% of respondents reported no fluency in Irish, from being able to make small talk to complete fluency. Only 19% of Irish speakers spoke three or more times per week, with numerous (43%) speak Irish less than once every two weeks. [41]

It was reported by Nuacht TG4 January 13, 2009 as a group in the Dublin suburb of Ballymun, in conjunction with the local branch of Glor na Gaelhad received planning permission to build 38 homes for an Irish-speaking community, or “urban Gaeltacht”. [ Citation needed ] This project was based on the significant local support for language, because there are 4 Gaelscoileanna and Naíonra in (nursery) in the area. There have been no reports of further progress with this project.

West Clare

Parts of County Clare recognized as Gaeltacht areas following the recommendations of Coimisiún na Gaeltachta 1925. This was adopted by law under the Gaeltacht (Housing) appears to 1929-2001. There were Irish speakers iKilmihil west of Ennis, Kilrush, Doonbeg, Doolin, Ennistimon, Carrigaholt, Lisdoonvarna and Ballyvaughan. [42]

In West Clare called a group Coiste Forbartha Gaeltachta Chontae a Chlair (Clare Gaeltacht Development Committee) seeks to have the area recognized once more as a Gaeltacht. It has been argued that native speakers received grants under Scéim Labhairt na Gaeilge, a system first established by the state in 1933 to promote the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht regions, still live in the county and speak the language daily. It has also been argued that it is up to 170 people in County Clare who daily speak Irish. [43] The committee aims to develop local networks among Irish speakers in County Clare and elsewhere until recognition is obtained. [44]

“In Ard a Tráthnóna Siar” [2012-2015] is a Kilmihil-based Irish language magazine devoted to the restoration of traditional Irish in West Clare.

North America

The independent North American Gaeltacht is an area near Erinsville, Ontario, Canada. It has no permanent residents but serves as a resource center for Irish speakers throughout North America. It was inaugurated in 2007. [45]

colleges Irish

Irish colleges are residential Irish language summer courses that give students the opportunity to be completely immersed in the language, usually for periods of three weeks during the summer months. During these courses students attend classes and participate in a variety of activities, games, music, art and sports.

As with conventional schools, Ministry of Education sets out the requirements for class sizes and qualifications required of teachers. Some courses are college-based and provide for the housing with host families in Gaeltacht areas such as Ros Muc in Galway and Ráth Cairn in County Meath, Teileann and Rann na Feirste in County Donegal receives instructions from abean An Ti , or Irish-speaking landlady. [46 ]

See also

  • Irish
  • ulster Irish
  • Connacht Irish
  • Munster Irish
  • Údarás na Gaeltachta – Regional government agency responsible for the development of the Gaeltacht regions.
  • Gaeltarra Ireland – ersätts 1980 av Údarás na Gaeltachta
  • Gàidhealtachd – equivalent region for Scottish
  • Y Fro Gymraeg – the corresponding region for Welsh


  1. Jump up ^ Webster’s Dictionary – the definition of the Gaeltacht
  2. Jump up ^ Maguire, Peter A. (Fall 2002). “Language and Landscape in the Connemara Gaeltacht.” Journal of Modern literature. 26 (1) :. 99-107 doi: 10.2979 / JML.2002.26.1.99.
  3. Jump up ^ Mac Donnacha, Joe, “The death of a language,” Dublin Review of Books , Issue 58, June 16, 2014: http: //
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab RTÉ News report Friday, May 29, 2015
  5. Hoppa upp ^ UPDATE ON COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC STUDY Use of Irish in the Gaeltacht: 2006-2011
  6. Jump up ^ Walshe, John (11 June 2005). “Number Gaeltacht schools using Irish” steep decline “.” Irish Independent.
  7. Jump up ^ “Report of the Gaeltacht Commission” (PDF). 2002. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  8. Jump up ^
  9. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 9 – Irish Language”. CSO. In 2007.
  10. Jump up ^ “flawed Gaeltacht Bill in need of brave audit”. The Irish Times. July 3, 2012.
  11. Hoppa upp ^ From hÉallaithe, Denis (juli 2012). “Borders Gaeltacht under New Bill”. Live.
  12. Hoppa upp ^ “Annual Report 2012 Annual Report” (PDF). En Language Commissioner. 2012.
  13. Hoppa upp ^ “Update en Linguistic Study of the Use of Irish in the Gaeltacht: 2006-2011” (PDF) .Údarás Gaeltacht. 2015.
  14. Jump up ^ Irish Statute Book
  15. Jump up ^ Census 2006 Principal Demographic Results; table 33
  16. Jump up ^ Map of An Ghaeltacht , Údarás na Gaeltachta
  17. Jump up ^ Kearns, Kevin C. “resuscitation of the Irish Gaeltacht” (PDF).pp. 88-89.
  18. Jump up ^ For a description of this in a local area and the measures taken to counter it, .
  19. Jump up ^
  20. Jump up ^
  21. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht area of Donegal”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  22. Jump up ^
  23. Jump up ^ “Galway Gaeltacht area”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  24. Jump up ^
  25. Jump up ^ “Kerry Gaeltacht area”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  26. Jump up ^
  27. Jump up ^
  28. ^ Jump up to: ab “Mayo Gaeltacht area”. Central Bureau of Statistics.2011.
  29. Jump up ^
  30. Jump up ^ “Cork Gaeltacht area”. Central Bureau of Statistics. 2011.
  31. Jump up ^
  32. Jump up ^
  33. Jump up ^
  34. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht area of Waterford.” Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  35. Jump up ^
  36. Jump up ^ “Meath Gaeltacht area”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  37. Jump up ^ Stenson, Nancy (spring 1986). “Language Report: Rath Cairn, the youngest Gaeltacht”. Éire-Ireland: 107-118.
  38. Jump up ^ Statute of the Council Monitoring Report 2010
  39. Jump up ^ Irish-medium Education backbone of the strategy for the new Gaeltacht in south Derry, Iontaobhas na Gaelscolaíochta, January 2008. Accessed 5 April 2011
  40. Jump up ^ “Profile 9 What We Know – Education, skills and Irish”. CSO.22 November 2012.
  41. Jump up ^ Carty, Nicola. “The first official language? Status of Irish in Dublin “(PDF).
  42. Hoppa upp ^ Se dialekterna in County Clare , del 1 och del 2, Talk en Clare , Part en och Part 2, neighbors Listen And Other Songs som en Clare County och Book Stephen O Ealaoire . (ISBN 978-0-906426-07-4).
  43. Jump up ^ “public meeting at Clare Gaeltacht Revival”. 27 January 2012.
  44. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht peer pressure politicians”. Clare Champion.February 16, 2012.
  45. Jump up ^ “Gaeltacht Cheanada – Canada’s Gaeltacht”. Fora na Gaeilge. 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  46. Hoppa upp ^ “Son Bhricne Magee College celebrates 60 years”. Other mood. 2015. Hämtad 12 Augusti skrevs of 2015.

Aran Islands

In Aranöarna (Irish: Aran Islands -pronunciation [əlʲɑːnʲ ɑːɾˠənˠ]) eller of Arans ( the hÁrainneacha – [nˠə hɑːɾˠənʲəxə]) är en av tre OAR Grupp som ligger vid mynningen av Galway Bay, västkusten av på Irland. By utgörbarony av Aran in County Galway, Irland.

From west to east the islands are: Inishmore ( Árainn Mhor / Inis Mór [1] – [ɑːɾˠənʲ woːɾˠ] or [ɪnʲɪʃ mˠoːɾˠ]), the largest, Inishmaan ( Inis Meain / Inis Meadhóin – [ɪnʲɪʃ mʲɑːnʲ]), the second largest; and Inisheer ( Inis Thiar / Inis Oirr / Inis Oirthir – [ɪnʲɪʃ hiəɾˠ / iːɾʲ / ɛɾʲhɪɾʲ]), the smallest.

The 1200 inhabitants speak mainly Irish, the language used in local placenames. Most islanders are also fluent in English.

Location and access

Access to the bay between the Aran Islands and the mainland are as follows:

  • North Sound / An Sunda ó Thuaidh (more precisely Bealach Locha Lurgan ) lies between Inishmore and Letter Mullen, County Galway.
  • Gregory Sound / Healthy Ghríoghóra (formerly known as Bealach na h-Aite ) is between Inishmore and Inishmaan.
  • Foul Audio / A sound Salach (formerly known as Bealach na Fearbhaighe ) is between Inishmaan and Inisheer.
  • South Sound / A Healthy ó DHEAS (formerly known as Bealach na Fínnise ) is between Inisheer and County Clare.
  • Ferry to all three islands from Rossaveal in Co. Galway (year round) and Doolin in Co. Clare (seasonal). Flights by Aer Aran Islands also works from inverin.


The islands’ geology is primarily karst limestone, related to the Burren in County Clare (to the east), not granites of Connemara in the north. This is most evident in the construction of walls around the fields.

The limestone dates from Viséan Stage (Lower Carboniferous period), formed as sediments in a tropical sea about 350 million years ago, and pressed into horizontal layers of fossil corals, crinoids, sea urchins and ammonites. Icing for Namurian phase facilitated greater denudation. The result is that the Aran islands is one of the best examples of a karst Glacio- world. The effects of the last ice age (the Midlandian) is the most common, with the islands were invaded by ice during this glaciation. The effects of tidigareKarstification (solutional erosion) have been eliminated by the last ice age. So any karstification now seen dates from about 11,000 years ago and the island of karst is why recently.

Solutional processes have increased and deepened grykes of limestone pavement. Preexisting lines of weakness in the rock (vertical joints) contributes to the formation of extensive cracks separated by clints (flat sidewalk tiles). Berg karstification facilitate the formation of sub-terrainean drainage.

Large boulders of up to 25 meters (80 feet) above sea level in parts of the west facing cliffs in some cases, an extreme form of storm beach, throw the giant waves that occur on average once a century, but more are erratic. [2]

Climate and agriculture

Islands have an unusually temperate climate. Average air temperatures range from 15 ° C in July to 6 ° C in January. Soil temperature usually does not fall below 6 ° C (winter of 2010 registered a longer period of snow, the first in living memory). As the grass grows when the temperature rises above 6 ° C, this means that the island (which is adjacent Burren) has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland or the United Kingdom, [ citation needed ] and supports diverse and rich plant growth. Late May is the sunniest time [3] , and also probably the best time to see the flowers, gentian and avens top (but orchids bloom later).

Flora and fauna

Islands supports arctic, Mediterranean and alpine plants side by side, because of the unusual environment. Like the Burren, the Aran Islands are known for their outstanding collection of plants and animals. [4]

The grikes (cracks) to give damp protection, thus supporting a wide variety of plants, including rice. Where the surface of the pavement split into gravel, many of the hardier arctic or alpine plants can be found. But when the limestone pavement is covered with a thin layer of soil, are patches of grass seen, interspersed with plants such as gentian and orchids.

Notes insects currently include butterfly Fritillary ( Boloria euphrosyne ), Brown Hairstreak ( Thecla betulae ), Marsh Fritillary ( Euphydryas aurinia ) and white wood ( forest suite wing ); moths, the Burren Green ( torvfly ), Irish ANNULET ( Odontognophos dumetata ) and Transparent Burnet ( Zygaena purple formalized ); and hoverfly Kronblom fly .

Traditional life and Irish

On the cliffs, ancient castles as Dun Aonghasa (Dun Aengus) on the Inishmor and Dun Chonchúir (Fort Conchobar) of Inishmaan are some of the oldest archaeological sites in Ireland. A tip of the old stone walls (1,600 km or 1,000 mi in all) encloses all three islands that contain local livestock.Also found are early clocháns (dry-stone beehive huts from the early Christian period) .Enda Aran founded the first true Irish monastery near Killeany (Cill Einne or church only). Over time, there were a dozen monasteries in Inishmor alone. Many Irish saints had no connection with the Aran: St. Brendan blessed for his journey; Jarlath of Tuam, Finnian of Clonard, and St. Columba called the “Sun of the West”.

Islands first populated in larger numbers probably at the time of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in the middle of the 17th century, when the Catholic population of Ireland had the choice to go “to hell ellerConnacht”.Many fled to the many islands off the west coast of Ireland, where they adapted to the rough weather conditions, developing a survival system complete self-sufficiency. Their methods included mixing layer of sand and seaweed on top of the rocks to create fertile soil, a technique used to grow potatoes and other vegetables. [5] The same forceps method also pasture grass in the stone wall enclosures for cattle and sheep, which in turn provided wool and yarn for making hand-woven pants, skirts and jackets, knitted sweaters, scarves, hats and hide shoes. The islanders also designed unique boats for fishing, build their thatched cottages from materials available or trade with the mainland.

Aran Islands is an official Gaeltacht, giving full official status for the Irish as the medium of all official services, including education. An unusually high proportion of Irish language monolingualism were among the leading native to the end of the 20th century, largely because of the insulating nature of traditional professions practiced and the natural isolation of the islands generally from Ireland mainland over the course of the islands’ history.Young Islanders can take the leaving examination at 18 in the islands and most go to third level education [ citation needed ] . Many blame the decline of the Irish -speaking among young members of the island community of English-language television, has since the 1960s; In addition, many younger islanders leave for the mainland when they matured.


Year round passenger ferry present. Aran Island Ferries [6] operate a year round service from Rossaveal in County Galway, connected by a bus from Galway city. A heavy load service operates several times a week from Galway Harbour, and operated by Lasta Mara. [7]

Aer Aran Islands operate air services from all three islands to inverin who have shuttle buses from the city of Galway. See Inishmore airport.

Ferries are also available to the Aran Islands from Doolin in County Clare (Seasonal April 1 to October 31).

A road network available on each of the islands and a speed limit of 50 km / h apply. Cars on the islands are exempt from the roadworthiness test. Most visitors to the island rent bikes, because it is the most practical way to see the islands.


Visitors and attractions

Visitors come in large numbers, especially in summer. There are several Bronze Age and Iron Age forts and attractions on the islands:

  • Dun Aengus ( Dun Aonghasa , Aran Islands Dialect: Dūn aŋgəs ) is a Bronze Age and Iron Age fort is situated on the edge of a cliff at an altitude of 100 meters (330 feet) with views of the Atlantic Ocean on Inishmore. It consists of a series of concentric circular walls, the inner Citadel-enclosing an area approximately 50 meters in diameter by 4 m thick walls of stone. [8]
  • Black Fort ( Dún Duchathair )
  • O’Brien Castle on Inis Oirr in the Aran Islands was built in the 14th century. The castle was taken from O’Brien of the O’Flaherty clan of Connemara 1582nd
  • Team Pull Bheanáin considered the smallest church in the world [ citation needed ] and is known for its orientation: north-south rather than east-west.
  • Team a Cheathrair Alainn is a holy well which inspired JM Synge playThe Well of the Saints .


local Artists

One of the major figures in the Irish Renaissance, Liam O’Flaherty, born in Gort na gCapall, Inishmore, 28 August 1896. Máirtín Ó Díreáin, one of the most prominent poets in Irish, was also of Inishmore. Since 2000, Áras Eanna Arts Centre, Inisheer welcomed artists in Residence both local and international live and work on the inspiring Aran Islands in periods of one month.

Visiting artists

Islands have had an influence on world literature and art is in proportion to their size. The unusual cultural and natural history of the islands has made them the subject of a visit by a variety of writers and travelers who recorded their experiences. Beginning around the end of the 19th century, many Irish writers traveled to the Aran Islands, Lady Gregory, for example, came to Aran in the late nineteenth century to learn Irish. In the early 20th century and throughout his life, one of Ireland’s leading artists, Seán Keating, spent time each year on the islands translate to canvas all the characteristics that make the inhabitants of these Atlantic Islands so unusual and in many respects remarkable. Elizabeth Rivers moved from London and lived in Aran, where she created two books of art and self visited by artists like Basil Rakoczi.

Many wrote about his experiences in a personal vein, or casting them as narratives about finding, or fail to find some important aspect of Irish culture that had lost the more metropolitan areas in Ireland. One of the other types of visitors were those who tried to collect and catalog the stories and the folklore of the island, treating it as a kind of social “time capsule” of an earlier stage of Irish culture. Visitors of this kind differed in their desire to integrate with the island’s culture, and most were happy to be possible observers. The culmination of this kind of interact with the island may well be Robert J. Flaherty’s classic 1934 documentary Man of Aran .

One might consider John Millington Synge’s The Aran Islands as a work that straddles the first two modes, it is both a personal account and also an attempt to preserve information about the performance (or a-) literate Aran culture in literary form. The motivation of these visitors exemplified by WB Yeats’ advice to Synge: “. Go to the Aran Islands, and find a life that has never been expressed in the literature ” [9]

In the second half of the twentieth century, until perhaps the early 1970s, sees a third type of visitors to the islands. These visitors came not necessarily because of the unique “Irish” nature of the island community, but simply because that accidents of geography and history helped to produce a society that someone found intriguing or even beguiling and that they wanted to participate in directly. At no time was there a single “Aran” culture: a description is not complete and may be said to apply completely only partsof the island at certain points in time. But visitors who came and stayed mainly attracted aspects of Aran culture such as:

  1. Isolated from traditional print and electronic media, and thus depends mainly on the local oral tradition for both entertainment and news.
  2. Rarely visited or understood by outsiders.
  3. Strongly influenced in its traditions and attitudes of unusually wild weather Galway Bay.
  4. In many parts characterized by subsistence, or nearly self-sufficient, agriculture and fisheries.
  5. Adapt to the absence of luxuries that many parts of the Western world had for decades and in some cases, centuries.

For these reasons, the Aran Islands were “decoupled” from the cultural development which was at the same time radically changing other parts of Ireland and western Europe. Although visitors of this third type understood that the culture they encountered was intimately connected with that of Ireland, they were not particularly inclined to interpret their experience of “Irishness”. Instead, they looked directly at how their time on the islands put them in contact with more general truths about life and human relationships, and they often took pains to live “as an Islander,” avoids help from friends and family at home. In fact, because of the difficult conditions they found dangerous weather, scarce food, they sometimes had little time to explore the culture of the more independent way of previous visitors. Their writings are often of a more personal nature, concerned with understanding the author’s self as much as the culture around him.

This third way of being in Aran died out in the late 1970s due in part to the increased tourist traffic and partly on technical improvements made on the island, which relegated the above aspects to the story. A literary product of this third type of visitor is a Aran keening , Andrew McNeillie, who spent a year at the Aran 1968. Another, Pádraig Ó Síocháin a Dublin writer and lawyer, learn to speak Gaelic to fluency by an islander became inextricably linked to the Aran handknitters and their Aran Sweaters, comprehensively promote their popularity and sales around the world for almost forty years.

A fourth type of visitors to the islands, still prominent today, for spiritual reasons often linked to an appreciation for Celtic Christianity or more modern New Age beliefs, the former of which finds places and landscapes of importance on the islands. Finally, there are many thousands of visitors who come largely touristic reasons: to see the ruins, hear Irish spoken (and Irish music is played) in a few pubs on the island, and to experience the often impressive geology rocks. Tourists today far more than the visitors of four types discussed above. Tourists and visitors on the fourth kind, however, underrepresented as creators of literature or art in direct connection to the island; There are some common “Travel” to note, perhaps because of the small size of the islands, and there are no personal accounts written about Aran dealing mainly with spirituality. Tim Robinson’s Stones of Aran: Pilgrims (1986) and the Stones of Aran: Labyrinth (1995), and his accompanying detailed map of the islands, is another resource on the Aran Islands. Robinson’s work is an exhaustive, but not exhausting, survey of the Aran geography and its impact on Aran culture from the Iron Age until recent times. Robinson has also written and continues to write, Connemara region facing the Aran Islands in Galway mainland.

Island crafts

Aran Island sweater

Main article: Aran sweater

The islands are home to the Aran sweater, who won the world appeal in the 20th century. [10]

Many of the shirts sold on the islands made anywhere else in Ireland. [11]

Aran Currach

The (modern) Aran version of the lightweight boat called Currach (Aran Islands Dialect: kørəx, korəx ) is made of canvas stretched over a sparse skeleton of thin strips, then covered with tar. It is designed to withstand the extremely rough seas typical of the islands that face the open Atlantic. In fact it is said that the Aran fishermen would not learn to swim, because they certainly would not survive any sea that flooded a Currach and so it would be better to drown quickly. Despite the undeniable strength of these boats, they are very vulnerable to puncture.

The islanders were always completely self-sufficient. In calmer weather would Currachs go out and spend the night fishing under the Cliffs of Moher, returning after dawn full of fish. Today only the coastal tend lobster pots.More modern versions are still built for racing on the many local regattas, or “Cruinnithe” up and down the west coast of Ireland during the summer months.

Conventional shoes can not be worn, so fishermen use soft calf-skin moccasins called pampooties , made of goatskin or cowhide.


Some of the limestone sea cliffs has attracted interest from rock-climbers. [Citation needed ]

In popular culture

  • John Millington Synge (JM Synge) wrote a book length journal, The Aran Islands , which was completed in 1901 and published in in 1907.
  • Aran Islands mentioned in James Joyce’s short story “The Dead” (1914), a place where the native Irish is spoken.
  • 1934 documentary Man of Aran .
  • Gilbert Bécaud’s two-act opera L’Opéra d’Aran (1962) presents a plot that takes place on the Aran Islands.
  • Seamus Heaney’s first collection of poems, Death of a Natura (1966), contains a poem entitled “Lovers on Aran”.
  • 1984 hit song “The Riddle” by Nik Kershaw contains the line “near a tree by a river there is a hole in the ground where an old man of Aran goes around and around.”
  • Aran Islands in the television comedy Father Ted 1995-1998, set on the fictional Craggy Island, with real local attractions such as the shipwreck of the steam trawler Plassey in the opening sequence. The island of Inishmore hosting a Friends of Ted festival in 2007.
  • 1996 games, the cripple of Inishmaan by Martin McDonagh, located on the Aran Islands. The play is the first in the Aran Islands Trilogy, followed in 2001 by the Lieutenant of Inishmore , unpublished and The Banshees of Inisheer .
  • 1997 romantic comedy matchmaker with Janeane Garofalo partially set to the Aran Islands.
  • 2000 song “El Pozo de Aran” of Spanish Celtic musician Carlos Núñez, with vocals by Portuguese singer Anabela, is about a mother’s pilgrimage to a holy well on the islands to heal her sickly children.
  • The songs from the album “Man of Aran” of the group British Sea Power all relate to the Aran Islands

See also

  • Inis Beag: a fictitious name for Inis Oirr
  • Tim Robinson


  1. Jump up ^ The official Irish name for the big island is Árainn But the British Ordnance Survey, when surveying the landscape in western Ireland, invented the name Inishmore the largest island presumably to avoid confusion with Aran Island in County Donegal. Inis Mór , the usually Gaelicised the form of this new name, has won wide acceptance.
  2. Jump up ^ Brown, Paul (August 18, 2004). “Britain is battered by waves hurl giant rocks”. The Guardian. London.
  3. Jump up ^ Met Éireann – The Irish weather service Online
  4. Jump up ^ Webb, DA (1961 to 1963). “Remarkable Plants of the Burren: A catalog raisonné”. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, geological and chemistry. Royal Irish Academy. 62 : 117-34.ISSN 0035-8983. JSTOR 20494847 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
  5. Jump up ^ Borgese, Elisabeth Mann. Seafarm: the history of aquaculture . New York: Harry N. Adams, Inc., p. 105.
  6. Jump up ^ Aran Island Ferries
  7. Jump up ^ Lasta Mara
  8. Jump up ^ Official Dun Aonghasa website
  9. Hoppa upp^ John Millington Synge (1906). Aranöarna . [Sl]: Maunsel & Roberts.
  10. Jump up ^ a trip in Ireland Literary Revival R. Todd Felton, page 54
  11. Jump up ^ Morris, Johnny (18 March 2006). “Grail Trail”. London: The Telegraph .Hämtad February 24, 2007.

County Galway

County Galway (Irish: Contae na Gaillimhe ) is a municipality in Ireland. In the west of Ireland, is part of the province of Connacht, and is named after the city of Galway. There are flerairländska speaking areas in the western part of the county. The population of the county is 258,552 according to the 2016 census. [1] Although it is named after the city of Galway, another authority governing this area. The county real administered by Galway County Council.


The first inhabitants of the Galway area came over 7000 years ago. Shell middens indicates that there are people as early as 5000 BC.

The county originally comprised several kingdoms and territories which predate the formation of the county. These kingdoms included Aidhne, Uí Maine, Maigh Seola, Conmhaícne Mara, Soghain and Máenmaige. County Galway became an official body around 1569 AD. In modern times, a number of inhabited islands is also administered by the county; these include Oileain Arann (Aran Islands) and Inis Bó Fine (Inishbofin).

With the arrival of Christianity many monasteries were built in the county.Kloster kept written records of events in the area and its folk.Dessa was followed by a number of legislators writings, genealogy, annals and various accounts. Extant manuscript containing references to Galway include:

  • Cinedach Crichaireacht nduchasa Muintiri Murchad
  • Annals of Lough Cé
  • Annals of Connacht
  • Triallam around the Fodla
  • Book Adam From Keenan
  • Ua book Maine
  • Corporation Book of Galway
  • The book Burkes
  • Annals of Four Masters
  • The book nGenealach
  • Cuimre the nGenealach
  • Dödsruna book Franciscan monastery in Galway
  • Annals of the Poor Clares
  • Dominikanska Annal of Athenry
  • Ogygia [ citation needed ]
  • West or Iar-Connacht
  • The Lynch Manuscript


Almost 20% of the population of the county lives in Galway Gaeltacht (Gaelic-speaking areas). County Galway is home to the largest Gaeltacht Irish speaking region in Ireland. There are over 48,907 people living in this area that stretches from Galway west through Connemara. The region consists of the following Irish-speaking areas, Galway City Gaeltacht, Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige, Thea Conamara, Aran Islands and Duiche Sheoigheach.

All schools in the Gaeltacht Irish use for teaching. There is also a third level constituent College of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in Carraroe and Carna. Spiddal is the largest city in the region. Galway is also home to Ireland only Irish-language theater Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe.There is a strong Irish-language media presence in this area, which boasts the radio station Raidió na Gaeltachta ochFoinse newspaper in Carraroe and the national television station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann. The Aran Islands are also part of Galway Gaeltacht.

There are about 30,000 to 40,000 Irish speakers in County Galway. According to the census of 2011, Galway City and County Gaeltacht has a population of 48,907, of which 30,978 say they can speak Irish, the 23,788 classified as native Irish speakers while 7190 speak Irish daily just in the classroom. There are 3006 involved the ten Gaelscoil (Irish language primary school) and three Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary schools) outside the Galway Gaeltacht. [2] According to the Irish census of 2006, there are 10,788 in the county who identify themselves as daily Irish speakers outside the education system.

Local governments and politics

Prior to adoption of the Local Government Act 2001, the county was a whole despite the presence of two local authorities. [ Citation needed ] Since then, the administrative reorganization reduced geographic scope of the county of the extent of the area covered by Galway City Council. Today is confined to the area covered by the geographic scope of the County Galway County Council.Each municipality is ranked as the first level local administrative units NUTS 3 western region of Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 units in Ireland.The mission Galway County Council includes some suburbs of the city is not within the remit of Galway City Council. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing.

The county is part of the North West constituency for the purpose of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Galway East Galway West and Roscommon Galway.Together returned 11 deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.


A view of the karst landscape on Inishmore, Dun Aengus, an ancient stone fort.

County Galway is home to the Na Beanna beola (Twelve Bens) mountain range, Na Sléibhte Mhám Toirc (the Maum Turk Mountains), and the low mountains of Sliabh Echtghe (Slieve Aughty). The highest point in the county is one of the Twelve Bens, Benbaun, at the 729th


County Galway is partly home to a number of Ireland’s largest lakes including Lough Corrib (the largest lake in Ireland), Lough Derg and Lough Mask. The county is also home to a large number of smaller lakes, many of which are in the Connemara region. These include Lough Anaserd, Ardderry Lough, Aughrusbeg Lough, Ballycuirke Lough, Ballynahinch Lake, Lough Bofin, Lough Cutra, Derryclare Lough, Lough Fee, Glendollagh Lough, Lough Glenicmurrin, Lough Inagh, Kylemore Lough, Lettercraffroe Lough, Maumeen Lough, Lough Nafooey, Lough Rea, Ross Lake and Lough Shin Dilla.


The location of County Galway, which lies on the west coast of Ireland, makes it possible to directly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Extreme temperatures are rare and short-lived, but inland areas, especially east of the Corrib, boasts some of the highest recorded temperatures in the summer on the island of Ireland (sometimes more than 30 ° C); if these temperatures takes place only when the soil warms east winds sweep the area; opposite effect may occur in winter. But overall, Galway is mainly influenced by the Atlantic air currents that cause heavy precipitation in the fleeting sunshine.Rainfall occurs in each month of the year, though late autumn and winter months can be particularly wet as Atlantic cyclone activity increases and passes over and around the area, and that is why Galway tend to bear the brunt of the severe storms that can occur between August and March. The county, on average receives about 1,300 mm of rain per year, although some areas along the west coast of the county can get up to 1900mm and beyond.Extreme weather such as snowstorms, thunderstorms, flash floods and hail, but rare, and occurs especially when air masses of continental origin undercut by more humid and unstable Atlantic flows.

Flora and fauna

One of the least densely populated counties, County Galway is home to a variety of animals. The region’s biological diversity represented the best of Connemara, situated in the western part of the county.

The largest settlements in County Galway (2011 Census)

  1. Galway , 76.778
  2. Tuam, 8242
  3. Ballinasloe , 6659
  4. Loughrea , 5062
  5. Oranmore , 4799


See also: Sports in Galway

Gaelic games are the most popular sport in the county. Galway had the traditional areas where Gaelic football and hurling are played. For example, in southern and eastern County Galway, in places like Portumna, Gort, Clarinbridge and Athenry, hurling is the dominant sport with successful teams at county and national level. Most of the rest of the county is considered footballing territory, with most of the county’s players are from Tuam, Oughterard or parts of Galway city.

Galway United FC compete in SSE Aitricity League of Ireland and plays home games at Eamonn Deacy Park.

Connacht Rugby competes in Pro12 is based in Galway city. The two most important amateur rugby clubs in the county Galway Corinthians RFC and Galwegians RFC competing in the All-Ireland League.

Towns and Villages

  • It ävenAhascragh
  • Ardrahan
  • athenry
  • Aughrim
  • Ballinasloe
  • Ballinderreen
  • Ballyconneely
  • Ballygar
  • Ballymacward
  • Ballymoe
  • Ballynahinch
  • Barna
  • Bealadangan
  • Belclare
  • Bullaun
  • camus
  • Carna
  • Carnmore
  • Carraroe
  • Casla
  • Castleblakeney
  • Castlegar
  • Galway
  • Clarin
  • Cleggan
  • clifden
  • Clonbur
  • Corofin
  • Corrandulla
  • Corr na Mona
  • Craughwell
  • Dunmore
  • Eyrecourt
  • sly
  • Glenmddy
  • Gort
  • Headford
  • Hollygrove
  • Inverin
  • Kilcolgan
  • Kilconly
  • Kilconnell
  • Kilkerrin
  • Kilkieran
  • Killimor
  • Kilronan
  • Marystown
  • Kinvara
  • Knocknacarra
  • Laurencetown
  • Leenaun
  • Lettercallow
  • Letter
  • Letter
  • Loughrea
  • Maam Cross
  • Maum
  • Menlough
  • Milltown
  • Monivea
  • Mountbellew
  • Moycullen
  • Muckanaghederdauhaulia
  • maree
  • Newbridge
  • New Inn
  • Oranmore
  • oughterard
  • Peterswell
  • Portumna
  • Recess
  • Rosmuck
  • Rossaveal
  • roundstone
  • Roscam
  • Skehana
  • Spiddal
  • Tully
  • Tully Cross
  • tuam
  • Turloughmore
  • Williams
  • Woodford
  • Connacht Irish
  • Galway East (Dáil Éireann constituency)
  • Galway West (Dáil Éireann constituency)
  • List of monasteries house in Ireland (County Galway)
  • Joyce Country
  • Lord Lieutenant of Galway
  • High Sheriff of County Galway
  • High Sheriff of Galway Town
  • Western Railway Corridor
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ 2006 Census – Population in each Province, County and City
  2. Hoppa upp ^ “Irish Medium Education in Ireland in Pale, 2010-2011” (PDF) (på iriska). 2011. Hämtat 9 januari 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  4. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. (2010-09-27). Retrieved on 23/07/2013.
  7. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  8. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  • Historia Galway , James Hardiman , 1820
  • Education in the Diocese of Kilmachduagh in the nineteenth century , Sr.Mary de Lourdes Fahy, Convent of Mercy, Gort, 1972
  • Anglo Normans and their castle in County Galway , Patrick Holland, pp 1-26 in. Galway: History and Society , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0
  • From the Warlords to landlords: political and social change in Galway 1540-1640 , Bernadette Cunningham, pages 97-130 in. Galway: History and Society , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0
  • The policy of “Protestant ascendency”: County Galway 1650-1832 , James Kelly, in Galway: History and Society , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0
  • Galway tribes Landowners and Gentry , Patrick Melville, pp 319-370, in.Galway: History and Society , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0
  • Galway Irish Manuscripts Scribes 1700-1900 , William Mahon, pp 623-250, in. Galway: Historia och Samhälle , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0
  • Early Eccleiastical settlement names in County Galway , Dónall Mac Giolla Easpaig, pp 795-816, in. Galway: History and Society , 1996. ISBN 0-906602-75-0

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