CategoryCounty Dublin

Malahide Castle

Malahide Castle (Irish: Caislean Mhullach IDE ), part of which dates from the 12th century, with over 260 acres (1.1 km 2 ) for the remaining property of the park (the Malahide Demesne Regional Park), near the village of Malahide, nine miles ( 14 km) north of Dublin in Ireland.

The farm began in 1185, when Richard Talbot, a knight who accompanied Henry II to Ireland in 1174, was granted the “lands and harbor of Malahide.”The oldest parts of the castle dates back to the 12th century, it was home to the Talbot family for 791 years, from 1185 to 1976, the only exception being the period 1649-60, when Oliver Cromwell granted it to Miles Corbet efterCromwellian conquest of Ireland; Corbet was hanged after the demise of Cromwell, and the castle was restored to Talbots. The building was especially magnified in the reign of Edward IV, and the towers added in the 1765th

The farm survived such losses as the Battle of the Boyne, when the fourteen members of the owner family sat down to breakfast in the Great Hall, and all were dead by evening, and criminal laws, despite the fact that the family remained Catholic until 1774th

In the 1920s, private papers of James Boswell discovered in the castle, and sold to American collector Ralph H. Isham of Boswell’s great-great-grandson of Lord Talbot de Malahide.

Malahide Castle and Demesne eventually inherited by the 7th Baron Talbot and his death in 1973, sent to his sister, Rose. In 1975, Rose sold the castle to the Irish state, partly to fund the inheritance tax. Many of the contents, especially the furniture, the castle had been sold in advance leads to considerable public controversy, but private and government parties could get some.

frequented

The castle, together with its subsidiaries attractions, was for many years worked as a tourist attraction of tourism Dublin, working with Fingal County Council, which owns the whole demesne. Operating partner is now Shannon Heritage, which in turn designated subsidiary partners including Avoca Handweavers.

The main castle can be visited for a fee on a guided-tour-only basis.Moreover, it is possible to rent the famous Gothic Great Hall for private banquets. The castle has an eating establishment, and next door is a craft shop. The castle’s most famous room is the Oak Room, and Great Hall, showing the Talbot family history.

Separately, you can visit:

  • The Tadpolt Botanic Gardens , located behind the castle, consisting of several hectares of plants and lawns, a walled garden of 1.6 hectares and seven greenhouses, including a Victorian era conservatory. Many plants from the southern hemisphere, particularly Chile and Australia, are presented. The gardens demonstrate plant collecting passion 7 Lord Talbot de Malahide in the mid 20s.

The Demense is one of the few surviving examples of 18th century landscaped parks, and has broad lawns surrounded by a protective belt of trees. It can be visited freely, with a number of entrances and parking areas.In addition to forest walks and one labeled “fitness trail”, the park features active use sports fields, including a cricket pitch and several football fields, a 9-hole par-3 golf course, an 18-hole pitch-and-putt course, tennis courts and a boules area. There is also a modern playground near the castle.

Tara’s Palace Museum of Childhood was previously located at Malahide Castle, but moved to Powerscourt near Ennis 2011.

reconstruction

Malahide Castle and the Botanic Gardens in the royal estate was a major change in 2011-2012. Castle closed to visitors during October 2011 and reopened in the fall of 2012. A new single brand for the site and an upgrade of the interpretation and facilities means that visitors now used to generate a single experience that brings together the castle, gardens and village of Mala.

The project involves revitalizing the visitor is offered in the castle and gardens and create new audio tours and exhibitions on gardens and castles and new retail / leisure activities while preserving the legacy of 800 years old location. Links to Malahide village and the local community is a key factor in the project. New signs linking the area with the village will encourage visitors to spend the whole day in Malahide enjoy the village, marina, restaurants and shops.

Especially the different rooms to visit the castle changed.

access

The main entrance to the Palace Demesne is off Malahide Road, with access also possible from Malahide Village. Dublin Bus route number 42, 102 and 142 travels along one side of the park, ochMalahide railway station is located near the castle end of the park.

concert hall

The grounds of Malahide Castle was opened as a new concert hall by Fingal County Council in summer 2007, with concerts by the Arctic Monkeys, [1] White, Joe Cocker, Al Green ochBell X1, among others. In 2008, his guests included Neil Young, [1] [2] Radiohead, [3] and Eric Clapton. [4] Prince performed at the castle on July 30, 2011.

See also

  • Baron Talbot of Mala
  • Thomas Talbot

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Neil Young to play two Irish dates.” Muse.ie. 2008-03-05.Retrieved 2008-03-07.
  2. Jump up ^ “Neil Young heads to the castle that Winehouse goes Oxegen lineup …”. Irish Independent. 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
  3. Jump up ^ “Radiohead confirm Dublin date …”. Muse.ie. 04.12.2007.Pulled 12/26/2007.
  4. Jump up ^ “Guitar King Clapton lined up for the summer gig at the castle …”. Irish Independent. 31.01.2008. Retrieved 2008-02-01.

Malahide

Malahide (Irish: Mullach IDE ) is a prosperous coastal suburban town near Dublin city. It is administered by the Fingal County Council, previously part of County Dublin, Ireland. There are large residential areas in the south, west and northwest of the village.

Name

The modern name Malahide can come from “Mullach idea” means “mountain IDE” or “IDE’s sand-hill”. It can also mean “Sand-hills of Hyde” (from Mullac h-IDE), probably referring to a Norman family from Donabate area. [2]According to the placenta Database of Ireland name Malahide is possibly derived from the Irish “Baile Átha Thid” means “city of Ford Thid”. [3]Malahide Bay was formerly called Inber Domnann , “river-mouth Fir Domnann”.

Location and access

Malahide is 16 kilometers north of the city of Dublin, between swords, Kinsealy and Portmarnock. It is located on the Broadmeadow Estuary, on the opposite side of which ärDonabate.

The village is served by DART and train, operated by Irish Rail. The Dublin Bus 32, 42 and 102, 32X and 142 peak hour express services, and 42N Nite-Link route serving the city of Dublin city center. Route 102 serves local areas to / from Dublin Airport (with sword) and Sutton Station (via Portmarnock).

History
Although there are some remnants of prehistoric activity, Malahide known to have been a persistent settlement of the coming of the Vikings, who landed in 795, and is used Malahide Estuary (along with Baldoyle) as a convenient base. With the arrival of the Anglo-Normans, the last Danish king of Dublin retreated to the area in 1171. From the 1180s, the history of the area is linked to the Talbot family Malahide Castle, which was granted extensive lands in the area and during the centuries following developed their property and the small harbor settlement.

Diamond, Malahide beginning of the 20th century

There is an old covered well, St. Sylvester is on the old main street (Old Street, formerly Chapel Street), which is used to get a “pattern” to Our Ladywas on August 15th.

In 1475, Thomas Talbot, director of the Talbot family Malahide Castle, granted the title of Admiral of the Port of Malahide by King Edward IV, with the power to keep the Admiralty courts and levy duties on all goods coming into the port. The office was hereditary, and the family’s right to act as Admiral confirmed by the Audit Finance (Ireland) 1639. [4]

In the early 19th century, the village had a population of over 1000, and a number of local industries, including the salt harvest, while the port went into commercial service, with landings of coal and construction materials.By 1831, the population had reached 1223. The area grew in popularity in Georgian times as a seaside resort for wealthy Dublin city dwellers. This is still evident today from the fine collection of Georgian houses in the town and along the seafront, and Malahide is still a popular spot for day-trippers, especially during the summer months.

In the 1960s, developers began to build housing estates around the village core in Malahide, launches the first, Ard na Mara in 1964. Additional property followed, northwest, south and west, but the village core remained intact, with the addition of a “naval apartment complex ‘development adjacent to the village green.

Today

Malahide grew from a population of 67 in 1921 to 1500 in 1960 and 2011 had a population of 15,846, and is still a rapidly growing city in the Dublin area.Most of the population lives outside the core village, in residential areasSeapark , Biscayne , Robswall , Chalfont , Ard Na Mara , Millview , yellow walls Road , Seabury and Gainsborough . Malahide has a higher percentage of professionals who live in it than any other city in Ireland, according to figures released by the Central Statistical Office. Malahide came top of the socioeconomic charts with the highest proportion of residents classified as employers, managers and senior officials. These groups combined, represent 41.3% of Malahide population.

In Malahide village there is extensive retail facilities and services including fashion boutiques, hair and beauty salons, florists, eateries and a small shopping center. There is a wide selection of pubs (including Gibney’s, Fowler, Duffy and Gilbert and Wright) and restaurants and 203-room Grand Hotel .

Political

Malahide is part of the Dáil constituency of Dublin Fingal, whose five elected Louise O’Reilly (Dublin politicians) of Sinn Féin, elected in 2016, Darragh O’Brien of Fianna Fáil Party was elected in 2016, Brendan Ryan of the Labour Party ~~ POS = HEAD COMP elected in 2016, Clare Daly of the United Left Alliance, elected in 2016; and Alan Farrell Fine Gael, was elected in 2016. The 2016 election of 26 February, was the Dublin North constituency replaced by Dáil constituency of Dublin Fingal.

Earlier sitting TDs have included Nora Owen (Fine Gael), Sean Ryan (Labour) and Fianna Fáil member GV Wright.

Malahide is part of the Howth / Malahide Local Electoral Area Fingal County Council. The current representatives of the eight-seat area is Daire Ní Laoi (Sinn Féin) Eoghan O’Brien (Fianna Fáil) Anthony Lavin (Fine Gael), Brian McDonagh (Labour) Cian O’Callaghan (Social Democrats), David Healy (MP) Keith Redmond (Renua) Jimmy Guerin (Independent)

Leisure and Organizations

Close to the village are Malahide Castle and the royal estate, including gardens, which was once the estate of Baron Talbot of Malahide.

Mala has a significant marine.

The Malahide area has more than twenty residents’ associations, of which (May 2007), sixteen cooperate in Malahide Community Forum, which publishes a quarterly newsletter, the Malahide Guardian .

There is an active local history society (with a small museum at Malahide Castle Demesne), a club, a camera club, a musical and drama society, the famous Enchiriadis choirs, a chess club and a photography group that has published calendars.

Apart from Malahide Castle Demesne, there are a number of smaller parks (with additional locations planned for example in Robswall and Seamount ).There are several golf courses nearby, and the GAA, soccer, tennis, rugby, sailing clubs and the Sea Scouts.

Twenty-five years ago, in 1990, won Malahide Irish Tidy Towns Competition.[5]

Another group that has been in Malahide for many years, it Malahide Pipe Band. The band was founded in 1954 and still practice the same initial area of the yellow walls today. The band consists of pipers and drummers who play the bagpipes and snare tenor and bass drums. The band plays at various events locally, with the main purpose to play in competitions around the country during the summer months. The band has also been involved in running a Pipe Band Competition in Malahide Castle for a number of years.The band is always looking for new members and supporters. For more information go to Malahide Pipe Band website.

Sport

There is also a wide range of sports clubs in the Malahide area. Rugby, soccer, GAA sports, sailing, hockey, golf, cricket, tennis and basketball are all well represented.

Gaelic game

  • St. Sylvester’s is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club.

Basket

Malahide Basketball formed in 1977 and currently fields two leading ladies teams, two senior men’s teams and 15 junior boys and girls teams (from over 10 to under 18). They train and play all their home games at Malahide Community School and Holywell Community Centre.

Hockey

Originally Malahide Hockey Club now merged with Fingal Hockey Club (formerly Aer Lingus) to become Mala Fingal Hockey Club. An all female club they currently field four senior teams and has a younger part of the nine teams, ages 7 and 16. All teams play and train in Broomfield Malahide.

Cricket

Malahide Cricket Club ([1]) was founded in 1861 and located in Malahide Castle demesne, near the train station. The club has over 400 members and is open year round. The club currently fields 18 teams (5 Senior Men, 2 women, 10 youth and Taverners page). Both the men’s and women’s top teams compete (in their respective leagues) at the highest level of cricket played in Ireland. From 2009-12 the club’s ground was developed into a 11,500-seat capacity and hosted its first one-day international in September 2013, when Ireland played England, [6] with England won by six wickets after captain Eoin Morgan struck 124 not out on what would have been his home in his youth.[7] the ground is now the largest in Ireland. This project has also seen the development of a second “club” pitch on the nearby Lady Acre in Malahide Demesne.

Football

Malahide United AFC ([2]) was founded in 1944 and currently has 60 field school / girl teams, from under 7 to under 18, and 4 senior teams. They have two academies , the first catering for 5-, 6- and 7-year-olds and the other one for 8-, 9- and 10-year-olds. With over 1,000 registered players, Malahide United is one of the biggest clubs in Ireland. Home plan is Gannon Park, which consists of two 11-man fields, a 7 a side pitch, a 11-man floodlit all-weather pitch, a floodlit five-a-side / heat all weather pitch and full clubhouse facilities.

Additional points used in Malahide Castle (two 7/9-a-sides and three 11 pages) with an additional 11-pitch at Broomfield, Malahide

Aston Village FC was founded in 1994. Their current home ground is the Malahide Castle and a local company is their main sponsor. They have three strong senior teams compete in both UCFL and AUL leagues. Despite the small size, they still space for up to 100 senior players with ages 16-43 years.

“Atlético Malahide” was founded in 2015 by a group of determined young boys. Their current home ground is the Malahide Castle. Atletico team consists of young men aged 18-19 and currently plays in UCFL club’s ambitions are high, with a focus on success in both the league and domestic competitions.

Rugby

Malahide Rugby Club [8] is a modern clubhouse and sports ground opposite the beautiful Malahide Estuary Estuary Road. Originally founded in 1922, Malahide Rugby Club was forced to disband during World War II because of a lack of available players. But in 1978 the club was reformed and now fields three senior men’s teams, a women’s team, four youth teams and six “mini” rugby team.

Sailing

There are two yacht clubs located on the mouth, swords Sailing & Boating Club and Malahide Yacht Club. The interior, Broadmeadow Estuary is also home to Fingal Sailing School ochDMG Sail Sports based on the 350-berth marina.

Golf

Malahide Golf Club opened in 1892, moving to a new location in 1990. It has a two-story clubhouse was completed in May 1990 with 1000 square meters, including bars, a restaurant, conference rooms and a snooker room. 17 is a notoriously difficult holes known to locals as “Cromwell’s Delight”, because of its narrow fairways and bunkers dominant.

Mala Sjöscoutkår

Malahide Sea Scout Group is located at St James Terrace on the waters edge of Malahide Estuary. It was founded in 1919 and has 583 members, making it the largest Scout Group in Ireland. It is the largest Sea Scouting group in Europe. [ Citation needed ] In 2005, Malahide (Wednesday) skiff crew won the East Coast Triple Crown, which comes first in the long distance dinghy race over Dublin Bay, woodlatimer sprint at the East Coast regatta and Mayor Cup, held in Malahide same year. In 2012, the Scout and Venture sections won all five trophies activity for the first time in a Sea Scout Group history.

Training

There are five schools in the area of Malahide, four primary (Pope John Paul II National School, St. Andrew’s National School, St. Oliver Plunkett Primary School and St. Sylvester’s Infant School) and secondary (Pobal Scoil Iosa, Malahide).

Religion

Malahide has two Catholic parishes, St. Sylvester’s and yellow walls and a Church of Ireland parish (St Andrews), and even part of a Presbyterian community, with a church built in 1956 as the first Presbyterian Church in Ireland since 1922 (it is one of two churches in the parish Howth and Malahide). [9]

Transport

Train

Mala railway station was opened May 25, 1844. [10] It is now one of the northern termini of the DART system, (the other is Howth). The station has a heritage garden and an attractive wrought iron canopy. The wrought in the canopy includes monogram Great Northern Railway (GNR), which operated the route prior to the nationalization of the railways.

Railway crosses the Broadmeadow Estuary at Broadmeadow viaduct locally as The Arches . [11] The original viaduct was a wooden structure built in 1844, which was replaced with an iron structure in 1860 and a prefabricated structure in 1966-7. [11]

viaduct collapse

Main article: Broadmeadow viaduct

21 August 2009 18:07 train from Balbriggan to Connolly was passing over the 200-year-old viaduct when the driver noticed a settlement and wall from collapsing on the northbound track. [12] The train crossed the bridge before it collapsed, and the driver is alerted authorities. [12]

An investigation into the possibility of sea bed erosion is the main cause of the collapse. [13]

A member of the Malahide Sea Scouts, Ivan Barrett, had contacted Iarnród Éireann five days before the collapse of any damage to the viaduct and a change in the flow of water around it. [14]

buses

Dublin Bus provides local bus services in the area of Routes 32, 32X, 42, 42N, 102 and 142.

  • Route 32 connects Mala with Portmarnock, Baldoyle, Howth Road, Raheny, Killester, Clontarf West, Fairview, Connolly train station and ends at Abbey Street. [15]
  • Route 32X ansluter Seabury, Malahide, Portmarnock, Baldoyle, Clontarf Road, Fairview, Connolly tågstation , St Stephen Green, Leeson Street, Donnybrook Village, RTÉ och slutar vid UCD Belfield. [16]
  • Route 42 förbinder The Hill, Malahide Village, Seabury, Kinsealy, Clare Hall, Coolock, Malahide Road, Artane rondellen, Donnycarney kyrka, Fairview, Connolly järnvägsstation och slutar vid Eden Quay. [17]
  • Route 42N is Friday and Saturday only route that serves Kinsealy, Seabury, Malahide Village, Malahide (Coast Road), Wendell Avenue, Carrickhill Road Stand Road, Portmarnock. [18]
  • Route 102 serves Malahide Village route to Seabury, Waterside, Mountgorry Way, Pavilions Shopping Centre, Swords Main Street, Boriomhe, River Valley and ends at Dublin Airport. In the other direction this route serves the Coast Road, Sands Hotel, Wendell Avenue, Carrickhill Road, Portmarnock, Strand Road, Baldoyle and ends at Sutton Dart Station. [19]
  • Route 142 förbinder The Hill, Malahide Village, Seabury, Waterside, Mountgorry Way Holywell, M1, Port Tunnel, City Quays, Saint Stephens Green, Rathmines, Palmerston Park, Dartry Road, Milltown Road, Bird Avenue och slutar vid UCD Belfield. Denna väg är verksamt i morgon och kväll topp måndag till endast fredag. [20]

People

Malahide is home U2 musician Adam Clayton and The Edge. Current residents include Brendan Gleeson, Cecilia Ahern, James Vincent McMorrow, Conor O’Brien (Villagers), Nicky Byrne and his wife Georgina Ahern, Vincent Browne, and former Anglo-Irish boss David Drumm.

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (Dublin)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Malahide Settlement Results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Archi Seek
  3. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland – Malahide
  4. Hoppa upp^ Mosley, red. Burke Peerage 107. Edition Delaware 2003 Vol. 3 p.3853
  5. Jump up ^ “President Malahide Tidy Towns Committee Gerry Rafferty.”North County Leader . 4 January, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  6. Jump up ^ Ireland playing England in the revamped Malahide in 2013
  7. Jump up ^ “Ireland v England ODI as it happened.” BBC. Hämtastre September, 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ http://www.malahiderfc.ie
  9. Jump up ^ Perhaps unique in the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, there is a single congregation Howth and Malahide, with a Kirk Session, but two byggnader.Den Presbyterian Church in Ireland, accessed July 6, 2007 Assembly website accessed 7 July 2006.
  10. Jump up ^ “Malahide station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways .Hämtastre September of 2007.
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab “The Arches” bridge was built in 1844, Fingal Independent, August 26, 2009
  12. ^ Jump up to: ab track to be closed for several weeks, The Irish Times, August 22, 2009
  13. Jump up ^ inquiry focuses on the seabed erosion, Frank McDonald and Ronan McGreevy, The Irish Times, August 25, 2009
  14. Jump up ^ Alert on any bridge damage is given five days before the collapse, Frank McDonald, The Irish Times, August 26, 2009
  15. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/3211/
  16. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/32x/
  17. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/42/
  18. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/42n/
  19. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/102/
  20. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dublinbus.ie/en/Your-Journey1/Timetables/All-Timetables/142/

Killiney

Killiney (Irish: Cill Inion Léinín , which means “Church of the Daughters of Léinín”) is a seaside resort and suburb in Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Ireland.The area lies on the coast south of neighboring Dalkey, and north of Shankill. It is part of Dáil constituency Dun Laoghaire.

Amenities

Killiney Hill Park was opened in 1887 as the Victoria Hill in honor of Britain’s Queen Victoria’s 50 years on the throne. The park has a magnificent view of Dublin Bay, Killiney Bay Bray Head and Mount Big Sugar Loaf Mountain (506 m), which extends from the Wicklow Mountains across to Howth Head. Park topography is pretty dramatic, and its highest point, the Obelisk, is 170 meters above sea level.

Other attractions include Killiney Beach, Killiney Golf Club, a local Martello Tower, and the ruins of Cill Inion Léinín, the church around which the original village was founded.

Coastal areas in Killiney often favorably compared to the Bay of Naples in Italy. This comparison is reflected in the names of the surrounding roads, as Vico, Sorrento, Monte Alverno, San Elmo, and Capri. On clear days, the Mourne Mountains in County Down can be seen. Killiney Hill Park was once part of the estate of Killiney Castle, now a hotel. Since early 2010, a pod of bottlenose dolphins have been seen regularly in Killiney Bay. [ Citation needed ]

Transport

Buss

The area is served by Dublin Bus routes 7b, 7n (Nitelink) and 45a at the junction of Killiney Hill Road and Shanganagh Road and Road 59 at Killiney Hill. [1]

An Aircoach service begins at Fitzpatrick Castle Hotel in Killiney links with Dublin Airport every hour, 24 hours a day.

Rail

Killiney railway station, served by DART, located on Station Road. [2]

Famous residents

Northeast Killiney is one of Dublin’s most exclusive neighborhoods. Famous residents include U2 members Bono and The Edge. Former racing driver Eddie Irvine is also sometimes seen in Killiney. Actor Allen Leech was born in Killiney, as well as radio presenter Paddy O’Byrne. Singer Enya lives in a Manderley Castle in Killiney.

History

Killiney The village got its name from the location of the nuns’ abbey.Leinin, a local chieftain and his seven daughters converted to Christianity, and together they went on to found a religious community on Marino Avenue West.Idag family celebrated in the stained glass windows in the church of St. Alphonsus and Columba in Ballybrack, only a few minutes walk away . Although the establishment of the first church dates back to the sixth century, its current roofless ruin from the 11th century. This small chapel on Marino Avenue West mark the historical center of Killiney Village and can still be seen today.

For many centuries, most of the area was the property of the Talbot de Malahide family, some of the original supporters of the 1170 Norman invasion. The obelisk atop Killiney Hill records the famine of 1741 and the relief works made for the poor, which include Obelisk and many walls that cover the top of the hill. In the 19th century, were the areas in the north and east of the village owned by Robert Warren, who developed many of the Victorian homes tract. The Warrens also sold the land needed to extend the Dublin and Kingstown Railway to Killiney and ultimately Bray. Killiney beach was a popular seaside destination for Dubliners, and John Rocque’s 1757 map shows bathhouse near White Rock, on Killiney Beach. The coast became even more popular when the railway opened, and the opening of the Victoria Park in 1887 to celebrate the British monarch’s visit and the opening of Vico Road in 1889 appears to have increased this popularity further. Victoria Castle was built in honor of Queen Victoria, especially her accession to the throne. [ Citation needed ] This is currently owned by Donegal sångareEnya renamed it Manderley Castle.

From 1900 until the late 1940s Killiney remained a close-rural area, despite its proximity to Dublin city. From the early 1960s, the economy began to expand, and thus reach Dublin in areas in its hinterland as Killiney.

20th century development

During the first half of the twentieth century, still consisted Electoral Division of North Killiney of a small village in the center and a number of suburban roads lined with large houses. Some small cottages were occupied by working-class locals and bohemian residents like George Bernard Shaw, whose house, Torca Cottage, located near the border with Dalkey.

South Killiney consisted of agricultural land uncultivated hillside forest, a few large farmhouse (Ballinclea House in particular, which is owned by the Talbot de Malahide family [3] and was destroyed by fire in the early 1970s, and Roche’s House, close to the contemporary Killiney Shopping Centre), the convent of the sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny and Killiney Golf Club, a nine-hole course that was founded 1903rd

Killiney population grew rapidly in the decades after the Emergency that urbanization and suburbanization of Ireland Dublin progressed. The main districts most locals will identify the Killiney Hill Park, Roche’s Hill (locally known as Mullins’ Hill), Killiney Village, North Killiney (Cluny Grove, Killiney Road, Ballinclea), Killiney Hill Road, Vico Road. The last six of these areas are developed, usually with two-story homes, with an average density of 10 to 30 houses per hectare. North Killiney mainly consists of two bedrooms, two-story homes to 10 to 30 houses per hectare.

The population, as recorded by the Census of Ireland, peaked in 1996 at around 10,800 and has decreased by about 12% since then, as falling average family sizes have outpaced housing.

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

Sources

  • The story of Killiney Hill Park Dunlaoghaire-Rathdown County Council[ dead link ]
  • Carrickmines Castle, Vale Shanganagh, Dalkey, Killiney and Ballybrack Hills (Waybackmachine archive link)
  • Pearson, Peter (1998). Between the mountains and the sea: Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Dublin. The O’Brien Press ISBN 0-86278-582-0.

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bus Routes”. Dublin Bus. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  2. Jump up ^ “Irish Rail Killiney Station”. Irish Rail. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  3. Jump up ^ “Who’s Who in Dublin.” Admiralty and Horse Guards Gazette,

Dalkey

Dalkey (/ dɒːkiː /; Irish: Deilginis , which means “thorn island”) is a suburb of Dublin and seaside resort just south of Dublin, Ireland. It was founded as a Viking settlement and became an important port during the Middle Ages.According to John Clyn, it was one of the ports through which the plague entered Ireland in the mid 14’s. In modern times, Dalkey has become a prosperous seaside suburb and a minor tourist attraction. It has been home to many writers and celebrities including Jane Emily Herbert, Maeve Binchy, Hugh Leonard, Bono, Van Morrison ochEnya

Etymologi

The city is named after Dalkey Island, just off the beach. The name is derived from the Irish deilg ( “tag”) and Old Norse ey ( “island”).

King of Dalkey

This putative elective monarchy is a tradition for the people of Dalkey [1].Freemen of Dalkey inherited the right to choose the king by boredom young blood back in Dublin in 1787. They formed a club in which they roped WITS, poets and thinkers. They summoned “Pimlico House” – named for the rights and Dublin, and from an assembly room they threw broadsides country humbug and pomposity of the Castle (Dublin Castle) and its hack.

The full title is the most impressive “King of Dalkey, Emperor of the Vikings (Ringrose), Prince of the Holy Island Magee, Baron of Bulloch, Seigneur of Sandycove, Defender of the Faith and Respector of all others, the Elector of Lambay and Ireland’s Eye, and Sovereign the most famous Order of the lobster and Periwinkle. “Over the years twenty knee-breeched courtiers in 18th century costume attended the King of Dalkey on Coronation Day. In later times, the costumes were rented from a theater costumiers in Dublin.Fun was the royal order of the day for all involved.

More than # 420 attended the royal procession, carnival and coronation on August 20, 1797 by Stephen Armitage pawnshop and Printer “King Stephen the first, King of Dalkey.” Since kom1798 Rising and its subsequent political unrest, which broke off this supposed cultural monarchy. However, the tradition successfully revived in 1934 [2], in 1965 and again in 1983, and continues. The current king is the local sexton, Finbarr Madden [3].

The following items (collected by Alice Cullen) refers to the “Royal goings on” make very interesting reading. They are a barometer of the local culture of the times. The first mention of a king Dalkey taken from the 1780 Dublin Historical Record Vol. 1V No. 2 December 1941-February 1942 Glimpses of Old Dalkey FM O’Flanagan [4].

Local tradition says that Hugh Dempsey was crowned “King of Dalkey” around 1780. On the south side of the old church is another stone that says: “This stone was erected by Mr. Murtagh Dempsey in the city of Dublin in memory of his affectionate son, Hugh Dempsey blocks husband of the city that departed this life april 7 1790. ”

local amenities

Quarry

Dalkey Quarry is a disused granite quarry stone that was used during the 19th century to build the Dun Laoghaire harbor, and is now a popular rock-climbing spot in Killiney Hill Park. During the construction of the port, where the quarry is connected via Dun Laoghaire a metal tramway called “Metals, some of which are still visible in some parts of Dalkey.

Ports

There are several small ports on the coast of Dalkey. Bulloch Harbour is the largest; It is in the northern part of Dalkey on Harbour Road and is an outspoken seal sanctuary. Coliemore Harbour is very small but very picturesque and located in the southern part of Dalkey on Coliemore Road.In the Middle Ages Coliemore was the main port of Dublin City. Bulloch Harbour is still a working harbor with boats fishing for lobster and crab. It is also used by locals and tourists who rent boats to nearby fishing, sightseeing and to get to Dalkey Island.

Sport

Cuala CLG, a prominent Gaelic Athletic Association sports, and Dalkey United, an association football club, are both based at Hyde Park. Early in his football career, Paul McGrath played for Dalkey United. In the 1940s, the city produced another footballer of note, Peter Farrell. Recently, it has set up an athletics club, the Dalkey Rowing Club Dashers.Dalkey based on Coliemore Harbour and kayak taught in Bulloch. Dalkey Sea Scouts hold two beautiful old yachts at Bulloch Harbour.

Training

There are five schools in Dalkey. Loreto Primary School caters for boys from junior infants through first grade, and girls from junior infants through sixth grade. Loreto Abbey Secondary School caters for girls from the first year through the sixth year. Harold Boys National School caters for boys from second grade through sixth grade, and St. Patrick’s National School caters for boys and girls from junior infants through sixth grade. Castle School, an independent preparatory school for boys and girls.

Transport

The Dalkey Atmosphere station at atmospheric Road (March 29, 1844 April 12, 1854) [2] was the terminus of the first commercial application of the atmospheric system for train propulsion. [3]

The current Dalkey train station was opened July 10 1854. The station is served by DART electric railway system that provides quick access to and from Dublin centrum.Spektakulära clifftop overlooking Dalkey Island and Killiney Bay is given as a train out of a short tunnel just south of Dalkey Station. Placed on the left side of the train as it leaves Dalkey. Many passengers reported seeing a resident pod of dolphins playing in the water between this point and Killiney Station. The train has been known to slow down if they put on a show!

An Aircoach service with a stop at Hyde road area of Dublin Airport. Dublin Bus services 59, 7d and 8 link with downtown and the nearby port town of Dun Laoghaire Stena Line operates a car ferry to Holyhead in UK.

People

Dalkey is the original hometown of two well-known Irish writers: novelist Maeve Binchy and playwright Hugh Leonard. It is also the setting for Flann O’Brien’s novel The Dalkey Archive . In recent years, several well-known Irish and international music figures – including U2 members Bono and The Edge, Enya, Chris de Burgh and Van Morrison – have bought homes in the area.Film director Neil Jordan live in the city.

Pat Kenny (former host of RTÉ’s flagship chat show The Late Late Show ) resides. Current values of The Late Late Show , Ryan Tubridy also live in the area.

Formula One driver Damon Hill and Eddie Irvine, is a former resident who is the singer Lisa Stansfield and Jim Kerr.

James Joyce and George Bernard Shaw also have close associations with the area. Shaw lived in Torca Cottage on Dalkey Hill 1866-1874 and Joyce lived in Joyce Tower at Sandycove for a time and set the first chapter of his masterpiece, Ulysses, there.

Victoria Cross recipient Major William Leet born in Dalkey.

Rees Ringrose, a programmer who designed many fitness websites, born and residing in Dalkey.

annual festivals

Dalkey Book Festival

Now in its fourth year, Dalkey Book Festival was established to celebrate and promote the wealth of literary talent in and around the city. The festival takes place over a weekend in mid-June each year. Festival directors, David McWilliams and Sian Smyth, working with the support of a superb group of volunteers and Dalkey Business Group to ensure the festival’s success. The long list of the grant included Salman Rushdie, Amos Oz, Seamus Heaney, Edna O’Brien, Roddy Doyle, Maeve Binchy, Joseph O’Connor, Tim Pat Coogan, Derek Landy, Jennifer Johnston, Robert Fisk, Eamon Morrissey, John Waters, Matt Cooper, Julian Gough, Dawn O’Porter and Sinéad Cusack.

Lobster, crab and all that jazz

Now in its third year this festival, which takes place in late August, is a mix of local seafood and the best of the current global jazz musicians with plenty of fun events for the whole family to enjoy.

Things to do

Dalkey is known for its award-winning pubs and restaurants. Dalkey Main Street, Castle Street, has a 10th century church and two 14th Century Norman castle, which houses the Heritage Centre. There are many scenic and historic walks and excursions. Free tourist maps are available from stores in the city and the Dalkey Castle. Dalkey Hill offers spectacular views of Dublin City, Dublin Bay and Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains. Deilg Inis Living History Theatre Company running live theater performances every half hour at Dalkey Castle and Heritage Centre. Boats are available for rent at Bulloch Harbour on Harbour Road and yacht trips around Dalkey Island can be taken from nearby Dun Laoghaire Harbour. Dalkey Quarry is a very popular rock climbing and rappelling spot. Killiney Hill is a popular launch site for para-gliders, wind coming in from the sea provides good lift.

Swimming

Vico bathing and White Rock Beach, accessed from Vico Road, offers ocean swimming with spectacular views. Both have changed shelters. The ever popular Sandycove Beach and the adjacent “Forty Foot” bathing area is a short walk away next to Joyce Tower. Intrepid local young people can often be seen diving off the piers at Coliemore Harbour.

Wildlife

Dalkey Island is home to a colony of seals that have greatly increased in recent years. A herd of wild goats living on the island as well. BirdWatch Ireland has established a colony of roseate tern in Maiden Rock, just north of Dalkey Island. Recently, a pod three dolphins started frequent waters around Dalkey Island.

See also

  • Dalkey Island
  • dalkey Quarry
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Dalkey Atmospheric Railway

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-12. Note: The figure indicated is the sum of the population of Dalkey Avondale, Dalkey Bullock, Dalkey Coliemore, Dalkey Hill and Dalkey Upper sections of the site.
  2. Jump up ^ “Dalkey station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
  3. Jump up ^ Industrial Heritage Ireland

Dublin Bay

Dublin Bay (Irish: Cuan Bhaile Átha Cliath ) is a C-shaped inlet of the Irish Sea on the east coast of Ireland. The bay is about 10 kilometers wide along its north-south base and 7 km in length to a head in the center of Dublin, stretching from Howth Head in the north to Dalkey Point in the south. North Bull Island is located in the northwestern part of the bay, where one of the two major coastal sandbanks low, and has a 5 km long sandy beach, Dollymount Strand, fronting an internationally recognized wildfowl reserve.Many of the rivers of Dublin reach the Irish Sea at Dublin Bay: denfloden Liffey, the River Dodder flow received less than 1 km inland, River Tolka and various smaller rivers.

The metropolitan area in the city of Dublin surrounds three sides of the bay (north, west and south), while the Irish Sea lies to the east. Dublin was founded by the Vikings at the point where they could ford the River Liffey with the first wattle bridge up from the estuary. The city spread from its birthplace, around what is now James Gate area, along the coast, north-east towards Howth and southeast toward Dalkey.

Features

The bay is fairly shallow with numerous sandbars and rock formations, and was notorious in the past for the shipwreck, especially when the wind was from the east. Until modern times, many ships and their passengers lost along the treacherous coast from Howth to Dun Laoghaire, less than a kilometer from the beach. Early maps of the bay show accurately narrow fairways and berthing areas.

The bay had two coastal sandbars, North Bull and South Bull. With the construction of the Bull Wall, started the North Bull to build up rapidly, forming North Bull Island (often simply “Bull Island”). The south wall had been built earlier – the Great South Wall – but did not result in the formation island, South Bull remaining today an area of wetlands and other string. In addition, several offshore sandbars, especially Kish Bank (on which a lighthouse stands).

whence

From north to south, Dublin Bay beaches at Sutton Beach, Dollymount Strand on the North Bull Island, Sandymount, Seapoint and south of Dun Laoghaire. The remaining are either rocky coast (with cliffs on Howth Head, for example) or mud coming up to the dykes. In most areas, the ground slopes gently down to the sea, but apart from Howth Head, there are bluffs along much of the coast Raheny, sharper and hills just inland of Monkstown and Old Dunleary.

History

Over 500 crew and passengers (mostly military personnel) were lost when the steamship RMS Leinster was torpedoed and sunk by German U-Boat UB-123 October 10, 1918. She is 33 meters (108 feet) of water vid53 ° 18.88 ‘N 5 ° 47.71’W.

In 1972, the Dublin Port and Docks Board proposed to build an oil refinery in Dublin Bay. The plan strongly opposed by environmentalists, including Dublin City Councillor Seán D. Loftus, because there is a serious risk of pollution. Loftus, a lifelong campaigner for Dublin Bay, changed his name by deed poll to “Seán Dublin Bay Loftus” when standing for election to the Dáil.Although he was not elected, he managed to publish the issue and the proposal eventually turned down by the Minister of Local Government, James Tully. (Loftus later changed his name by deed poll to “Seán Dublin Bay Rockall Loftus’ as part of a campaign to press the Irish government to make a territorial claim on Rockall island off County Donegal). Loftus also led opposition to the 2002 and subsequent applications from Dublin Port Company to fill in 52 acres (210,000 m 2 ) in Dublin Bay. Other proposals for the Gulf have included a proposal to build giant underwater gas storage tanks, and padding near the lagoon behind the North Bull Island to form an amusement park.

Filling

During the summer of 2010, An Bord Pleanála refused permission to Dublin Port Company to proceed with its plans to filling another 52 acres (210,000 m2 ) in Dublin Bay. [1] The proposed padding, which has fiercely resisted by the residents, [2 ] politicians, [3] [4] [5] environment and others around the Gulf for over 20 years, [6] was rejected at one point. An Bord Pleanála refused nine out of ten of its own inspector recommendations for rejection, but refused permission on the grounds that it was not convinced that the proposed development would not adversely affect the integrity of the South Dublin Bay and River Tolka Estuary proposed Special Protection and negative affect the natural heritage of Dublin Bay. [7] Within a few months after the decision, applied the Dublin port Company and received a pre-application meeting with an Bord Pleanála. Dublin Port Company has redrafted its proposals in relation to the SPA boundary and may send an application for the project.

Flood

Coastal flooding can occur at high tide on several points, particularly the city side of Clontarf and Sandymount.

popular culture

James Joyce in much of the action in his novel Ulysses around the bay, from Forty Foot bathing place-where the character Buck Mulligan washed on Bloomsday morning to Howth, where Leopold Bloom made love to his wife Molly in rhododendrons.

See also

  • Dublin port

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bay infill plan is rejected”. Rte. 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  2. Jump up ^ “Bay Watch says no to the plans for the 52-acre infill”.Herald.ie. 29.10.2008. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  3. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bay – Proposed 52-acre infill”. Finianmcgrath.ie.06.15.2008. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  4. Jump up ^ “Dublin Port must abandon the plan to Filling 52 Acres of Dublin Bay – Bruton.” Richardbruton.ie. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  5. Jump up ^ “Dublin Port expansion plan refused”. The Irish Times. 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  6. Jump up ^ “BirdWatch Ireland welcomes the rejection of the proposal to the filling part of Dublin Bay.” Birdwatch Ireland – South Dublin Branch.2010-06-09. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  7. Jump up ^ “say no to 52 Acre The filling Dublin Bay”. Clontarf Residents’ Association. In 2010. Taken 2011-04-20.

Sandycove

Sandycove (Irish: Cuas a Ghainimh ) is an area of Dublin, Ireland. It is southeast of Dun Laoghaire and Glasthule, and northwest of Dalkey. It is a popular seaside resort.

Sandycove is well known for its (previous) Mr bathing, the Forty Foot, as before gave a quiet swimming haven for men only. This is still a popular swimming spot, but since the end of the 20s, mixed bathing is permitted.

The writer James Joyce lived for a week as a young man in the Martello Tower is located next to the Forty Foot bathing place at Sandycove. The opening scene of Joyce Ulysses is in this tower. It now hosts a small Joycean Museum, open year-round. [1] Bloomsday celebrated in Sandycove in Joyce’s honor on 16 June of each year.

Close to the tower, by the sea, is the unique landmark developed in the Avant Garde style by Michael Scott, a prominent 20th-century architect who made it his residence.

Transport

Sandycove and Glasthule railway station was opened on October 11, 1855. [2]

On December 20, 1940 during World War II, Luftwaffe bombed the railway station although Ireland was a neutral country. There were three injuries. [3]See the bombing of Dublin during World War II.

Sandycove is also serviced by Dublin Bus numbers 59, 7 and 8.

Sandycove is also close to Dun Laoghaire port with regular services to Holyhead, Wales.

Lifeboat

The first rescue station in Ireland was founded in Sandycove 1803rd

On 28 December 1821 the lifeboat rescued the crew of the brig Ellen in Liverpool . Four volunteers lifeboatmen drowned. [4]

Notable residents

  • Roger Casement was born in Sandycove.
  • Bernard Farrell, playwright
  • William Monk Gibbon, poet and writer
  • Peter Gatenby, Professor and Medical Director of the United Nations, lived in Sandycove. [5]
  • James Joyce stayed briefly in the Martello Tower is located next to the Forty Foot bathing place, as guest of Oliver St. John Gogarty. [6]
  • Lucy Kennedy, programs
  • Jason O’Mara was born and grew up in Sandycove.
  • Oliver St. John Gogarty rented Martello Tower 1904-1925.
  • Imogen Stuart, sculptor and Saoi
  • Maureen Toal, an actress who lived in Sandycove. [7]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

External links

  • Official website
  • Sandycove & Glass Thule station

References

  1. Jump up ^ “About | James Joyce Tower and Museum “.Jamesjoycetower.com. Pulled 02/26/2016.
  2. Jump up ^ “Sandycove station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Retrieved 2007-09-03.
  3. Jump up ^ storm Approved by: Ireland and the Battle of the Atlantic, 1940-1941, by Trevor Allen; page 63
  4. Jump up ^ Gilligan, Henry (1988). Gill and Macmillan. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7171-1578-5. Missing or empty (help) | title =
  5. Jump up^ http://www.tcd.ie/news_events/articles/trinity-community-mourns-the-death-of-peter-gatenby-hon-ftcd/5897#.Vedd7PZVikr
  6. Jump up ^ “Bloomsday”. James Joyce Centre. Pulled 02/08/2016.
  7. Jump up ^ ” ‘Greatest’actor Maureen Toal die.” Irish Times. 08.25.2012.Pulled 08/27/2012.

James Joyce Tower and Museum is

James Joyce Tower and Museum is a Martello tower in Sandycove, Dublin, where James Joyce spent six nights (September 9-14) in 1904. [1] Admission is free. [2]

History

The tower was leased from the British War Office by Joyce university friend Oliver St. John Gogarty, with the aim of “Hellenising” Ireland. Gogarty later attributed to Joyce’s abrupt resignation after only six days to a midnight incident with a loaded revolver. [3]

The opening scenes of Ulysses is in the morning after this incident. Gogarty is immortalized as “Stately, plump Buck Mulligan” (the opening words of the novel).

The tower now contains a museum dedicated to Joyce and showing some of her possessions and other ephemera related to Ulysses (such as an empty pot of “Plumtree’s Pickled Meat”). The living space is set up to resemble its 1904 appearance (with a ceramic panther to represent one seen in a dream resident). It is a pilgrimage for Joyce enthusiasts, especially on Bloomsday.

The tower became a museum opening on June 16, 1962 through the efforts of the Dublin artist John Ryan. Ryan also rescued the door of 7 Eccles Street (now the James Joyce Centre) from demolition and organized, by Flann O’Brien, the first Bloomsday Celebration 1954th

James Joyce Tower is open 365 days a year, 10 am-6pm (10am 4pm in winter).Admission is free. The museum is run by Friends of Joyce Tower Society on a voluntary basis.

References

  1. Hoppa upp^Bowker, Gordon (2012). James Joyce: En ny biografi . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux. pp. 130-131.
  2. Jump up ^ “James Joyce Tower Museum”. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  3. Hoppa upp^ Gogarty, Oliver (1948). Sorg Blev Mrs Spendlove. New York: Creative Age Press. pp. 56-57.

Bibliography

  • Ryan, Susan (20 July 2012). “Joyce Tower set to resume thanks to voluntary support.” TheJournal.ie.

Howth Head

Howth Head ( Ceann Bhinn Éadair in Irish) is a peninsula northeast of Dublin in Ireland. Howth falls under the local control of Fingal County Council. Entry to the cape is Sutton while bynHowth and the port is on the north shore. Baily Lighthouse is located on the southeastern part of Howth Head. Nearby are the districts of Baldoyle and Portmarnock.

History

The earliest mention of the peninsula was on a map printed Claudius Ptolemy, where it was called Edri Deserta or Greek Edrou Heremos . It was described as an island, but it is unclear whether this was due to actual separation from the cape or incorrect data cartographer.

Place

Originally an island, [ citation needed ] Howth Head is connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of land, or tombolo, and forms the northern boundary of the large crescent of Dublin Bay, roughly corresponding to Killiney Hill to the south.

Nature

Most of the cape is undulating, with peaks 171 m Black Linn, the Ben of Howth, on a side street off the Green Hill Quarries on Loughereen Hills, Shielmartin Hill (163 m) overlooking Carrickbrack Road, Carrickbrack and Dun Hill. There are also steep areas such as and Muck Rock (Carrickmore), and Kilrock, and there are steep sea cliffs around parts, especially on the north coast. Gorse grows in many places on the Cape. Fires are common during dry summers.

The cliffs supports a large colony of seabirds, especially razorbills, guillemots, fulmars, gulls and cormorants. The scrubland above supports multiple heathland species, including the skylark, meadow pipit, thorns, Linnet, Stonechat ochbuskskvätta. The most commonly seen birds of prey the kestrel, peregrine falcons and buzzards.

Gallery

  • Howth Head watched from the North Bull Island iDublin Bay
  • Cliffs at Howth Head with Baily lighthouse in the distance
  • Baily Lighthouse on the southeastern tip of Howth Head
  • Optics from the Baily lighthouse installed in 1902 and removed in 1972 when the lighthouse was modernized
  • Go on Howth Head

Leisure

As one of the northern ends of the Dublin Area Rapid Transit system (DART), Howth is a popular destination for day-trippers from the capital.Walkers can choose from a wide range of ways, including the Cliff Walk, which leads to the old cairn on one of Howth’s several summits. On clear days, the Wicklow Mountains can be seen, with Dublin below. Slieve Donard, a 852 meter peak in Northern Ireland may also be visible – a distance of 90 km (56 mi) .Ganska often, Snowdon (1085 m) in the Snowdonia National Park in Wales also seen – a distance of 138 km (86 mi ).

popular culture

Howth Head is the place where Leopold Bloom suggests Molly in James Joyce’s Ulysses . In the short story Eveline, another work by James Joyce is from the collection “Dubliners”, it is mentioned that Eveline and her family once had a picnic on the hill of Howth. Howth Head is also central to Joyce final work, Finnegans Wake, where one of the protagonists, HCE, include representatives of the mountain.

The peninsula has also been in the background of several paintings by Irish artist William Orpen (1878-1931).

Howth Head is mentioned in the text of the title track of Kate Bush’s 1989 album The Sensual World : “… took six large wheels and rolled our bodies / off Howth Head and into the flesh, mmh, yes … ‘. The song is inspired by Molly Bloom’s monologue in Joyce’s “Ulysses.”

Howth

Howth (/ h oʊ θ /; Irish: Binn Éadair , which means “Eadar peak”) [2] [3] is a village and outer suburbs of Dublin, Ireland. The district occupies most of the peninsula of Howth Head, which forms the northern boundary of Dublin Bay. Originally just a small fishing village, Howth with its surroundings once rural district is now a busy suburb of Dublin, with a mixture of dense residential development and wild hillside. The only neighboring district on land is Sutton. Howth is also home to one of the oldest occupied buildings in Ireland, Howth Castle.

Howth has been a filming location for movies such as The Last of the High Kings and Boy Eats Girl .

Location and access

Howth is located on the peninsula of Howth Head, which begins about 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) east-northeast of Dublin, on the north side of Dublin Bay. The village is 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from Dublin city center (the ninth in a series of eighteenth-century milestones from Dublin General Post Office (GPO) is in the village), and extends over most of the northern part of Howth head which is connected to the rest of Dublin via a narrow strip of land (or Tombolo) at Sutton Cross.

Howth is the end of a regional road from Dublin and is one of the two northern ends of the DART suburban rail system. It is served by Dublin Bus.

History and etymology

The name Howth believed to be of Nordic origin, perhaps derived from the Norse Hǫfuð ( “head” in English). Norse Vikings colonized the eastern shore of Ireland and built the settlement of Dublin as a strategic base between Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. Norse Viking first invaded Howth in 819th

After Brian Boru, the High King of Ireland, defeated the Norse in 1014, many Nordic fled to Howth to regroup and remained a force until the final defeat of Fingal in the middle of the 11th century. Howth still under the control of Irish and local Nordic strengths until the invasion of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans in the 1169th

Without the support of either the Irish or Scandinavian powers, Howth isolated and fell to the Normans in 1177. One of the victorious Normans, Armoricus (or Almeric) Tristam, was granted a large part of the land between the village and Sutton. Tristam took on the name of the saint whose feast day the battle was won – St. Lawrence. He built his first castle near the harbor and the St. Lawrence link persists even today, see Earl of Howth. The original title of Baron of Howth granted Almeric St. Lawrence of Henry II of England in 1181, for enKnight fee.

Howth was a port city from at least the 14th century, with both health and duty collection officials monitor from Dublin, but the port was not built until the early 19th century.

A popular tale of piracy Gráinne O’Malley, who was rejected in 1576 while attempting a courtesy visit to Howth Castle, home of the Earl of Howth. In retaliation, she kidnapped Earl’s grandson and heir, and as ransom she exacted a promise that unexpected guests would never be turned back. She also made Earl promise that the gates of Deer Park (earl’s demesne) would never be closed to the public again, and the doors are still open today, and an extra place is set up for unexpected guests for formal dining in the dining room.

In the early 19th century, Howth was chosen as the site of the port of postal packages (postal service) vessels. One of the arguments used against Howth by proponents of Dun Laoghaire was that coaches can sacked in thebadlands of Sutton ! (at the time Sutton was open landscapes.) [1] Due to siltation, dredging the harbor is often needed to accommodate the package and finally the service was moved Dun Laoghaire. George IV visited the port in August 1821st

On 26 July 1914, 900 rifles landed at Howth by Robert Erskine Childers, the Irish Volunteers. Many used against the British in the Easter Rising and the subsequent Anglo-Irish War.

The port radically built in the late 20th century, with diverse areas of fishing and recreational formation and installation of a modern ice-making facility.A new lifeboat house later constructed, and Howth is now home to both the RNLI (lifeboats service) and the Irish Coast Guard.

Features

Howth Head is one of the dominant features of the Dublin Bay, with a number of peaks, the highest of which is the Black Linn. In an area near Shielmartin, there is a small bog, the Bog of Frogs .Vildare parts of Howth is accessible through a network of trails (many are right) and a large part of the center and east are protected as part of a special area of conservation of 2.3 square kilometers (570 acres).

The peninsula has a number of small, fast running streams, three of which runs through the village, with more, including the Bloody Stream, in the adjacent Howth Demesne. The currents passing through the village is from east to west, Coulcour Brook, Grays Brook or Boggeen Stream, and Offington Stream.

Ireland’s Eye Island, part of the special protection area, located about one kilometer north of Howth Harbour, with Lambay Island about 5 km further north. A Martello tower available on each of these islands with another tower overlooking Howth harbor (open as a visitor center and Ye Olde Hurdy Gurdy Museum of Vintage Radio June 8, 2001 [4] ) and another tower at Red Rock, Sutton. These are part of a series of towers built around the coast of Ireland during the 19th century.

Building Heritage

Howth Castle and its estate, Deer Park, are important properties in the area.

Because of Howth Castle is a collapsed dolmen known locally as Aideen’s grave.

At the southeast corner of Howth Head, in the area known as Bail (e) y (historical, Green Bayley) is the automated Baily Lighthouse, the successor to the former security mechanisms, at least as far back as the late 17th century.

In Howth village is St. Mary’s Church and Cemetery. The earliest church was built by Sitric, king of Dublin in 1042. It was replaced around 1235 with a church, and then, in the second half of the 14th century, the present church was built. The building was modified in the 15th and 16th centuries, then raised ends, a bell cote was built and a new porch and south door was added.St. Lawrence of adjacent Howth Castle also changed the east end to act as a private chapel; inside is the tomb of Christopher St. Lawrence, 2nd Baron Howth, who died in 1462, and his wife, Anna Plunkett of Ratoath.

Also of historical interest is the Collegium , at Howth main street.

Amenities and businesses

The area is active commercially, and is part of the area of Howth Sutton Baldoyle Chamber of Commerce. [5] Howth still an active center for the fishing industry, with a particular treatment in the fishing port area, and some boat maintenance.

The village is also home to the Olympic Council of Ireland.

Howth, has been held once at least five hotels, saw the last, Deer Park Hotel, close to April 2014 although premises continues to trade as a bar and a base for Deer Park golf courses with the recent addition of a “Foot Golf” course.The area has several bed-and-breakfast establishments.

The nearest operating hotels (Marine) is located at Sutton Cross, about 2.5 km from Howth Harbour.

Recreation

Howth is a popular area for bird watching and sailing, and is also popular with anglers. Everything from cod to the ray can be caught from Howth rocky beach badges and marine mammals, such as seals, are common sights in and near the harbor. Howth is also a popular destination for cyclists, joggers and hill walkers alike, especially on weekends. Birds regularly seen include razorbills, guillemots, fulmars, gull, Stone, Linnet, thorns, yellowhammer, skylark, wheatear, peregrine falcons, buzzards and kestrels.

local authorities

Howth was in County Dublin from the introduction of the Sheriff of the Normans, and in North Dublin rural area from the start under the Local Government (Ireland) Act in 1898. In 1918 Howth became a separate district with the consent of the Municipal Board for Ireland, and despite the opposition of North Dublin Rural District Council. [6] [7] in 1942 was transferred to Dublin county borough, with Dublin Corporation replaces the urban district council. [7] [8] [9] In 1993, it was away from the city and assigned Fingal County Council, the successor north of the river Liffey to Dublin County Council. [7] [10]

Notable residents

Among Howth’s more famous residents are the Booker Prize -winning author John Banville, U2 drummer Larry Mullen, actor Stuart Townsend, born and raised in Howth. Senator and retail pioneer Feargal Quinn, author Michael Feeney Callan and musicians Barney McKenna (until his death April 5, 2012) and John Sheahan of The Dubliners and Dolores O’Riordan of The Cranberries. Phil Lynott of Thin Lizzy lived in Howth for a time. [11] the late politician and writer Conor Cruise O’Brien and his wife, the Irish poet Máire MHAC a tSaoi lived here for many years. Composer Ciarán Farrell currently lives in Howth. Multiple Eurovision winner Johnny Logan and his father lived tenor Patrick O’Hagan for many years in Howth, and Lynn Redgrave and husband John Clark raised his family there in the early 1970s. Bill Graham, a journalist and writer living in Howth until his death in 1996. John McColgan and Moya Doherty’s wife, founder of Riverdance, has lived in Howth for many years. William Butler Yeats spent part of his childhood in a small house above the cliffs on Balscadden Road in Howth. Broadcaster Seán Moncrieff lives in Howth with his family. Scott Young, who was a Canadian journalist, sportswriter, novelist and father of musician Neil Young and Astrid Young lived in Howth in the late 1980s. Composer Brian Boydell was born in Howth 1917. Current European Ombudsman Emily O’Reilly also lives in Howth with his family of seven. Actor writer and comedian Gary Cooke was staying at the Claremont Road, Howth in the 1970s and 1980s. The eminent judge Gerald Fitzgibbon lived here for many years until his death in 1909: his house, Kilrock, was one of the centers of the Dublin social life from the 1870s onwards.

Transport

Howth Harbour and the islands of Ireland Eye (closest) and Lambay Island in the distance

  • Howth railway station was opened May 30, 1847 [12] is a two platform station terminal served by the Dublin Area Rapid Transit.
  • The Hill of Howth tram ran around the peninsula between the station and Sutton railway station until 1959th
  • Small boats run to Ireland’s Eye in the summer months. The boats are located at the end of the pier. Ireland Eye is one of the best locations near Dublin for birdwatching.
  • Dublin Bus runs 31 service to Howth Summit through Howth village and 31B serving more distant side of the peninsula. The 31B also ends in Howth Summit, but it does not pass Howth Village. The 31B offers stunning views especially upstairs.

There is also a new bus route that started to take effect in 2013 31A, which takes an almost identical way to 31, but does not stop at Howth Summit, but continues to Shielmartin.

  • Howth is also home to the National Transport Museum of Ireland which houses many public service and road transport vehicles from the previous year. [13]

See also

  • References and sources list of monasteries and priories in Ireland (Dublin)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Howth head
  • Ben of Howth
  • Hill of Howth Tramway

Remarks

  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-08.
  2. Jump up ^ Dublin, Ireland, 1975; The houses of the Oireachtas: The placenta Order (Irish forms) (No. 1) (Postal) / A Tordu Logainmneacha (Foirmeacha Gaeilge) (. Uimh 1) (Postbhailte)
  3. Jump up ^ “Howth”. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved July 6, 2012. This website quote: AD Mills (2003), A Dictionary of British place names , Oxford University Press.
  4. Hoppa upp^http://homepage.eircom.net/~HowthSuttonLions/environment.htm
  5. Hoppa upp^ Howth Sutton Baldoyle Chamber of Commerce
  6. Jump up ^ Local Government Board for Ireland. “Local Government (Ireland) seems”. Annual report for the year 1916-1917. Paper Command.Cmd.8765. p. 17.
  7. ^ Jump up to: abc Ministry of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (8 May 2008). “Appendix III – Some points of the city government.” A Green Paper on Local Government. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “Local Government (Dublin) (Amendment) Act 1940”. Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  9. Jump up ^ “SI No. 372/1942 – The Local Government (Dublin) (Amendment) Act, 1940 (appointed day) Order, 1942”. Irish Statute Book.Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  10. Jump up ^ “Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1993”. Irish Statute Book.Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  11. Jump up ^ He is buried in St. Fintan Graveyard at Sutton side of Howth Head, who is also the burial place of Charles Haughey, three times Prime Minister of Ireland
  12. Jump up ^ “Howth station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
  13. Hoppa upp^ http://www.nationaltransportmuseum.org/about.html

Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown

Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown [1] (Irish: Dún Laoghaire-Rath en Duin ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is part of the Dublin region in the province of Leinster. It is named after the former town of Dun Laoghaire and barony of Rathdown. Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 206,261 according to the census of 2011. [2]

Geography and political subdivisions

Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown is bordered to the east by the Irish Sea, in the north of the local government area of Dublin City Council, in the west of South Dublin and the south of County Wicklow .University College Dublin and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology in the county . It is one of three small counties to which County Dublin was divided in 1994. Located in sydöstraDublin city, its county town is Dun Laoghaire. It is one of the four parts of the Dublin Region. It was created in 1994 through the merger of the areas covered by the Corporation of Dun Laoghaire and southeastern part of the former county Dublin. In addition, the powers of the former Dean Grange Joint Burial Board were incorporated in the new agency.As part of the Dublin Region , the Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown within the geographical area of responsibility Dublin Regional Authority. Following the adoption of the Local Government Act 2001, the Regional Authority set up.[3] It is one of eight such agencies in the state.

Cities, villages and suburbs

See also: List of townlands in County Dublin

  • Ballinteer
  • Ballybrack
  • black stone
  • Booterstown
  • Belfield
  • Cry
  • Cabinteely
  • Carrickmines
  • cherrywood
  • Church
  • Clonskeagh
  • Dalkey
  • Dean Grange
  • Dundrum
  • Dun Laoghaire
  • Foxrock
  • Goatstown
  • Glasthule
  • Glenageary
  • Glencullen
  • Johnstown
  • Killiney
  • Kilmacud
  • Kilternan
  • Leopards
  • Loughlinstown
  • Monks
  • Mount Merrion
  • Rathfarnham
  • Sandyford
  • Sandycove
  • Sallynoggin
  • Shankill
  • Step aside
  • Stillorgan
  • Ticknock

Terminology and etymology

The name Rathdown is a Anglicisation of the Irish “Ráth en Duin,” which means “ring forts of the fort.” Dun Laoghaire, means “Laoghaire’s fast.”

In Ireland, the word “county” has traditionally come before rather than after the county’s name: thus ” County Clare” in Ireland as opposed to “ClareCounty ” in Michigan, USA. But the counties created after 1994 often drop the word “County” completely or use it by name, such as Internet search engines show many more uses of Irish seats in the “Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown” than either “Rathdown County Dun Laoghaire-” or “Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County “. There seems to be no official guidance on the issue and the local authorities use all three forms. [4]

There is no “Rathdown” city in the county. The modern county is basically the same divisions as medieval half-barony of Rathdown, a division of County Dublin.

Although it is the smallest county in Ireland in terms of area, it is also the county with the longest name. In addition, the official legal name of the county, in English, is spelled without a síneadh fada on the “u” in the Irish-speaking part of the name “Dun Laoghaire” [5] (although the current style in the county is to use síneadh fada on the name in both Irish and English). [6] thereason for this [ citation needed ] is that the names of the new Dublin county councils never examined at committee level in the Houses of the Oireachtas, and was last changed in 1991 local Government Act, which took effect. Both parliamentary debates and Dublin County Council’s own reorganization report published in 1992 concluded that the name Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown was “unacceptable”. A one-year proviso in the 1993 Local Government (Dublin) Act to change the name of the county at the local level were allowed by the new Council. The legislation allows the elected members of the Council to comment on further legislation to change the name of the county.

County insignia

The motto on the insignia of the County Council’s reading, Ó Chuan go Sliabh , Irish for “From the port to the mountain.” The crown of the device is that King Lóegaire mac Neill (Laoghaire, the högkung in the fifth century, who lived in the area).

Local governments and politics

Main article: Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council

Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council is the local authority for the county. There are six local electoral areas (Leah) for the county that once a total of 28 Council as follows: Ballybrack (6), Black Rock (4), Dundrum (6), Dun Laoghaire (6), “Glencullen / Sandyford” (3) still means (3).

1986 “administrative region” of Dublin was divided into three “electoral counties.” Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Dublin – Fingal, Dublin – Belgard [7] In 1994, the Dublin County Council and the Corporation of Dun Laoghaire was abolished and the three electoral counties became “administrative counties”, named Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin respectively. [8] In 2001, the “administrative counties” was redesignated as simply “county”. The three counties with Dublin is Dublin region. The label “Dublin” continues to be used informally for this area (the city has been administered separately from Dublin since 1548).

For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided between constituencies in Dun Laoghaire (4 representatives) and Dublin Rathdown (three representatives), with the division generally runs längsN11. These constituencies currently has four Fine Gael TD, a Green Party TD, an anti-austerity Alliance People before Profit TD and an independent TD.

Dublin region represents the Dublin constituency in the European elections.

Transport

The Dublin Area Rapid Transit system runs through the east coast of the county and connects to the center of Dublin in the north as well as other points north and south of Iarnród Éireann railway system, with connections to the Intercity train. The green Luas line runs through the center of the county.

There is a medium sized ferry port at Dun Laoghaire, with ferry crossings to and from Holyhead in North Wales, this is a popular route for tourists traveling across the Irish Sea from Great Britain. With the advent of faster boats have day trips with Dun Laoghaire Harbour has become more popular.

footnotes

  1. Jump up ^ Electoral Change Act 2009 – Schedule
  2. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – County Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown Overview
  3. Jump up ^ (regional authorities) Establishment Order 1993.
  4. Jump up ^ Fingal County Council website, which (apart from the references to the Council itself) both “Fingal County” and “Fingal County” appears, but much less frequently than “Fingal” alone.
  5. Jump up ^ Local Government (Dublin) Act 1993 – Section 9 (2c)
  6. Jump up ^ DLRcoco.ie
  7. Jump up ^ “Local Government (Reorganisation) Act, 1985, section 12”.Irish Statute Book. Retrieved February 14, 2014. “SI No. 400/1993 – The Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1993 Initial Order, 1993.”. Irish Statute Book. Taken 14 februari2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “SI No. 400/1993 – The Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1993 Initial Order, 1993.”. Irish Statute Book. Retrieved February 14, 2014.”Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1993″. Irish Statute Book. Retrieved February 14, 2014.

Temple Bar, Dublin

Temple Bar (Irish: Barra a Teampaill ) is an area on the south bank of the River Liffey in central Dublin, Ireland. The area bounded by the Liffey to the north, Dame Street to the south, Westmoreland Street to the east and Fishamble Street in the west. Unlike other parts of Dublin city center, it is touted as Dublin’s cultural quarter, and has a lively nightlife that is popular among tourists. Popular venues include The Palace Bar, The Temple Bar Pub, Oliver St. John Gogarty and The Auld Dubliner (fine boys bar).

Temple Bar is the zip code Dublin 2 (D2), and has an estimated population of 3000th

History

The historical name of the district was not Temple Bar but St Andrews Parish. It was a suburb of medieval (Anglo-Norman) Dublin, located outside the city walls, but it fell into disuse in the early 14th century, as the country was attacked by the native Irish. Soil renovated again in the 17th century, to create gardens for the houses of wealthy English families.

The original line of the Liffey, the beach was marked by Essex Street Temple Bar Fleet Street, but the land beyond the walls of the progressive and recycled. Unusually, the reclaimed land does not quayed the beginning, but had houses adjoining the water, and it was not until 1812 that these houses were replaced by Wellington Quay. Bernard de Gomme map of Dublin in 1673, the large recovery and new building that had taken place in the eastern suburbs south of the Liffey in the 17th century. The Gomme’s is the earliest map or document specifically refer to Temple Bar and other familiar streets in the area is dusted (Dame) Street and dirty (formerly Hogges, now Temple) Lane. [1]

Many sources agree that Temple Bar Street got its name from the Temple family, and especially Sir William Temple (rector of Trinity College from 1609 to 1627), whose houses and gardens are there in the early 17th century.But given the presence of a historic district with the same name in London, it seems that the new Temple Bar Street in Dublin must have been a nod to his older and more famous cousin.

In addition, London’s Temple Bar adjacent to Essex Street to the west and Fleet Street to the east and streets with the same names occupy similar positions in relation to the Temple Bar. It seems almost certain because Dublin’s Temple Bar was named first in imitation of the historic Temple police station in London. But a secondary and equally plausible reason for using the name of Temple Bar in Dublin would be a reference to one of the area’s most prominent families, in a kind of pun or play on words. Or, as it has been put more succinctly, Temple Bar “honors to London and landlord in nicely measured proportions”. [2]

Fishamble Street near Temple Bar was the site of the first performance of Handel’s Messiah, 13 April 1742. An annual performance of Messiah held the same day at the same location. A republican revolutionary group, the Society of the United Irishman, was formed at a meeting in a tavern in Eustace Street 1791st

In the 18th century was the center of prostitution in Dublin. [3] During the 19th century, the area slowly declined in popularity, and in the 20th century, suffered from the urban decay, with many derelict buildings.

In the 1980s, the state-owned transport company Coras Iompair Éireann (CIE). Proposed to buy up and demolish property in the area and build a bus terminal in its place. Although it was in the planning stage, where they bought buildings let at low rents, which attracted small shops, artists and galleries in the area. Protests from a Taisce, residents and traders led to the cancellation, the bus station, and then Prime Minister Charles Haughey was responsible for securing funding, [4] and in 1991 the government set up a non-profit company called Temple Bar Properties to oversee the regeneration of the area Dublin’s cultural quarter. [5]

In 1999, the “stag parties” and “hen parties” supposedly forbidden (or discouraged) from Temple Bar, mainly because of drunken loutish behavior, although this seems to have expired. [6] But the noise and anti-social behavior is usually driven by excessive alcohol consumption is still a problem at night. [7]

Present

The area is the location of many Irish cultural institutions, including the Irish Photography Centre (incorporating the Dublin Institute of Photography, the national photographic archive and the Gallery of Photography), Ark Children’s Cultural Center, the Irish Film Institute, incorporating the Irish Film Archive, the Button Factory, Arthouse Multimedia Centre, Temple Bar Gallery and Studios, the project Arts Centre, the Gaiety School of Acting, IBAT College Dublin, and the Irish stock Exchange and the Central Bank of Ireland.

After nightfall, the area is a major center for nightlife, with many tourist-oriented nightclubs, restaurants and bars. Pubs include The Temple Bar Pub, The Porterhouse, Oliver St. John Gogarty, Turkish head, Czech Inn (the former Isolde Tower), the Quays Bar, the Foggy Dew, The Auld Dubliner and Bad Bob.

Two squares have been renovated in recent years – Meeting Square and the center of Temple Bar Square . The Temple Bar Book Market is held on Saturdays and Sundays in Temple Bar Square.

Meeting Square, which takes its name from the nearby Quaker Meeting House, used for outdoor film screenings during the summer months. Since summer 2004, the Meeting Square is also home to the Speaker’s Squareproject (an area of public speaking) and the Temple Bar Food Market every Saturday.

The cow’s Lane Market is a fashion and design market that takes place on the cow’s Lane every Saturday.

Part of the 13th century August Friary of the Holy Trinity is visible in an apartment / restaurant complex called “The Friary.” [8]

In popular culture

  • The Bollywood film Ek Tha Tiger had a song in the area. [9]
  • Irish singer / songwriter Billy Treacy released a satirical song about Temple Bar. [10]
  • The Irish singer Nathan Carter released a song called Temple Bar. [11]

See also

  • List of streets in Dublin

References

  1. Jump up ^ Sean Murphy, “A Brief History of Dublin’s Temple Bar”, the Centre for Irish genealogical and historical studies, Bray, County Wicklow. web here
  2. Jump up ^ Murphy, op. cit., quotes the National Library of Ireland, “Maps Dublin’s historic”, Dublin, 1988.
  3. Jump up ^ Striapacha Tri Chead Bliain Duailcis (Prostitutes: Three hundred years of Vice) Niamh O’Reilly, J. Irish Studies
  4. Jump up ^ Obituary Charles Haughey, The Independent June 14, 2006
  5. Jump up ^ Temple Bar framework plan – Dublin Corporation (1991)
  6. Jump up ^ Bar Stag Ban Sends Revellers to the London Sunday Mirror , January 3, 1999
  7. Jump up ^ nightmare in a city that never sleeps – the Irish Times , September 9, 2008
  8. Jump up ^ Casey, Christine (2005). Dublin: The City Within the Grand and Royal canals and Circular Road in the Phoenix Park. Yale University Press. p. 440. ISBN 0300109237th
  9. Jump up^ http://filmireland.net/2011/09/29/bollywood-film-%e2%80%98ek-tha-tiger%e2%80%99-i-am-tiger-shoots-in-temple-bar-dublin-in-october/
  10. Jump up ^ Kehoe, Michael (13 October 2014). “Singer warns Dublin tourist trap”. Irish Music Daily. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ “Stayin ‘Up All Night’. Www.nathancartermusic.com. Pulled 07/27/2016.

Smithfield, Dublin

Smithfield (Irish: Margadh na Feirme , which means “Farm Market”) is an area on the Northside of Dublin. Its focal point is a square, past the open market, now officially called Smithfield Plaza, but locally as Smithfield Square and Smithfield Market.

Famous landmarks include the Old Jameson Whiskey Distillery and lookout tower.

Historically, Smithfield was a suburb of Oxmantown and was within the parish of St. Paul’s. [1] There is no general agreement on the extent of the area known as Smithfield, but it roughly covers the area bounded by the River Liffey to the south, Bow Street to east, queen Street in the west and north of Brunswick street in the suburb of Grange Gorman in the north.

History

Smithfield Market was built in the mid 17th century as a marketplace. Until its renovation in the early 21st century, the square was lined with inner city “farm housing cattle. In 1964, Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor spent time here, because Burton worked on the movie set in Smithfield for the film adaptation of John le Carré’s novel The Spy Who Came in from the cold .Smithfield presented as Checkpoint Charlie in the film. [2]

Smithfield was rejuvenated under HARP (Historic Area rejuvenation plan). [3]An architectural competition was held and won by McGarry NiEanaigh architects in 1997. The renovation involved raising more than 400,000 hundred and twenty years old cobblestones, clean them by hand and restore them.

Contemporary architecture and twelve 26.5 meters of gas lighting masts, each with a 2-foot flame, now flank the square. Although the flames are rarely lit, lighting mast shades sometimes be seen in different colors, which reflect cultural events throughout the year. For example, the switch to a vibrant shade of green as part of the celebration of St. Patrick, and was changed to the colors of the rainbow for the premiere of the 2015 GAZE International LGBT Film Festival at Smithfield Light House Cinema.

The square used to hold several concerts after renovation but these were discontinued after complaints from local residents [ citation needed ] . Although the location has not been developed as a “Western IFSC” that had originally expected (referring to the city’s major financial hubs in the east and its related significant “staff professional” residential), the Plaza provides a convenient through route for the locals as well as for a number of professionals and users of a series of judicial and legal services and related buildings in the area. These range from prison Probation Services to the Family Court and the Law Society of Ireland, including Smithfield and Smithfield Market is located in convenient proximity to Dublin legal / prosecution hub in the Four Courts.

horse fair

The area is known for the historic horse fair, held on the first Sunday in March and September. [4]

Horse Fair used to be monthly. A bye-law on January 14, 2013 reduced to twice a year and this has also established a number of new rules and regulations. [5] The main reasons for the change were some violent incidents and objections from local residents who are uncomfortable with its atmosphere, noise, perceptions of animal abuse and neglect. Smithfield Horse Fair continues to draw heavy and persistent criticism from a variety of sources, including An Garda Síochána and the Dublin Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (DSPCA). [6] [7]

March 6, 2011 shooting

On March 6, 2011, there was a gunfire as a result of a feud between two families travelers. [8] [9] Three people were injured. An explosive device was recovered and examined by the Irish Army experts. Two men were arrested by Gardai. [10] [11]

The Mayor of Dublin, Dublin City Council and DSPCA demanded immediate closure of the fair. [12] [13] [14]

3 April 2011 Incident

3 people were arrested when gardai tried to seize a horse from a man who had ridden the horse in a gallop through the area. [15]

Features

The Old Jameson Distillery Chimney tower and its observation deck, is no longer available to the public because it has long since been closed due to health and safety reasons.

Light House Cinema revived in May 2008 Smithfield Square, after being forced to close their doors on Abbey Street on 27 September 1996. [16]

Developments

Smithfield may include satellite, and develop “museum district” in the west, and Four Courts District in the east. These districts are largely residential and combined with the area around Smithfield Square are the main purchase Liffey river frontage of Dublin 7th

New commercial, residential and cultural development led to the area recently begun in vogue during the first decade of the 21st century. [17] But above all, during the period 2008-2010, stagnation set as development came to a halt and the Irish economy / real estate market nose-dived soon after the Celtic tiger economic downturn struck. The key questions of varying apartment occupancy, with enclosed retail space and an almost absolute majority of unfinished and vacant commercial units at Smithfield Market has created a highly visible reminder of the economic and social challenges that remain to be addressed in this historic part of Dublin.

Red Luas line skirts Square in the south, providing a convenient link to the nearby city center or to the far south of the city, Tallaght, Saggart.

previous station Luas following station
Four Courts against Connolly or The Point Red thread Museums against Tallaght Saggart

References

  1. Jump up ^ Twomey, Brendan (2005). Smithfield and the parish of St. Paul, Dublin, Dublin 1698-1750. Four Courts Press. p. 7.ISBN 1-85182-895-8.
  2. Jump up ^ Frank McNally (2 July 2010). “An Irish Diary”. The Irish Times.
  3. Jump up ^ “” It used to be winos located in Smithfield … now you see the lawyers step over them. ‘ ” Sunday Tribune. 5 July 2009.
  4. Jump up ^http://www.dublincity.ie/RecreationandCulture/Events/Pages/SmithfieldHorseFair.aspx
  5. Jump up^http://www.dublincity.ie/RecreationandCulture/Events/Documents/Smithfield%20Horse%20Fair%20Control%20Bye-Laws%202013.pdf
  6. Jump up ^ “” Miracle nobody killed “at Smithfield horse fair: DSPCA”.Irish Examiner. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 6 mars2011.
  7. Jump up ^ “” It used to be winos located in Smithfield … now you see the lawyers step over them. ‘ ” Sunday Tribune. 5 July 2009.
  8. Jump up ^ Kelly, Olivia (6 March 2011). “Two shots at Smithfield horse fair”. The Irish Times. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  9. Jump up ^ Kelly, Olivia (7 March 2011). “Violence will not hurt the event’s future, say traders.” The Irish Times. Hämtadsyv March 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ Alison Bray; Tom Brady (7 March 2011). “Three hurt in shootout at Smithfield horse fair”. Irish Independent .Hämtad March 7, 2011.
  11. Jump up ^ Kelly, Olivia (7 March 2011). “A man was arrested after two injured in shooting at Smithfield horse fair”. The Irish Times.
  12. Jump up ^ “DSPCA CALL Smithfield Horse Fair close after the shots AND VIOLENCE”. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
  13. Jump up ^ Bray, Alison (7 March 2011). “Calls for the closure of the market where low-horses, ponies and donkeys have been traded since 1665”. Irish Independent. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  14. Jump up ^ Aoife Carr; Olivia Kelly. “Dublin mayor to seek a ban horse fair”. The Irish Times. Taken seven mars2011.
  15. Jump up ^ “Three were arrested at Smithfield Horse Fair”. Rte. 3 April 2011.
  16. Jump up ^ Neil Connolly, Maretta Dillon (May 2008). “History of the Light House Cinema”. Light House Cinema.
  17. Jump up ^ “” It used to be winos located in Smithfield … now you see the lawyers step over them. ‘ ” Sunday Tribune. 5 July 2009.

St Stephens Green

St Stephens Green (Irish: Faiche Stiabhna ) [1] is a city center public park in Dublin, Ireland. The current landscape of the park was designed by William Sheppard, who officially opened to the public on Tuesday, July 27 1880. [2]The park is adjacent to one of Dublin’s main shopping streets, Grafton Street, a shopping mall named after it, while the surrounding streets are offices for a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin’s Luas tram lines. It is often informally called Stephen’s Green. At 22 acres (89,000 m 2 ), it is the largest parks in Dublin important Georgian garden squares. Others also include Merrion Square and Fitzwilliam Square.

The park is rectangular, surrounded by streets that once formed major traffic arteries through Dublin city center, although traffic management changes in 2004 during the Luas works [3] has greatly reduced the volume of traffic.These four neighboring streets called and St Stephens Green North, St. Stephen’s Green South, St Stephens Green East and St Stephen’s Green West.

History

Until 1663 St Stephens Green was a marshy common on the outskirts of Dublin, which is used for grazing. During the year, the Dublin Corporation, sees an opportunity to raise much needed revenues, decided to encircle the center of the joint and to sell land around the perimeter of the building. [4]The park was annexed a wall in 1664. The houses were built around the Green was quickly replaced with new buildings in the Georgian style in the late eighteenth century Green was a place of resort for the better-off in the city. A large part of today’s landscape of the square is made up of modern buildings, some in a replica Georgian style, and relatively little survives from the 18th and 19th centuries.

1814 control of the St Stephen’s Green is sent to the Commissioners for the local households, which redesigned its layout and replaced the walls with railings. [5]

After the death of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s proposals are rejected with indignation by the Dublin Corporation and the people of the city, to the Queen’s chagrin – suggested that St Stephens Green renamed Albert green and has a statue of Albert in the center. [6]

Access to green was limited to the local population, until 1877, when Parliament passed a law to open the St Stephen’s Green to the public, on the initiative avSir AE Guinness, a member of the Guinness brewing family who lived at St. Anne’s Park, Raheny and Ashford Castle. He paid later for the laying of the green for approximately its current form, which took place in 1880, and gave it to the Corporation, on behalf of the people. To thank the city commissioned a statue of him, facing the College of Surgeons. His brother Edward lived påIveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs (now Foreign Affairs).

During the Easter Rising of 1916, a group of rebels consisting mainly of members of the Irish National Army, led by Commandant Michael Mallin and his second highest befälConstance Markievicz, established in St Stephens Green. [4] the numbered between 200 and 250. [7 ] they seized vehicles to set up roadblocks on the streets that surround the park, and dug defensive positions in the park itself. This approach differs from taking up positions in buildings, adopted elsewhere in the city. It turned out to have been unwise when parts of the British army took up positions in the Shelbourne Hotel, in the northeast corner of St Stephens Green, overlooking the park, from where they could shoot down of influence. [4] are in a weak position, volunteer went to the Royal College of Surgeons on the western side of the green. [7] During the Rising, the fire temporarily stopped to allow the park groundsman to feed the local ducks. [8]

The park is now run by the Office of Public Works on behalf of the Irish state.[9]

Development of Parks Design

The landscape of the park has undergone three major changes since its inception. Its first major change took place in 1670: two rows of linden trees planted around the perimeter, acts as its first cover. At this time, the park was only available to the wealthy residents who owned land around the park. [2]

In 1815 the park was redesigned by Dublin city surveyor Arthur Neville. In its redesign, he added, winding roads and iron fence. At this time, the park was still closed to the public. [2]

During the 1860s, the campaign to make the park to the public was going on, and city engineer, George W. Heman, [10] proposed a new design to make the park as a viable and functionally practical as possible. This included the creation of four ports in every corner of the park that would be linked by conserved pathways designed by Neville. This plan finally abandoned, probably due to the fact that Heman was an employee of the Dublin Corporation. But many of Heman “pattern, as the addition of gates and connecting roads, were included in the final plans presented by William Sheppard, the premier designer responsible for the landscape of the park as we know it today, and engineering AL Cousins, sponsored by Lord Ardilaun.Ardilaun also played an important role in the planning and importation of exotic trees and plants that were installed in the park. [2]

Park layout

While the central park of St Stephen’s Green is one of three ancient commons of the city, much depends on the restoration of the 1800s its present form (see History above).

The grounds are roughly rectangular, measuring (approximately) 550 by 450 meters, and are centered on a formal garden.

One of the more unusual aspects of the park is located on the northwest corner of this central area – a garden for the blind with fragrant plants, which can withstand handling, and are labeled in Braille.

Further north again (and spans much of the length of the park) is a great lake. Home to ducks and other waterfowl lake is fed by an artificial waterfall, bridged by the O’Connell Bridge, and fronted by an ornamental gazebo. The lakes in the park are fed from the Grand Canal at Portobello.

To the south side of the main garden circle is more open moorland surrounding a bandstand and often visited by lunching students, workers and consumers on Dublin’s sunnier days.

Other notable features include:

  • the Fusiliers’ Arch at the Grafton Street corner, celebrating the Royal Dublin Fusiliers who died in the Second Boer War.
  • a fountain representing the three Fates inside Leeson Street gate. The statue was designed by Joseph Wackerle in bronze in 1956. It was a gift from the German people in thanks for Irish help for refugee after World War II. Up to five hundred children found the family home in Ireland in a project called Operation Shamrock.
  • a seated statue of Lord Ardilaun on the western side, the man who gave the green to the city, facing the Royal College of Surgeons which he also sponsored (again, see History above)
  • the Yeats memorial garden with a sculpture by Henry Moore
  • a bust of James Joyce faced his former University of Newman House
  • a memorial to the Fenian leader Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa near the Grafton Street entrance
  • a bronze statue on Merrion Row corner of Wolfe Tone, the leader of the 1798 uprising.
  • a memorial to the Great Famine of 1845-1850 by Edward Delaney
  • a bust of Constance Markievicz on the southern part of the central garden (see History above)
  • a statue of Robert Emmet resist his birthplace (now demolished) at No. 124th
  • a memorial bust of Thomas Kettle, the deaths of World War II. The attempt to erect a memorial bust of Kettle was marred by controversy, until it was finally placed – without official unveiling, in the middle section.

Sheet addresses

Iveagh House on the south side was created from the joining of two earlier houses (numbers 80 and 81) by Benjamin Guinness in the 1860s. It was donated to the Irish State, the Guinness family in 1939 and now houses the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Also on the south side of St Stephen’s Green are Newman House (numbers 85 and 86, after John Henry Newman) and University Church . These are home to the Catholic University of Ireland, which was founded in the 19th century. It is linked with the University College Dublin, but is no longer active educationally in its own right.

The Unitarian Church , Dublin, built in the Gothic revival style, situated on the west side of St Stephen’s Green.

Also on the west side is the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (No. 123), home to the oldest of the Republic of Ireland’s six medical schools.

On the west side, at the top of Grafton Street, Stephens Green Shopping Centre, built in October 1988. It was at the time, Ireland’s largest shopping center. Its style was intended to represent a conservatory on the side facing the green and brick reflect the design of the opposite Gaiety Theatre on South King Street.

On the north side of St Stephen’s Green, there were four [4] , but is now two clubs (originally gentlemen’s clubs), the Hibernian United Services Club(number 8, was completed in 2002), the Stephens Green Hibernian Club(number 9, initially, Stephen Green Club, before the merger with the Hibernian United Services Club), the “Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick” (number 22, now closed) and Kildare Street and University Club (number 17).This side of the green also has the historic Shelbourne Hotel and the recently opened Little Museum of Dublin, which is housed in a restored Georgian townhouse.

Loreto College, St Stephens Green , one of Ireland’s most famous toll schools for girls, is at number 53, on the eastern side of the Green.

St Vincent’s Hospital , now located in a suburb on the south side of Dublin, was previously placed in the buildings on the east side of St Stephen’s Green and on Leeson Street.

Transport

Dublin Bus routes 7b, 7d, 11, 32x, 37, 41x, 44, 46, 61, 84x and 145 all stop along the east side of the square

The green line of the Luas tram system stops at St Stephens Green stop on the west side of the park. Although currently a trailing stop, the planned Luas Cross City extension would see the stop as a connecting station from the existing Luas Green Line, crossing the city (and the Luas red line), and continues to Broom Bridge Station in Cabra. The line is scheduled to open in 2017. [11]

See also

  • List of streets in Dublin

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ “Sraidainmneacha Bhaile Atha Cliath” (PDF). Dublin City Council. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcd “Report on St Stephens Green” (PDF). UCD School of Archaeology.
  3. Jump up ^ “roadworks on St Stephen’s Green to turn the traffic flow and limit movement.” The Irish Times. June 6, 2004. Archived from the original 20 May 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abcd . Casey, Christine (2006): Dublin city within the Grand and Royal canals and Circular Road in the Phoenix Park. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10923-8.
  5. Jump up ^ “Archiseek.com – St Stephen’s Green, Dublin.” Archiseek.com.Archived from the original January 11, 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ “A Queen Welcome: Victoria’s stormy affair with Ireland.”Irish Examiner. 26 June 2010.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab “1916 Rising: Personalities and prospects – Stephens Green” (PDF). National Library of Ireland. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ Michael O’Sullivan, Bernard O’Neill: The Shelbourne and its people (Blackwater Press 1999), p.45 ISBN 1-84131-442-0
  9. Jump up ^ “Ireland OPW Heritage Site – St Stephens Green page”.HeritageIreland.ie (OPW). Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  10. Jump up ^ “Dictionary of Irish Architects – Heman, GEORGE WILLOUGHBY.” Dia.ie. 13.11.1926. Pulled 12/28/2013.
  11. Jump up ^ “Green light given to the Luas link-up, first passengers in 2017 – RTÉ News”. Rte.ie. August 3, 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.

St. Michan’s Church, Dublin (Ireland)

St. Michan’s Church / m ɪ ʃ ən / located in Church Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a Protestant church Anglican Communion. The first Christian chapel on the site is from 1095, and served as a Catholic church to the Reformation. [3] The current church dates from 1686, and has served the Church of Ireland church members in Dublin for more than 300 years.

Building

Built on the site of an early Nordic chapel from 1095, is the current structure largely from a reconstruction carried out under William Robinson 1686, [3]but is still the only parish church on the north side of the Liffey surviving from a Viking foundation.

While the exterior of the church may be unimpressive, the interior has some fine woodwork and an organ (dated 1724) that Handel is said to have composed his Messiah. [4]

Vault

The vault in St. Michan’s contains unique many mummified remains. [2] The walls of the vault contains limestone, which has kept air dry, which creates ideal conditions for preservation. [5] Among the preserved remains of 400-year-old body of a nun, a six and- a-half-foot man popularly believed to have been a crusader, a body with their feet and right hand chopped off, and Sheares brothers Henry and John-who participated in the 1798 uprising. The various holders of the title Earl of Leitrim is also buried here. [6]

The church and the vault is open for tours on Saturdays, and season on some weekdays. As an active place of worship, however, the church closed on Sundays for the visitors. [4]

Organ

The organ, built around 1940 by Evans and Barr in Belfast, [ citation needed ] is housed in organ case eighteenth-century designed by John Baptiste Cuvillie between 1723-1725. [7] The three manual pneumatic console uses modern compass and playing dimensions yet been pressed into the space originally occupied by the much narrower keyboard. [ citation needed ] the Swell division has a slider soundboard, with separate pneumatic for action; Large and Choir divisions served by spools less valve chests. [ Citation needed ] Stop Action is pneumatic whole. [ Citation needed ]

In front of the gallery’s Body Trophy, a carved piece depicting 17 musical instruments and was installed in 1724. [7] It is generally believed that George Frideric Handel practiced well before the first performance of Messiah in this body. [7] [8]

ceremonies

Michaelmas term and legal year, opened with a service in St. Michan’s Church every October. [ Citation needed ] It is frequented by members of the Irish Bar and Law Society, and is similar to the British equivalent service at Westminster Abbey. [ Context? ]

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Brief History of St. Michan’s Church Halston Street “(PDF).Capuchin Friar part. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “mummies St. Michan s “. Ireland for the visitors.Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “St. Michan – About us – History – The origins of the church and the congregation. ” StMichans.com (official site). Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “St. Michan’s Church.” Site Christ Church Cathedral churches. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ “Waking the Dead: mummies St. Michan’s Church, Dublin.”Blather.net. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ George Newenham Wright (2005). “A historical guide to the city of Dublin.” Online book. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  7. ^ Jump up to: abc “St. Michan’s Church bodies”. The site of St Michan’s.Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ Horatio Townsend (1852). An account of the visit of Trade to Dublin. McGlashan. pp. 96th

St Marys Pro-Cathedral

St. Mary’s Church (Irish: Leah-Ardeaglais Naomh Muire ), also known as St Mary’s Pro-Cathedral or simply Pro-Cathedral , is a pro-cathedral and the bishop’s seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin and Primate of Ireland.

Status as “pro-cathedral”

Though Christchurch has been in possession of the Anglican Church for almost five hundred years, it is still seen by the Roman Catholic Church as the primary official Dublin cathedral, because it was so appointed by the Pope at the request of the then Archbishop of Dublin St. Laurence O’Toole in the 12th century. Unless the pope either formal withdrawal of Christ denomination or grants cathedral status to another church, the main Roman Catholic church in Dublin will continue to be referred to as “pro-cathedral”[1] (that is, in effect acting cathedral), a title officially given to Mary’s Church in 1886, though it is used as the title unofficially since 1820 talet.Staden Dublin has two cathedrals, but unusually, both belong to a church, minority Church of Ireland, which until 1871 had been the religious establishment in Ireland. In contrast, the majority religion in Ireland, Roman Catholicism, has no cathedral in the capital of Ireland and has not had one since the Reformation, when the Church of Ireland was founded by Henry VIII’s break from Rome. As the official church, the Church of Ireland took control of most church property, including the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (commonly known as Christ Church) and St.Patricks Cathedral. These two churches had long shared the role Cathedral in Dublin, controversial at first, then under an agreement in 1300, Pacis Composition , who gave Christ formal precedence, including the right to enthrone the archbishop and to keep up his cross, miter and ring after death, but with the deceased archbishops Dublin to be buried alternately in each of the two cathedrals, unless they personally wanted another, and the two cathedrals to act as one, and “shared equally in their freedoms.”

History

Pro-Cathedral has its origins in the anti-Catholic penal laws [2] which restricted Catholicism (and other non-Church of Ireland faiths) until the early nineteenth century. For centuries, Catholics could not celebrate Mass or the sacraments publicly, and were subject to severe punishment (hence the word punishment ). Although these laws ebbed and flowed in terms of severity as they were applied, Catholic churches if they were built at all, built into narrow, difficult to find roads. In the early nineteenth century, many of the criminal laws had either been canceled or is no longer respected, an unsuccessful attempt has already been made to grant Catholic Emancipation. As a result, Catholicism began to abandon their former status as an “underground” religion. 1803, a committee formed when Archbishop John Thomas Troy bought Lord Annesley’s townhouse on the corner of Marlborough Street and Elephant Lane (now Cathedral Street), within sight of the city’s main street, Sackville Street (now O’Connell Street) as the site of the planned new pro-cathedral, in anticipation of an erection, when funds and the law allowed, by a full Roman Catholic cathedral. The architect chosen to perform design was George Papworth. In June 1814 the demolition of the house took place. It was followed by the construction of a new pro-cathedral that combined a number of styles, but externally is closest to the Greek revival. Internally, it is more Roman than Grecian. The new archbishop of Dublin, Daniel Murray celebrated the new pro-cathedral ended November 14, 1825.

Although not a full cathedral, became the new building is a symbol of the Irish nationalist spirit in the period after the end of the criminal laws. Daniel O’Connell, leader of Irish nationalism and the first Catholic MP elected to the British House of Commons, was present at a special thanksgiving High Mass in the Pro-Cathedral in 1829 following the granting avkatolska Emancipation, which among other things had allowed Catholics to be elected to Parliament. In 1841, the first Catholic mayor of Dublin for centuries, O’Connell formally celebrated his election by traveling in the state to “Pro” High Mass. After he died in 1847, his remains were in the state on a large catafalque in the Pro-Cathedral.

Plans for a full Cathedral

Pro-Cathedral was never intended to be anything other than a temporary acting cathedral, pending the availability of funds to build a full cathedral.Different locations for new cathedral discussed. WT Cosgrave, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (prime minister) from 1922 to 1932 and a deeply religious Catholic, suggested that burned-out shell of the General Post Office, the site 1916 Rising, transformed into a cathedral, but the idea was not acted on, and the GPO be prepared for use as a post office.

John Charles McQuaid, who served as archbishop from the 1940s to the early 1970s, bought the gardens in the center of Merrion Square and announced plans to build a cathedral there, but to the relief of Dubliners, for which the gardens were an oasis of nature in the center of a lively city, [ weasel words ] his plans never came to pass and the gardens eventually handed over by his successor to the Dublin Corporation and opened to the public. Although it is suggested periodically to Church of Ireland, which has a relatively small membership can hand over one of its cathedrals to the Roman Catholic Church, has no serious proposals have been made for such an arrangement.(Dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral (which acts as the “National Cathedral” of the Church of Ireland – Christchurch treated as pin Cathedral in Dublin) did propose to allow Catholic masses to be celebrated in St. Patrick’s but the idea was dropped after opposition in the Church of Ireland. ) Although theoretically the possibility of building a new Roman Catholic cathedral on the agenda, in fact, most of the funds raised to build a new cathedral has been building new churches in what was for a long time, a rapidly growing Archdiocese .

State ceremony in the Pro-Cathedral

Funeral of Michael Collins in 1922 – a contemporary newspaper drawing.This picture shows the original before Vatican II Turn Nelli high altar, the pulpit (right) and Ärkebiskopenscathedra (left, with cover)

Pro-Cathedral is still a focal point of religious and state ceremonial activity.Until 1983, incoming President of Ireland traditionally attended before the civil inauguration, a religious ceremony in either St. Patrick’s Cathedral (if they were members of the Church of Ireland) or Pro-Cathedral (if they were Catholic). While up to 1973, the ceremonies were exclusively denominational, ceremonies of inaugurations President Childers in 1973, President Ó Dálaigh 1974, President Hillery 1976, multidenominational, with representatives of the Catholic, Church of Ireland, Presbyterian, Methodist and the Jewish faith who participate in ceremony. (In 1973 it took place in St. Patrick, in 1974 and 1976 in the Pro-Cathedral.) 1983 a multidenominational service was included as part of the civil inauguration in Dublin Castle.

The major religions held religious ceremonies in their main cathedral or pro-cathedral to mark the beginning of the law term or a meeting in Parliament, which would be attended President of Ireland, Taoiseach, ministers, opposition parliamentarians and members of the diplomatic corps. State funeral of the major figures, including Michael Collins and former President Seán T. O’Kelly, Éamon de Valera, Patrick Hillery and Mayor of Dublin Kathleen Clarke took place there. A painting of the funeral of Michael Collins hangs in Aras an Uachtarain, the presidential residence.

Layout

Internally, the Pro-Cathedral is dramatically different from the two most important cathedrals in Dublin. Its blend of Greek and Roman styles have proved controversial, as variously described as an artistic gem and a disgrace.Its main time leads up to an altar, behind which a stained glass window of the Virgin Mary (Saint Mary of the name) is visible. For most of its existence it had a massive Victorian altar and reredos of Turnerelli, a Belfast born sculptor of Italian descent. In the late 1970s, this was removed as part of a reformulation in order to get their sanctuary in line with the changes that followed the introduction of the review of the Mass. The altar was removed completely, which only the Tabernacle, but the front of the original altar was reinstated in the new altar, which was moved to the middle of a new paved surface on an extended sanctuary. The altar also removed. The pulpit was moved too, and is currently sitting unused in a corner of the building. A large contingent of Italian craftsmen employed by the church to decorate the interior of the cathedral.

Pro-cathedral caught fire in the early 1990s. Although the fire was extinguished before it took hold of the building, was considerable smoke damage to one corner of the building around the monument to Cardinal Cullen, perhaps the most famous of all nineteenth-century archbishop, and the first Archbishop of Dublin to be made a cardinal.

Bodies Pro-Cathedral

The original organ in the Pro-Cathedral built by Dublin body builder, John White, more than a hundred years ago, and this instrument includes some of White’s original pipework. The current facade of the date of organs from William Hill rebuilding of the organ around 1900. Subsequent work was done by Henry Willis & Co. in the 1930s, before the JW Walker extensive remodeling of 1971 under the administrator Monsignor John Moloney and the recent renovation of the instrument, with the same firm that was completed in the fall of 1995 the renovated instrument was inaugurated in a gala concert given by Olivier Latry on 20 March 1996.

Interestingly swell of the organ is built into the back wall of the church. The gaps in the waves are in line with the rest of the wall. The organ console itself was moved to a general reorganization of the church in 1995. This was to facilitate the direction of the choir.

This body has been regarded as one of the finest examples in Ireland in the late nineteenth century grand romantic organs, and has since initial installation prominent in the many great liturgical occasions have graced the pro-cathedral. In recent times, many of the major organ recitalists of our time have done it: Daniel Chorzempa, Xavier Darasse, Sir David Lumsden, Daniel Roth, Dame Gillian Weir, Arthur Well, Olivier Latry, and others. The current Titular organist at Saint Mary’s Pro-Cathedral Professor Gerard Gillen who has held this position since 1971. For

A choir organ is on the letter (right) side of the high altar. Since the development of the great organ, it fell into disuse, and after a few years was closed. The lack most of its internal piping and its keyboard. It is characteristic of the earlier period of the Pro-Cathedral.

Music of the Pro-Cathedral

Music has always been a central service in Saint Mary Pro Cathedral. The Palestrina Choir is the resident choir of Saint Mary Pro-Cathedral. It had its origin in a boys’ choir was formed in the 1890s avVincent O’Brien, then a music teacher at St Mary’s Place Christian Brothers School in Dublin. It was at a performance of Palestrina’s Do Papae Marcelli at St. Teresa’s Carmelite Church in Clarendon Street in 1898 as the choir came to the attention of Edward Martyn, their founding sponsor. Martyn wanted to promote the music of Palestrina espoused by Pius X as a standard liturgical music should pursue. The Palestrina Choir was formed and installed in the Pro-Cathedral of January 1, 1903 O’Brien as a director.

In the century since its inception, the choir has had seven members. Vincent O’Brien, director until 1946, succeeded by his son, Oliver. In 1978 took Fr Seán O hEarcaigh the baton of Oliver O’Brien. He was succeeded in 1982 by Ite O’Donovan and 1996 by Comdt Joseph Ryan. Orla Barry was director from late 1996 to 2001. The current director is Blánaid Murphy, who is widely recognized as one of Ireland’s most prominent choral teachers, especially children’s voices. Over the years, Palestrina Choir has attracted singers of high renown. John McCormack was a member of the choir from 1904 to 1905. Many new members are now prominent soloists, mainly Emmanuel Lawler, who started his singing career as a boy soprano in a choir. In recent years, the choir has traveled extensively, singing in many cathedrals and venues throughout Ireland, Europe and North America.

During the school term Palestrina choir sing on Sunday morning Solemn Latin Mass (Novus Ordo), Friday evening Vespers and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament (5:15) and Mass (5:45).

A girls’ choir was founded in 2009. The choir sings today 10 o’clock Mass on Sundays and 17:45 on the evening Mass on Tuesdays. Cantors and visiting choirs often help with the musical liturgies in the Cathedral.

Another permanent group is Pro Nuova group that sings contemporary liturgical music on Sunday evening Mass.

funerals

  • John Thomas Troy, Archbishop of Dublin (1786-1823)
  • Daniel Murray, Archbishop of Dublin (1823-1852)
  • Edward Joseph Byrne, Archbishop of Dublin (1921-1940)
  • John Charles McQuaid, Archbishop of Dublin (1940-1972)
  • Dermot Ryan, Archbishop of Dublin (1972-1984)
  • Kevin McNamara, Archbishop of Dublin (1984-1987)

Guinness Brewery

St. James Gate Brewery (Irish: Grúdlann Gheata Naomh Séamuis ) is a brewery founded in 1759 in Dublin, Ireland by Arthur Guinness. The company is now part avDiageo, a company formed from the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan in 1997. The main product of the brewery is Guinness Draught.

Originally leased in 1759 Arthur Guinness Book of IR £ 45 (Irish pounds) per year for 9000 years, St. James Gate has been home to the Guinness ago. It became the largest brewery in Ireland in 1838, and the largest in the world in 1886, with an annual output of 1.2 million barrels. [1] Although no longer the largest brewer in the world, it is still the largest brewer of stout in the world .The company has since bought out originally leased property, [2] and during the 19th and early 20th centuries the brewery owned most of the buildings in the surrounding area, including many streets of housing for brewery employees and offices in connection with the brewery. The brewery also has all its own power with their own power plants. [ Citation needed ]

There is an attached exhibition on the 250-year history of Guinness, called the Guinness Storehouse.

History

Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in Leixlip, Kildare, and then from 1759 at the St. James Gate Brewery in Dublin. On December 31, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £ 45 per year for the unused brewery. [3] [4] But the lease is no longer in effect because the brewery property has been bought out when it expanded beyond the original 4 -acre site. [2]

Ten years after its establishment on May 19, 1769 Guinness exported their beer (he had stopped brewing ale then) for the first time, when six and a half barrels were shipped to England. The business expanded through the adoption of steam power and re-exporting to the UK market. On the death of Benjamin Guinness in 1868 the business was worth over £ 1 million, and the brewery site had grown from about 1 acre to over 64 acres. In 1886, his son Edward sold 65 percent of its business through a public offering on the London Stock Exchange for £ 6 million.

The company pioneered several quality control measures. The brewery hired statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym “Student” of the techniques developed for Guinness, particularly Student’s t-distribution and the even more famous t-test. [5]

Because of the Irish Free State’s “Control of Manufactures Act” in 1932, the company moved its headquarters to London later that year. [6] Guinness brewed their last porter in 1974.

In 1983, a non-family CEO Ernest Saunders was appointed and arranged reverse acquisition of the leading Scotch whiskey producer Distillers in 1986. Saunders then asked to resign after revelations that the Guinness share price had been illegally manipulated (see Guinness share trading fraud).

In 1986, Guinness PLC was in the middle of a bidding war for the much larger Distillers Company. In the final phase, Guinness stock increased by 25 percent – which was unusual, because the stock of the acquiring company usually falls in a situation takeover. Guinness paid several individuals and institutions, mainly American arbitrageur Ivan Boesky, about $ 38 million to buy $ 300 million worth of Guinness stock. The effect was to increase the value of the deal for Distillers, whose leadership favored merged with Guinness.

In connection with the investigation revealed that Bank Leu was involved in half of the purchases. Two of Guinness’ directors signed the-table agreements where the Bank Leu subsidiaries in Zug and Lucerne bought 41 million shares of Guinness. Guinness secretly promised to redeem shares at cost, including commission. In order to fulfill their part of the agreement Guinness, deposited $ 76 million with Bank Leu’s Luxembourg subsidiary.

As Distillers was worth more than the Guinness plc, the Guinness family shareholding in the merged company went below 10 percent, and today no one family member on the board. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986. [7]

The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo plc, activated in 2006 at about EUR 40 billion. [8] Although it is not officially taken over completely, owns the Guinness family is still 51 percent of the brewery.Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland switched to St James Gate Brewery Dublin. [9]

Products

The main product is the Guinness phrases, a 4.2% ABV dry stout which is one of the most successful beer brands in the world. For many years a part of the drink aged to give a sharp lactic flavor, although Guinness has refused to confirm if this is still happening. The thick creamy head is the result of beer mixed with nitrogen when poured. It is popular with Irish people both in Ireland and abroad and despite a decline in consumption in recent years, is the best selling alcoholic drink of all time in Sweden [10] [11] , where Guinness & Co. making almost € 2 billion annually. The brewery also producesGuinness Original , a 4.3% ABV version of the draft, but nitrogen; [12] Caliber, a low alcohol pale lager; Guinness Bitter, an 4.4% bitters sold in a jar with a widget; and 7.5%, Guinness Foreign Extra Stout.

varieties

Guinness stout is available in several varieties and strengths, which include:

  • Guinness Draught, sold in kegs, cans and bottles widget: 4.1 to 4.3% alcohol by volume (ABV); Extra Cold served by a super cooler at 3,5 ° C (38.3 ° F). [13]
  • Guinness Original / Extra Stout: 4.2 or 4.3% ABV in Ireland and the rest of Europe, 4.1% in Germany, 4.8% in Namibia and South Africa, 5% in the US and Canada, and 6% in Australia and Japan.
  • Guinness Foreign Extra Stout: 7.5% ABV version sold in Europe, America, Africa, the Caribbean and Asia. The foundation is an unfermented but hopped Guinness wort extract shipped from Dublin, which added to local ingredients and brewed locally. The strength can vary, for example, it sold 5% ABV in China, 6.5% ABV in Jamaica and eastern Africa, and 8% ABV in Singapore. [14] In Nigeria, part of the sorghum is used. Foreign Extra Stout mixed with a small amount of the intended fermented beer. [15]
  • Guinness Special Export Stout, sold in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, originally brewed in 1945 Naafi be sent to British troops stationed in Europe. [16]
  • Guinness Bitter, an English-style bitter beer: 4.4% ABV.
  • Guinness Extra Smooth, a smoother stout sold in Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria: 5.5% ABV.
  • Malta Guinness, a sweet alcoholic drink produced in Nigeria and exported to the UK and Malaysia.
  • Guinness Mid-Strength, a low-alcohol stout test marketed in Limerick, Ireland in March 2006 [17] and in Dublin in May 2007: [18] 2.8% ABV.
  • Caliber, a premium non-alcoholic lagers. It is brewed as a full-strength layer; Since the end of brewing alcohol removed: 0.05% ABV.
  • Guinness Red, brewed in exactly the same way as Guinness except that the grain is only lightly toasted so that it provides a brighter, slightly fruitier red ale; test marketed in the UK in February 2007 :. 4.1% ABV [19]
  • 250 Anniversary Stout, released in the US, Australia and Singapore, April 24, 2009: [20] 5% ABV.
  • Guinness Nitro IPA, which was introduced in September 2015. An ale made with 5 variteis of hops (Admiral, Celeia, topaz, challenger, and cascade). It is packaged in jars with a nitrogen widget on 5.8% ABV.

In October 2005, the Guinness Book of the Brewhouse Series, a limited edition collection of draft stouts available for about six months each. There were three beers in the series.

  • “Toucan Brew introduced in May 2006. It was named after the cartoon toucan used in many Guinness advertising. The beer had a sharper taste with a slightly sweet taste due to its triple jumped brewing.
  • North Star was introduced in October 2006 and sold until the end of 2007. Three million liters of Northstar was sold during the second half of 2007. [21]

Despite an announcement in June 2007 that the fourth Brewhouse Stout will begin in October of the same year, [22] no new beer showed up in late 2007, it seemed Brewhouse Series has quietly canceled.

Withdrawn Guinness variants include Guinness Brite Lager, Guinness Brite Ale, Guinness Light, Guinness XXX Extra Strong Stout, Guinness Cream Stout, Guinness Gold, Pilsner Guinness, Guinness Breo (a slightly citrusy wheat beers), Guinness Shandy, and Guinness Special Light. Breo (which means “spirit” in the Old Irish) was a wheat beer; it cost about 5 million Irish pounds to develop.

For a short time in the late 1990s, produced the Guinness’ St. James Gate “range of craft-style beers, are available in a small number of Dublin pubs.The beers were: Pilsner gold, Wicked Red Ale, Wildcat wheat beer and Dark Angel stock.

A brewing byproduct of Guinness, Guinness Yeast Extract (GYE), was produced until the 1950s.

Guinness family

The grandson of the original Arthur Guinness, Sir Benjamin Guinness, was mayor of Dublin and was created a baronet in 1867, only to die next year. His eldest son, Arthur, Baron Ardilaun (1840-1915), sold control of the brewer Sir Benjamin’s third son Edward (1847-1927), who became the 1st Earl of Iveagh.Iveagh launched the company on the London Stock Exchange in 1886. Until then, the only other parties outside of the Guinness family were members of the Purser family who helped run the brewery during most of the nineteenth century. He, his son and grandson, 2nd and 3rd Earl, chairman of Guinness now until the 3rd earl’s death in 1992. There are no longer any members of the Guinness family at the table.

Plans

On June 17, 2007 The Sunday Independent first reported that Diageo was considering selling most of the St. James Gate Brewery to take advantage of high property prices in Ireland. [23] The story was widely picked up by both the national and international media organizations, but the proposal to build a new Dublin brewery at Leixlip on land belonging to Desmond Guinness was canceled in late 2008 when the Irish property prices had dropped, and so the ability to sell a large part of the current brewery to meet the lower cost of building a new’d gone. [24]

The following day, the Irish Daily Mail ran a follow-up story with a double page complete with photos and a history of the plant since 1759. Initially, Diageo said that talk of a movement was pure speculation, but given the mounting speculation in the wake of Sunday Independent article the company confirmed that it is conducting a “major review of its activities”.This is largely thanks to the efforts of the company’s continued efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the bridge on the St. James Gate facility.[25]

On 23 November 2007, appeared an article in the Evening Herald , a Dublin newspaper that Dublin City Council, in the best interest of the city of Dublin, had put forward a proposal to prevent the building permit ever granted for the development of the site which makes it very difficult for Diageo to sell the site for residential development.

9 May 2008, Diageo announced that St James Gate Brewery will be open and renovated, but the breweries in Kilkenny and Dundalk will be closed by 2013 when a new larger brewery opened near Dublin.Resultatet will be a loss of approximately 250 jobs in throughout the Diageo / Guinness employees in Ireland. [26] Two days later, the Sunday Independent reported again that Diageo executives had met Tánaiste Mary Coughlan, deputy leader of the Irish Government, to relocate to Ireland from the UK to take advantage of its lower corporate tax rates. Several British companies have taken the step to pay Ireland’s 12.5 percent rate rather than Britain’s 28 per cent interest. [27]Diageo released a statement to the London Stock Exchange denying the report. [28]

Camino de Santiago

St. James’s Gate in Dublin was traditionally a main starting point for Irish pilgrims begin their journey on the Camino de Santiago (Way of St. James).Pilgrims’ passports were stamped this before leaving, usually for A Coruna, north of Santiago. It is still possible for Irish pilgrims to get these traditional document stamped on both the Guinness Storehouse and St. James’ Church, and many do, while on their way to Santiago de Compostela. [29]

Guinness Storehouse

Smoke from a 2009 fire at the brewery where two firefighters were injured. [30]

Main article: Guinness Storehouse

Guinness Storehouse, “Home of Guinness”, is Dublin’s most popular tourist attractions. A converted brewing factory, it is now a Guinness museum, which contains elements from the old brewery factory to explain the history of its production. Some of the old brewing equipment is on show, as well as powerful ingredients, brewing techniques, advertising methods and storage devices.

The exhibition takes place on seven floors, in the form of a 14 million pint glass of Guinness. The last floor is the Gravity Bar, which has a nearly 360 ° panorama of the city, where visitors can claim a free pint of “black stuff”.

The magazine is where they used to add the yeast to the beer fermentation.

Guinness Storehouse visitors do not get to see beer brewed in front of them, but from different points of the building you can see parts of the brewhouse, reservoirs, granaries and the dish farm.

See also

  • Dublin Tramways # Guinness Brewery tramways
  • Guinness World Records
  • St. James Gate FC

References

  1. Jump up ^ “When Brick Lane was home to the largest brewery in the world | Zythophile “. zythophile.wordpress.com. Hämtad14 September 2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Guinness Storehouse FAQ”. Guinness-Storehouse.com.Retrieved 18 March 2012. Question: I am the 9000-year lease still valid?A 9000-year lease signed in 1759 was a four-acre brewery site. Today the brewery covers over 50 acres, who grew up during the last 200 years around the original four tunnland.Den 1759 lease is no longer valid as the company purchased land directly many years ago.
  3. Jump up ^ “Arthur’s Day 2011”. Diageo. 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Archive Paper: Arthur Guinness (1725-1803)” (pdf).Guinness Storehous. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ Douglas W. Hubbard, how to measure something (John Wiley & Sons, 2007) pp 133-134.
  6. Jump up ^ Oliver, Garrett (2011). The Oxford Companion to Beer.Oxford University Press. p. 494. ISBN 9,780,195,367,133th
  7. Jump up ^ Diageo: History
  8. Jump up ^ Spirits soar at Diageo
  9. Jump up ^ Guinness to close its London Brewery
  10. Jump up ^ Barry, Dan (28 August 2000). “In Ireland, pubs, a startling trend.” Lisdoonvarna Journal. The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008. … Guinness stout is still the best-selling alcoholic beverage in Ireland, during the past year, their consumption here has declined by nearly 4 percent.
  11. Jump up ^ “Diageo beer sales continue decline.” The beverage industry Ireland. Barkeeper. 26 February 2007. Hämtattio April 2008. Yet the Guinness Book to be Ireland’s number one beer “by a wide margin” according to Michael Patten, Group Corporate Relations Director of Diageo Ireland, “More than 40 percent of all beer sold in Ireland is Guinness.
  12. Jump up ^ “Guinness Original / Extra Stout (Ireland / UK) from St James Gate (Diageo) – Rate Beer” .ratebeer.com. Retrieved 28 August of 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ Guinness website [ dead link ] Guinness Extra Cold
  14. Jump up ^ “APB: About APB: Our markets: Singapore”.
  15. Jump up ^ Previously it was mixed with beer fermented naturally as a result of the ferment in old oak barrels with Brettanomyces population.There is now made with pasteurized beer having bacterially fermented.Protz, R. (1996). The Ale Trail. Kent: Eric Dobby Publishing. pp. 174-176.
  16. Jump up ^ Guinness Dublin [1] Guinness, 1952. Printed by Hely’s Ltd, East Wall, Dublin.
  17. Jump up ^ Low alcohol Guinness Stout
  18. Jump up ^ Weaker stout designed to make the Guinness Book of a slump Irish Times Online
  19. Jump up ^ Guinness Red Archive 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Jump up ^ “Guinness stout new offer for a limited time – Food Inc.- msnbc.com.”
  21. Jump ^ Guinness sales rally in Diageo
  22. Jump up ^ Guinness to launch fourth in the brewhouse series
  23. Jump up ^ Daniel McConnell (17 June 2007). “Last orders for Guinness time at St James’s Gate ‘. Irish Independent .Hämtad 17 June 2007.
  24. Jump up ^ Irish Times interview on February 20, 2009
  25. Jump up ^ Diageo promises green future for the black stuff
  26. Jump up ^ Diageo keeps Dublin Guinness place to build new
  27. Jump up ^ Horan, Niamh; McConnell, Daniel (11 May 2008). “Diageo is” seriously considering “Irish move”. Irish Independent.
  28. Jump up ^ “Diageo denies report it plans tax move to Ireland”. Reuters.11 May 2008.
  29. Jump up ^ Irish Society of Friends of St. James »Useful information
  30. Jump up ^ “Two firefighters were injured in the blaze of Guinness”. RTE News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009.

Phoenix Park

Phoenix Park (Irish: Pairc an Fhionnuisce [1] ) is a city park in Dublin, Ireland, located 2-4 km west of the center, north of the River Liffey. Its 11 km facade encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. [2] [3] [4] It covers large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. The English name comes from the Irish Fionn Uisce means “pure water”.[5] The Irish government lobbying UNESCO to have the park designated as a World Heritage Site. [6]

History

After the Normans conquered Dublin and its hinterland in the 12th century, Hugh Tyrrel, 1st Baron Castle granted a large tract of land, including what now comprises the Phoenix Park, the Knights Hospitaller. They established a monastery påKilmainham on the spot now occupied by the Royal Hospital Kilmainham. The Knights lost their land in 1537 after the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII of England. Eighty years later lands reverted to the ownership of the king’s representative in Ireland. If the restoration of King Charles II, his Viceroy in Dublin, the Duke of Ormonde, established a royal hunting park in the country in 1662. It contained pheasants and wild deer, making it necessary to enclose the entire area with a wall. The park originally included demesne Kilmainham Priory, south of the River Liffey, but when the construction of the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham began in 1680, the park was reduced to its current size, all of which are now north of the river. It was opened for the people of Dublin Earl of Chesterfield year 1745th

1882 was the site of two murders. The Chief Secretary for Ireland (the British minister with responsibility for Irish Affairs), Lord Frederick Cavendish, and Under-Secretary for Ireland (chief officer), Thomas Henry Burke, was stabbed to death with surgical knives while walking from Dublin Castle. A small rebel group called the Invincibles was responsible. [7]

During Emergency thousands of tonnes of peat from bogs transported to Dublin and are stored in high piles along the main road in the park. [8] [9] [10]

Features

The park is divided among three civil parishes: Castle to the northwest, Chapelizod in the south and St James’ in the north. The latter is mainly centered south of the River Liffey around St James’ Church. The park has its own piece of legislation Phoenix Park Act, 1925 which includes giving powers to park rangers remove and arrest of criminals who do not obey their own rules, which include “A person shall act in violation of public morality in the park”. [11 ] [12]

Aras an Uachtarain

Main article: Aras an Uachtarain

The residence of the President of Ireland, Aras an Uachtarain, built in 1754, located in the park. As Viceregal Lodge, it was the official residence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to the creation of the Irish Free State 1922nd

Dublin Zoo

Main article: Dublin Zoo

Dublin Zoo is one of Dublin’s main attractions. It houses more than 700 animals and tropical birds from around the world and was founded in 1830 [13]and opened to the public September 1, 1831 with animals from the London Society, making it the third oldest zoo in the world. Within a year, the zoo housed 123 species. [14]

cross Pontifical

Main article: Papal Cross § Papal Cross (Dublin, Ireland)

The Papal Cross was erected at the edge of the Fifteen Acres for the visit of Pope John Paul II on September 29, 1979. More than a million people attended an open-air mass in the park at that time. The white cross, which dominates its surroundings, is 35 meters (115 feet) high and was built with steel beams. It was installed with some difficulty. After several attempts, the cross was eventually erected in just two weeks before the Pope arrived [15]

Monument

The Wellington monument is 62 meters (203 feet) tall obelisk commemorating victories of the Duke of Wellington. It is the largest obelisk in Europe and would have been even higher if publicly signed the funding had run out. Designed by Robert Smirke are four bronze plaque cast from cannons captured at the Battle of Waterloo -three who have pictorial representations of Wellington’s career while the fourth has an inscription at the foot of the obelisk.

One other notable monuments are the “Phoenix Column” (shown in the header image above), a Corinthian column carved from Portland stone is centrally located on Chesterfield Avenue, the main street in the park, at the junction of Acres Road and Phoenix it. main entrance to Aras an Uachtarain[16] a contemporary account described it as follows:

“About the middle of the park is a fluted column thirty feet high, with a phoenix in the capital, which was built by the Earl of Chesterfield during his viceregality.” [17] (1747)

Residence Deerfield

The Deerfield Residence (former Secretary of State’s Lodge ), originally built in 1776 was the former residence of the chief secretary for Ireland, and previously was Park Länsmans lodge.Det has been the official residence of the US Ambassador to Ireland since February 1927, and was until the beginning of 1960 US Embassy in Dublin. [18]

Phoenix Park Visitor Centre and Ashtown Castle

The oldest building in the park is Ashtown Castle, a restored medieval tower house dating from the 15th century. Restoration began in 1989 and it is located next to the visitor center which houses interpretive displays of 5500 years of park and area history.

People Gardens

The gardens, located near the Parkgate Street entrance, covers an area of 9 hectares (22 acres), and was re-opened in 1864. These gardens were originally founded in 1840 as the Promenade Grounds. They display Victorian horticulture, including ponds, playground, picnic area and bedding systems.A statue in the gardens dedicated to works Easter Rising ledareSeán Heuston.There is a plaque in memory of the Irish sculptor Jerome Connor at Infirmary Road, overlooking the garden, which he often visited. Hours are 8:00 to dusk.Closing times vary throughout the year.

Magazine Fort

Main article: Magazine Fort

The Magazine Fort in the southeastern part of the park marks the spot where the Phoenix Lodge was built by Sir Edward Fisher in 1611. In 1734 the house was demolished when the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset directed to a gunpowder provided to Dublin. An additional wing was added to the fort in 1801 for soldiers. It was the scene of the Christmas Raid in 1939.

The newspaper has continued satirically immortalized in a jingle of Jonathan Swift wrote:

Now here is a testament to Irish feel, Irish wit is seen, when nothing is left that is worth defending, we are building a magazine .” Other points of interest

  • In the southwest corner of the park is an area called the Furry Glenwhich has a series of short walks centered on a small lake with birds, plants and animals. Jay, normally a rather shy bird, is common and conspicuous here.
  • State Guest House, Farmleigh, adjoins the park to the northwest.
  • Headquarters of the Garda Síochána, police in Ireland, located in the park.
  • National Ambulance Service College is at Saint Mary’s Hospital in Chapelizod side of the park. This building dates from 1766 and was the former Hibernian Military School.
  • Ordnance Survey Ireland is located in Mountjoy House near Castlegate.The house was built in 1728 and was originally known as Mountjoy barracks that accommodated the mounted escort of Lord Lieutenant who lived in the Viceregal Lodge (now Aras an Uachtarain). [19]
  • Adjacent to the park to the southeast are Irish Defence Forces “McKee Barracks. Built in 1888 as the Marlborough Barracks once housed 822 horses military. [20]
  • Ratra house at the back of the Aras, was the home of Civil Defence Ireland since its founding in 1950 until 2006 when the headquarters was decentralized to Roscrea, County Tipperary. Named Ratra house at the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde who retired to the house in 1945 from his presidency. He named it after their homeland Ratra Park in Frenchpark, Roscommon, where he had made much of his writing. Built in 1876, Winston Churchill lived there from age 2-6. [21]
  • Grange Gorman Military Cemetery is located just outside the walls of the park on Blackhorse Avenue.
  • The park also features several sports fields for football, throwing, football, cricket and polo.
  • Bohemian Football Club was founded in the Gate Lodge next to the North Circular Road entrance 1890. The club played its first games in the park’s Polo Grounds.
  • On Conyngham Road, near South Circular Road junction, take the usual wall of an unusual arc before leveling off again marks the point where the Liffey bridge into the park via enjärnvägstunnel that continues for Wellington Monument. It is regularly used for freight, and some limited special passenger. It was used during World War II to store supplies of food. [ Citation needed ]

Environment

There are 351 identified plant species in the park; three of these are rare and protected. The park has retained almost all their old grasslands and forests and also rare examples of wetlands. [22] Deer were introduced in the park in the 1660s; the current 400-450 fallow deer descended from the original crew.[23] 30% of the park is covered by trees, mainly deciduous trees.

A birdwatch survey in 2007-08 found 72 species of birds including buzzards, sparrowhawk, kestrel and Eurasian jay. The great spotted woodpecker, Ireland’s newest breeding bird has been spotted in the park several times. [24]

The park also has several streams, tributaries of the River Liffey.

In July and August 2006 when the Minister for Health, Mary Harney, has issued three decisions which exempts two new community health units, to be built at St Mary’s Hospital in the park, from the usual statutory planning permission, although the Phoenix Park is a designated and protected national monument. The Department of Health said the decision was made because of what it called the department’s “acute reaction to the acute crisis at the time,” although care units in operation since 2008, primarily for the elderly. [25]

In a 2009 conservative management plan for the park, the Office of Public Works (a Treasury agency) commented, “… the construction, without having to resort to normal planning procedures, two important developments in St.Mary’s Hospital illustrates the vulnerability of the Phoenix Park to internal development, which affects largely on the essential character of the park and its unique value as a historic designed landscape. “In a section titledpressures and threats on the Park , mum planning issues , expressed documents concern that” Without appropriate planning designation, there is a risk that the development can be done that is not in line with the integrated vision of this plan. “The document warned of similar risks to the integrity of the park as” uncoordinated construction … and the current state of some historical buildings such as the Magazine Fort, outbuildings below the St. Mary’s Hospital and Mountjoy House of Ordnance survey Complex. ” [16]

Events

Motorsport

Motorsport first took place in the Phoenix Park in 1903 when the Irish Gordon Bennett race speed trials held on the main straight for both cars and motorcycles. This was followed in 1929 by the Irish International Grand Prix;the first of three Irish motorsports Grands Prix. [26] Racing took place from 1932 until the beginning of World War II in 1939 and was revived again in 1949 with a sprint on the Oldtown circuit [27] followed the next year by a full racing meeting again and have been used in virtually uninterrupted until today.Over the years seven different circuits have been used, two of which are named after the famous Ferrari World Champion racing driver Mike Hawthorn.

Phoenix Park motor racing

After the Grand Prix events, continued Motor racing in the park even though the 1980s and 1990s and until 2012, with many events live on RTÉ. It contained many drivers including Eddie Jordan, Eddie Irvine and Tommy Byrne. However, it has been announced that the Phoenix Park motor racing once again ready to go ahead in 2016, on 30 and 31 July. This is expected to attract large crowds as a free admission event no tickets are required.

Great Ireland Run

The Great Ireland Run, a 10 km running competition has been held annually every April in Phoenix Park since 2003. It includes races for professional runners and the public, and the 2010 edition attracted over 11,000 participants. [28] [29] Athletes Sonia O ‘ Sullivan and Catherina McKiernan is among the competition’s previous winners.

concerts

Concerts have been performed in the park of conduct such as Coldplay, Duran Duran, Robbie Williams, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Ian Brown, justice, Kanye West, Arcade Fire, Tom Waits, Snow Patrol, Florence and the Machine, Swedish House Mafia, Snoop Dogg , Tinie Tempah, Calvin Harris and The Stone Roses.

Phoenix Park free festivals

Ubi Dwyer organized one-day free events between 1977 and 1980. [30] As the ‘International Times reported, “The Hollow Phoenix Park spun and danced to the rhythms of the World Peace Band, free spirits, Mod Quad Band, Frazzle, speed, Stryder, Axis, Tudd , skating to name a few. the whole thing was organized by gentle Ubi Dwyer was previously involved in Windsor affair of rock and the rest of England. Certainly the Irish version was positively lighthearted although the gain was too much for boxes. some chappies near the bandstand nearly whipped to death with his long hair as they responded to the bio-rhythms of the scene. ” [31] U2 played at the 1978 festival. [32]

Phoenix Cricket Club

Phoenix Cricket Club, the oldest cricket club in Ireland, founded in 1830 by John Parnell, father of Charles Stewart Parnell located in the park. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1970s, were the dominant club in Leinstercricket. [ Citation needed ]

popular culture

The park is prominent in James Joyce’s novel Finnegans Wake and tangentially in Ulysses .

In general, the Dublin postal districts on the Northside are odd numbers, while the Southside codes yet. An exception is Phoenix Park, located on the North Side, but is part of an even-numbered districts (Dublin 8).

See also

  • Further reading gardens in Ireland
  • Phoenix Park Racecourse
  • Phoenix Park Conservation Management Plan: Consultation Draft, Office of Public Works, March 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2010. Includes detailed history and description of the Phoenix Park, its amenities, landscape, flora and fauna, archeology, architecture and other park matters.

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park”. Logainm.ie. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ “If – Phoenix Park”. Office of Public Works. Are downloaded January 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park”. Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ Richmond Park in London, England is greater in the area of 955 hectares (2,360 acres) but is a suburban royal park.
  5. Jump up ^ Joyce, Weston St. John (1921). Neighbourhood Dublin (PDF).Dublin: MH Gill & Son. p. 416th
  6. Jump up ^ “Secret history of the Phoenix Park.” Irish Independent.January 19, 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ ROUNDELL, Julia (July-December 1906). Nineteenth century and after: Volume 60 London .. Spottiswoode & Co. pp 559-575. From a diary at Dublin Castle in Phoenix Park Trial
  8. Jump up ^ “A farewell to the old sod.” Irish Independent. March 9, 2012.Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  9. Jump up ^ Corcoran, Tony (2009). The goodness of Guinness: A Loving the history of the brewery, it’s people, and … New York: Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 83. ISBN 9,781,602,396,531th
  10. Jump up ^ Gill Cummins, Maureen (2012). “Early Days: The Kildare Scheme and Turf Camps”. Taken from Sceal na Mona, Vol. 13, no. 60, December 2006, p70-72. Table na Mona. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  11. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park Bye Laws”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Phoenix Park Act.” Office of Public Works. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  13. Jump up ^ “About Zoo – Zoo history.” Dublin Zoo. Retrieved ten May 2009.
  14. Jump up ^ Kilfeather, Siobhán Marie (2005). Dublin: a cultural history.Oxford University Press. pp. 115-116. ISBN 0-19-518201-4.
  15. Jump up ^ “Sights in the park”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  16. ^ Jump up to: ab “The Phoenix Park Conservation Management Plan: Consultation Draft March 2009” (PDF). Office of Public Works .March in 2009. Retrieved 12 August of 2010.
  17. Jump up ^ careful Observer “Memories of half a century”, published in London (1838)
  18. Jump up ^ “Ambassador’s residence.” The Embassy of the United States: – Ireland. Retrieved 27 September of 2010.
  19. Jump up ^ “Ordnance Survey Ireland: A Brief History.” Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  20. Jump up ^ “McKee Barracks”. Dublin Public Library. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  21. Jump up ^ “Ratra House – A Brief History.” Civil Defence Ireland.Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  22. Jump up ^ “Nature and Biodiversity”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  23. Jump up ^ “Fauna”. Office of Public Works. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  24. Jump up ^ “The Birds of Phoenix Park, County Dublin BirdWatch Ireland in March 2008” (PDF).
  25. Jump up ^ “Harney exempt Phoenix Park plan”. The Irish Times. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 11 August of 2010.
  26. Jump up ^ PhoenixParkMotorRaces.org The Event . Retrieved 7 March 2007.
  27. Jump up ^ Phoenix Park race tracks. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
  28. Jump up ^ “Great day for a run as 11,000 take over the park.” Irish Independent. 19 April 2010. Retrieved April 25 of 2010.
  29. Jump up ^ “Race history”. Great Ireland Run. Retrieved April 25 of 2010.
  30. Jump up ^ International Times, January 1, 1980 – “UBI DWYER has launched a” Legalize it “campaign in Ireland”
  31. Jump up ^ International Times, August 1, 1977 – “Ubi streamlines its Shillelagh”
  32. Jump up ^ Memories of Ubi Dwyer – “The Phoenix Free Festival” by Gareth Byrne

The National Museum of Ireland

The National Museum of Ireland (Irish: Ard-Mhúsaem na hÉireann ) is the National Museum of Ireland. It has three branches in Dublin and one in County Mayo, with a strong emphasis on Irish art, culture and natural history.

Archaeology

See also Category: Collection of the National Museum of Ireland

The National Museum of Ireland – Archaeology on Kildare Street has shown on prehistoric Ireland, including early work in gold, church treasures and artifacts from the Viking and medieval periods. Kingship and Sacrifice exhibition preserved bog bodies and Ralaghan Man. There are special displays of items from Egypt, Cyprus and the Roman world, and special exhibitions regularly mounted.

This section contains known examples of early medieval Celtic metal in Ireland such as the Ardagh Chalice, the Tara Brooch and Derrynaflan storage.Prehistoric pieces include järnåldernBroighter gold and over 50 gold lunulas (not all on display), and other Bronze Age jewelry. Many of these pieces were found in the 19th century by poor people or farm workers, when population expansion has led to the cultivation of land that had not been touched since the Middle Ages. In fact, without the intervention of George Petrie of the Royal Irish Academy and like-minded individuals from the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, most of the metal would have been melted down for the inherent value of its material, often did happen despite their ansträngningar.Samtida Irish are more intent on their heritage, as seen in the example of Irish Bog Psalter, which was discovered and reported by sacrificing a machine in July 2006.

The museums of both the above mentioned institutions formed the basis forarcheology and history section of the museum on Kildare Street. This is the original site was opened in 1890 as the Dublin Museum of Science and Art in the building designed by Thomas Newenham Deane and his son Thomas Manly Deane. Until 1922, the site also included Leinster House, now home to the Oireachtas.

Crafts and History

National Museum of Ireland – arts and crafts and history, including the Great Seal of the Irish Free State, is part of the collection kept at the Collins Barracks site, a former military barracks named after Michael Collins in 1922. This site, opened in 1997 also holds the museum’s administrative center, a shop and a cafe.

This section has displays of furniture, silver, ceramics and glass, as well as examples of folk life and costumes, and money and weapons. A Chinese porcelain vase from around 1300 AD, Fonthill vase, one of the functions.Special exhibitions are mounted regularly; the summer of 2007, for example, replicas of six Irish high crosses which are then displayed internationally.

Soldiers and Chiefs exhibition of military artifacts and memorabilia tracing Ireland’s military history from 1550 to today.

Country Life

Main article: Museum of Country Life

Country Life is the latest part of the museum to be opened. It is located just outside Turlough Village, on the N5 eight kilometers east of Castlebar, County Mayo, and opened in 2001.

The museum focuses on ordinary life from the mid 19’s to mid 20’s, with much of the material comes from the Irish countryside in the 1930s. There are screens on the website, the natural environment, communities and forces for change.

Natural History Museum

Main article: Natural History Museum (Ireland)

The Natural History Museum , which is part of the National Museum, although often regarded as distinct, is on Merrion Street in Dublin and houses samples of animals from all over the world. Its collection and Victorian appearance has not changed significantly since the beginning of the 20th century.

See also

  • Cross Cong

Notes

Selected references

  • Short stories Irish Barracks by Patrick Denis O’Donnell, in a Cosantoir(the Journal of the Irish Defence Forces), 1969-1973.
  • Dublin Collins Barracks throughout the years , by Patrick Denis O’Donnell Hollybough , December 1994.
  • Dublin Barracks – A Brief History of Collins Barracks , by Mairead Dunleavy, National Museum of Ireland , 2002 (based largely on the work of PD O’Donnell, as recognized in the foreword and thanks).

The National Library of Ireland

The National Library of Ireland (Irish: Leabharlann Náisiúnta na hÉireann ) is Ireland’s national library is located in Dublin, in a building designed by Thomas Newenham Deane. DenMinister of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht is a member of the Irish Government is responsible for the library.

The mission of the National Library of Ireland is “to collect, preserve, promote and make accessible the documentary and intellectual record of the life of Ireland and to contribute to the provision of access to the larger universe of recorded knowledge”

The library is a reference library, and as such, are not suitable. It has a great variety of Irish and Irish-related material that can be consulted free of charge; This includes books, maps, manuscripts, music, newspapers, magazines and photographs. Included in their collections are materials issued by both private and state publishers.

The Chief Herald of Ireland and national photo archives are linked to the library. The library exhibits and keeps an archive of Irish newspapers. It is also the ISSN National Centre for Ireland. The library also offers a range of other services, including family history.

Main Library building is on Kildare Street, adjacent to Leinster House and the archeology section of the National Museum of Ireland.

History

National Library of Ireland was established by the Dublin Science and Art Museum Act, 1877, which provided the bulk of the collections in the possession of the Royal Dublin Society, should rest on the then Department of science and art for the benefit of the public and society, and in the context of Act.

An agreement of 1881 provided that the library should work under the supervision of the Council of twelve Trustees, of which eight are appointed by the society and four by the government; this agreement is also given on the Trustees’ obligation to appoint the officers of the library. This arrangement remains in place until the library became an independent cultural institution in 2005.

After the founding of the Irish Free State in 1924/5 library was transferred to the Department of Education under which it remained until 1986 when it was transferred to the Department of An Taoiseach.1927 library granted duty status under the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) Act, 1927. In 1992, the library is transferred to the newly formed Department of Arts, culture and the Gaeltacht (now Arts, sport and tourism) and three May 2005. it an independent cultural institution for national cultural institutions Act, 1997.

Collections

National Library of Ireland holds collections of archival documents, including personal notes and workbooks, the following prominent author:

  • Roddy Doyle [1]
  • Seamus Heaney [1]
  • Michael D. Higgins [1]
  • James Joyce [1]
  • Colm Tóibín [1]
  • William Butler Yeats [1]

See also

  • List of Ireland-related topics
  • Thomas William Lyster, director of the library between 1895 and 1920th
  • National Archives of Ireland
  • National photo archive
  • Trinity College Library, Dublin
  • UCD Library

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdef . Telford, Lyndsey (21 December 2011), “Seamus Heaney declutters home and donate personal notes to the National Library.” Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 21 December 2011.

The National Gallery of Ireland

The National Gallery of Ireland (Irish: Gailearaí Náisiúnta na hÉireann ) houses the Irish national collection of Irish and European art. It is located in the center avDublin with one entrance on Merrion Square, beside Leinster House, and another on Clare Street. Due to ongoing renovations, the Clare Street entrance one hour. It was founded in 1854 and opened its doors ten years later. The gallery has an extensive, representative collection of Irish painting and is also known for its Italian Baroque ochholländska masters painting. The current director is Sean Rainbird. Admission is free.

History

1853 exhibition, the great industrial exhibition was held on the lawns of Leinster House in Dublin. Among the most popular exhibits was a substantial display of works of art organized and underwritten by the railway magnate William Dargan. The enthusiasm of the visiting crowds demonstrated publicly for the arts, and it was decided to establish a permanent public art collection as a lasting monument of gratitude to Dargan. The moving spirit behind the proposal was attorney John Edward Pigot (1822-1871), the son of David Richard Pigot, Chief Baron of the Irish Finance Minister, and he became one of the first councils in the gallery. [1]The facade copies the Natural History Museum building National Museum of Ireland that already was planned for the facing flank of Leinster House.The building was designed by Francis Fowke, based on early plans of Charles Lanyon and was completed and opened in 1864th

The gallery was unlucky not to have been founded around an existing collection, but through diligent and skillful purchase, when it opened had 125 paintings. [ Citation needed ] In 1866, an annual purchase grant was established in 1891 and the space is already limited. In 1897, the Dowager Countess of Milltown indicated her intention of donating the contents of Russborough House to the Gallery. This gift included about 223 paintings, 48 sculptures, 33 engravings, much silver, furniture and library, and prompted construction from 1899 to 1903 of what is now called the Milltown Wing, designed by Thomas Newenham Deane.

By this time Henry Vaughan left 31 watercolors by JMW Turner with the requirement that they could only be exhibited in January, this to protect them from the negative effects of sunlight. Though modern lighting technology has made this provision unnecessary, Gallery continues to restrict viewing of the Vaughan legacy to January and the exhibition is treated as something of an occasion.

Another significant heritage came with the untimely death in the sinking of the Lusitania of Hugh Lane (1875-1915), since 1914 director of the Gallery;not only did he leave a large collection of pictures, he also left a portion of their remaining property and the Lane Fund has continued to contribute to the purchase of works of art to this day. In addition to its commitment in the gallery Hugh Lane has also hoped to found a gallery of modern art, just something I realized after his death in Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane.George Bernard Shaw also made a significant legacy, leave the gallery of royalty-third of his property in gratitude for the time he spent there as a youth.

The Gallery again was extended in 1962 with a new wing designed by Frank Duberry by the Office of Public Works. This opened in 1968 and is now named the Beit Wing. In 1978 the gallery received from the government the paintings given to the nation by Chester Beatty and in 1987 Sweeney Bequest brought fourteen works of art including paintings by Picasso and Jack B. Yeats. The same year the gallery is again considering some of the contents of Russborough House when Alfred Beit donated 17 masterpieces, including paintings by Velázquez, Murillo, Steen, Vermeer and Raeburn.

In the 1990s a lost Caravaggio, Judas Kiss , known through replicas, was discovered hanging in a Jesuit house of studies in Leeson Street in Dublin by Sergio Benedetti, senior conservator of the gallery. The Jesuits have generously allowed this painting to be exhibited in the gallery, and the discovery was the cause of national excitement. The painting was loaned to an Italian gallery February to July 2010 as part of Caravaggio’s 400th anniversary. In 1997 Anne Yeats donated kiss by her uncle Jack Yeats and the Gallery now includes a Yeats Museum. Denis Mahon, a well-known art critic, promised the Gallery part of his rich collection and eight painting from his promised inheritance is on permanent display, including Jacob blesses Josephby Guercino.

The directors of the gallery have been: George Mulvany, 1862-1869; Henry Doyle, 1869-1892, Walter Armstrong, 1892-1914, Hugh Lane, 1914-1915;Robert Langton Douglas, 1916-1923; Lucius O’Callaghan, 1923-1927;Thomas Bodkin, 1927-1935; George Furlong, 1935-1950; Thomas McGreevy, 1950-1963, James White, 1964-1980; Homan Potterton, 1980-1988; Raymond Keaveney, 1988-2012; Sean Rainbird 2012-present.

Millennium Wing

A new wing, called the Millennium Wing, was opened in 2002. Unlike the previous two extensions, this new wing street frontage and English architects Benson & Forsyth gave it an imposing Bowers Whitbed, Portland stone façade and large atrium. The design originally involved demolishing an adjoining Georgian terrace house and its ballroom mews; However, the Irish planning appeals authority, An Bord Pleanála, required that they be preserved. Millennium Wing is not without its critics: it is unforgiving of poor maintenance and compromise in the design in accordance with An Bord Pleanála resulted in a final formulation diluted from the original competition winning building concepts. Circulation space also lacks clarity, but it is widely believed that these flaws are trivial details set against the drama of the building. In line with its Brutalist style, the interior concrete walls remain unsealed.

Comprehensive plan

In March 2011, the Office of Public Works (OPW), work began gallery historic complex on Merrion Square to address a critical need of repair and renovation of the existing building fabric. The first phase of the work program, which involved the removal and replacement of the Dargan Wing roof, is now complete. The next two phases of the project will involve redesigning and replacing the Milltown Wing roof, followed by an extensive upgrade of the fabric of the buildings and services. Renovation of the two wings is scheduled to be completed in 2016. A small window that provides an architectural overview of the gallery is now open in the Beit Wing of the room 13A.

Location, access and facilities

National Gallery of Ireland is located in the heart of Georgian Dublin. There are two entrances, one on Merrion Square and at Clare Street. Merrion Square entrance is closed for renovation. Admission to the gallery is free and many talks, tours and events as well as audio guide is also free. The gallery launched a free smartphone app in 2013.

Dublin Bus routes 4, 7, 8, 39a and 46a all past gallery. Pearse Street DART Station is 5 minutes walk as is the Saint Stephen’s Green stop on the Green Line of the LUAS. Abbey Street stop on the Red Line of the LUAS is a 20-minute walk away. There are two Dublin Bikes stations just outside the gallery, one in Clare Street and others at Merrion Square West.

All galleries and entrances are wheelchair and stroller accessible and there are disabled parking spaces outside Merrion Square entrance. Tours for visually and hearing impaired are regularly organized. Visitors with guide dogs are welcome in the gallery. The lecture theater, room and gallery shop is equipped with a system for the deaf loop.

Highlights

The collection has about 14,000 works of art, of which about 2,500 oil paintings, 5,000 drawings, 5,000 prints and some sculpture, furniture and other artwork.

Spanish

  • Luis de Morales (c.1592-86) St Jerome in the Wilderness 1570s
  • Jusepe de Ribera (1591? -1652) St. Onuphrius late 1620s
  • Velazquez Diego (1599-1660) the cook with supper Emmaus c.1617-18
  • Francisco Zurbarán (1598-1664) of the Immaculate Conception in the early 1660s
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617-1682) The Return of the Prodigal Sonc.1660
  • Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) Dona Antonia Zaratec.1805-06
  • Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881-1973) Still Life with Mandolin 1924
  • Juan Gris (1887-1927) Pierrot 1921

French

  • Jacques Yverni (flourished 1410-1438) Annunciation c.1435
  • Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)
    • Acis and Galatea 1627-1628
    • Lamentation over the Dead Christ 1657-1660
  • Jean Lemaire (1598-1659) Architecture Landscape with Classical Figures1627-30
  • Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (1699-1779) Still Life: two rabbits, a gray partridge, Game Bag and Powder Flask 1731
  • Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806) Venus and Cupid (Day) c.1755
  • Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863) Demosthenes on the beach 1859
  • Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) Portrait of Adolphe Marlet 1851
  • Alfred Sisley (1819-1899) the banks of the Canal du Loing at Saint-Mammes 1888
  • Claude Monet (1840-1926) Argenteuil Basin with a single Sailboat 1874
  • Paul Signac (1863-1935) Lady on the terrace 1898
  • Kees van Dongen (1877-1968) Stella in a floral hat c.1907
  • Chaim Soutine (1893-1943) Landscape with staircase c.1922

Italian

  • Master of Verucchio (14 century) Crucifixion, Noli me Tangere c.1330-40
  • Fra Angelico (1417-1455) St. Cosmas and Damian and their brothers survivors Stake c.1440-42
  • Zanobi Strozzi (attribute) (1412-1468) Assumption of the Virgin with STS Jerome and Francis 1460s
  • Filippino Lippi (1457-1504) Portrait of a musician late 1480s
  • Titian (c.1485 / 90-1576) Ecce Homo c.1558 / 60
  • Giovanni Battista Moroni (before 1524-1578) Portrait of a gentleman and his two children c.1570
  • Caravaggio (1571-1610) Judas Kiss 1602
  • Guido Reni (1575-1624) suicide Cleopatra c.1639-40
  • Domenichino (1581-1641) Saint Mary Magdalene c.1625
  • Guercino (1591-1666) Jacob blessing the sons of Jacob c.1620
  • Sassoferrato (1609-85) Virgin and Child 1630s
  • Luca Giordano (1634-1705) Venus, Mars and the Forge of Vulcan 1660
  • Carlo Maratta (1625-1713) Rape of Europa c. 1680-5
  • Francesco Solimena (1657-1747) Allegory of Winter c.1690
  • Canaletto (1697-1768) St. St. Mark’s Square c.1756
  • Ugolino di Nerio (early 14th Century) The prophet Isaiah
  • Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Virgin and Child

German and Swiss

  • Salzburg School Christ on the cross with the Virgin Mary and Johnc.1430
  • Master of Youth St. Romold (active c.1490) St. Romold farewell to his parents, c.1490
  • Georg Pencz (active 1500-1550) Portrait of a Gentleman 1549
  • Angelika Kauffmann (1741-1807) The Ely Family 1771
  • Emil Nolde (1867-1956) Two women in a garden in 1915

Flemish

  • Pieter Bruegel the Younger (1564-c.1637) Peasant Wedding 1620
  • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) St. Peter find Tribute Money 1617-1618
  • Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678)
    • The veneration of the Eucharist, c.1630
    • Night Emmaus c.1645-65
  • Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) a boy standing on a terrace c.1623-24

Dutch

  • Marinus van Reymerswaele (written) (c.1490 / 95-c.1567) Calling of Matthew c.1530-40
  • Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656) A Musical Party c.1616-18
  • Rembrandt (studio) (1606-1669) La Main Chaude c.1628
  • Willem Cornelisz Duyster (1599-1635) Interior with soldiers in 1632
  • Aelbert Cuyp (1620-91) dairy 1640s?
  • Matthias Stomer (1600-after 1650) Arrest of Christ, c.1641
  • Rembrandt (1606-1669) Landscape with the Rest on the Flight into Egypt1647
  • Willem Drost (1652-1680) Bust of a man wearing a large-brimmed hatc.1654
  • Anthonie de Lorme (1610-1673) Interior of St Laurenskerk, Rotterdamc.1660-65
  • Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667)
    • You write a Letter c.1663
    • Woman reading a letter c.1663
  • Jan Steen (1625 / 26-79)
    • Byskolan c.1665
    • The wedding at Cana 1665-1670
  • Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675) Lady writing a letter, together with its maiden c.1670
  • Cornelis Troost (1696-1750) Jeronimus Tonneman and his son Jeronimus 1736
  • Nicolaes the Giselaer Interior with Figures
  • Emanuel de Witte Church Interior
  • Frans Hals Fisher Boy With Basket

British and American

  • William Hogarth (1697-1764)
    • The Western Family c.1738
    • The Mackinen Children c.1747
  • Thomas Gainsborough 1727-1788
    • A view in Suffolk c.1746
    • Mrs. Christopher Horton (1743-1808) later Duchess of Cumberlandin 1766
    • The Cottage Girl 1785
  • Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)
    • Parody of Raphael’s “School of Athens” 1751
    • Temple Family 1780-1782
    • Omai in 1776 (on loan from a private collection)
    • Charles Coote, the first Earl of Bellamont 1776
  • Henry Raeburn (1756-1823) , Sir John and Lady Clerk of Penicuik 1791
  • George Romney (1734-1802) , Titania, Puck and Changling, from Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” in 1793
  • John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) The Bead Stringers Venice 1880-1882
  • Stanley Royle (1888-1961) The Goose Girl c.1921
  • Francis Wheatley (1747-1801) The Dublin Volunteers at College Green, 4 November 1779 1779-1780
  • Andrew Festing (1941-present)

irish

The Marriage of Strongbow and Aoife (1854) by Daniel Maclise, a romanticized depiction of the marriage of Aoife MacMurrough1170

  • Kevin Abosch (photographer) (1969) “Portrait of Brian O’Driscoll” 2011
  • James Barry (1741-1806)
    • The Temptation of Adam 1767-1770
    • Self Portrait as Timanths c.1780-1803
    • The Death of Adonis
  • Augustus Nicholas Burke (1838-1891) Connemara Girl (1865) .
  • Nathaniel Hone the Elder (1718-1784) The Wizard , 1775
  • Hugh Douglas Hamilton (1740-1808) Frederick Hervey, Bishop of Derry and fourth Earl of Bristol (1730-1803), with his granddaughter Lady Caroline Crichton (1779-1856), in the gardens of Villa Borghese, Romec.1790
  • Francis Danby (1793-1861) The opening of the sixth seal , 1828
  • Daniel Maclise (1806-1870) The Marriage of Strongbow and Aoife , 1854
  • Sarah Purser (1848-1943) Le Petit Dejeuner 1881
  • Roderic O’Conor (1860-1940) Le Jeune Bretonne c.1895
  • Walter Osborne (1859-1903) in a Dublin Park, light and shadow c.1895
  • John Lavery (1856-1941) The Artist’s Studio: Lady Hazel Lavery with her daughter and stepdaughter Alice Eileen 1909-1913
  • Paul Henry (1876-1958) Start Currach 1910-1911
  • William John Leech (1881-1968) Convent Garden, Brittany c.1912
  • Sean Keating (1889-1977) an allegory c.1922
  • Mainie Jellett (1897-1944) Decoration 1923
  • Gerard Dillon (1916-1971) The Little Green Fields c.1945
  • Louis le Brocquy (1916) A family in 1951
  • William Orpen (1878-1931) “Portrait of John Count McCormack” 1923

Yeats Collection

  • Jack B. Yeats (1871-1957)
    • Bachelor’s Walk, in memory 1915 (on loan from a private collection) [2]
    • Liffey Swim 1923
    • One morning in a city in 1937
    • grief 1952
  • John Butler Yeats (1839-1922) John O’Leary in 1904

Drawings and watercolors

  • James Malton (1760-1803) The Custom House
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) Fishing boats at Folkestone Beach
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) Jane Burden as Queen Guinevere in 1858
  • Frederick William Burton (1816-1900) Hellelil and Hildebrand, meeting on the Turret Stairs, 1864 1864
  • James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) Nocturne in gray and gold – Piccadilly, 1881-1883
  • Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Two Ballet Dancers in a dressing room
  • Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881-1973) Two Dancers in 1925

See also

  • Art gallery
  • Irish art
  • List of Irish artists
  • Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery
  • The Irish Museum of Modern Art

References

  1. Jump up ^ National Gallery of Ireland Act 1854 7.
  2. Jump up^http://www.nationalgallery.ie/en/aboutus/pressroom/2009PressReleases/Recovered_Yeats_painting.aspx
  • Raymond Keaveney (2002), The National Gallery of Ireland: The Essential Guide . London. Scala Publishers ISBN 1-85759-267-0
  • Homan Fullerton (2003), The National Gallery of Ireland in Brian Lalor (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Ireland . Dublin. Gill & Macmillan, ISBN 0-7171-3000-2
  • Homan Fullerton, Introduction to the National Gallery of Ireland: illustrated summary catalog of paintings . Dublin. Gill & Macmillan, ISBN 0-7171-1145-8

The National Botanic Gardens (Ireland)

The National Botanic Gardens (Irish: Garraithe Náisiúnta na Lu ) are located in Glasnevin, 5 km northwest of Dublin Ireland. [1] The 19.5 hectare [2]is located between Prospect Cemetery and river Interpret where it forms part of the the river’s floodplain.

The gardens founded in 1795 by the Dublin Society (later the Royal Dublin Society), and they have grown to hold 20,000 living plants and many millions of dried plant specimens. There are several architecturally notable greenhouses. Today Glasnevin place is the headquarters of the National Botanic Gardens of Ireland, which has a satellite garden Kilmcurragh in the county Wicklow.Den botanic garden participates in national and international initiatives for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. The Director, Dr. Matthew Jebb, is also chairman of the Plant Network: The Plant Collections Network of the UK and Ireland. It is Ireland’s seventh most visited attractions, and the second most visited free attraction.[3]

History

The poet Thomas Tickell owned a house and a small farm in Glasnevin and in 1795, they were sold to the Irish Parliament and given Royal Dublin Society for them to establish Ireland’s first botanical gardens. A double row of yew trees, known as “Addison’s Walk ‘survives from this period. [4] The original purpose of the gardens had been promoting the knowledge of plants for agriculture, medicine and dyeing. The gardens were the first location in Ireland where the infection is responsible for the 1845-1847 potato famine identified. Throughout the famine, was research to stop the infection is carried out in the garden.

Walter Wade and John Underwood, the first director and vice respective works design of the garden, but when Wade died in 1825, the decline for some years.From 1834, Director Ninian The level brought new life into the garden, performs any redesign. This program of change and development continued with the following board members at the end of the 1960s. [4]

The gardens were placed in government care 1877th

In winter 1948/9 Ludwig Wittgenstein lived and worked in Ireland. He often came to the Palm House to sit and write. There is a plaque commemorating him on the steps he was sitting on.

Features

In addition to being a tourist destination and an amenity for local residents, it also serves as a center for horticultural research and education, including the breeding of many prized orchids.

Earth in Glasnevin is strongly alkaline (in horticultural terms) and this limits the growing of calcifuge plants such as rhododendrons to specially prepared areas. Yet gardens exhibit a range of outdoor “habitats” such as a rockery, herbaceous border, rose garden, bog garden and arboretum. A vegetable garden has also been established. National Herbarium is also housed at the National Botanic Gardens. The museum’s collection includes some 20,000 samples of plant products, including fruits, seeds, wood, fibers, plant extracts and objects collected over the garden’s two hundred year history.The gardens contain noted and historically important collections of orchids.The newly restored Palm House houses many tropical and subtropical plants.

In 2002, a new multi-built; it includes a café and a large auditorium. It is responsible for the Arboretum at Kilmacurragh, County Wicklow, known for its pine trees and calcifuges center. This is about 50 kilometers (31 miles) south of Dublin.

Architecture

In the garden there are some greenhouses of architectural importance, such as the Palm House and the Curvilinear Range.

The Great Palm House is located in the southern part of the garden, and is connected to the cactus house on its west side, and orchid house on the east side. The main building measures 65 feet in height, 100 feet in length and 80 feet in width.

Palm House was originally built in 1862 to accommodate the ever-increasing collection of plants from tropical areas that required more and more protected cultivation conditions. The construction was supervised by David Moore, curator of the garden at the time. The original structure was built of wood, and was unstable, leading to the blown down heavy storms in 1883, twenty one years later. Richard Turner, the great Dublin ironmaster had already delivered an iron house to Belfast gardens and he persuaded the Royal Dublin Society that such a house would be a better investment than a wooden house and in 1883 construction began on a stronger iron structure.Production of the structure took place in Paisley, and shipped to Ireland in sections. In the early 2000s, the Palm House had fallen into a state of disrepair. After more than 100 years, had wrought iron, cast iron and wood building has seriously deteriorated. Before its restoration a large number of glass panes broke every year due to corrosion and instability of the structure.As part of the restoration, the house was completely dismantled more than 7,000 parts, tagged for repair and restoration off-site. 20 meter high cast-iron columns in the Great Palm House had seriously deteriorated and was replaced by new cast iron columns created in molds of the originals. To protect the structure from further corrosion, the new modern paint technology used to develop a long-term protection of the Palm House, which provides protection against constantly tropical interior climate. For health and safety reasons, the overhead glass lamination and vertical panes tempered and specialized form of glue used to fix windows replace the original linseed oil putty that had contributed to the decay of the building over seklet.Palmhuset opened in 2004 after a long reforestation program after reset.

Curved Range ended 1848 by Richard Turner, and was expanded in the late 1860s. This structure has also been restored (with some surplus contemporary structural ironwork from Kew Gardens) and this work attracted the Europa Nostra award for excellence in conservation architecture. [1]

There is also a third row of greenhouses: aquatic House Fern House and the original Cactus House. Unfortunately, these structures are closed in the early 2000s, and is currently undergoing restoration. Because these greenhouses have specialized in plants they live, many copies as the Giant Amazon Water Lily has not grown in the garden since the closure of the structures.

directors

The Director is the chief officer of the gardens, with a dwelling place.Previous Directors include: [4]

  • Dr. Walter Wade, professor of botany at the Dublin Society (until 1825)
  • Samuel Litton (1825-1834)
  • Ninian The level (1834-1838)
  • Dr. David Moore (1838-1879)
  • Sir Frederick Moore (1879-1922)
  • JW Besant (1922-1944)
  • Dr TJ Walsh (1944-1968)
  • Aidan Brady (1968-1993)
  • Donal M. Synnott (1994-2004)
  • Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson (2005-2010)
  • Dr. Matthew Jebb (2010-)

See also

  • List of Irish botanical illustrators
  • List of Irish plant collectors
  • The Ferns UK and Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Heritage Ireland: National Botanic Gardens”. Office of Public Works. Are downloaded November 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ “IRELAND.com National Botanic Gardens”. Are downloaded November 2011.
  3. Jump up ^ “Guinness Storehouse tops the list of most visited attractions.” Irish Times. July 26, 2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abc “National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin.”Irelandseye.com. 1999-2005. Retrieved 14 September of 2008.

Little Museum of Dublin

Little Museum of Dublin is a people’s museum in Dublin, located at 15 St.Stephens Green, Dublin, Ireland. The museum is located in an 18th century Georgian house, owned by Dublin City Council.

A folk museum

As a civic museum of the city of Dublin, the Little Museum chronicles the history of the city in the 20th century. It gives visitors an intimate and informative insight into life in Dublin during this time period. Little Museum “idea” by director Trevor White and curator Simon O’Connor, was formed in April 2011 and officially opened its doors to the public in October of the same year. [1] A registered charity, the Museum is governed by a board consisting of representatives Dublin City Council and Fáilte Ireland, the national tourism development authority.

The museum has a collection of over 5,000 artifacts that have been donated or borrowed directly from the people of Dublin. It has three floors of exhibition space in the Georgian city home, a floor for office, and an acclaimed Irish pub, Hatch & Sons Irish kitchen in the basement. Areas of interest in the museum’s exhibitions include 1916 Rising, US President John F. Kennedy’s visit to Dublin, and many other groundbreaking events in Irish political and social history. The museum has also recently opened a new exhibition that focuses exclusively on the success of the rock band U2. [2]

The museum also offers the “I Love Dublin” classes for school children aged 6-17, and a tourist greeter program, City of a thousand welcomes. The program is a “citizen’s initiative” which connects first-time visitors to Dublin with a local “ambassador” who welcomes them by taking them out for a cup of tea or a pint. During the tour the ambassadors tell their guests about the city and introduce them to Ireland’s “outstanding hospitality.” [3] The program has been very successful so far; Sydney Morning Herald describing it as “the best free thing to do in Europe.” [4]

The museum received a new wave of publicity when it bought an archive of work by the artist and poet Christy Brown. As March 19, 2014 Little Museum and the National Library of Ireland was proud co-owner of a collection that includes private letters and previously unseen sketches, paintings and poems. The collection was sold by Bonhams in London for nearly € 45,000. [5]

Patron of the small museum include Dublin City Council, Dublin Regional Authority, Fáilte Ireland, the Merrion Hotel and Porter Bars. [6]

Awards and attention

In 2012, the little Museum of Dublin nominated for the European Museum of the Year Award.

In May 2013 the Irish Times described the small museum that “the best museum experience in Dublin”. [7] In 2014 TripAdvisor awarded the small museum with a Certificate of Excellence for the third consecutive year. They rank the small museum as # 10 attractions to see in Dublin, [8] making it the second most popular museum in Dublin. In February 2014 the museum won the David Manley Award for new entrepreneurs in the category Arts. [9]

Over 25,000 people visited the small museum in the first full year of operation. In 2013 the figure was 51,500, an increase of 114%.

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Visit the small museum, says Ethine Owens’ Ethine Owens in Vulgo, retrieved 17 July 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ “U2: Made in Dublin” Retrieved March 20, 2014
  3. Jump up ^ city of a thousand welcomes
  4. Jump up ^ “Warning: Dip Ahead” Jane Reddy, June 30, 2013 in the Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ Christy Brown Collection saved
  6. Jump up ^ “The Little Museum of Dublin” Ask about Ireland, retrieved 17 July 2013.
  7. Jump up ^ “Best of … Culture” Rosa Abbott and Daniel Gray May 18, 2013 in the Irish Times. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ “The Little Museum of Dublin” About, retrieved July 17, 2013.
  9. Jump up ^ “David Manley Award Winners’ retrieved 20 March 2014

Kilmainham Gaol

Kilmainham Gaol (Irish: Príosún Chill Mhaighneann ) is a former prison in Kilmainham, Dublin, Ireland. It is now a museum run by the Office of Public Works, an agency avIrlands government. Many Irish revolutionaries, including the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising, imprisoned and executed in prison by the British.

History

When it was first built in 1796, Kilmainham Gaol was called “New Gaol” to distinguish it from the old prison that is intended to replace – a foul dungeon, just a few hundred meters from the present site. It was officially called theCounty Gaol, Dublin , and was originally operated by the Grand Jury of County Dublin.

Originally, public hangings took place at the front of the prison. [1] However, from the 1820s onwards, very few hangings, public or private, took place at Kilmainham. [1] A small hanging cell built in the prison in 1891. It is located on the first floor, between the West wing and the east wing.

There was no segregation of prisoners; men, women and children were incarcerated for up to five in each cell, with only a single candle for light and heat. Most of his time was spent in the cold and dark, and every light had to last for two weeks. Its cells was about 28 square meters in area. [1]

Children are sometimes arrested for shoplifting, the youngest is said to be a seven year old child, [1] , while many of the adult prisoners were transported to Australia.

Kilmainham on the poor conditions in which female prisoners were subject to the spur of the next stage of development. Remarkably, for a time that prided itself on a protective setting for the “weaker sex”, conditions for female prisoners were constantly lower than for men. Already in his 1809 report, the inspector had observed that male prisoners were provided with iron beds while females “lay on straw on the flags in the cells and common rooms.” Half a century later, there was little improvement. The women department, located in the west wing, remained full.

After independence period

Kilmainham Gaol was decommissioned as a prison by the Irish Free State government in 1924. [2] mainly seen as an area of oppression and suffering, it was at this time not declared interest in its preservation as a monument to the struggle for national independence. Prison potential function as a place of national memory was also undercut and complicated by the fact that the first four republican prisoners executed by the Free State government during the Irish Civil War was shot in the prison yard. [3]

The Irish Prison Board was considering reopening it as a prison during the 1920s, but all such plans was finally abandoned in 1929. In 1936, the government considered the demolition of the prison, but the price of that commitment was seen as prohibitive. Republican interest on the site began to develop from the end of the 1930s, especially with the proposal of the National Graves Association, a republican organization, to preserve the site as both a museum and memorial to the 1916 Easter Rising. [4] This proposal received no objection from the Commissioners of Public Works, which costed at £ 600, and the negotiations were concluded with the Ministry of education about the possibility of moving objects relating to 1916 rises housed in the National Museum to the new museum at Kilmainham Gaol place. Department of Education rejected this proposal, see the site as unsuitable for this purpose, and suggested instead that the paintings of nationalist leaders can be installed in appropriate prison cells. But with the advent of Emergency proposal was shelved during the war. [5]

An architectural study Office of Public Works after World War II showed that the prison was in a ruinous state. With the Department of Education is still adamant to the site’s transformation into a nationalist museum and without other apparent function of the building, the Commissioners of Public Works proposed only the prison yard and the cell blocks that are considered of national importance should be preserved and that the rest of the site should be demolished. This proposal has not been acted upon. [6]

In 1953 Prime Minister’s Office, as part of the system to create jobs, revised draft National Graves Association to restore the prison and establish a museum at the site. However, no advances have been made and the material conditions of the prison continued to deteriorate. [7]

Kilmainham Gaol Restoration Society

From the late 1950’s a grassroots movement for the preservation of Kilmainham Gaol began to develop. Provoked by reports that the Office of Public Works received bids for the demolition of the building, Lorcan CG Leonard, a young engineer from the north side of Dublin, along with a small number of like-minded nationalists, formed Kilmainham Gaol Restoration Society in 1958 to compensate for any disruption among its members society agreed that they should not take any of the events associated with the Civil war period in relation to the restoration project. Instead, a story about uniform national struggle would be articulated. A system was then designed to the prison to be restored and a museum built using volunteer labor and donated materials. [8] [9]

With the momentum of the project grows, Irish Congress of Trade Unions informed the community that they would not object to their plan and construction Council gave its support. It is also likely that the Dublin Corporation, which had shown interest in the preservation of the prison, supported the proposal. At this time the Irish government came under increasing pressure from the National Graves Association and old IRA Literary and Debating Society to take steps to preserve the site. Thus, when society left its plan in late 1958 that the government looked favorably on a proposal that would achieve this goal without creating any significant financial commitment from the state. [10]

In February 1960 society’s detailed plan for the restoration project, which among other things also thought the site’s development as a tourist attraction, got the approval of the notoriously stingy Department of Finance. The formal handover of the keys in prison to a board consisting of five members appointed by the community and two of the government occurred in May 1960. The managers were charged a nominal rent of a penny rent per year to extend a period of five years, at which time it is thought that the restored prison would be permanently transferred to the trustee “custodial care. [11] [12]

Starting with a workforce of sixty volunteers May 1960 [13] society set about clearing the overgrown vegetation, trees, fallen masonry and bird droppings from the site. By 1962 flagship prison yard where the leaders of the 1916 uprising were executed had been cleared of rubble and weeds and the restoration of the Victorian part of the prison completed. [11] The final restoration of the site in 1971 when Kilmainham Gaol chapel was re-opened to the public have reroofed and refloored and with its altar reconstructed.The Magill family functioned as residential caretakers, especially Joe Magill who worked on the restoration of the prison from the beginning to the Gaol was handed over to the Office of Public Works. [14]

It now houses a museum on the history of Irish nationalism and offers guided tours of the building. An art gallery on the top floor exhibits paintings, sculptures and jewelry of prisoners incarcerated in prisons throughout contemporary Ireland.

Kilmainham Gaol is one of the largest unoccupied prisons in Europe. [ Citation needed ] now empty of prisoners, it is filled with history. It has been aptly described as the ‘Irish Bastille “. [ Citation needed ]

historical significance

Edmund Wellisha, chief guard at the prison, was convicted in nourishing prisoners to support upproret.Sedan its restoration has Kilmainham Gaol understood [ by whom? ] As one of the main Irish monuments of modern times in relation to the story of the fight for Irish independence. During the time period that extends from its opening in 1796 to its disappearance in 1924, it has been, except for the notable exception of Daniel O’Connell and Michael Collins, a place of detention of any major Irish nationalist leaders of both constitutional and physical violence traditions. Thus its history as an institution closely connected with the history of Irish nationalism. The majority of the Irish leaders in the rebellion in 1798, 1803, 1848, 1867 and 1916 were imprisoned there. There are also prisoners during the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) and many of the anti-Treaty forces during the Civil War period. Charles Stewart Parnell was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol, along with most of his parliamentary colleagues in 1881-1882 when he signed the Kilmainham Treaty with William Gladstone. [15]

Former prisoners

Cell in Éamon de Valera.

  • Henry Joy McCracken, 1796
  • Oliver Bond, 1798 (Bond, born in St Johnston, County Donegal, was to die in prison).
  • James Bartholomew Blackwell, 1799
  • James Napper Tandy, 1799
  • Robert Emmet, 1803
  • Anne Devlin, 1803
  • Thomas Russell, 1803
  • Michael Dwyer, 1803
  • William Smith O’Brien, 1848
  • Thomas Francis Meagher 1848
  • Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa, 1867
  • John O’Connor Power, 1868
  • JE Kenny, 1881
  • Charles Stewart Parnell, 1881
  • William O’Brien, 1881
  • James Joseph O’Kelly 1881
  • John Dillon, 1882
  • Willie Redmond, 1882
  • Joe Brady (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Daniel Curley, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Tim Kelly, (the Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Thomas Caffrey, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Michael Fagan, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Michael Davitt
  • Patrick Pearse, 1916
  • Willie Pearse, (younger brother of Patrick Pearse) 1916
  • James Connolly (run, but not held at Kilmainham) 1916
  • Conn Colbert, 1916
  • Constance Markiewicz, 1916
  • Éamon de Valera, 1916
  • Paul Galligan, 1916
  • John MacBride 1916
  • Joseph Plunkett, 1916
  • Michael O’Hanrahan 1916
  • Edward Daly, 1916
  • Grace Gifford, (wife of Joseph Plunkett) (1922)
  • Ernie O’Malley, during the Revolutionary War and the Civil War
  • Peadar O’Donnell, during the Civil War
  • Frank McBreen, during the War
  • Thomas MacDonagh 1916
  • Thomas Clarke, 1916
  • Mairead De Lappe, during the Civil War. (Mother program Mr Mac Aonghusa)
  • Madeleine ffrench-Mullen, 1916

Movies

The following movies have been filmed at Kilmainham Gaol:

  • The Quare Fellow 1962
  • The Face of Fu Manchu , 1965 (starring Christopher Lee)
  • The Italian Job , 1969
  • The Mackintosh Man , 1973
  • The Last Remake of Beau Geste , 1977
  • The Whistleblower , 1987
  • Babe , 1992
  • In the Name of the Father , 1993
  • Michael Collins , 1996
  • Adventure The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (2000) – Love Sweet Song
  • The Escapist , 2008 (starring Brian Cox)
  • The Price of Freedom 2006

A music video for the U2 song “A tribute” was filmed in Kilmainham Gaol in July 1982. The prison was also used in the 2012 BBC series Ripper Street and 2011 series of ITV’s Primeval .

photographs

More images in Wikimedia Commons

  • Prisoner crafts in Kilmainham Jail Museum.
  • A view of Patrick Pearse cell.
  • Mural painting of a Madonna painted by Grace Gifford Plunkett while she held during the Civil War.
  • Robert Emmet’s cell door.
  • A view of the landing where in 1916 the leaders were held before they are implemented.
  • The view from the prison farms.
  • The view from the prison farms.
  • Cross marks the site of the execution of the leaders of the 1916 Rising.
  • Cross marks the site of the execution of James Connolly.
  • Plaque marking the execution of the leaders of the 1916 Rising.
  • Entrance to Kilmainham Gaol, five snakes in Chains above the entrance.

See also

  • Prisons in Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd “Kilmainham Jail, Dublin”. Tourist-information-dublin.co.uk. Pulled 06/28/2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 186. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  3. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 186-87 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  4. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 188. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  5. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 189. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  6. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 190. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  7. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 190-91 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  8. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (2007). “National identity and tourism in the twentieth century Ireland: the role of collective re-imagining”. In Michael Young, Eric Zuelow and Andreas Sturm (eds). Nationalism in a Global Era: Persistence of Nations .London: Routledge. pp. 150-51. ISBN 0-415-41405-9.
  9. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 191-93 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  10. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 194. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 196. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  12. Jump up ^ Kilmainham Jail Restoration Society (c. 1960). Kilmainham.Dublin. p. 3.
  13. Jump up ^ “More volunteers needed to work in prison.” Irish Independent. May 31, 1960.
  14. Jump up ^ “Kilmainham Jail chapel opened again.” Irish Independent.October 25, 1971.
  15. Jump up ^ Cooke, Pat (2006). “Kilmainham Gaol: confronting change”.(2002- Irish Arts Review. 23 : 42.

Kilmainham Gaol

Kilmainham Gaol (Irish: Príosún Chill Mhaighneann ) is a former prison in Kilmainham, Dublin, Ireland. It is now a museum run by the Office of Public Works, an agency avIrlands government. Many Irish revolutionaries, including the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising, imprisoned and executed in prison by the British.

History

When it was first built in 1796, Kilmainham Gaol was called “New Gaol” to distinguish it from the old prison that is intended to replace – a foul dungeon, just a few hundred meters from the present site. It was officially called theCounty Gaol, Dublin , and was originally operated by the Grand Jury of County Dublin.

Originally, public hangings took place at the front of the prison. [1] However, from the 1820s onwards, very few hangings, public or private, took place at Kilmainham. [1] A small hanging cell built in the prison in 1891. It is located on the first floor, between the West wing and the east wing.

There was no segregation of prisoners; men, women and children were incarcerated for up to five in each cell, with only a single candle for light and heat. Most of his time was spent in the cold and dark, and every light had to last for two weeks. Its cells was about 28 square meters in area. [1]

Children are sometimes arrested for shoplifting, the youngest is said to be a seven year old child, [1] , while many of the adult prisoners were transported to Australia.

Kilmainham on the poor conditions in which female prisoners were subject to the spur of the next stage of development. Remarkably, for a time that prided itself on a protective setting for the “weaker sex”, conditions for female prisoners were constantly lower than for men. Already in his 1809 report, the inspector had observed that male prisoners were provided with iron beds while females “lay on straw on the flags in the cells and common rooms.” Half a century later, there was little improvement. The women department, located in the west wing, remained full.

After independence period

Kilmainham Gaol was decommissioned as a prison by the Irish Free State government in 1924. [2] mainly seen as an area of oppression and suffering, it was at this time not declared interest in its preservation as a monument to the struggle for national independence. Prison potential function as a place of national memory was also undercut and complicated by the fact that the first four republican prisoners executed by the Free State government during the Irish Civil War was shot in the prison yard. [3]

The Irish Prison Board was considering reopening it as a prison during the 1920s, but all such plans was finally abandoned in 1929. In 1936, the government considered the demolition of the prison, but the price of that commitment was seen as prohibitive. Republican interest on the site began to develop from the end of the 1930s, especially with the proposal of the National Graves Association, a republican organization, to preserve the site as both a museum and memorial to the 1916 Easter Rising. [4] This proposal received no objection from the Commissioners of Public Works, which costed at £ 600, and the negotiations were concluded with the Ministry of education about the possibility of moving objects relating to 1916 rises housed in the National Museum to the new museum at Kilmainham Gaol place. Department of Education rejected this proposal, see the site as unsuitable for this purpose, and suggested instead that the paintings of nationalist leaders can be installed in appropriate prison cells. But with the advent of Emergency proposal was shelved during the war. [5]

An architectural study Office of Public Works after World War II showed that the prison was in a ruinous state. With the Department of Education is still adamant to the site’s transformation into a nationalist museum and without other apparent function of the building, the Commissioners of Public Works proposed only the prison yard and the cell blocks that are considered of national importance should be preserved and that the rest of the site should be demolished. This proposal has not been acted upon. [6]

In 1953 Prime Minister’s Office, as part of the system to create jobs, revised draft National Graves Association to restore the prison and establish a museum at the site. However, no advances have been made and the material conditions of the prison continued to deteriorate. [7]

Kilmainham Gaol Restoration Society

From the late 1950’s a grassroots movement for the preservation of Kilmainham Gaol began to develop. Provoked by reports that the Office of Public Works received bids for the demolition of the building, Lorcan CG Leonard, a young engineer from the north side of Dublin, along with a small number of like-minded nationalists, formed Kilmainham Gaol Restoration Society in 1958 to compensate for any disruption among its members society agreed that they should not take any of the events associated with the Civil war period in relation to the restoration project. Instead, a story about uniform national struggle would be articulated. A system was then designed to the prison to be restored and a museum built using volunteer labor and donated materials. [8] [9]

With the momentum of the project grows, Irish Congress of Trade Unions informed the community that they would not object to their plan and construction Council gave its support. It is also likely that the Dublin Corporation, which had shown interest in the preservation of the prison, supported the proposal. At this time the Irish government came under increasing pressure from the National Graves Association and old IRA Literary and Debating Society to take steps to preserve the site. Thus, when society left its plan in late 1958 that the government looked favorably on a proposal that would achieve this goal without creating any significant financial commitment from the state. [10]

In February 1960 society’s detailed plan for the restoration project, which among other things also thought the site’s development as a tourist attraction, got the approval of the notoriously stingy Department of Finance. The formal handover of the keys in prison to a board consisting of five members appointed by the community and two of the government occurred in May 1960. The managers were charged a nominal rent of a penny rent per year to extend a period of five years, at which time it is thought that the restored prison would be permanently transferred to the trustee “custodial care. [11] [12]

Starting with a workforce of sixty volunteers May 1960 [13] society set about clearing the overgrown vegetation, trees, fallen masonry and bird droppings from the site. By 1962 flagship prison yard where the leaders of the 1916 uprising were executed had been cleared of rubble and weeds and the restoration of the Victorian part of the prison completed. [11] The final restoration of the site in 1971 when Kilmainham Gaol chapel was re-opened to the public have reroofed and refloored and with its altar reconstructed.The Magill family functioned as residential caretakers, especially Joe Magill who worked on the restoration of the prison from the beginning to the Gaol was handed over to the Office of Public Works. [14]

It now houses a museum on the history of Irish nationalism and offers guided tours of the building. An art gallery on the top floor exhibits paintings, sculptures and jewelry of prisoners incarcerated in prisons throughout contemporary Ireland.

Kilmainham Gaol is one of the largest unoccupied prisons in Europe. [ Citation needed ] now empty of prisoners, it is filled with history. It has been aptly described as the ‘Irish Bastille “. [ Citation needed ]

historical significance

Edmund Wellisha, chief guard at the prison, was convicted in nourishing prisoners to support upproret.Sedan its restoration has Kilmainham Gaol understood [ by whom? ] As one of the main Irish monuments of modern times in relation to the story of the fight for Irish independence. During the time period that extends from its opening in 1796 to its disappearance in 1924, it has been, except for the notable exception of Daniel O’Connell and Michael Collins, a place of detention of any major Irish nationalist leaders of both constitutional and physical violence traditions. Thus its history as an institution closely connected with the history of Irish nationalism. The majority of the Irish leaders in the rebellion in 1798, 1803, 1848, 1867 and 1916 were imprisoned there. There are also prisoners during the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) and many of the anti-Treaty forces during the Civil War period. Charles Stewart Parnell was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol, along with most of his parliamentary colleagues in 1881-1882 when he signed the Kilmainham Treaty with William Gladstone. [15]

Former prisoners

Cell in Éamon de Valera.

  • Henry Joy McCracken, 1796
  • Oliver Bond, 1798 (Bond, born in St Johnston, County Donegal, was to die in prison).
  • James Bartholomew Blackwell, 1799
  • James Napper Tandy, 1799
  • Robert Emmet, 1803
  • Anne Devlin, 1803
  • Thomas Russell, 1803
  • Michael Dwyer, 1803
  • William Smith O’Brien, 1848
  • Thomas Francis Meagher 1848
  • Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa, 1867
  • John O’Connor Power, 1868
  • JE Kenny, 1881
  • Charles Stewart Parnell, 1881
  • William O’Brien, 1881
  • James Joseph O’Kelly 1881
  • John Dillon, 1882
  • Willie Redmond, 1882
  • Joe Brady (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Daniel Curley, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Tim Kelly, (the Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Thomas Caffrey, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Michael Fagan, (Phoenix Park murders) 1883
  • Michael Davitt
  • Patrick Pearse, 1916
  • Willie Pearse, (younger brother of Patrick Pearse) 1916
  • James Connolly (run, but not held at Kilmainham) 1916
  • Conn Colbert, 1916
  • Constance Markiewicz, 1916
  • Éamon de Valera, 1916
  • Paul Galligan, 1916
  • John MacBride 1916
  • Joseph Plunkett, 1916
  • Michael O’Hanrahan 1916
  • Edward Daly, 1916
  • Grace Gifford, (wife of Joseph Plunkett) (1922)
  • Ernie O’Malley, during the Revolutionary War and the Civil War
  • Peadar O’Donnell, during the Civil War
  • Frank McBreen, during the War
  • Thomas MacDonagh 1916
  • Thomas Clarke, 1916
  • Mairead De Lappe, during the Civil War. (Mother program Mr Mac Aonghusa)
  • Madeleine ffrench-Mullen, 1916

Movies

The following movies have been filmed at Kilmainham Gaol:

  • The Quare Fellow 1962
  • The Face of Fu Manchu , 1965 (starring Christopher Lee)
  • The Italian Job , 1969
  • The Mackintosh Man , 1973
  • The Last Remake of Beau Geste , 1977
  • The Whistleblower , 1987
  • Babe , 1992
  • In the Name of the Father , 1993
  • Michael Collins , 1996
  • Adventure The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (2000) – Love Sweet Song
  • The Escapist , 2008 (starring Brian Cox)
  • The Price of Freedom 2006

A music video for the U2 song “A tribute” was filmed in Kilmainham Gaol in July 1982. The prison was also used in the 2012 BBC series Ripper Street and 2011 series of ITV’s Primeval .

photographs

More images in Wikimedia Commons

  • Prisoner crafts in Kilmainham Jail Museum.
  • A view of Patrick Pearse cell.
  • Mural painting of a Madonna painted by Grace Gifford Plunkett while she held during the Civil War.
  • Robert Emmet’s cell door.
  • A view of the landing where in 1916 the leaders were held before they are implemented.
  • The view from the prison farms.
  • The view from the prison farms.
  • Cross marks the site of the execution of the leaders of the 1916 Rising.
  • Cross marks the site of the execution of James Connolly.
  • Plaque marking the execution of the leaders of the 1916 Rising.
  • Entrance to Kilmainham Gaol, five snakes in Chains above the entrance.

See also

  • Prisons in Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd “Kilmainham Jail, Dublin”. Tourist-information-dublin.co.uk. Pulled 06/28/2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 186. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  3. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 186-87 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  4. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 188. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  5. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 189. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  6. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 190. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  7. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 190-91 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  8. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (2007). “National identity and tourism in the twentieth century Ireland: the role of collective re-imagining”. In Michael Young, Eric Zuelow and Andreas Sturm (eds). Nationalism in a Global Era: Persistence of Nations .London: Routledge. pp. 150-51. ISBN 0-415-41405-9.
  9. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4). 191-93 doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  10. Jump up ^ Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 194. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab Zuelow, Eric (Fall-Winter 2004). “To establish the Irish nationalist history within the walls: the restoration of Kilmainham Jail”.Éire-Ireland. 39 (3 & 4): 196. doi: 10.1353 / eir.2004.0024.
  12. Jump up ^ Kilmainham Jail Restoration Society (c. 1960). Kilmainham.Dublin. p. 3.
  13. Jump up ^ “More volunteers needed to work in prison.” Irish Independent. May 31, 1960.
  14. Jump up ^ “Kilmainham Jail chapel opened again.” Irish Independent.October 25, 1971.
  15. Jump up ^ Cooke, Pat (2006). “Kilmainham Gaol: confronting change”.(2002- Irish Arts Review. 23 : 42.

Jameson Irish Whiskey

Jameson is a blended Irish whiskey produced by Irish Distillers subsidiary of Pernod Ricard.

John Jameson and Son Irish Whiskey company was formally established in 1810 when John Jameson and his son (also John Jameson) took ownership of the Bow Street Distillery in Dublin which had originally been built by his wife’s cousins Stein 1780. Jameson was a Scottish lawyer from Alloa in Clackmannanshire who had married Margaret Haig, a sister of Haig brothers who owned Haigdestillerier. Margaret Haig was a first cousin of Stein, a Scottish distilling family, even from Clack, with significant interests distilleries in Scotland and Dublin. On his marriage to Margaret Haig John Jameson in 1786 moved with his new wife to Dublin for managing Stein Bow Street Distillery (identified in 1780) Margaret Stein uncle. This explains the use of the year 1780 in Jameson marketing as the Bow Street Distillery was there Jameson Irish Whiskey was born. [1] Portrait of John and Margaret Jameson by Sir Henry Raeburn is in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland.

Originally one of the six main Dublin whiskey, Jameson is now distilled in Cork. In 2013, sales topped 4.7 million cases (56.4 million bottles). Jameson is by far the best selling Irish whiskey in the world, because it has been sold internationally since the early 19th century. The US is the largest market for the Jameson Whiskey, with consumption in 2013 increased by 12%. [2]

Company history

When John Jameson, a Scottish businessman, [3] became director of the Stein family Bow Street Distillery in 1786, it was producing about 30,000 liters per year. At the turn of the 19th century, it was the second largest producer in Ireland and one of the largest in the world, producing one million liters per year. Dublin at the time was the center of world whiskey production. It was the second most popular spirit in the world after Rome and internationally Jameson had in 1805 become the world’s best whiskey. Today Jameson world’s third largest single distillery whiskey.

Historical events, for a time, now back. The temperance movement in Ireland had a huge impact on the domestic market, but the two important events which influenced Jameson was the Irish War of Independence and subsequent trade war with the British who denied Jameson export markets of the Commonwealth, and shortly thereafter, the introduction of prohibition in the United States. While Scottish brands can easily slide over the Canada-US border, where Jameson excluded from its biggest market for many years.[4]

The introduction of the column still Scottish mixer in the middle of the 19th century enabled increased production to the Irish, still do labor-intensive single pot still whiskey, could not compete with. There was a legal study somewhere in 1908 to deal with the definition of whiskey trade. The Scottish producers won in certain jurisdictions and mixtures was recognized in the law of the jurisdiction in which the whiskey. The Irish in general, and in particular Jameson continued with the traditional pot still production for many years.

1966 John Jameson together with Cork Distillers and John Powers to form the Irish Distillers Group. In 1976, the Dublin Jameson whiskey distillery in Bow Street and Johns Lane closed after the opening of a new Midleton Distillery from Irish Distillers outside Cork. The Midleton Distillery is now producing a large part of the Irish whiskey sold in Ireland over Jameson, Midleton, Powers, Redbreast, Spot and Paddy labels. The new facility adjacent to the Old Midleton Distillery, the original home of Paddy label, which is now home to the Jameson Experience Centre and Irish Whiskey Academy. Jameson brand was acquired by French drinks conglomerate Pernod Ricard in 1988, when it bought Irish Distillers. The Old Jameson Distillery in Bow Street near Smithfield in Dublin now serves as a museum that offers tours and tastings.[5] [6]

In 2008, The Local, an Irish pub in Minneapolis, sold 671 cases of Jameson (22 bottles per day), [7] which makes it the largest server Jameson in the world -. A title that is maintained for four consecutive years [8]

varieties

Like the original Jameson Jameson reserves include:

  • Jameson 12 Year Old Special Reserve (Formerly known as Jameson 1780)
  • 12 year old Jameson Distillery Reserve is on their two visitor centers in Ireland and is also available from their online store. [9]
  • Jameson Gold Reserve (the only expression of Jameson using virgin American oak).
  • Jameson 18 year old Limited Reserve
  • Jameson Rare Vintage Reserve (Jameson’s oldest and rarest whiskeys components).
  • Jameson Signature Reserve (exclusive to travel retail and duty-free shops around the world).
  • Jameson Select Reserve Black Barrel (available in limited quantities in the US, known as “Small Batch” outside the US). [10]
  • Jameson Caskmates (finished in stout -seasoned barrels) [11]

The production

Jameson is produced from a mixture of grain whiskey, single malt whiskeys and single pot still whiskey, which uses a mixture of malted and unmalted or “green” Irish barley, all from within a fifty-mile radius around the distillery in Cork. The barley is dried in a closed kiln is fired with natural gas (former anthracite coal). This is in contrast to the traditional method used in some Scottish whiskey distilleries, which fires the furnace with peat which adds a distinctive flavor peat. [12]

Awards

Jameson products – in particular its 18 years and its rarest Reserve – valued very highly at international spirit ratings competitions. The 18-year received a series of gold and double gold medals at the San Francisco World Spirits Competition between 2005 and 2010. [13] The rarest Reserve has won gold and double gold there. Rare Reserve is rated as one of the 20 whiskeys in the world by Proof66. [14]

Staff

John Jameson is also the great grandfather of the inventor Guglielmo Marconi. [15]

See also

  • Irish whiskey brands
  • scotch
  • Liquor portal

References

  1. Jump up ^ McNamara, Stuart. “Haig whiskey and Jameson – History of the whiskey Cousins”. HaigWhisky.com. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ “Jameson Experience, Midleton.” Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  3. Jump up ^http://web.archive.org/web/20090320165717/http://www.jamesonwhiskey.com:80/Home.aspx.Archived from the original March 20, 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2009.Missing or empty (help) | title =
  4. Jump up ^ Dias Blue, Anthony (2010). The Complete Book of Spirits: A Guide to their history, production and enjoyment. HarperCollins. p. 165. ISBN 9,780,062,012,814th
  5. Jump up ^ “Welcome to the Home of Jameson Whiskey”. Pulled 05/12/2014.
  6. Jump up ^ “Ireland Whiskey Trail”. Ireland Whiskey Trail. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ Kimball, Joe. “” Minneapolis bar wins Irish whiskey sales award “, March 9, 2009”. Minnpost.com. Pulled 10/29/2013.
  8. Jump up ^ Leon, Michelle (2010-05-14). “” Jameson on Local: drink a week and “14 May 2010 entitled ‘. Blogs.citypages.com. Pulled 10/29/2013.
  9. Jump up ^ “Jameson vistior Centre”. Retrieved June 6, 2012. [ Dead link ]
  10. Jump up ^ “Jameson Black Barrel Select Reserve ‘. IrishWhiskey.com.Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ “Jameson Caskmates”. Jameson Irish Whiskey. Retrieved 4 August, 2016.
  12. Jump up ^ Stuart McNamara. “A beginners guide to how Irish whiskey is made.”. IrishWhiskey.com. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  13. Jump up ^ “Summary Page for Jameson 18 Year”. Proof66.com. Pulled 10/29/2013.
  14. Jump up ^ “Top 20 Whisky on”. Proof66.com. Pulled 10/29/2013.
  15. Jump up ^ Marconi: the Irish Association, Michael Sexton, Four Courts Press, 2005

The Irish National War Memorial Gardens

The Irish National War Memorial Gardens (Irish: Gairdíní Cuimhneacháin Cogaidh Náisiúnta na hÉireann ) is an Irish war memorial in Iceland, Dublin, dedicated “to the memory of 49.400 Irish soldiers who gave their lives in World War II, 1914-1918”, [1] of the 300,000 irish who have served in all armies.

Memorial Gardens also celebrate all the other Irish men and women who at that time served, fought and died in the Irish regiments of the Allied armies, the British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, South African and American armies in support of the Triple Entente’s war effort against the Central Powers.

History

Main article: Republic of Ireland and First World War

Cosgrave who was very interested in the Memorial to fruition met Sir Andrew Jameson, a senator and member of the Committee on 9 December 1930 and suggested the current location. At the time, known as the “Long Meadows Estates” There are about 60 acres (24 ha) in extent stretching parallel along the southern shore effluents Liffey from Iceland to Chapelizod. [1] His proposal was adopted by the Committee on 16 December 1931. Cosgrave said then that “. … This is a big issue for Remembrance and Honour to the dead, and there must always be a matter of interest to the head of government to ensure that a project so dear to a large section of the population should be a success “ . [ Citation needed ] after a meeting with over 100 representatives from all parts of Ireland July 17, 1919 was a fund created to consider the plans and designs for a permanent memorial “to commemorate all those Irish men and women killed in the first World war”. [1] a general committee was formed in November 1924 to pursue proposals for a spot in Dublin. For technical and administrative reasons, it was not until the meeting March 28, 1927 Shelbourne Hotel which Merrion Square, or St. Stephen’s Green, was suggested. A debate in Free State Senate failed to resolve the deadlock. WT Cosgrave, President of the Irish Free State Executive Council appointed since Cecil Lavery set up a “War Memorial Committee” to bring the memory process. [ Citation needed ]

Major General William Hickie says “Memorial is an All-Ireland” . A generous gift was sanctioned by the Irish government in one eleven point agreement with the Committee on December 12, 1933 in Dublin City Council Office of Public Works (OPW) has already started work on 164 men in 1932. [ citation needed]

In the adverse political conditions in the 1930s, Éamon de Valera acknowledged government still motives Memorial and made valuable contributions to the state. The cabinet approved the text in English and Irish.[ Citation needed ] Many difficulties arose in 1937 for WM Committee in terms of plants, trees and the need to obtain a completion certificate from the Office of Public Works, which finally issued in January 1938. [ Citation needed ] before any official opening can be communicated to the threat of war in Europe complicated matters further. A meeting with the Prime Minister on May 10, 1939 discussed postpone the proposed opening on the last Sunday in July.World War II when intervened to delay this further. [ Citation needed ]

Design

Designed by the great memorialist Sir Edwin Lutyens already landscaped designed several locations in Ireland and around Europe, is unique among the many war memorials he created the world. [1] He found it a delightful place.The Sunken Garden of Remembrance surrounds a Stone of Remembrance, Irish granite symbolizing an altar, which weighs seven and a half tons. The dimensions of this are identical to the First World War memorials in the whole world, and is in line with the Great Cross of Sacrifice and Central Avenue. [1] Opposite the Phoenix Park obelisk, located about three kilometers from the center of Dublin, on the grounds that gradually slope upwards against Kilmainham Hill. Old chronicles describe Kilmainham Hill as the camp of Brian Boru and his army before the last decisive battle of Clontarf 23 April 1014. The Memorial was among the last to be erected to the memory of those who sacrificed their lives in the First World War (Canada’s National War Memorial was opened 1939), and is “a symbol of Remembrance in memory of a nation of victims”. [2] the elaborate layout includes a central Sunken Rose Garden consists of a committee of prominent growers, various terraces, pergolas, lawns and roads lined with impressive park lock of hair, and two pairs Book Rooms in granite, representing the four provinces of Ireland, and contains illuminated volumes recording the names of all the dead. [1]

In the northern part of the garden overlooking the River Liffey stands a domed temple. This also marks the beginning of the avenue that leads gently uphill to step includes the Stone of Remembrance. On the floor of the temple is an excerpt from “War Sonnett II: Safety” by Rupert Brooke:

“We have found safety with all things immortal,
Winds, and morning, tears of men and merriment,
the deep night, and birdsong, and the clouds fly,
and sleep, and freedom, and autumn earth.”

Construction

There was no disagreement in its building – the workers were so drawn from the unemployed to 50 percent before World War ex-British Army and 50 percent ex-Irish Army men. To provide as much work as possible to use mechanical equipment was limited, and even granite blocks of 7 and 8 tons from Ballyknocken and Barnaculla was assaulted in place with primitive tackles by poles and ropes. Upon completion and opening in 1939 (which was postponed) managers responsible said: “It is with a spirit of confidence that we commit this noble memorial of Irish valor to the care of the government of Ireland” . [3]

Commitment, neglect and renewal

Although the commemoration of fallen by the Irish British military veterans and families took place at the site for a few years in the late 1940s and 1950s, with some impressive attendance, [4] the cultural situation in the state, and its nationally dominant ideological negative view of Ireland’s role in the second World war one, and those who had volunteered to fight in World war 2, prevent the garden from the civic opened and dedicated.

The garden was the subject of two Irish Republican paramilitary attacks. On Christmas night in 1956 a bomb was placed at the base of the War Stone and memorial crosses and detonated, but the Wicklow broken granite withstood the blast with minor injuries. Another attempt was made to bring down with a bomb detonation in October 1958, which once again failed, resulting in superficial injuries. [5]

A subsequent lack of funding from the government to provide its up-keep and care fit to fall into disrepair and vandalism during the following decades, to the point that the late 1970s it had become a place for caravans and animals of Irish Member ~ ~ POS = TRUNC community, with Dublin Corporation’s sophanterings offices use it as a dumping ground for the city’s waste. [6] Furthermore, fifty years of storms and the elements had left its mark, with structural damage unrepaired parts of the garden decoration.

In the mid-1980s, the economic and cultural changes happen in Ireland, which facilitated the renewal of urban decay in Dublin, and the beginning of a change in public perception of her former Irish revolution, national history and identity, which led to a project of restoration work to renew the park and the garden to its former glory of the office of public works, co-financed by the National War Memorial Committee. 10 September 1988 fully restored Gardens was re-opened to the public, and formally dedicated by representatives of the four largest churches in Ireland, half a century after its creation.

Official ceremonial events at the garden

  • A state memorial to mark the 90th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme July 1, 2006 participated in the Irish President Mary McAleese, the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, members of the Oireachtas, senior representatives of all political parties in Ireland, the diplomatic corps of the allies in the First World War, delegates from Ulster, representatives of the four largest churches, and is accompanied by a guard of honor in the Irish army and the army Band.
  • On May 18, 2011, Queen Elizabeth II and President of Ireland, Mrs. Mary McAleese, who wreaths in honor of the Irish dead of the First World War one and World War 2 at a ceremony in the garden during the first state visit by a British monarch to the Irish Republic. [7]
  • On 9 July 2016 a state ceremony to mark the centenary of the Battle of the Somme took place in the gardens, with Mr. Prime Minister Enda Kenny in the presence and the President of Ireland, Mr. Michael D. Higgins, a garland honor of the soldiers in Ireland who lost their lives during its course. [8]

Roll of Honour

The granite paved pergolas surround the garden lights volumes recording the names of all the dead, and was once the public, even if the threat of vandalism now have had these Book Rooms closed except for visits by appointment, which can be viewed digitally in a branch office.

A wooden cross, the Ginchy Cross, built by the 16th (Irish) Division and originally erected on the Somme to commemorate the 4,354 men of the 16th who died in two connectors, located in the same byggnad.Tre granite copies of this cross is erected in places that are released by the Irish divisions – Guillemont and Messines-Wytschaete in Belgium and Thessaloniki in Greece.

Protection

The Irish National War Memorial Gardens is now managed by the Government Office of Public Works in conjunction with the National War Memorial Committee

Additional Great War Irish memorial, in the form of an All-Ireland trip settlement was jointly opened in 1998 by Mary McAleese, President of Ireland, Queen Elizabeth II and Albert II, King of the Belgians on the island of Ireland Peace Park, Messines, Flanders, Belgium.

  • Garden of Remembrance
  • Grange Gorman Military Cemetery
  • Other major war memorials in Ireland:
    • Island of Ireland Peace Park Messines, Belgium.
    • Menin Gate memorial Ypres, Belgium.
    • Ulster Tower Memorial Thiepval, France.

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdef Duchas The Heritage Service Guide visits to the garden, from the Office of Public Works
  2. Jump up ^ British Legion plant, Irish Free State Souvenir Edition 1925-1935, National Library of Ireland, LO.
  3. Jump up ^ Henry Edward D. Harris (Major) The Irish regiments in World War I , page 210. Mercier Press Cork (1968), the National Library of Ireland Dublin
  4. Jump up ^ ‘Come to me, Dublin Life & Culture “September 9, 2013 online magazine article. https://comeheretome.com/2013/09/09/failed-attempts-on-the-war-memorial-gardens-islandbridge/
  5. Jump up ^ ‘Come to me, Dublin Life & Culture “September 9, 2013 online magazine article” failed attempts at War Garden Island Bridge’.https://comeheretome.com/2013/09/09/failed-attempts-on-the-war-memorial-gardens-islandbridge/
  6. Jump up ^ ‘Ireland’s Great War, “with Kevin Myers (Pub. Lilliput Press, 2014).
  7. Jump up ^ ‘Sombre memory of the war dead in the hush of the Island, “” Irish Times “19 May 2011. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2011/0519/1224297286972.html
  8. Jump up ^ “heroic death in Ireland recalled the Somme memorial”, “The Irish Times, July 9, 1916 http://www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/heroic-dead-of-ireland-recalled-at-somme-commemoration-1.2716862

The Ha’penny Bridge

The Ha’penny Bridge (Irish: Droichead na Leathphingine or Droichead na Life ), known later for a time as the Penny Ha’penny Bridge , and officially the Liffey Bridge , is a gångbrobyggdes May 1816 over the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. [2] [4] Made of cast iron bridge was cast at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, England. [5]

Name

Originally called the Wellington Bridge (after the Dublin-born Duke of Wellington), the name of the bridge changed to Liffey Bridge . The Liffey Bridge (Irish: Droichead na Life ) [1] remains the bridge’s official name to this day, although it is usually called the Ha’penny Bridge.

History

Before Ha’penny Bridge was built, there were seven ferries, operated by William Walsh, of the Liffey. [2] The ferries were in poor condition and Walsh was informed that he had to either fix them or build a bridge. Walsh chose the latter option and got right to extract a Ha’penny toll from someone passes for 100 years. [6]

Initially, the toll was not based on the cost of construction, but to match the fees charged by the ferries it replaced. A further condition for the design was that if the citizens of Dublin and found the bridge toll to be “objectionable” in its first year, it was removed at no cost to the city. [3]

The toll was increased over a period of time to a penny-Ha’penny (1 ½ pence), but finally fell in the 1919th While the figure was in operation, there were turnstiles at either end of the bridge.

The production of the bridge on behalf of the then mayor Dublin, John Claudius Beresford with the Coalbrookdale Company in England, which threw the ribs of the bridge in 18 sections, then transported it to Dublin. The design and erection was supervised by John Windsor, one of the company managers and a pattern maker. [7]

Renovation and maintenance

In 2001, the number of pedestrians who use the bridge daily was 27,000 and given these traffic levels, a structural survey showed that the renovation was required. [3] The bridge was closed for repairs and renovations during 2001 and reopened in December 2001 [5] sporting their original white color.

The structure was built to retain many of its old components, although controversial, some features removed. Repair work has been carried out by Harland and Wolff. [8]

In 2012, with reference to the maintenance and the risk of injury, Dublin City Council removed a number of love turned from Ha’penny Bridge and nearby Millennium Bridge, and asked people not to add any more. [9] In 2013 the Council removed over 300 kg locks from the bridge and signs were asking people not to put padlocks on the bridge. [10] [11]

On May 19, 2016 was brandsorted of the bridge is celebrated with a symbolic procession across the bridge covering the current mayor, Críona Ní Dhálaigh, descendants of JC Beresford and John Windsor from England. [7]

References 

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “official Irish translation of the placenta Commission”.Logainm.ie. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdef Ha’penny Bridge at Structurae
  3. ^ Jump up to: abcd Project History of Dublin’s River Liffey bridges (PDF).Bridge Engineering 156 Issue BE4 (report). Phillips & Hamilton.
  4. Jump up ^ “Dublin Ha’penny Bridge reaches its 200th birthday.” Irish Times. May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “Archi Seek side on Ha’penny Bridge”. Archi Seek.Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  6. Jump up ^ “iconic Ha’penny Bridge turns 200 years today.” Irish Independent. May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab “spans the years that bridge celebrate, descendants designer invited to the city for the anniversary.” Shropshire Star. 20 May 2016. p. 4. Report from Toby Neal, of the Bicentenary celebrations and also highlighting Shropshire original bridge.
  8. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bridge reopens after ‘make-over’ ‘. BBC News. 21 December 2001.
  9. Jump up ^ “Where is the Love Council removes love padlocks’ from Dublin’s Ha’penny Bridge? “. Thejournal.ie. 13.01.2012. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
  10. Jump up ^ Genevieve Carbery (26 February 2014). “The Council invites the couple signs not lock love for Ha’penny Bridge”.
  11. Jump up ^ Shane Hegarty (3 May 2014). “I love you. Let vandalize Ha’penny Bridge “. Irish Times.

The Royal Canal (Ireland)

The Royal Canal (Irish: An Chanáil Ríoga ) is a channel that was originally built for freight and passenger transport from the River Liffey in Dublin to Longford in Ireland. The canal fell into disrepair in the late 20th century, but a large part of the canal has been restored for navigation. The length of the canal to the River Shannon opening on October 1 2010, but the final spur branch of the canal to Longford Town is still closed.

History

In 1755, Thomas Williams and John Cooley did a study to find a suitable way for an artificial waterway across northern Leinster from Dublin to Shannon.They originally planned to use a series of rivers and lakes, including the Boyne, Blackwater, Deel, yellow, Camlin and Inny and Lough Derravaragh. A disgruntled manage Grand Canal Company sought support to build a canal from Dublin to Tarmonbarry, at Shannon in North County Longford.

Work began in 1790 and lasted for 27 years before finally reaching the Shannon in 1817, at a total cost of £ 1,421,954. [1] The building was unexpected and expensive project grated with problems; 1794 Royal Canal Company went bankrupt. The Duke of Leinster, director, insisted that the new waterway will take in his local town of Maynooth. The builders have to deviate from the planned route and demanded the construction of a “deep decline” between Blanchard and Clonsilla. Diversion also demanded the construction of the aqueduct Ryewater, Leixlip. [2]

The original 1796 fare from Dublin to Kilcock was 1/1, much cheaper than stagecoach.

The canal passes through Maynooth, Kilcock, Enfield, Mullingar and Ballymahon is a spur to Longford. The total length of the main navigation is 145 kilometers (90 mi), and the system has 46 locks. There is a huvudmatnings (Lough Owel), entering the channel at Mullingar.

In 200 years, maintained by eight consecutive bodies: Royal Canal Company, the Commissioners of Inland Navigation, New Djurgarden Company, Midland Great Western Railway Company, Great Southern Railways, CIE, and (from 1986), the Office of Public Works.

During the famine, “the missing 1,490” starving tenants of Denis Mahon in Strokes House, Roscommon, set out on foot from the farm in May 1847. Major Mahon had offered them the choice of emigration by “assisted passage” starvation on their blighted potato farms or location in frightening local fattighus. These families weakened by starvation went several days along the tow paths of Djurgården to Dublin, where they were put on boats to Liverpool, and from there to Quebec aboard four “coffin ships” – cargo ships, ironically loaded with grain from Ireland, and unsuitable for passengers. It is estimated that half died before Grosse Île in Canada. It was the largest single sale of uncomfortable tenants during the famine. Major Mahon was shot to death that November, after the news had come back to Roscommon on the fate of his former tenants. An annual walk on the canal banks memory of the events.

1830s through the channel of 80,000 tons of cargo and 40,000 passengers per year. In 1845 the channel was bought by the Midland Great Western Railway Company. They considered the drainage channel and build a new railway along its bed but decided instead to build the railway next to the canal. The two run side by side from Dublin to Mullingar. Competition from the railways are gradually eroding the canal operations and 1880s annual tonnage was down to about 30,000 and passenger traffic had almost disappeared.

It had a brief resurgence during World War II, when the horses and the barges back into the channel. CIE took over the canal in 1944. As rail and road increased channel fell out of use. 1974 volunteers from the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland formed Djurgarden convenience Group to save the channel. In 1990, the 74 kilometers of the canal, from the 12th lock in Blanchard Mullingar, open for navigation. In 2000, the channel was taken over by Waterways Ireland, a cross-border body responsible for managing Ireland’s inland navigations. October 1, 2010 the entire length of the canal formally resumed.

In 1843, while walking with his wife along Djurgarden, Sir William Rowan Hamilton realized the formula for quaternions and carved their first thoughts in a stone at Brougham Bridge over the canal.

Communications

Djurgården was originally scheduled to end in Dublin on Broad, to serve as fashionable residential area, as well as the King’s Inns and adjacent markets, but it was extended so that now, in the Dublin final, the channel reaches the Liffey through a wide sequence of bridge and lock on Spencer Dock , with a final sea lock to manage access to the river and the sea.

Dublin – Mullingar railroad built along the channel for a large part of its length. The winding road over the canal resulted in many speed limitation curves on the railway. The channel was bought by the Midland Great Western Railway to provide a path to the west of Ireland, the initial plan is to close the channel and build the railway along its bed.

The canal travels over one of the major junctions on the M50 / N3 in a specially built aqueduct.

Present

Today Waterways Ireland is responsible for the channel, and it was under their stewardship, in cooperation with Djurgarden convenience Group, to Djurgarden officially opened from Dublin to Shannon on 2 October 2010. [3]Access points are currently close to Leixlip and Maynooth, Enfield, Thomas, Mullingar, Ballinea Bridge and Ballynacargy.

In 2006, a memorial marker was erected at Pipers Boreen, Mullingar, to mark 200 years since the canal reached Mullingar year 1806th

Djurgarden Way

Djurgarden Way is a 144 km (89 mil) long-distance trail that follows the towpath of the canal from Ashtown, Dublin to Cloondara, County Longford.[4] It is usually done in three days. [4] It is designated as a National marked the ranks of the National Trails Office of the Irish Sports Council and managed by waterways Ireland. [4] in 2015 began to Dublin City Council to extend the pedestrian and bike path along the Djurgården Ashtown to Sheriff Street Upper. Djurgarden Way connects to the Westmeath Way west of Mullingar, and will eventually form the east end of Dublin Galway Greenway, the last part of EuroVelo Route 2, a cycle route from Moscow throughout Europe to Galway. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Auld Triangle

Djurgarden immortalized in verse by Brendan Behan in The Auld Triangle . A monument with Behan sitting on a bench was erected on the canal bank in Binn Bridge in Drumcondra in 2004.

And auld triangle went jingle jangle,

Along the shore of Djurgården.

The other major channel in Ireland, Grand Canal from Dublin’s southside through the Midlands to the River Shannon.

The web Broad

The aqueduct and canal that once connected the site to Djurgården is gone almost without trace, and what was a lovely Neo-Egyptian railway station is now a bus depot and garage.Kanalen filled in around 1927 converted to Blessington Park, Phibsborough and library built on top there.This the 19th century Broad was one of the most famous areas of Dublin, but very few people know even if it is today. From 1817 this area was home to one of the major transport hubs in 19th century Dublin, containing a large railway station and the canal harbor, linking to the Grand Canal, crossing the North Circular Road and go past Mountjoy prison. Along the way there were three dry docks. This area rose and fell in importance among Dubliners as new forms of transportation came and went.

Superstition

Djurgarden boatmen thought 13 locks on Deey bridge between Leixlip and Maynooth, was haunted. This story became the subject of a poem by Arthur Griffith, The Spooks in the Thirteenth Lock , which in turn inspired the name of the band The Spook of the Thirteenth Lock . [9]

See also

  • List of bridges over Djurgarden in Greater Dublin
  • The channels in Ireland
  • Rivers of Ireland
  • Transport in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ “History”. Djurgarden Action Group. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved fourteen September 2015.
  2. Jump up ^http://www.irishidentity.com/extras/places/stories/canal.htm
  3. Jump up ^ Ellis, Fiona (2 October 2010). “Crowds gather to push the boat out for the reopening of the restored Djurgården”. Irish Independent.Pulled in two October of 2010.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abc “Royal Canal Way”. IrishTrails. Irish Sports Council.Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ “Westmeath Way: Map 3 Added the Mullingar Town” (pdf).IrishTrails. Irish Sports Council. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ “€ 10m more for bike paths.” HospitailityIreland.com. May 15, 2014. Retrieved six August 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ Melia, Paul (27 June 2014). “Wheels in motion for 280 km of coast to coast cycle route”. Irish Independent. Dublin.
  8. Jump up ^ Kelly, Olivia (12 March 2015). “Plan unveiled for € 10m-plus Royal Canal bike path.” Irish Times. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  9. Jump up ^https://www.facebook.com/thespookofthethirteenthlock/posts/10150995789898173

The Grand Canal (Ireland)

The Grand Canal (Irish: An Chanáil Mhor ) is the southernmost of a few channels which connect Dublin, in the east of Ireland, with the River Shannon in the west, through Tullamore and a number of other villages and towns, the two channels almost encircles Dublin’s inner city . Sister channel on the Northside of Dublin is Djurgården. The last working barge passed through the Grand Canal in 1960. [1]

branches

There are a number of branches off the Grand Canal, part of which has been completed, and of these, some later restored and reopened.

  • The original main line to the Grand Canal Harbour St. James Gate in Dublin (most of the road is now used by the red line Luas. Although this section was in use, the channel from Crumlin to Liffey in Ringsend, which is part of the current main line, was considered a branch.
  • Naas / Corbally (navigable Naas, but a low bridge prevents access to Corbally)
  • Barrow branch, join the River Barrow at Athy
  • Milltown feeder
  • The Mountmellick Line, which left Barrow Line at Monasterevin and passed Portarlington (abandoned)
  • Blackwood feeder (abandoned)
  • Lough Boora feeder (abandoned)
  • Edenderry
  • Kilbeggan (abandoned)
  • Ballinasloe (starting on the far side of the River Shannon from Shannon Harbour, abandoned and now used by Bord na Mona industrial railway)

History

The idea of connecting Dublin to the Shannon was already suggested in 1715, [2] and in 1757 the Irish Parliament granted Thomas Omer £ 20,000 to start the construction of a canal. By 1759, he reported that the 3 km (1.9 mi) in the Bog of Allen and 13 km (8.1 mi) of canal from River Liffey near Sallins to Dublin was complete. By 1763 he had completed three locks and six bridges toward Dublin and concentrate on establishing a water supply from the Morell River near Sallins. At this time the Corporation of Dublin realized that the channel could be used to improve water supply to the city, and put up the money to complete the canal into the city. But when the canal was filled banks gave way, and the city does not get its water. By 1768, £ 77,000 had been spent on the project, and a little more forthcoming.

1772 Grand Canal Company was founded by a group of nobles and merchants, including public subscription, to secure the future of the channel and to tackle the biggest obstacle to the channel, Bog of Allen. This was a new venture for the channels. The company was invited John Smeaton and his assistant William Jessop to Ireland for two weeks to advise them.Smeaton made a recommendation to skirt around the bog without building the canal at the full height, as opposed to Omer efforts trying to drain parts of the bog and build at a lower level. This was to prove a costly mistake, although he also recommended to reduce the generous locks that Omer had built (42m by 6 m / 137 ft by 20 ft) to 18m by 4m (60 feet by 14 feet), which would entail substantial savings in the total cost of the canal.

The channel from Sallins finally opened to traffic in 1779, and twice-weekly passenger service from Sallins to Dublin started in 1780. The canal was extended to Roberts in 1784, including the Leinster Aqueduct over the Liffey, designed by Richard Evans, [3] and a junction with the River Barrow in Athy in 1791. the circular line by Dublin from Portobello to Ringsend, where large docks next to the Liffey was constructed, was founded in 1790 and opened in 1796. the company had then turned attention to complete the connection to Shannon. To get over the Bog of Allen took more than five years of struggle under the leadership of Jessop, who tried to use clay walls to support the walls of the channel. Although the canal was opened to Daingean (when Philip Town) in 1797, serious violations have occurred and Jessop was forced to abandon this method. Continue to Shannon then continued under the leadership of John Killaly, who managed to cross another bog by performing drainage work for several years before construction. The work was substantially completed in 1803, but because of leakage and a dry summer the official opening should be delayed until April 1804.

All the work had cost in the region of £ 877,000 [4] and it was a few years before it began to make a profit, even if regular dividends had been paid to aktieägarna.Handeln increased from 100,000 tons in 1800 to double that in 1810. Revenues from passenger boats also increased to £ 90,000 before this date. (The novel The Kellys and O’Kellys (1848) by Anthony Trollope contains a description of an arduous journey by passenger flyboat from Portobello Ballinasloe.) But long story had been a rival venture, Djurgarden, which began in 1790 and finally opened in 1817 after the government had stepped in to resolve disputes between the two companies.

Route

The Grand Canal begins today at the River Liffey in Grand Canal Dock and continues until the River Shannon with various branches, including a link to the River Barrow waterways in Athy.

Grand Canal Dock it passes through Ringsend and then crosses the southside, separates the northern ends of Ballsbridge, Ranelagh, Rathmines, Harold’s Cross and Crumlin. This section is circular line and has seven locks.On Inchicore seen path of the original main line to the Grand Canal Harbour, City Basin (reservoir) and the Guinness Brewery. Most of the route of this line is now parallel with the red Luas line.

From Suir Road Bridge, begin numbering the lock back on a channel that heads west through the suburbs of West Dublin and Kildare. On the Sallins Naas / Corbally branch diverts south while the Grand Canal continues westward passing Caragh, prosperous and Roberts, its highest point. Just outside Sallins crossing the Grand Canal over the River Liffey at Leinster Aqueduct. Just east of Roberts is the place where Blackwood Feeder used to connect to the channel, while just west can be found on the busiest intersection on the canal where the old Barrow Line, Milltown Feeder and entrances to Athy & Barrow Navigation. Further west, the canal passes Edenderry, Tullamore and Rahan before reaching the Shannon at Shannon Harbour in County Offaly. Total is the main line of the canal 131 kilometers (81 mi) with 43 gates, five of which are double lock.

disasters

In December 1792 there was a major accident on the Grand Canal. A passing boat left Dublin on the way to Athy. It seems that one hundred and fifty people, many of them drunk, forced himself on a barge, despite the captain warns them that the boat would capsize if they did not leave. Near the eighth locks, five men, four women and two children drowned when the boat capsized. The rest of the passengers fled.

On the evening of Saturday, April 6, 1861 in Portobello Harbour, a horse-drawn bus, run by Patrick Hardy had just dropped a passenger on the channel when one of the horses began to rear. The horses pulled the bus through the rails of the bridge. The bus, horses and six passengers inside the bus, plunged into the cold water and drowned. The leader could jump clear and the driver was pulled from the water by a passing policeman.

ownership

Until 1950 Grand Canal Company had ownership of the canal, then the Transport Act 1950 were transferred to the channel Coras Iompair Éireann.This situation continued until the channels Act 1986 gave it to the Office of Public Works. Under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, a new all-Ireland body called Waterways Ireland was founded in 1999 and assumed responsibility for most inland waterways including the Grand Canal.

Grand Canal Way

Grand Canal Way (Irish: Bealach na Canálach MOIRE ) [5] is a 117 km (73 mi) long distance trail that follows the towpath of the canal from Lucan Bridge, near Adamstown, Shannon Harbour. [6] It is usually within five days. [ 6] it is designated as a National selected points of the National Trails Office Irish a Sports and managed by waterway Ireland. [6] Roberts, Grand Canal way cutting with Barrow way, resulting Barrow line extension of the channel Athy for part of its path . [7] there is also a 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long greenway between the 3rd Lock at Inchicore and 12 caps in Lucan, which opened in June 2010. [8]

See also

  • List of bridges over the Grand Canal in Greater Dublin
  • The channels in Ireland
  • Rivers of Ireland
  • Transport in Ireland
  • Grand Canal Dock

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ A History of the Grand Canal
  2. Jump up ^ Ruth Delaney (2004). Ireland inland waterway. Apple Press.
  3. Jump up ^ Guide to the Grand Canal (5th ed.). Waterway service. 1995.
  4. Jump up ^ Delany op cit. p88
  5. Jump up ^ “Grand Canal Way”. Placental Database of Ireland.Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs.Hämtadskrevs 8 August 2011.
  6. ^ Jump up to: abc “Grand Canal Way”. IrishTrails. Irish Sports Council.Hämtadskrevs 8 August 2011.
  7. Jump up ^ “Barrow Way Map” (pdf). IrishTrails. Irish Sports Council.Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  8. Jump up ^ “Opening of the Grand Canal Way Green Route 3 Lock to Lock 12 – 18 June 2010”. South Dublin County Council. Hämtadskrevs 8 August 2011.

The Supreme Court of Ireland

The Supreme Court of Ireland (Irish: Cúirt Uachtarach na hÉireann ) is the highest judicial authority in Ireland. It is a court of last instance and exercises, along medhovrätten and the Supreme Court, judicial review of acts of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to ensure that the Constitution of Ireland, government agencies and individuals. It sits in the Four Courts in Dublin.

Establishment

The Supreme Court was formally established September 29, 1961 under the terms of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland. [1] [2] Prior to 1961 allowed a transitional provision of the 1937 Constitution, the Supreme Court of Irish Free State to continue, even if the judges had to take the new oath of office prescribed in 1937 Constitution. [3] the latter court set up by the courts of Justice Act 1924 in accordance with the terms of the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State. [4] Prior to 1924, allowed a transitional provision of the 1922 Constitution, the Supreme court of Judicature to continue, [5] the latter was founded 1877 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. [6] the 1924 act was a comprehensive review of the Court’s basically preserving some of the 1877 event, the 1961 Act was a short formal translation in terms of the 1937 Constitution.

Composition

The Supreme Court consists of its president called the chief justice, and no more than nine members. [7] There are two ex officio members: the President of the Court of Appeal normally sits in the Court of Appeal, and the President of the High Court normally sits in the High Court. The Supreme Court sits in divisions of three, five or seven judges. Two or more departments can sit at the same time. In assessing whether the President is permanently unable under Article 12 of the Constitution, to rule on the constitutionality of a bill based on the President in accordance with Article 26, or to rule on the constitutionality of any law court must consist of at least five members . [8]

Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President of Ireland in accordance with the binding advice of the Government (Cabinet), which since 1995, acting in turn on the non-binding advice of a legal advisory board. [9]

current members

name Since Alma mater mandatory
retirement
Remarks
Susan Denham December 1992 TCD (BA (m) jurisprudence), Columbia University (LL.M.), King Inn 2017 Chief Justice since 2011, [10]
First woman appointed CJ [11]
Donal O’Donnell March 2010, UCD (BCL), UVA (LLM), King’s Inn [11] 2029
Liam McKechnie June 2010 UCC (BCL), King’s Inn [11] 2021
Frank Clarke February 2012 UCD (BCL), King’s Inn [11] 2021
John MacMenamin February 2012 UCD (BCL), King’s Inn [11] 2022
mary Laffoy July 2013 UCD (BCL), King Inn 2017
Elizabeth Dunne July 2013 UCD (BCL), King Inn 2026
Peter Charleton June 2014 TCD (BA (m) jurisprudence), King Inn 2026
Iseult O’Malley October 2015 TCD (BA (m) jurisprudence), King Inn

Ex-officio members

name Since Alma mater mandatory
retirement
Remarks
Seán Ryan October 2014 UCD, the King’s Inns President of the Court of Appeal [11]
Peter Kelly december 2015 UCD, the King’s Inns President of the High Court[11]

tenure

According to the Courts Act and judicial officials was in 1995 retirement ordinary judge of the Supreme Court reduced from 72 years to 70 years.Judges appointed before the entry into operation of this Act may continue working until age 72. The courts (No 2) Act 1997 limited the term of a person appointed to the post of chief justice following the entry into operation the law to a period of seven years. A former chief justice can continue as a member of the audit until he or she reaches the statutory retirement age.

Competence

The Supreme Court hears appeals from the Court of Appeal, and as part of the transitional arrangements after the conclusion of the Court of Appeal, the High Court, the Audit Criminal Appeal and the Court-Martial Appeal Court, where the case has not been transferred from the Supreme Court of Appeal. The Court’s power to rule on the application may be severely restricted (as it is from the Court of Criminal Appeal and the Court-Martial Appeal Court) or excluded altogether, except for appeals if the consequence of a law with the Constitution. The Supreme Court is also legal questions referred to it by the Circuit Court.

The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in only two cases. This is when a bill is called to it by the President of an opinion on the constitutional law prior to the issue in accordance with Article 26 of the Constitution or where the Court must determine, in accordance with Article 12 of the Constitution, if the president has become incapacitated.

The Supreme Court has little discretion to decide which cases it hears the claim seeking dismissal of either the court or the Supreme Court itself before an appeal can be rare. [12]

Judicial review

Main article: Judicial review in Ireland

 

The Supreme Court exercises, along with the High Court the power to strike down laws that are inconsistent with the Constitution. The courts also injunctions against public bodies, private organizations and citizens to ensure that the Constitution. The Irish constitution explicitly provides for judicial review of legislation. Acts passed after the entry into force of the Constitution, is invalid if “repugnant” to the Constitution, [13] while the laws in force before the entry into force of the Constitution is invalid if “inconsistent” with the Constitution. [14] The Constitution also provides, in accordance with Article 26, for judicial review of bills before they are (or would have been) signed into law. The power to refer bills personally exercised by the President after consulting the Government. When the Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of a bill referred to in Article 26, its constitutional law can not be challenged in court at any time. [15]

Supreme Court judges are normally free to deliver their own assessments, divergent and convergent. There is an exception when considering the constitutionality of a bill referred by the President under Article 26 of the Constitution, where only a single judgment may be delivered. [16] Previously, the only judgment rule even when considering the constitutionality of a law by the Oireachtas passed under 1937 Constitution, this was removed by the 33rd Amendment to 2013. Acts passed prior to 1937 has always permitted several judgments. [n 1]

jurisprudence

After a slow start during the first two decades of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has rendered a significant constitutional jurisprudence. This slow start was in part because, before 1922, all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, and the Supreme Court judges had been trained in British jurisprudence, which stresses the sovereignty of Parliament and respect the legislature. It was also true that the 1922 Constitution was a right of appeal to the Privy Council to bear on a number of occasions. Nevertheless, from the 1960s onwards, the Court has made a number of important decisions. It has, for example:

  • Developed a doctrine of unenumerated rights based on an expansive interpretation of Article 40.3.1 °, with elements of natural law and liberal democratic theory.
  • Developed and defended the separation of powers.
  • Ruled that major changes to the Treaties establishing the European Union can not be ratified by the state is not allowed under a previously passed constitutional amendment.
  • Ruled that Articles 2 and 3 (as they stood before 1999) does not impose obligations on the state that was enforceable in a court of law.
  • Discovered a broad right to privacy in marital affairs implicit in Article 41.
  • Discovered a right to abortion where there is a risk to the mother’s life by suicide in Article 40.3.3 °.
  • Imported doctrine of proportionality in Irish law.

important decisions

  • 1950 – . Buckley v Attorney General (right to property)
  • 1965 – Ryan v Attorney General. (The Doctrine of unenumerated rights)
  • 1966 – . State (Nicolaou) v A table Uchtála (constitutional only family based on marriage)
  • 1971 – . Byrne v Ireland (unconstitutionality State immunity in tort)
  • 1974 – McGee v Attorney General. (Marital integrity and contraception)
  • 1976 – The Búrca v Minister of Justice. (Equality)
  • 1979 – . East Donegal Co-operative v Attorney General (natural justice)
  • 1983 – . Norris v Attorney General (the criminalization of homosexuality be accepted) [18]
  • 1987 – Crotty v An Taoiseach. (Ratification of the EU Treaty)
  • 1988 – . Attorney General (Society for the Protection of the unborn child) v Open Door Counselling (information about abortion)
  • 1988 – . Webb v Ireland (non-survival of chronic powers)
  • 1989 – . Kennedy v Ireland (right to privacy)
  • 1992 – . Attorney General v X , more commonly the “X case” (abortion and risk of suicide)
  • 1993 – Attorney General v Hamilton. (Separation of powers)
  • 1993 – Meagher v Minister for Agriculture. (European Communities Act)
  • 1994 – Heaney v Ireland. (The doctrine of proportionality)
  • 1995 – Re regulation of Information (Services outside the State for Termination of Pregnancies) Bill (supremacy written constitution)
  • 1995 – Re a court Ward (right to die)
  • 1995 – McKenna v. An Taoiseach (the referendum campaign finance)
  • 2001 – Sinnott v. Minister of Education (restrictions on the right to education)
  • 2003 – . Lobe and Osayande against Attorney General (deportation of the parents nationality)
  • 2006 – Curtin v. Dáil Éireann (the removal of judges)
  • 2006 – A. v. Governor of Arbour Hill Prison (unconstitutionality of a law does not retrospectively invalidate any action taken under it)
  • 2009 – McD against L. (established parental rights of sperm donors)

Sharing sovereignty

Today the Supreme Court shares his authority with two supra-national courts: the Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court (ECHR). In matters concerning the correct interpretation of EU law, decisions of the European Court of Justice has precedence over the provisions of the Irish Supreme Court.

The relationship between the Irish courts and the European Court is more complicated. The European Convention on Human Rights, a treaty is binding on the state of international law. But as a matter of Irish national law, the Convention is inscribed only in law, and not the status of the constitution.Under the terms of the European Convention on Human Rights Act, adopted by the Oireachtas in 2003, ordinary law must where possible, be interpreted in accordance with the Convention. But the Irish courts the Convention must give way both clear legislative intent and any countervailing demands on the Constitution. Moreover, its provisions are not invoked as separate causes of action.

Supreme Court decision can not be appealed, as such, either the courts. The court hears cases referred to it by the Irish courts by a preliminary ruling and while unsuccessful litigants before the Supreme Court can apply to the European Court, not later Court decision does not mean that emptying the Supreme Court decision. As a matter of Irish national law decisions of the European Court does not automatically override the Oireachtas documents and may require legislative or perhaps even a constitutional referendum to be implemented in its entirety.

See also

  • List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Ireland
  • Supreme Court
  • Dail Courts
  • The Supreme Court of the Irish Free State
  • Judicial
  • History of Ireland
  • Abortion in Ireland
  • Philip Sheedy Affair

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ For example dissent was in Norris v. Attorney General , on the constitutionality of ss. 61 and 62 of the offenses against the person Act, 1861, while only a single judgment was given in the Buckley v. Attorney General , on the constitutionality iSinn Féin Funds Act in 1947.[17]

References

Sources

  • Kelly, John M.; Hogan, Gerard; Whyte, Gerard (2002). The Irish Constitution (4th edition ed.). ISBN 1-85475-895-0.
  • “Constitution of Ireland”. October 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2016.

The four courts

The four courts (Irish: Na Ceithre Cúirteanna [1] ) is Ireland’s main courts building located on the Inn’s Quay in Dublin. Four Courts is the site of the Supreme Court, denHigh Court and the Dublin Circuit Court. Until 2010 the building also housed the Central Criminal Court.

Building Gandon

The work is based on the design of Thomas Cooley for the Public Records Office of Ireland, began in 1776. After his death in 1784 renowned architect James Gandon was appointed to finish the building, which we recognize today as the Four Courts. It was built between 1786 and 1796, while the final touches to the arcade and wings was completed in 1802. [2] The countries have previously been used by the King’s Inns. The building originally housed the four courts of Chancery, King’s Bench, Exchequer and Common Pleas, hence the name of the building. A major revision of the judiciary in the late nineteenth century saw these courts merged into a new High Court of Ireland, but the building has retained its historical name. The judiciary remained until 1924, when the new Irish Free State introduced a new court structure, replacing the High Court of Ireland, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland and Lord Chancellor of Ireland with a Supreme Court led by Chief Justice and the High Court of Justice, headed by President of the High Court.1961 words “justice” was dropped from the names of two courts in late reestablished a result of the adoption of the 1937 Constitution.

Four Courts in the 1916 Easter Rising

Four Courts and surrounding areas held by the Commandant Ned Daly 1st Battalion during the Easter Rising in 1916. Some of the most intense fighting of Easter Week took place in the Church Street / North King Street / North Brunswick Street area. At the end of the week Four Courts building became the headquarters of the 1st Battalion.

The destruction in the Civil War

On 14 April 1922 the courts complex was occupied by forces opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which is led by Rory O’Connor. On June 27, the new national army attacked the building to remove the rebels, on the orders of Defense Secretary Richard Mulcahy approved President Dáil Éireann Arthur Griffith. [3] This led to a week of fighting in Dublin. In the process of shelling the historic building was destroyed. The west wing of the building obliterated in a huge explosion, destroying the Irish Public Record Office at the rear of the building. Almost a thousand years of archives were destroyed by this.

O’Connor forces accused of mining records office, but those present, who included future Prime Minister Seán Lemass, said that although they had used the archive as a store of ammunition, they had not deliberately broken it. They suggest that the explosion was caused by an accidental detonation of munitions store during the fighting. [3]

Resume 1932

For a decade, the old judiciary (until 1924), then the new Free State court system, was based on the old Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle. In 1932, a rebuilt and remodeled Four Courts was opened. But much of the decorative interior of the original building had disappeared, and in the absence of documentary archives (some of whom had been in the Public Records Office and others who were among the large amount of legal records also lost), and also because the new State has not the funds were highly decorative interior is not replaced. Two side wings were built farther away from the river to undo the problems caused by too narrow paths outside the building. But this change, and the removal of chimney stacks, has removed some of the architectural unity and effect planned by Gandon in 1796.

In the early 1990s, when Chief Justice suggested building a new purpose-built building for the Supreme Court, while other courts on site . Currently, however, remains the highest court in the Four Courts.

Criminal Courts move

Prior to 2010, both civilian and serious attempts were heard in the Four Courts as also was the site of the Court of Criminal Appeal. With the opening of a new criminal courts complex in January 2010 – the Criminal Courts of Justice next to the Phoenix Park – all criminal cases were transferred there. [4] [5] The four courts remain in use for civil matters. [4] The Court of Criminal Appeal moved also to the new building, but it also sometimes sits in the Four Courts.

See also

  • The courts in Ireland
  • The law of Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ Michal Boleslav Mechura (10 December 2006). “Uimhreacha Na Gaeilge” (PDF) (in Irish). p. 12. Retrieved 19 May 2011. Original historical use of the plural form: the use of the singular form is a relatively new habit. Even in the early twentieth speakers century had the choice to use the plural form, too, and many relics of use seen in the current situation, in particular in its own name: na Ceithre Cuirteanna, for example, said, although na Ceithre Chuirt would be more accurate according to the current language rules .
  2. Jump up ^ Maurice Craig: Dublin 1660-1860, page 243
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “Republic – the fight for Irish independence 1918 – 1923” Charles Townshend ISBN 978-0-141-03004-3
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab New order in court as € 140m legal ‘Pantheon’ opens doors, Dearbhail McDonald, Irish Independent, November 24, 2009
  5. Jump up ^ The first case set new criminal courts, Carol Coulter, The Irish Times November 24, 2009

Dublin Castle

Dublin Castle (Irish: Caislean Bhaile Átha Cliath ) of Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, was until 1922 the seat of the British government’s administration in Ireland, and is now a major Irish government complex. Most of it is from the 18th century, though a castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland. The castle served as the seat of English, later British government of Ireland under the dominion Ireland (1171-1541), the Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1800), and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1800-1922).

After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921, the complex ceremony handed over to the newly formed Provisional Government led by Michael Collins. [1]

Roller

Dublin Castle fulfilled a number of roles throughout its history. Originally built as a defensive fortification for the Norman city of Dublin, later developed into a royal residence, resided in by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland or Viceroy of Ireland, the representative of the monarch. The second in command in the Dublin Castle administration, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, also had his office there. Over the years, Parliament and the courts met at the castle before moving to new purpose-built premises. There was also a military garrison. “Castle Catholic” was a pejorative term for Catholics who were considered to be too friendly with or supporting the British administration.

At the formation of the Free State in 1922, assumed the castle for a decade, the role of the Four Courts on the Liffey quays which had been severely damaged during the civil war.

It was decided in 1938 that the inauguration of the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde would take place in the castle, and the complex has hosted this ceremony since. The castle is also used to house official state visits, and more informal foreign connections, state banquets and government policy launches, and acts as a central base for Ireland’s hosting the European Presidency approximately every 10 years.

History

The Record Tower, the only surviving tower of the medieval castle dating from c.1228.

To his left is the Chapel Royal.

Dublin Castle was first founded as a major defensive work of Meiler Fitzhenry on the orders of King John of England in 1204, [2] some time after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded to a castle built with strong walls and good ditches the defense of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the king’s treasure. [3] largely complete by 1230, the castle was typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square but keep, bounded all sides by high defensive walls and protected in every corner of a round tower. Positioned to the southeast Norman Dublin Castle formed a corner of the outer perimeter of the city, with the river Poddle as a natural way to defend themselves along two of its sides. The city wall directly connects the castle’s northeastern Powder Tower, which stretches north and west around the city before the reunification of the castle on the Southwestern Bermingham Tower. In 1620 the English-born Judge Luke Gernonvar very impressed by the wall: “a great and mighty wall, square, and the incredible thickness”. [ Citation needed ]

The Poddle diverted into the city through the vaults where the walls adjacent to the castle, artificial floods moat of the fortress city heights. One of these vaults and part of the wall survive buried under the buildings 18th century, and is open to the public.

Soldiers at Dublin Castle, c.1905

By the Middle Ages wooden house in the castle square evolved and changed, the most significant addition is the Great Hall built of stone and wood, alternatively used as the Reichstag, the courts and the banquet hall. The building survived until 1673, when it was damaged by fire and demolished shortly afterwards. The Castle court department, the Irish equivalent of the English Star Chamber, sitting in Dublin Castle in a room that is specially built for around 1570. The castle sustained serious fire damage in 1684. Extensive remodeling transformed it from medieval fortress to the Georgian palace. No traces of medieval buildings remain above ground level today, with the exception of the large Record Tower (about 1228-1230); it is the only surviving tower of the original fortification, its pinnacles an early 19th century additions. [4]

United Irishmen General Joseph Holt, a participant in the 1798 Rising, was detained in the Bermingham Tower before being transported to New South Wales 1799th

1884 Officer of the castle was the center of a sensational gay scandal incited by Irish nationalist politician William O’Brien through his newspaper United Ireland . [5]

In 1907, the Irish Crown Jewels were stolen from the castle. Suspicion fell on the Officer of Arms, Sir Arthur Vicars, but rumors about his homosexuality and links to important societal gay men in London, may have been compromised undersökningen.Juvel has never been found. [6]

At the beginning of the Easter Rising in 1916, a force of twenty-five Irish army were members able to seize the entrance and guard room of the castle, before reinforcements for the small garrison came. [7] During the Anglo-Irish War the Castle was the nerve center of the British effort against Irish separatism . On the night of Bloody Sunday in 1920, three Irish Republican Army members Dick McKee, Conor Cluneoch Peadar Clancy, tortured and killed there. [8] [9] [10]

When the Irish Free State came to 1922, ceased Dublin Castle to serve as the administrative seat. It served for some years as temporary Courts of Justice (the four courts, home of the Irish judiciary, had been destroyed in 1922).After the court vacated the premises, the Castle was used for state ceremonial. As Chairman of the Executive Council, Éamon de Valera received references from which the newly arrived ambassadors to Ireland on behalf of King George V in 1930. 1938 Douglas Hyde was inaugurated as president of Ireland at the castle. Inaugurations of subsequent presidents took place there in 1945, 1952, 1959, 1966, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1983, 1990, 1997 and 2011. President Erskine Hamilton Childers’ lying in-state took place there in November 1974, which allowed the former President Éamon de Valera in September, 1975.

The castle is a tourist attraction and after major renovation, is also used as a conference center. During Ireland’s Presidency of the European Union, it has been the site of numerous meetings of the European Council. The crypt of the Chapel Royal is now used as an arts center, and occasional concerts are held in the grounds of the castle. The complex of buildings is usually open to the public, except during state functions.

State Apartments

The state apartments, [11] located in the southern area of buildings in Upper Yard, contains rooms previously used by the Lord Lieutenant for personal accommodations and public entertain Castle season. Today, these richly decorated rooms used by the Irish Government for official purposes, including political announcements, hosting state visits and ceremonial inauguration of the President every seven years. The main room in the state apartments include:

Saint Patrick’s Hall

This is the most beautiful place in the function room, and includes one of the most important decorative interiors in Ireland. Former ballroom of the Lord Lieutenant administration today the room is used for presidential inaugurations. It is one of the oldest rooms in the castle, dating from the 1740s, although its interior is largely from c. 1790, including the most significant painted ceilings in Ireland is carried out by Vincenzo Valdre (c. 1742-1814). It consists of three panels, showing the roof coronation of King George III, St. Patrick introducing Christianity to Ireland, and King Henry II received the submission of the Irish Chieftains. The state dinner hosted by the President of Ireland to welcome Queen Elizabeth II to Ireland was held here in the evening of 18 May 2011.

After disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1871, the Order of St. Patrick, the Irish order of chivalry, moved his ceremonial home from St. St. Patrick’s Cathedral Patrick Hall. The bands and hatchment plates of the knights who lived at the time of Irish independence remain.

Throne room

Originally built as Battleaxe Hall in the 1740s, it was converted into a presence department around 1790. The royal decoration date from that time and from changes in the 1830s. It contains a throne built for the visit of King George IV to Ireland 1821st

State Drawing Room

Built in the 1830s as the main reception room of the Lord Lieutenant and his household, today this room is reserved in use for receiving foreign dignitaries. Largely destroyed in a fire in 1941, the room was reconstructed with slight modifications in 1964-1968 by the OPW, using salvaged and replicated furnishings and decor.

State Dining Room

Also called Picture Gallery, and formerly known as the Supper room, this is the oldest room in the castle and largely retains its original furnishings, has avoided major changes and fire over the years. It originates from Lord Chesterfield building of the state apartments in the 1740s, and was intended to be used as a dinner room adjoining Patrick Hall and as a personal dining.Today, the room is still used for dinner when conferences take place in St. Patrick’s Hall.

State bedroom

These former private quarters of the Lord Lieutenant was built as five interconnecting rooms which runs along the back of the building, next to the spine corridor that separates them from government salon. Completely rebuilt in the 1960s after the fire in 1941, the rooms retain the original courtly sequence and today is used as the associated drawings and conference rooms to the main apartments. The last dignitary to stay in the royal bedrooms was Margaret Thatcher, who spent a night with her husband Dennis during the European Council meetings in the 1980s.

State corridor

The most architectural space of state apartments, this expressive, deeply modeled corridor was built c. 1758 to the design of the Surveyor General, Thomas Eyre. Based on the early 18th century hall of Edward Lovett Pearce in the former parliament building on College Green, it has a marching procession of arches and vaults originally top-lit. Unfortunately office floors built over the skylight after complete reconstruction of the corridor in the 1960s as a result of differential settlement with the reconstruction of the adjacent salongen.Korridoren features exact plaster casts of the original bow detail, and the original door cases and fireplaces rescued before refurbishment.

Dublin Castle is currently maintained by the Office of Public Works, and houses, among other offices in the Revenue Commissioners in a 20-century building at the end of the Castle Yard, some parts of the Office of Public Works in an old stable area, and some features in Garda Síochána.

The castle complex also hosts the Chester Beatty Library, in a purpose built facility.

Film

Dublin Castle has starred in many films, including Barry Lyndon , Michael Collins , Becoming Jane and medal , as well as the television series The Tudors, where it serves as the Vatican in the pilot.

Music

Dublin Castle hosts the Heineken Green Energy Festival every May bank holiday weekend. Part of Dublin Castle appears on the cover of Jandek albumKhartoum Variations .

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • Royal Chapel
  • Dublin Castle administration in Ireland
  • List of castles in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ Costello, Peter (1999). Dublin Castle, in the life of the Irish nation. Dublin. Wolfhound Press ISBN 0-86327-610-5.
  2. Jump up ^ “Fitzhenry, Meiler.” Dictionary of National Biography.London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885-1900.
  3. Jump up ^ McCarthy, Denis; Benton, David (2004). Dublin Castle: at the heart of Irish history. Dublin: Irish Government Stationery Office. pp. 12-18. ISBN 0-7557-1975-1.
  4. Jump up ^ Dublin Castle (2002). “Dublin Castle site (history)”. Dublin Castle. Archived from the original The 1 August 2008. Taken 2008-08-20.
  5. Jump up ^ Costello, Peter Dublin Castle in the life of the Irish nation , wolf Press, 1999, P77, P104
  6. Jump up ^ Kilfeather, Siobhán Marie Dublin: A Cultural History , Oxford University Press, 2005, p248
  7. Jump up ^ Kostick, Conor. Easter Rising. pp. 115-116. ISBN 0-86278-638-X.
  8. Jump up ^ Sean O’Mahony, died in the castle: Three murders in Dublin Castle in 1920. 1916/1921 Club
  9. Jump up ^ Dwyer, T. Ryle, the squad (2005)
  10. Jump up ^ MacLysaght, Changing Times (1978)
  11. Jump up ^ McCarthy, Denis; Benton, David (2004). Dublin Castle: at the heart of Irish history. Dublin: Irish Government Stationery Office. pp.128-130. ISBN 0-7557-1975-1.

Croke Park

Croke Park (Irish: Pairc an Chrócaigh , IPA: [paːɾʲc ən xɾˠoːkˠə]) is a GAA stadium located in Dublin, Ireland. Named after Archbishop Thomas Croke, it is often called Croker of certain GAA fans and locals. It serves both as the main stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

Since 1884 the site has been used primarily by the GAA to host Gaelic games, mostly annual All-Ireland finals in football and hurling. Both the opening and closing ceremonies Ispecial Olympics in 2003, as well as numerous concerts with big international acts, have been held in the arena.During construction of the Aviva Stadium, Croke Park, hosts games played by Ireland national rugby team, Team and Ireland national football team. In June 2012, the stadium was to host the conclusion of the 50th International Eucharistic Congress, during which Pope Benedict XVI gave an address of the video link to about eighty thousand people. [2] [3]

After a restructuring program launched in the 1990s, has Croke Park a capacity of 82,300, [4] making it the third largest stadium in Europe, and it’s not usually used for association football.

Urban and suburban court

A fireworks and light display was held in Croke Park in front of 79.161 fans on Saturday, January 31, 2009 to mark the GAA’s 125th anniversary

The area now known as the Croke Park was owned in the 1880s by Maurice Butterly and known as the City and Suburban Racecourse or the Jones Road sports ground. From 1890 it was also used by Bohemian Football Club. 1901 Jones Road host IFA Cupfotbollsfinalen when Clifton defeated Freebooters.[5]

History

Recognizing the potential of Jones Road sports a journalist and member of the GAA, Frank Dineen, borrowed much of the £ 3,250 asking price and bought the land in 1908. In 1913 the GAA came to the exclusive ownership of the property when they bought it from for £ Dineen 3500. The land was then renamed Croke Park in honor of Archbishop Thomas Croke, one of the GAA first patron.

In 1913 Croke Park had only two stands on what is now called the Hogan stand side and grass banks around. In 1917, a grassy hill built on the railway end of Croke Park to give customers a better view of the field. This terrace was originally known as Hill 60, after the Battle of Hill 60 during World War II.A few decades later, it was later renamed Hill 16 and a myth may develop that it was built from the ruins of the Easter Rising.

In the 1920s, set the GAA to create a high-capacity stadium at Croke Park.After Hogan Stand, the Cusack Stand, named after Michael Cusack from Clare (who founded the GAA and served as its first secretary), was built in 1927. 1936 saw the first double-deck Cusack Stand open with 5000 points, and concrete terrasse built on Hill 16. 1952 Nally Stand was built in memory of Pat Nally, another founder of the GAA. Seven years later, to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the GAA, the first cantilever “New Hogan Stand” was opened.

The highest attendance ever recorded at an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was 90,556 for Offaly v Down in the 1961st Since the introduction of seating Cusack to stand in 1966, the largest amount recorded was 84,516.

Bloody Sunday

Bloody Sunday memory plaque

Main article: Bloody Sunday (1920)

During the Irish War of Independence November 21, 1920 Croke Park was the scene of a massacre of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC). The police, supported by the British Auxiliary Division into the ground and shot into the crowd, killing or mortally wounded 14 civilians during a Dublin – Tipperary Gaelic football match. The dead included 13 spectators and Tipperary player, Michael Hogan .Postumt Hogan stand was built in 1924 was named in his honor. These shootings, the day became known as Bloody Sunday, was a retaliation for the murder of 15 people in connection with the Cairo Gang, a group of British intelligence officers, Michael Collins’s ‘troop’ earlier that day.

Stadium construction

In 1984 the organization decided to investigate ways to increase the capacity of the old stadium. The design for a 80,000 capacity stadium was completed in 1991. Gaelic sports have particular needs that they take place on a large field. A specific requirement was to ensure that spectators were not too far from the playing field. This resulted in a three-level design from which is possible to view the game: the main concourse, a premium level includes hospitality facilities and the upstairs hall. Premium level includes restaurants, bars and conference facilities. The project was divided into four phases over 14 years. Such was the importance of Croke Park and the GAA for hosting big matches, the stadium did not finish during the renovation.During each phase, different parts of the ground was redeveloped, while the rest of the stadium open. Big games, including the annual All-Ireland hurling and football finals, played in the stadium during the entire development process.

On the outside of the Cusack Stand

phase one

The first phase of construction was to build a replacement for Croke Park Cusack Stand. A lower deck was opened for use in 1994. The upper deck was opened in 1995. Completed at a cost of £ 35 million, the new stand 180 meters long, 35 meters high, has a capacity for 27,000 people and includes 46 hospitality suites. The new Cusack Stand contains three levels watching games is possible: the main concourse, a premium level includes hospitality facilities and finally an upper concourse. One end of the pitch was closer to the stand after this phase, as the process of weakly återinriktnings pitch during the redevelopment of the stadium began.

phase two

Phase two of the development began in late 1998 and involved the extension of the new Cusack Stand to replace the existing Canal End terrace. It is now known as The Davin Stand (Irish: Ardan Dáimhím ), by Maurice Davin, the first president of the GAA. This phase also saw the creation of a tunnel which was later named Ali tunnel honor Muhammad Ali and his fight against Al Lewis in July 1972 in Croke Park. [6]

phase three

Phase three saw the construction of the new Hogan Stand. This requires a greater variety of audience categories to fit including general spectators, corporate customers, VIP, broadcast and media services and operations staff.Extras included a fitted out mezzanine level of VIP and Ard Comhairle (If dignitaries seated) with a peak in the press media facility. At the end of phase three took the total audience capacity Croke Park to 82,000.

phase four

After the Olympics 2003 Special, began construction in September 2003 on the final stage, phase four. This meant that the rebuilding of the Nally Stand, named after the athlete Pat Nally, and Hill 16 into a new Nally End / Dineen Hill 16 terrace. While the name Nally had been used for the stand it replaced, the use of the name Dineen was new, and was in honor of Frank Dineen, who bought the original stadium of the GAA in 1908, giving it to them in 1913. The old Nally Stand was removed and remounted in Pairc Colmcille, home Carrickmore GAA in Co Tyrone. [7] phase four development inaugurated by former GAA President Seán Kelly on 14 March 2005. logistical reasons (and to some extent, for historical reasons), and also to provide affordable high-capacity space , the area is a terrace rather than a sitting position, the only remaining standing room in Croke Park. Unlike the previous Hill, the new terrace is divided into separate sections – Hill A (Cusack stands side), B Hill (behind the goal) and the Nally Terrace (on the site of the old Nally Stand).The fully remodeled Hill has a capacity of about 13200, which is the total capacity of the stadium to 82.300.Detta made the stadium the 2nd largest in Europe after the Nou Camp, Barcelona. The new Wembley Stadium has now taken over second place in Croke Park in the third presence of terracing means for international football, the capacity is reduced to about 73,500, because of the FIFA Statutes indicate that the competition games must be played in all directions arenas.

A panorama of Croke Park for the All-Ireland Football Final in 2004

Pitch

Croke Park floodlights in use during the Six Nations Championship match

The pitch of Croke Park is a ground pitch that replaced the Desso GrassMaster pitch in 2002. There had been several complaints from players and managers that plan, which was installed in 2002, was too hard and too slippery, so the decision was taken to replace the traditional earth rise. [8]

Since January 2006, a so-called special growth and lighting systems SGL Concept has been used to help grass growing conditions, even during the winter months. The system, created by the Dutch company SGL (Stadium Grow Lighting), helps to control and manage all pitch growth factors, such as light, temperature, CO 2 , water, air and nutrients. [9]

floodlighting

With the 2007 Six Nations clash with France and possibly other matches in the following years requiring illumination GAA installed floodlights in the stadium (after planning permission was granted). In fact, many other GAA basis around the country began to erect floodlights as the organization begins to hold the games in the evenings, while the traditional big games were played almost exclusively on Sunday afternoon. The first game to be played under those lights at Croke Park was a National Football League Division One match between Dublin and Tyrone February 3, 2007 Tyrone won in front of a capacity crowd of over 81,000 – which is still a record attendance for the National League games, with Ireland’s Six Nations match with France after 11 February. [10] Temporary floodlights were installed for American Bowl game between the Chicago Bears and the Pittsburgh Steelers on the field in 1997, and again for the 2003 Special Olympics.

 

Concerts at Croke Park
Date Artist Tour Presence
June 29, 1985 U2 The Unforgettable Fire Tour 57000
1986 Simple Minds
27 and June 28, 1987 U2 The Joshua Tree Tour 114000
June 28, 1996 Tina Turner Wildest Dreams Tour
16 and May 18, 1997 Garth Brooks World Tour II
29 and May 30, 1998 Elton John & Billy Joel Face to Face Tour
24, 25 and June 27, 2005 U2 Vertigo Tour 246743
May 20, 2006 Bon Jovi Have a Nice Day Tour 81327
June 9, 2006 Robbie Williams Close Encounters Tour
May 30, 2008 Celine Dion Take chances Tour
June 1, 2008 Westlife Back Home Tour 85000
June 14, 2008 Neil Diamond
June 13, 2009 Take it Take That Present: The Circus Live
24, 25 and July 27, 2009 U2 U2 360 ° Tour 243198
June 5, 2010 Westlife Where we are tour 86500
18 and June 19, 2011 Take it Progress Live 154828
22 and June 23, 2012 Westlife The Farewell Tour 170000
June 26, 2012 Red Hot Chili Peppers I’m With You Tour
23, 24 and May 25, 2014 A direction Where we are tour 235008
20 JUNI 2015 The Script & Pharrell Williams No sound but Silencetour 74635
24 and July 25, 2015 ed Sheeran X Tour 162308
27 and May 29, 2016 Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band The River Tour 2016 160188
July 9, 2016 Beyoncé Formation World Tour 68575

Disputes about playing non-Gaelic games

Further information: List of non-Gaelic games in Croke Park

There was great debate in Ireland as regards the use of Croke Park for other than those of the GAA sports. Since the GAA was founded as a nationalist organization to maintain and promote the native Irish sports, is it felt honor-bound throughout its history to oppose others, foreign (in practice, UK), sports. In turn, nationalist groups supported the GAA as the prime example of pure Irish sporting culture. [11]

Until its abolition in 1971, rule 27 of the GAA constitution stated that a member of the GAA can be banned from playing their game if they are found to be also playing association football, rugby or cricket. This rule was abolished menregel 42 still forbidden to use the property for GAA games with interests in conflict with the interests of the GAA. The belief was that rugby and association football was in competition with Gaelic football and hurling, and that if the GAA allowed these sports to use their land, it can be harmful for Gaelic games, while other sports, is not seen as direct competitors of Gaelic football and hurling, allowed, such as the two games of American football (Croke Park Classic college football game between the University of Central Florida and Penn State, and an American Bowl preseason NFL game between the Chicago Bears and the Pittsburgh Steelers) at Croke Park pitch in the 1990s. [12]

16 April 2005 a motion to temporarily relax a rule No 42 adopted at the GAA annual congress. The motion gives the GAA Central Council the power to authorize rental or leasing of Croke Park for purposes other than those covered by the association, in a period when the events Lansdowne Road – the site of international soccer and rugby matches – was closed for redevelopment. The end result was 227 in favor of the motion to 97 against, 11 votes more than the required two-thirds majority.

In January 2006 it was announced that the GAA had agreed with the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) and Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) to step two Six Nations games and four soccer internationals at Croke Park in 2007, and in February 2007, using the plan of FAI and IRFU in 2008 was also agreed.[13] These contracts were within the temporary relaxation terms Lansdowne Road was still under renovation until 2010 although the GAA had said that hosting the use of Croke Park would not extend beyond 2008, regardless of the rebuilding progress, [13] equipment [14] for the 2009 Six Nations rugby tournament saw the Irish rugby team, with the help of Croke Park for a third season. February 11, 2007 saw the first rugby union international to be played there. Ireland was leading France in a Six Nations clash, but lost 17-20 after conceding a last minute (converted) to try. Raphael Ibanez made the first attempt in the game, Ronan O’Gara was Ireland’s first ever attempt at Croke Park.

A second match between Ireland and England, February 24, 2007 politically symbolic because of the events of Bloody Sunday in 1920. [15] There was considerable concern about what the reaction would be to sing the British national anthem “God Save the Queen”. Ultimately, the song was sung without interruption or incident, and applauded by both sets of supporters at the match, which Ireland won 43-13 (their biggest ever win over England in rugby).

On 2 March 2010 Ireland played his last international rugby match against Scotland teams playing to avoid the wooden spoon and not won a championship match against Ireland since 2001. Outside-half Dan Parks inspired the Scots to a 3-point victory and ended Irish hopes a triple crown.[16]

On 24 March 2007, the first association football match took place at Croke Park. It took Ireland Wales in UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying Group D, with Stephen Ireland goal to secure a 1-0 victory for the Irish in front of a crowd of 72,500. Prior to this, the IFA Cup had played in the former Jones Road 1901, but it was 12 years before the GAA took ownership.

Negotiations took place for the NFL International Series the 2011 games will be held at Croke Park but the game went to Wembley Stadium. [17] [18] In July 2013 it was announced that Penn State would open their 2014 college football season against Central Florida at Croke Park . [19]

World presence

On May 2, 2009 Croke Park was the site of a Heineken Cup rugby semi-finals, where Leinster defeated Munster 25-6. The presence of 82,208 set a new world record attendance for a club rugby games. [20] This record stood until 31 March 2012, when it was surpassed by an English Premier League game between Harlequins and Saracens at Wembley Stadium to host a crowd of 83,761. [21]

Skyline tour

A walkway, [22] known under a sponsorship agreement Etihad Skyline Croke Park, opened on June 1, 2012. [23] From 44 meters above the ground, offers views of Dublin and the surrounding area. [24] [25] the Olympic torch was carried out to the stadium and along the walkway June 6, 2012.

GAA Hall of Fame

On February 11, 2013 opened the GAA Hall of Fame section in Croke Park museum. The basis for the award is the law of the Millennium football team that was announced in 1999 and the hurling team in 2000 and all 30 players were inducted into the Hall of Fame along with Limerick hurler Eamonn Cregan and Offaly footballer Tony McTague which was chosen by a GAA subcommittee from the years 1970- 74. [26] the new inductees will be chosen annually from the subsequent five years, as well as from the years before 1970. [27] in april 2014 Kerry legend Mick O’Dwyer, Sligo football player micheal Kerins, along with Noel Skehan Kilkenny hurlers and Pat McGrath Waterford became the second group of former players to receive hall of Fame awards. [28]

See also

  • Hill 16
  • List of the Gaelic Athletic Association arenas
  • List of stadiums in Ireland by capacity
  • Sports in Ireland
    • Gaelic football
    • hurl
    • International rules football
    • Camogie
    • Gaelic handball
  • Thomas Croke
  • Garth Brooks concerts controversy in 2014

References

  1. Jump up^ http://www.irishtimes.com/sport/gaelic-games/no-grounds-for-concern-at-croke-park-as-hurling-s-big-day-looms-1.1916823
  2. Jump up ^ “- 50th International Eucharistic Congress 2012”. Iec2012.ie.
  3. Jump up ^ Sinead O’Carroll. “Eucharistic Congress: 80,000 pilgrims gathered in Croke Park for the closing Mass.” TheJournal.ie.
  4. Jump up ^ “Croke Park Stadium, facts and figures.” Crokepark.ie.
  5. Jump up ^ “IFFHS ‘. Iffhs.de.
  6. Jump up ^ “Rate Card” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) of 18 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  7. Jump up ^ “Old Stand, New Place” The Irish Independent October 1, 2007
  8. Jump up^ http://www.independent.ie/sport/gaelic-games/gaelic-football/gaa-promises-no-further-slipups-on-croker-surface-25894358.html
  9. Jump up ^ SGL. “Stadium Grow Lighting – Home Page”. Sglconcept.com.
  10. Jump up ^ “Dublin and Tyrone seems to play under lights.” RTE News.28 November 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
  11. Jump up ^ Dr. W. Murphy lecture, September 2010
  12. Jump up ^ Cummiskey, Gavin (1 December 2011). “Croke Park bid to host lucrative NFL game.” Irish Times. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab “Croker host rugby and soccer in 2008”. RTE News.February 17, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2007.
  14. Jump up ^ “official fixture”. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
  15. Jump up ^ “symbolic step for peace on Irish stadium”. Taken 25 februari2007.
  16. Jump up ^ “Parks’ penalty denies Ireland Triple Crown: Match Centre – RBS 6 Nations – Official Website”. Rbs6nations.com.
  17. Jump up ^ “Croke Park is linked to host the NFL.” RTE Sports. January 27, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  18. Jump up ^ Battista, Judy (18 April 2011). “Lockout may jeopardize Game Set for London ‘. The New York Times. Retrieved 17, 2011.
  19. Jump up ^ “Report: Penn State, Central Florida will play 2014 games in Dublin.” 9 July 2013.
  20. Jump up ^ Leinster 25-6 Munster. BBC Sport (2 May, 2009)
  21. Jump up ^ “World Record crowd watches Harlequins Saracens sink”.The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  22. Jump up ^ “Etihad Skyline Croke Park”. Skyline Croke Park. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  23. Jump up ^ “Euro 2020 view on HQ”. Irish Examiner. May 24, 2012.Hämtat24 May 2012.
  24. Jump up ^ Hogan, Louise (24 May 2012). “Sky limit of the new Croke Park walkway”. Irish Independent. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  25. Jump up ^ “ever wanted to see Dublin from 17 floors up? A new horizon tour of Croke Park will wow Thrillse and fans. ” Evening Herald. May 24, 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  26. Jump up ^ “GAA open Hall of Fame in Croke Park”. Joe.ie. February 12, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  27. Jump up ^ “Cregan and McTague join Hall of Fame inductees.” Irish Times. February 12, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  28. Jump up ^ “Kerry legend Mick O’Dwyer among four inductees to the GAA Museum Hall of Fame.” Irish Independent. 2 April 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.

Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland)

The Archbishop of Dublin is the title of senior priest who presides over the United diocese of Dublin and Glendalough in the Church of Ireland. The archbishop is also the Bishop of Glendaloughoch Primate of Ireland.

The current incumbent, having acceded to April 11, 2011, Michael Jackson.

History

Maps diocese in Ireland, as defined in the Synod of Kells. From Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd.

Dublin area were Christian long before Dublin had a distinct pins. The remains and memory of monasteries known before this time, in Finglas, Glasnevin, Glendalough, Kilnamanagh, Rathmichael, Swords, Tallaght, among others, are witness to the faith of previous generations and a thriving church life in their time. After a reverted conversion by one Norse King of Dublin, Sitric, his son Godfrey became Christian in 943, and the Kingdom of Dublin first sought to have a bishop of their own in the 11th century under Sitric MacAulaf, who had been on pilgrimage to Rome. He sent his chosen candidate, Donat (or Donagh or Donatus) to be consecrated in Canterbury in 1038 and the new prelate set up the Diocese of Dublin as a small area in the walled city. The Bishop of Dublin replied to the Archbishop of Canterbury and did not participate in the councils of the Irish Church. [1] The Archbishop was in union with Rome until the 16th century. After the death avJohn Alen, put pressure on Henry VIII chapter in Dublin’s cathedrals, who chose (January 1536), an archbishop of his choice, George Browne. Browne was inaugurated by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth.The pin Kildare were the Archdiocese of Dublin in 1846. Before the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1871, was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin right to sit iöverhuset as a Lord Spiritual, along with other Archbishops in rotation. In 1976, the diocese Kildare removed from association with Dublin and placed in the tray with pins Meath. SePrimat of Ireland for a discussion of the roles and status of the Archbishops of Dublin and Armagh and their functions that primates.

Cathedrals

Since the Middle Ages the seat of the Archbishop of Dublin has been to Christ Church Cathedral, although for many centuries, shared this status with the St. Patrick’s Cathedral. See these articles for more information about the role of the Archbishop of each other.

See also

  • Anglicanism portal
  • Archbishop of Dublin, which lists before and after the Reformation archbishops

Notes and references

  1. Jump up ^ Dublin: Catholic Truth Society, 1911: Bishop of Canea: Short stories of Dublin judgments, Part VIII, p. 162

Christ Church Cathedral

Christ Church Cathedral (or, more formally, The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity ) is the cathedral in the United diocese of Dublin and Glendalough and the cathedral of the ecclesiastical province in the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel in the Church of Ireland. [1] It is located in Dublin, Ireland , and is the older of the capital’s two medieval cathedrals, the other being St. Patrick’s Cathedral.

Overview and History

Overview

Christ Church is officially claimed as the seat ( cathedra ) of both the Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin. In law and in fact has been the cathedral of only the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, since the English Reformation. Though nominally claimed as his cathedral, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin uses St Marys in Marlborough Street in Dublin’s pro-cathedral (acting cathedral). [Nb 1]

Christ Church Cathedral is located in the old heart of medieval Dublin, next to Wood Quay by the end of Lord Edward Street. But a major dual carriage-way, building on the separated it from the original medieval street pattern which once surrounded it, with its original architectural contexts (in the middle of a maze of small buildings and streets) lost due to road construction and demolition of older residential by Wood Quay. As a result, the cathedral appears dominant in isolation behind new civil offices along the quays, of its original medieval context. In recent years, the cathedral offers a great set of medieval drama, such as the CW hit drama “Reign” .Huvudbyggnad “Christ Church Cathedral” was used to film the crucial moment in the drama pilot.The Cathedral also offers a great backdrop to the hit drama “The Tudors,” which was Christchurch Cathedrals longest TV show to be filmed in the compounds of the cathedral, many dresses and clothes worn by Maria Doyle Kennedy (Catherine of Aragon) and Jonathon Rhys Myers ( Henrik) are available to be seen in the crypt of Christ Church Cathedral.

Christchurch is the only one of the three cathedrals cathedrals or acts that can be seen clearly from the River Liffey.

first Cathedral

The cathedral was founded probably sometime after 1028 when King Sitric Silke Beard, the Hiberno-Norse king of Dublin, made a pilgrimage to Rome.The first bishop of this new diocese Dublin was Dunan or Donatella, and the pin was at the time a small island of land surrounded by much larger Diocese of Glendalough, and was for a time head of Canterbury rather than to the Irish church hierarchy. The church was built on the high ground overlooking the Viking settlement at Wood Quay and Sitric gave “lands in Baldoyle, Raheny and Portrane for its maintenance.” [2] Of the four old Celtic Christian churches are said to have been around Dublin, only one, dedicated to St. .Martin of Tours, was within the walls of the Viking city, and Christchurch was one of only two churches in the city. [2]

The cathedral was originally staffed by secular priests. The second bishop of Dublin presented the Benedictines. In 1163, Christchurch was converted into a priory of the Regular Order of Arrosian Canon (August Reformed Rule) of the second archbishop of Dublin, later saint Laurence O’Toole, which acceded to the convention itself; the latter led by August 1 before, which ranks as the second church figure of the pin, and not a dean, until the restoration in 1541. The Priory, Priory of the Holy Trinity, became the richest religious houses in Ireland, holding over 10,000 acres (40 km 2 ) of property in Dublin alone [3] the most notable of these was the home of three farms held at the Grange Gorman, Glasnevin and Clonken or Clonkene, now known as Dean Grange. [4]

Norman period

Henry II took part in the Christmas service at the Cathedral in 1171. According cathedral guidebook this was the first time Henry had supper after the murder of Thomas Becket of Henry’s knights in Canterbury.

In the 1180s, Strongbow and other Norman magnates helped finance a complete rebuild of Christchurch, originally a wooden building in stone, comprising the construction of a drive, drive aisles and transepts, the crypt and chapel to St. Edmund and St. Mary and St. Lô.

A chapel to St. Laurence O’Toole was in the 13th century and much of the existing nave was built in the 1230s. Its design is inspired by the architecture of the English western school of Gothic and the forging of a stones- Somerset oolite- was sculpted and artisans from the region. [5]

In 1300 Richard de Ferings, Archbishop of Dublin arranged an agreement between the two cathedrals, the Pacis Compostio , who recognized both as cathedrals and took some steps to meet their common position (see below for more on this).

In the 1350s a major extension was made by John de St. Paul, Archbishop of Dublin from 1349 to 1362. By 1358, nave of the cathedral was partly used for secular purposes and a “long quire” was added extension of the old choir area of approximately 10 meters. St. Paul also installed an organ. His work was destroyed by major refit in the 1870s.

In 1480 the rich Judge William Sutton bequeathed all his loins and silver to the cathedral.

The cathedral was the site of the alleged coronation, 1487, Lambert Simnel, a boy pretender who tried unsuccessfully to dismiss Henry VII of England, as “King Edward VI”.

In 1493 the choir school was founded.

reformation

1539, King Henry VIII, the priory converted into a cathedral with a Dean and Chapter and worked to ensure Christchurch followed his new church structure. His immediate successor, Edward VI of England, in 1547, provided funds for an increase in the Cathedral staffing and annual royal funding for the choir school.

King Edward VI suppressed formally St. Patrick’s Cathedral and 25 April 1547 was its silver jewelry and ornaments are transferred to the dean and chapter of Christchurch. This episode ended with a late act of Queen Mary’s reign, an act of April 27, 1558 consists of a release or reception of Thomas Leverous, dean and chapter of St. Patrick, of “goods, bags, musical instruments, etc.” belongs to this Cathedral and who had been in possession of the Dean and chapter of Christ Church.

Queen Mary I of England, and later James I of England, also increased Christchurch donation. Meanwhile, in 1551, the church service was sung for the first time in Ireland in English instead of Latin. 1560, the Bible was first read in English.

Kingdom, Ireland

The grounds of the ship, resting on peat, slipped in 1562, bringing down the south wall and the arched stone ceiling (the northern wall, which visibly leans survived, and largely goes back to 1230) .Delreparationer performed but much of the debris was simply leveled and new floor built over it until 1871. in 1620 the English-born judge Luke Gernon noted that Christ Church was in a better condition than St. Patrick.

In the 17th century, both the Parliament and the courts met in buildings constructed along Christchurch. King James II himself presided over the state opening of parliament at that location. However, Parliament and the courts both moved elsewhere: the courts to the newly built Four Courts on the river front, and Parliament House in Chichester hoggen Green, the building that is now the Bank of Ireland, College Green.

As well as nearby St. Patrick, the building was in poor condition for much of the 19th century. After the building was declared unsafe and no longer suitable for use, some limited work performed by Matthew Price (Architect) between 1829 and 1831st

19th and 20th centuries

The cathedral was extensively renovated and built in 1871-1878 by George Edmund Street, with the sponsorship of the distiller Henry Roe Mount Anville. The great 14th century run was demolished and a new east side was built over the original crypt. He built a new chapter house. Tower byggdes.Den south nave arcade was built. The buttresses were added as a decorative feature. The northern porch was removed. Baptistry was built in its place. [6] Street built adjacent Synod Hall, taking in the last remains of St Michael and All Angels Church, including the clock tower. The synod house is connected to the Cathedral by the Street’s iconic covered walkway. Roe spent over £ 230,000 at the time (over € 26 million in 2006 terms). Further renovations were carried out, especially between 1980 and in 1982.

Role

Christchurch is the center of worship for the united diocese and keeps notable annual events such as citizenship service. As the cathedral in the southern province of the Church of Ireland also hosts ordinations of priests and consecration of bishops.

Architecture

Impact of the restoration

After an extensive renovation in Victorian times, while severely decayed structure preserved from collapse, it is still difficult to say which parts of the interior is genuinely medieval and which parts are Victorian pastiche.Photographs taken from the outside shows the dramatic nature of the renovation done by the Victorians: Archbishop of St. Paul’s 14-century cathedral, especially “long chorus,” was almost completely destroyed. Yet Christchurch remains a fascinating sampling of surviving medieval and later the church building.

Fist

The cathedral famously the reputed tomb of Strongbow, a medieval Norman-Welsh Civil and warlord who came to Ireland at the request of King Diarmuid MacMorrough and whose arrival marked the beginning of the Anglo-Norman involvement in Ireland. According to Christ Church Cathedral website, in 1562 the ship roof vaults collapsed and Strongbow’s tomb was shattered; the current grave is a modern replacement from Drogheda. [7] It is well documented from a number of sources, [ citation needed ]the tomb of Strongbow was used as the venue for legal contracts from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Besides the main tomb is a small figure with sloping shoulders, indicating a female figure, but wearing chain mail, which may indicate that it was a child.

crypt

Christchurch also contains the largest cathedral crypt (63.4m long) in the UK or Ireland, constructed in 1172-1173. After being restored in the early 2000s, it is now open to visitors.

The crypt contains various monuments and historical features, including:

  • the oldest known secular carvings in Ireland, two carved statues that until the end of the 18th century stood outside the Tholsel (Dublin medieval town hall, which was demolished in 1806)
  • a tabernacle and set of candlesticks used when the cathedral was last used (for a very short time) under the “Roman rite,” when the Catholic King James II, after fleeing England in 1690, came to Ireland to fight for his throne and attended High Mass in the temporary reintroduction of Christchurch as a Roman Catholic cathedral.
  • stocks earlier in Christchurch Place, made in 1670 and used for the punishment of criminals before the courts Dean Liberty (the small area in the Cathedral exclusive civic authority), moved here in 1870
  • historical books and altar goods Cathedral
  • “The Cat & The Rat” is displayed with an explanatory note.

The Chapter

Behind the altar area, there’s Chapter House, which contains the cathedral offices, meeting rooms and other facilities.

Synod hall and bridge

In the western part of the cathedral is a fully integrated stone bridge, leading to the former Synod Hall, which was built on the site of St Michael’s, a prebendal Church of Christ Church, which was demolished in the street during the restoration of the cathedral. This hall, which contains the old St Michael’s tower was formerly used to house the general synods and the diocese Dublin, Glendalough and Kildare. It is now home to Dubliniaexhibition on medieval Dublin.

Status

Two question cathedral

For most of their common history, both Christchurch and St Patrick’s Cathedral was the status of the Dublin diocese, a rare event that only ended after the transition to DISESTABLISH church Irland.I early times, there was considerable conflict over the status but according to the six-point agreement by 1300, Pacis Composition , still preserved, and in force until 1870:

  • The consecration and enthronement of the Archbishop of Dublin would take place in Christchurch – records show that this rule is not always followed, with many metropolitans enthroned in both and at least two in St. Patrick’s single
  • Christchurch had formal preference, as a mother and leader cathedral of the diocese
  • Christchurch was to keep the cross, miter and ring of each deceased Archbishop of Dublin
  • Died Archbishops of Dublin would be buried alternately in each of the two cathedrals, unless they personally wanted otherwise
  • The annual opening ceremony of chrism oil for the diocese would take place in Christchurch
  • The two cathedrals would work like one, and divided equally in their freedom

1868 Church Commissioners’ report suggested that St. Patrick’s Cathedral and only reduce Christchurch to a church. [8]

Catholicism

To this day, the Acting seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, St Mary’s is known as a “pro-cathedral” in recognition of the fact that the Holy See maintains Christchurch as the rightful seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop.

Rule

Dean and Chapter

The dean and chapter with the consent of the Archbishop of Dublin, Chair of the cathedral, with the Dean as “first among equals” in the chapter but keeps a day-to-day authority, provided that the specific roles of other characters (the dean and chapter together in a situation similar to a rector of a parish).

The chapter includes the Dean, the sexton (who must be skilled in music), chancellor, treasurer, archdeacons of Dublin and Glendalough and 12 guns, eight-be priests in the diocese of Dublin and the four priests in the diocese Glendalough (the highest three of appointment is known as PREBENDARY St. Michaels, PREBENDARY St. Michan’s and PREBENDARY St Johns).

(See Dean of Christ Church Cathedral more of the deans and the previous priors.)

Dean is appointed by the Archbishop of Dublin and in an arrangement started in 1971, is also the responsibility of the Christ Church Cathedral Group congregations, whose day-to-day care in the hands of a vicar appointed by a special board of patronage.

Dean can appoint a deputy and also appoints the cathedral verger. The dean and chapter together appoint sacristan, while the other members of the chapter are appointed by the archbishop.

Board

After having been historically controlled by his priestly chapter alone, since 1872 the cathedral has been operationally supervised by a board of directors consisting of nine office members (Dean, sacristan, two office vicars and five other priests) [9] and nine lay people elected every third annual Easter vestry.The Board has the power to appoint and remove officials from other than those whose appointment lies with the archbishop and the dean and chapter, or Dean to regulate wages and handle financial matters Cathedral. The board is in a similar situation to a select vestry of a parish.

Board committees – in mid-2007, these are: administration and finance, culture (including financial), deanery, fabric, fundraising, health and safety, information technology, music, protection of confidence and towers.

other priests

There’s a Reverend Dean (and clerk of the chapter), vicar of the Cathedral Group Wards and services of a chaplain’s assistant and a student readers. It is also mostly honorary office vicars.

Music

Christchurch has a long musical history, with a well-known cathedral choir and a girls’ choir. Together with the parish clerk, is the musical side of the work headed by “an organist and music director”, who work with an assistant organist and organ lessons, as well as “honorary Keeper of Music Librarian” and the 2007, a “Music Development Officer”.

List of organists

  • 1595 John Fermor
  • Thomas in 1608, Bateson
  • 1631 Randal Jewett
  • 1639 Benjamin Rogers
  • 1646 John Shaw
  • 1688 Thomas Godfrey
  • 1689 Thomas Morgan
  • 1692 Peter Isaac
  • 1694 Thomas Finell
  • 1698 Daniel Roseingrave
  • 1727 Ralph Roseingrave
  • 1747 George Walsh
  • 1765 Richard Woodward
  • 1777 Samuel Murphy
  • 1780 Langrishe Doyle
  • 1805 William Warren
  • 1816 Francis Robinson
  • 1834 John Robinson
  • 1844 Sir Robert Prescott Stewart
  • 1894 John Horan
  • 1906 James Fitzgerald
  • 1913 Charles Herbert Kitson
  • 1920 Thomas Henry Weaving
  • 1950 Leslie Henry Bret Reed
  • 1955 Thomas Arnold McKiernan
  • 1980 Peter Sweeney
  • 1992 Mark Duley
  • 2003 Judy Martin
  • 2010 Judith Gannon (locum)
  • 2012 Ian Keatley

Bell

Christ Church Cathedral probably had at least one bell from the start. By 1440 there were known to be three large bells in the tower; But March 11, 1597, an accidental gunpowder explosion in one of the neighboring piers damaged tower and caused clocks to crack. The effects of the blast also damaged the tower near St. Audoen church.

In 1670, six new bells cast for the tower from the cannon metal. These were expanded to eight in 1738 and then to the Twelve 1878th

The latest gain was in 1999 when seven bells were added to the ring, giving a grand total of 19 bells, a world record for the bells rung in this way. While this does not provide a diatonic scale of 19 notes, unique, it provides a choice of combinations: three 12-bell peals (the keys B, C # and F #), and 14 and 16 bell peals. At the time of augmentation, this was only the second 16 full circle bell peal in the world – St Martin’s church in Birmingham is the first.

The peal of work led by the “Ring Master and Master of the Tower.”

Administrative staff

Cathedral staff headed by a CEO Bernie Murphy, in April 2010. There is also a cathedral manager, financial manager, visitor services officer and education officer, officer tours, events officer and tourism and business development officer with the floor staff and event staff.

Archive and Publications

Christchurch has a number of historical archives and has arranged a number of publications over the years, and to maintain a website since the 1990s.The work is supervised by “honorary keeper of the archives” and “Web and e-mail editor , along with the” Honorary Secretary Christchurch Publications, Ltd. “.

friends

The cathedral is supported by volunteer friends to Christ Church Cathedral, founded in 1929, and is working with the cathedral authorities in a variety of ways.

access

As Christchurch receive no regular government support, while welcoming all the guests and has a chapel for those who just want to ask, there are fees for sightseeing, which can also be paid in conjunction with the purchase of a ticket to the neighboring Dublinia exhibition. There is a gift shop with souvenirs, recordings of cathedral music groups and publications.

Group of congregations

In 1971, the General Synod, after previous discussions created “Christ Church Cathedral Group congregations”, unites it was when four churches with the cathedral, whose dean is their principal: St Andrews, St Werburgh’s, All Saints (Grange Gorman) and St. Michan’s, St. Paul and St. Mary. The parishes are monitored daily by a vicar is chosen by a special committee of patronage.

funerals

  • The heart of Lorcán Ua Tuathail (Saint Laurence O’Toole / Archbishop of Dublin). It was stolen from the cathedral on March 3, 2012. [10]
  • John Comyn (Archbishop)
  • Thomas Cartwright (Bishop)
  • John Maxwell (Archbishop)
  • Stephen the Fulbourn
  • John Parker (Archbishop)
  • Thomas Lindsay (metropolitan)
  • Henry Leslie (Bishop)
  • St. George Ashe
  • Welbore Ellis (Bishop)
  • John Garvey (Archbishop)
  • John de St. Paul (Archbishop)
  • James Barry, 1st Baron Barry Santry

See also

  • Archbishop of Dublin

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ Periodically, it has been suggested that the Catholic Church intends to “downgrade” to Christchurch church level (that is, effectively recognizing that the church no longer sees it as his cathedra ) and either upgrade the St Marys to full cathedral or status to build a new cathedral. Until the 1970s, the park in the center of Merrion Square was the planned site of the new cathedral, but the place was instead given on a leasehold to Dublin City Council. From 1974-2010 it was known as “Archbishop Ryan Park” by Archbishop Dermot Ryan, who made a gift to the people of Dublin.

References

  1. Jump up ^ Christchurch at the official site of the Church of Ireland
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab Dublin: Catholic Truth Society, 1911: Bishop of Canea: Short stories of Dublin judgments, Part VIII, p. 162
  3. Jump up ^ Raymond Gillespie: A History of Christ Church Cathedral.Four Courts Press, 1996.
  4. Jump up ^ Mac Giolla Phádraig, Brian, “14th century life in a Dublin convent” in Dublin Historical Record 1 (3) (September 1938), pp 69, 72 thereof.
  5. Jump up ^ Harold G. Leask, Irish churches and cloisters
  6. Jump up ^ Shell Guide to Ireland
  7. Jump up ^ “The History of Christ Church Cathedral” (PDF).Christchurchdublin.ie. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ established church (Ireland) Commission (1868). Report. A. Thomson for HMSO. pp. VII to IX; §24,30. Hämtadtio November 2014.
  9. Jump up ^ “In 1921, and every three years thereafter, the Dean and Chapter choose among priests in the cathedral of five persons with Dean, the sacristan, and the two leading office Vicars, shall be members of the Cathedral Board. “
  10. Jump up ^ “Relic of St. Laurence O’Toole stolen”. RTÉ News and Current Affairs. March 3, 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.

Aras an Uachtarain

Aras an Uachtarain [2] (/ ɑː r ə s ə now ə ə r xt ɑː nj /), formerly the Viceregal Lodge , the official residence of the President of Ireland. It is located in the Phoenix Park on the northside of Dublin .Byggnaden, which has ninety-five rooms, was designed by Nathaniel Clements and ended in 1751st

Origins

The original house was designed by the park ranger and amateur architect Nathaniel Clements, in the middle of the eighteenth century. It was bought by the administration of the British Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to become his summer residence in the 1780s. His official residence was in the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle. The house in the park later became theViceregal Lodge , the ‘off season’ residence of the Lord Lieutenant (also known as Viceroy), where he lived for most of the year, from the 1820s onwards. During the social season (January to Saint Patrick’s Day in March), he lived in state in Dublin Castle.

Phoenix Park once contained three official state residences. Viceregal Lodge, the Chief Secretary and the Secretary of State’s Lodge Lodge. Chief Secretary Lodge, now called Deerfield, is the residence of the US Ambassador to Ireland. The Secretary of State’s Lodge, now demolished, served for many years as apostolic NUNCIATURE.

Some historians have argued that the garden front portico of Áras an Uachtaráin (which can be viewed by the public from the main road through the Phoenix Park) was used as a model by the Irish architect James Hoban, who designed the White House in Washington, DC But the technician was not part of Hoban original design and was, in fact, a later addition by Benjamin Latrobe.

Phoenix Park murders

In 1882, its grounds became the site of two famous murder. The Chief Secretary for Ireland (the British minister with responsibility for Irish Affairs), Lord Frederick Cavendish and his state secretary (chief administrative officer), Thomas Henry Burke, was stabbed to death with surgical knives while walking back to the residence from Dublin Castle. A small rebel group called the Invincibles was responsible for the deed. Lord Lieutenant, the 5th Earl Spencer, heard the victims screaming from a window in the ground floor auditorium. [ Citation needed ]

Residence of the Governor General of the Irish Free State

In 1911 the house underwent a large extension for the visit of George V and Queen Mary. With the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, was the office of Lord Lieutenant abolished. The new state planned to place the new representative of the Crown, the Governor General Tim Healy, in a new, smaller home, but because of death threats from anti-treaty IRA, he installed in the Viceregal Lodge temporarily. The building was at the time the nickname “Uncle Tim cottage” after him, in imitation of the famous American novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin avHarriet Beecher Stowe. [3] It remained the residence of the Governor General of the Irish Free State until 1932, when the new Governor General, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, was installed in a specially hired private mansion in the Southside of Dublin.

Residence of the President of Ireland

The house was empty for some years, until the office of President of Ireland was created in 1937. In 1938, the first president, Douglas Hyde lived there temporarily while plans were made to build a new presidential palace due.The outbreak of World War II saved the building, which had been renamedÁras an Uachtaráin (meaning house or residence of the President of the Irish), from demolition, plans for the demolition and the design of a new residence were put on hold. By 1945 it had become too closely identified with the presidency, Ireland demolished, but its poor condition meant that extensive demolition and rebuilding of parts of the building was necessary, especially the kitchen, servants’ quarters and chapel. Since then, further restoration work carried out from time to time.

President McAleese greets US President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama at the Aras an Uachtarain May 23, 2011.

The first president Douglas Hyde lived in the residential areas on the first floor of the main building. Later presidents moved to the new residential wing attached to the main building which had been built for the visit of King George V in 1911. In 1990, Mary Robinson moved back to the older main building. Her successor, Mary McAleesebodde in the 1911 wing.

While Aras an Uachtarain are perhaps not as palaces as other European royal and presidential palaces, with only a handful of state rooms (the state drawing room, large and small dining rooms, the president’s office and library, a large ballroom and a presidential corridor lined with the busts of former presidents ( Francini corridor), and some fine eighteenth and nineteenth century bedrooms above all in the main building), it is a relatively comfortable state.

All Taoisigh and ministers receive their seal of office by the President at the Aras an Uachtarain, as well as judges, Attorney General, the Comptroller and Auditor General, and senior officers in the armed forces. It is also the venue for meetings Presidential Commission and the Government.

Aras an Uachtarain also houses the headquarters of the Garda mounted unit.

The Office of Public Works provides completely private quarters Áras an Uachtaráin for the presidential family. [4]

Visitors

The main gate to Aras an Uachtarain is adjacent to the Phoenix Monument, in the middle of the park

May 17, 2011 Elizabeth II became the first British monarch to visit Áras (Viceregal Lodge) for 100 years, during his state visit to Ireland. [5] She was welcomed by President McAleese, inspected a guard of honor, signed the guest book and planted a Irish Oak planta.Olika visiting British monarchs stayed at the Viceregal Lodge, notably queen Victoria and George V.American presidents hosted here include Presidents John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama, all part of Irish descent. Other famous visitors to Aras an Uachtarain was Princess Grace of Monaco and her husband, Prince Rainier III; King Baudouin of Belgians; King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia, Pope John Paul II; Prince Charles and Prince Philip.

Guests do not normally stay at Aras an Uachtarain. Although it has ninety-five rooms, many of these are used for storage of presidential files, for household staff and official staff, including military aide-de-camp , a secretary to the president (something equivalent to chief of staff of the White House, except that it is a permanent public management position) and a presstjänst.År 2001, the Irish government opened a guest residence nearby in Farmleigh, a former Guinness family mansion.

On 1 May 2004, during Ireland’s six-month Presidency of the European Union, Aras an Uachtarain was the site of the European Day of welcome (the date) in which ten new members joined the EU. All 25 heads of government attended the flag raising ceremony in the gardens of the palace. A major security operation involving the Gardai and the Irish Defence Forces closed the Aras and Phoenix Park.

Aras an Uachtarain is open for free tours every Saturday.

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Outline History Áras an Uachtaráin”. Aras an Uachtarain.Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Aras an Uachtarain translates as the “President’s residence,” and sometimes written “Arus an Uachtaráin”.
  3. Jump up ^ Ayto, John & Crofton, Ian (2005). Brewer UK and Ireland.Weidenfeld and Nicholson. p. 873. consultant 5 April 2014.
  4. Jump up ^ “Mammoth task of moving out done in military style.” Irish Independent. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ “The Queen lays wreath on Ireland’s state visit”. BBC News.17, 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.

County Dublin

Dublin (/ d ʌ among ᵻ n /; Irish: Baile Átha Cliath [blʲaːklʲiəh]) is the capital and largest city in Ireland. [8] [9] Dublin is in the province of Leinster in Ireland’s east coast, at the mouth effluents Liffey. The city has an urban population of 1,345,402. [10] The population of the Greater Dublin Area, which in 2016 was 1,904,806 people.

Founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Ireland’s main city after the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. After the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland.

Dublin is administered by a city council. The city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global city, with a ranking of “Alpha”, placing it among the thirty cities in the world. [11] [12] It is a historical and contemporary center education, arts, administration, finance and industry.

History

Main article: History of Dublin

See also: Timeline of Dublin

toponymy

Although the area in Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, the writings of Ptolemy (the Greco-Roman astronomer and cartographer) in about 140 AD gives perhaps the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the deal Eblana Police (Greek: Ἔβλανα πόλις.) [13]

Dublin celebrated “official” Millennium 1988 AD, which means that the Irish government recognized 988 AD as the year when the city was settled and that the first settlement would later become the city of Dublin.

The name Dublin comes from the Gaelic word Dublind , early classic IrishDubhlind / Duibhlind , Dubh / d̪uβ / alt. / Duw / alt / TO: / meaning “black, dark”, and winding / lʲiɲ [d] “pool”, referring to a dark tidal pool where the river Poddle into the Liffey on the site of the castle garden in the back of Dublin Castle. In modern Irish name is Duibhlinn , and Irish rhyme from Dublin County shows that the Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn / DI: lʲiɲ /. The pronunciation originals are preserved in the names of the city in other languages like Old English Di f electrical , Norse Dy f flax , modern Icelandic Dy f linen and modern Manx Di v lyn and Welsh You Lyn . Other cities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn , unlike anglicised as Devlin,[14] Divlin [15] and Difflin. [16] Historically, the printers use Gaelic script wrotebra with a dot of B , making Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted point, to spell the name as Dublin . Variations of the name is also available in traditional Gaelic speaking areas (gàidhealtachd, Related to irländskGaeltacht) in Scotland, such as a linen Dhubh ( “black pool”), which is part of of Linnhe.

It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement called Duibhlinn , which Dyflin took its name. From the 9th and 10th century there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Viking settlement of about 841 was known as Dyflin , from the IrishDuibhlinn and Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath ( “ford of obstacles”) was further up the river, at today’s Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin Bridge), at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath , meaning “town of the hurdled ford”, is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the river Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other cities with the same name, such asATH Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicized as Hurlford.

Father Mathew Bridge (also known as Dublin Bridge) is understood to be close to the old “Ford of the Hurdles” ( Baile Átha Cliath ), the original crossing point on the River Liffey.

The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centered on Poddle River, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor the ship; the Poddle connected the lake with Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew.The Dubhlinn lay Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne ( “The Cattle Raid of Cooley”) refers Dublind Rissa Ratter Áth Cliath , meaning “Dublin, called Ath Cliath”.

medieval

Dublin was founded as a Viking settlement in the 10th century, and despite a number of uprisings of the native Irish remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169. [17] It was at the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 as Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, king of Connacht, went to Dublin and was consecrated king of Ireland without resistance. Probably he was the primitive undebated entire King of Ireland, and also the only one Gaelic.

The King of Leinster, Dermot MacMurrough, after his exile from Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin.Following Mac Murrough’s death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster to gain control of the city. In response to Strongbow successful invasion, King Henry II of England confirmed its sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and declared himself Lord of Ireland. [18] At this time, the county in the city of Dublin was formed along with certain liberties adjacent to the city proper. This continued down to 1840 närbaroni Dublin separated from the barony Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have redesignated the city of Dublin.

Dublin Castle was fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until the 1922nd

Dublin Castle, which became the center of Norman power in Ireland, founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England. [19] Following the appointment of the first Mayor of Dublin in 1229, the city expanded and had a population of 8000 until the end of the 13th century. Dublin flourished as a trading center, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317. [18] It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague that had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade. [20] [21]

Dublin was incorporated into the English crown as the Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern coast. The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelled a new era for Dublin, the city enjoyed a renewed importance as the center of administrative rule in Ireland.Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as an exclusively Protestant universities, and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick’s and Christ Church Cathedrals converted to Protestant. [22]

The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague of 1649-1651 wiped out nearly half the city’s residents. But the city prospered again soon after as a result of woolen and linen trade with England and reached a population of over 50,000 in 1700. [23]

early modern

Henrietta Street, was developed in the 1720s, is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin.

As the city continued to flourish during the 18th century Georgian Dublin was for a short period, the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe, with a population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin’s most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar and Grafton Street are two of the few remaining areas not hit by the wave of Georgian Reconstruction and retained its medieval character. [22]

Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many famous neighborhoods and buildings, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange. [22] The wide streets Commission was formed in 1757 at the request of the Dublin Corporation to control the architectural standards for the design of streets , bridges and buildings. 1759, founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a substantial financial gain for the city. [ Citation needed ] For much of the time since its inception, the brewery was Dublin’s biggest employers. [ Citation needed ]

Late modern and contemporary

GPO on O’Connell Street was in the middle of the 1916 Easter Rising.

Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century after the Act of Union in 1800, according to which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained central administration and a focal point for most of the island. Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a center of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in the UK and Ireland. [17] Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, production and shipbuilding factory-based linen cloth. [24]

The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central Dublin. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city center and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas in Leinster House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city served as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541), the Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1800), the island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801- 1922), and the Irish Republic (1919-1922).After the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922-1937) and now is the capital of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance.

Dublin were also victims of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Even during the 30 years of conflict, violence engulfed mainly Northern Ireland. But the Provisional IRA drew a lot of support from the Republic, particularly Dublin.This caused a loyalist paramilitary group Ulster Volunteer Force to bomb the city. The most notable atrocities committed by Loyalists during this time was Dublin and Monaghan bombings in which 34 people died, mainly in Dublin itself.

Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely. The city was at the forefront of Ireland’s rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with enormous private and state development of housing, transport and business.

The government

Local

Civic offices in Dublin City Council.

From 1842, the boundaries of the city is understood by baronies in Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the limits extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act. [25] Later, in 1953, the boundaries once again extended by municipal Provisional Order Confirmation Act. [26]

Dublin City Council is a chamber assembly of 63 [27] members elected every five years by local election areas. It is headed by the mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in the Mansion House. Council meetings take place at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities based on the civic offices at Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats judging committee, introduces policies and appoints the mayor. Council passes an annual budget for spending in areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage and planning. Dublin City Manager is responsible for the implementation of council decisions.

National

Leinster House on Kildare Street houses the Oireachtas.

As the capital city, Dublin is the seat of the national Parliament in Ireland, the Oireachtas. It consists of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and the Dáil as underhuset.Ordföranden live in Aras an Uachtarain in Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish Parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland is located in College Green.

Government Buildings housing the Prime Minister’s Office, the Council Department, Ministry of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed in 1911) with two wings (completed in 1921). It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. The first Dáil met originally in the Mansion House in 1919. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989. [28] Although both it and Leinster House was intended to be temporary, became permanent houses of parliament then.

For elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is divided into five constituencies: Dublin Central (3 seats), Dublin Bay North (5 places), Dublin North West (3 seats), Dublin South-Central (4 places) and Dublin Bay South (4 places ).Nineteen TD selected in total. [29]

Policy

In the past, Dublin was regarded as a stronghold for Fianna Fáil, [ citation needed ]but after the Irish local elections in 2004 the party was overshadowed by the center-left Labour Party. [30] In the 2011 general election was elected Dublin region 18, the Labour Party, 17 Fine Gael, four Sinn Féin two socialist party, 2 People before profit Alliance and three independent TDs. Fianna Fail lost all but one of its its TDs in the region. [31]

Geography

Landscape

Satellite image showing the River Liffey in iIrländska lake with which it shares the Dublin iNorthside and Southside.

Dublin is located at the mouth of the River Liffey and covers an area of approximately 44 sq mi or 115 km 2 in the eastern and central Ireland. It is bordered by a low mountain range in the south and surrounded by flat farmland in the north and west. [32] The Liffey divides the city into two parts between the Northside and Southside. Each of these is further divided by the two smaller rivers – the River Tolka running southeast into Dubin Bay and the River Dodder run northeast to the mouth of the Liffey. Another two rivers – the Grand Canal on the South Side and Djurgården at Northside – call the inner city on the way from the west and the River Shannon.

The River Liffey bend in Leixlip from a northeasterly route to a predominantly eastward direction, and this point also marks the transition to urban development of more agricultural land use. [33]

cultural divide

A north-south division was traditionally present, with the River Liffey as dividers. Northside was widely seen as the working class, while the Southside seen as middle to upper middle class. The gap was interrupted by examples of Dublin “sub-culture” stereotypes, with upper middle class constituents seen as moving towards an accent and demeanor synonymous with South Side, and works Dubliners seen as going against the properties associated with Northside and inner city areas. Dublin economic gap was also previously an east-west and a north-south direction. It was also clear gaps between the coastal suburbs of the eastern part of the city, including those on the North Side, and the newer developments further west. [34]

As with much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Dublin is experiencing a maritime climate ( Cfb ), with cool summers, mild winters, and lack of extreme temperatures. The average maximum January temperatures are 8.8 ° C (48 ° F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 ° C (68 ° F).On average, the sunniest months of May and June, while the wettest month is October, with 76 mm (3 inches) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 inches). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.

Dublin protected location on east coast makes it the driest place in Ireland to receive only about half of rain on the West Coast. Ringsend in the southern part of the city records the lowest rainfall in the country, with an average annual rainfall of 683 mm (27 inches), [36] the average annual rainfall in the center is 714 mm (28 inches). The main precipitation in winter is rain, but the rain occurring between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city is experiencing long summer days and short winter days.Strong Atlantic winds are most common in the fall. These winds can affect Dublin, but because of its eastern location is the least affected compared to other parts of the country. But in winter, easterly winds making the city colder and more likely to snow.

Quarter

Dublin is divided into several neighborhoods or districts.

This section’s factual accuracy moot . Please help to ensure that disputed statements reliably sourced. See current discussion omdiskussionssida. (April 2016) (Read more about how and when to remove this template message)

medieval Quarter

This is the oldest part of the city, including Dublin Castle, Christchurch and St Patrick’s Cathedral with the old city wall. It was part of Dubh Linn settlement, this area became home to the Vikings in Dublin.

Georgian Quarter

St Stephens Green

Dublin is known for its Georgian architecture. Here are some of the world’s finest Georgian buildings. It starts at St Stephens Green and Trinity College up to the channel. Merrion Square, St. Stephen’s Green and Fitzwilliam Square are examples of this type of architecture.

docklands Quarter

This area is the Dublin Docklands containing “Silicon Docks”, Dublin Tech Quarter located in the Grand Canal Dock area. Global giants like Google, Facebook, Twitter and Accenture are based there. It used to be a deserted part of town, but has undergone revitalization with the development of offices and apartments.

~~ culture POS = TRUNC

Temple Bar is located in the heart of Dublin’s social and cultural life. It was once a derelict but then revived in the 1990s. [39]

Creative Quarter

It is the newest district was created in 2012. It covers the area from South William Street to George Street, and from Lower Stephens Street Exchequer Street. Its a hub for design, creativity and innovation. [40]

Tourist attractions

Dublin skyline from the Guinness Storehouse

Landmarks

Further information: List of public art in Dublin

Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years.One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded to a castle built with strong walls and good ditches for defense of the city, the administration of justice and the protection of the king’s tax. [41] largely complete by 1230, the castle was typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square but keep, bounded all sides by high defensive walls and protected in every corner of a round tower . Positioned to the southeast Norman Dublin Castle formed a corner of the outer perimeter of the city, with the river Poddle as a natural way to defend themselves.

The Spire of Dublin rises behind the statue of Jim Larkin.

One of Dublin’s newest monuments is the Spire Dublin, or officially entitled “Monument of Light”. [42] It is 121.2 meters (398 feet) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O’Connell Street. It replaces Nelson’s Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin’s place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, [43] who sought an “elegant and dynamic simplicity of bridging art and technology.” During the day it maintains its steel look, but at dusk the monument appears together in the sky. The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky over the city.

Many people visiting Trinity College to see the Book of Kells in the library there. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscripts created by Irish monks circa. 800 AD. The Ha’penny Bridge; an old iron footbridge over the River Liffey is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered one of Dublin’s most famous landmarks. [44]

Guinness Brewery

Other popular sights and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick’s Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on the Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, Custom House and Aras an Uachtarain. The Poolbeg Towers is also iconic features of the Dublin and are visible in many places around the city.

Parks

Dublin has more green space per square kilometer than any other European capital, with 97% of city residents living within 300 meters from a park area. [Citation needed ] The City Council gives 2.96 hectares (7.3 acres) of public green space per 1,000 people and 255 playing fields. [ citation needed ] the Council also planted about 5,000 trees annually [ citation needed ] and manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks. [45]

The Molly Malone Statue, Grafton Street.

There are many parks around the city, including the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park, and St. Stephen’s Green. Phoenix Park is about 3 km (2 miles) west of the center, north of the River Liffey. Its 16 km (10 mi) facade encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres), making it one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. [46] It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild fallow deer. The residence of the President of Ireland (Aras an Uachtarain), built in 1751, [47]located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, the official residence of the US Ambassador, and Ashtown Castle. Concerts have also been carried out in the park by many singers and musicians.

St. Stephens Green is adjacent to one of Dublin’s main shopping streets, Grafton Street, a shopping mall named after it, while the surrounding streets are offices for a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin’s Luas tram lines. Saint Anne’s Park is a public park and recreational facility, which is shared between Raheny and Clontarf, both suburbs on the north side of Dublin. The park, the second largest urban park in Dublin, is part of a former two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi, 500-acre) property assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal located in nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny).

Economy

Main article: Economy of Dublin

Grafton Street is the main shopping street in Dublin city center

Dublin region is the economic center of Ireland, and was in the forefront of the country’s rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and the 10 richest of personal income. [48] [49] According to Mercer’s 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey , Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10 in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42 in 2010). [50] from 2005, has about 800,000 employees in the Greater Dublin Area, of which about 600,000 were employed in the service sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector. [51] [ needs update ]

Many of Dublin’s traditional industries, such as food, textile manufacturing, brewing and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s, has attracted a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and the Greater Dublin Area. Companies like Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter, Accenture and Pfizer now has European headquarters and / or operational bases in the city.

Ulster Bank on George’s Quay Plaza.

Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin’s International Financial Services Centre in 1987, which is globally recognized as a leading location for a range of internationally traded financial services. More than 500 operations are approved to trade under the IFSC program. The center is host to half of the world’s top 50 banks and half of the 20 insurance companies. [52] Many international companies have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank and Commerzbank. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) is also located in Dublin. The economic boom has led to a sharp rise in construction, with major redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Completed projects inkluderarConvention Centre, the 3Arena and Bord Gais Energy Theatre and Silicon Docks.

Transport

Main article: Transport in Dublin

Road

The M50 motorway around Dublin.

The road network in Ireland is mainly focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway, half a ring road that runs around the south, west and north of the city, connecting important national primary routes to the rest of the country. In 2008 the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system with a three-tiered charging system based on electronic tags and car förhandsregistrering.Vägtullen is currently € 2.10 for vehicles with a prepaid tag, € 2.60 for vehicles whose number plates have been registered with eFlow and 3.10 € for unregistered vehicles. [53]

The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass of the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects the Dublin Port ochmotorvägen M1 near Dublin Airport. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs roughly around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs mainly along the natural circle formed by Dublin’s two canals, the Grand Canal and Djurgården and the North and South Circular roads.

Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 bus lines serving all parts of the city and suburbs. Most of these are controlled by Dublin Bus, but a number of smaller companies also work. Fares are generally calculated on a scene based on the distance traveled. There are several different levels of fares that apply to most services. A “Real Time Passenger Information” was introduced on the Dublin Bus bus stops 2012. Electronically showed signs convey information about the time of the next bus “arrival based on its GPS-determined position. The National Transport Authority is responsible for the integration of bus and rail services in Dublin and has been involved in introducing a prepaid smart card, such kalladLeap cards can be used on Dublin’s public transport.

Railway and tram

Luas trams at Tallaghtterminus.

Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway stations in Dublin.Operated by Iarnród Éireann, Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five rail lines serving the Greater Dublin area and bedroom community that Drogheda and Dundalk in County Louth. One of these lines are electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line, which runs mainly along Dublin, with a total of 31 stations, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow. [54] Commuter trains operate on the other four lines with Irish Rail diesel multiple units. In 2013, passengers DART and Dublin Suburban lines were 16 million and 11.7 million respectively (about 75% of all Irish Rail passengers). [55]

The Luas is a light rail system operated by Veolia Transport has been operating since 2004 and now carries over 30 million passengers per year. [56]The network consists of two tram lines; denröda line connects the Docklands and the city center with the south-western suburbs, while the green line connects downtown with the suburbs south of the city and together comprise a total of 54 stations and 38.2 km (23.7 mi) of track. [57]Construction of a 6 km extension of the green line, bringing it to the north of the city, began in June 2013. [58]

Proposed projects trillion as the Dublin Metro and DART Underground will also be considered.

Rail and ferry

Connolly is connected by bus to Dublin Port and ferries operated by Irish Ferries and Stena Line Holyhead for connecting trains on the North Wales coast line to Chester, Crewe and London Euston.

Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port, can be reached by walking beside tram lines around the corner from Amiens Street, Dublin to the Store or Luas an end to Busáras which Dublin Bus operates a service to the ferry terminal, or Dublin Bus route 53 [59] or taking a taxi.

Airport

Dublin airport is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority and is north of Dublin City in the administrative county of Fingal. It is the headquarters of the Irish airline Aer Lingus, the budget airline Ryanair and regional flygbolagStobart Air and CityJet. The airport offers a comprehensive short- and medium-haul network, as well as domestic services to many regional airports in Ireland. There are also extensive long-haul service to the United States, Canada and the Middle East. Dublin Airport is the busiest airport in Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon. Construction of a second terminal began in 2007 and was inaugurated on November 19, 2010. [60]

Dublin Airport is currently ranked as the 18th busiest airport in Europe, recording over 25 million passengers in 2015, and has shown very strong growth in passenger numbers in recent years, especially over long distances.Dublin is now ranked 6th in Europe as a hub for transatlantic passengers, with 158 flights a week to the United States, especially much larger airports such as Istanbul and Rome. [ Citation needed ]

Cycling

Dublin City Council began installing bike paths and trails throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012 the city has over 200 kilometers (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road trails for cyclists. [61] In 2011, the city was ranked 9 of the world’s most important cities of Copenhagenize index of bicycle-friendly cities . [62]

Dublin Bikes terminal in Docklands.

Dublin Bikes is a self-service system, bike rental which has been operating in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux, the system consists of 550 French-made unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city center. Users must make a subscription for either an annual long term rent card costs € 20 or a 3 day ticket costs € 2. The first 30 minutes of use are free, but after that the service fee due to the extra length of use apply. [63] Dublin Bikes now has over 58,000 subscribers and there are plans to drastically expand the service of the city and its suburbs to provide for up to 5,000 bicycles and 300 terminals. [64]

2011 Census showed that 5.9 percent of commuters in Dublin cycled. A report in 2013 from Dublin City Council about traffic flows passing through the channels in and out of the city found that almost 10% of all traffic consisted of riders, representing an increase of 14.1% compared with 2012 and an increase of 87.2% compared to 2006 the level and assigned actions, such as the Dublin Bikes bicycle rental system, provision of cycle paths, information campaigns to promote cycling and the introduction of 30kph center speed limit. [65]

Higher education

Dublin is the primary center of education in Ireland, it is home to three universities, Dublin Institute of Technology and many other universities.There are 20 third-level institutions in the city and in surrounding towns and suburbs. Dublin was Europe of Science in 2012. [66] [67]

Trinity College

Placement of TCD in central Dublin

The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century and is located in the center. Its sole constituent college, Trinity College (TCD) was established by Royal Charter1592 under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation. The Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics to participate until 1970. It is located in the center, on College Green, and has 15,000 students.

Dublin Institute of Technology påCathal Brugha St.

Positioning of the DIT Grange Gorman
in central Dublin

With a continuous history dating back to 1887, Dublin’s and Ireland’s Department of Technical Education and Research, Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) with over 23,000 students. Dublin Institute of Technology has been specializing in engineering, architecture, science, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality and business, but also offers many arts, design, music and humanities programs. DIT currently has campuses, buildings and research facilities at several sites, including large buildings on Kevin Street, Aungier Street, Bolton Street and Cathal Brugha Street in Dublin city center, it has begun consolidation to a new city center campus in Grange Gorman.

Dublin City University (DCU), formerly known as the National Institute for Higher Education (Nihe), specializes in finance, technology, science, communication courses, language school and primary school. It has about 16,000 students, and its main campus, Glasnevin campus, located about 7 km (4 mi) from the center in the northern suburbs. It has two campuses on the North Side of the River, DCU campus Glasnevin and Drumcondra DCU campus. Drumcondra campus includes students formally Glasnevin Campus, St. Patrick’s College of Education, the nearby Mater Dei Institute and from the beginning of the 2016/17 academic year students from the Church of Ireland College of Education. These universities will be totally incorporated DCU in early school years 2016/17. [68]

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school is a recognized college of the NUI, it is located at the St. Stephen’s Green in the city center. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin. Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland’s largest private institutions of third level, with over 9,000 students located on Aungier Street. The National College of Art and Design (Ncad) supports training and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin. The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin 2nd

The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its headquarters in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), has over 30,000 students. UCD’s Belfield campus is about 5 km (3 mi) from the center in the southeastern suburbs.The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent of the NUI, is in neighboring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of the city center.

The Irish public administration and management training center based in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and postgraduate awards through the National University of Ireland, and in some cases, Queens University Belfast. There are also smaller specialized colleges, including Griffith College Dublin, Gaiety School of Acting and New Media Technology College.

Outside the city, the towns of Tallaght, South Dublin and Dun Laoghaire Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown has regional universities: University of Technology, has Tallaght full and part-time courses in a wide range of technical subjects and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) supports training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology. The western suburb Blanchard offers childcare and sports management courses together with language and technical subjects at the Institute of Technology, Blanchard.

Demography

The city of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term “Dublin” usually refers to the contiguous urban area that includes parts of the neighboring municipalities in Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together the four areas form the traditional County Dublin.This area is sometimes called the Dublin Region .Befolkningen in the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 553,165 in the 2016 census, while the population in the urban area was 1,345,402. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069, and the Greater Dublin Area 1,904,806.The area’s population is growing rapidly, and it is estimated by the Central Statistical Office that it will reach 2.1 million years in 2020. [69]

Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a substantial net immigration, with the largest numbers coming from Europe, especially in Great Britain, Poland and Lithuania. [70] There are also a large number of immigrants from outside Europe, especially from India, Pakistan, China and Nigeria. Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than any other part of landet.Sextio percent of Ireland’s Asian population lives in Dublin. [71] Over 15% of Dublin’s population was foreign-born in 2006. [72]

The capital attracts the largest share of non-Catholic immigrants from other countries. Increasing secularization in Ireland has led to a decline in ordinary Catholic Church presence in Dublin from over 90 percent in the mid-1970s, down to 14 percent in a survey in 2011. [73]

Culture

National Museum of Ireland

art

Dublin has a world-famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureate William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is undoubtedly best known as the site of the greatest works of James Joyce, including Ulysses , which is located in Dublin and full of topical detail. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and characters typical of the city during the early 20th century. Other famous writers including JM Synge, Seán O’Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy and Roddy Doyle. Ireland’s biggest libraries and literary museums are located in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and the National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO city of literature, visit Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa Citymed the permanent title.[74]

Book of Kells

There are several theaters in the city center, and the world-famous players have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Sir Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best-known theaters include the Gaiety, Abbey, the Olympia, Gate, and the Grand Canal. Gaiety specializes in music and opera productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theater production to host a variety of live music, dance and film. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city’s most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. Grand Canal Theatre is a new 2111 capacity theater that opened in March 2010 in Grand Canal Dock.

Aside from being the focus of the country’s literature and theater, Dublin is also the focus of much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875-1968). The collections are from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe.

In addition, public art galleries are located throughout the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. In recent years, Dublin has become host to a thriving contemporary art scene. Some of the leading private galleries include Green on Red Gallery, Kerlin Gallery, Kevin Kavangh Gallery and Mother’s Tankstation, each of which focuses on facilitating innovative, challenging and engaging contemporary visual art practices.

Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, crafts and history in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street. [75] The same area is also home to many smaller museums # 29 Fitzwilliam Street and Little Museum of Dublin on St Stephen’s Green.Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which is from 1746, and the Dublin Institute of Design, which was founded in 1991. Dublinia is a living history attraction showcasing the Viking and medieval history of the city.

Dublin has long been a city with a strong underground art scene. Temple Bar was home to many artists in the 1980s, and areas such as Project Arts Centre was a hub for public transport and new exhibits. The Guardian noted that Dublin’s independent and underground art flourished during the recession of 2010. [76] Dublin also has many acclaimed dramatic, musical and opera companies, including the Festival productions, Lyric Opera productions, pioneers musical & Dramatic Society, Glasnevin musical Society, second age Theatre company, Opera Theatre company and Opera Ireland. Ireland is known for his love of Baroque music, which is highly acclaimed at Trinity College. [77]

Dublin was nominated to be the World Design Capital 2014. [78] Prime Minister Enda Kenny was quoted saying that Dublin “would be a perfect candidate to host the World Design Capital 2014”. [79]

St. Patrick’s Day

Entertainment

Dublin has a vibrant night life and is said to be one of Europe’s most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of the citizens to be younger than 25. [80] [81]There are many pubs around the city center, the area around St . Stephens Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, with the most popular nightclubs and pubs.

Temple Bar

The best known area for nightlife is the Temple Bar area, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular with tourists, including stag and hen parties from the UK. [82] It was developed as Dublin’s cultural quarter and not maintain this spirit as a center for small arts productions, photography and artists’ studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues.However, it has been criticized as being expensive, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. [83] In 2014 Temple Bar specified by the Huffington Post as one of the ten most disappointing destinations in the world. [84] The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South Williamsport and Camden Street / George Street are popular venues for locals.

Live music is popularly played on streets and in locations throughout Dublin, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including The Dubliners, Thin Lizzy, The Boomtown Rats, U2, The Script, Sinéad O’Connor, Boyzone, encode Line, Westlife and Jedward. The two most famous theaters in the city center, the Savoy Cinema ochCineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Options and special interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the cinema at D’Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in Smithfield. Large modern flerskärms cinemas is over suburban Dublin. The 3Arena place in the Dublin Docklands has hosted many world-famous artists.

Shopping

Clerys on O’Connell Street.

Dublin is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has many shopping areas, especially around Grafton Street and Henry Street. The center is also the site of major department stores, mainly Arnotts, Brown Thomas and Clerys (until June 2015, when it closes).

Moore Street Market in Dublin.

The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new purchase development and the loss of some traditional markets. Among several historic sites, Moore Street remains one of the city’s oldest commercial district. [85] There has also been significant growth in local farmers’ markets and other markets. [86] [87] In 2007, the Dublin Food Co-op moved to a larger warehouse of the freedoms area, where there are many on the market and local events. [88] [89] Suburban Dublin has several modern venues, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchard’s Centre, the Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre Santry, Nutgrove shopping Centre in Rathfarnham and pavilions shopping Centre in swords.

Media

Dublin is the center of both the media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telecommunications companies based there. RTÉ is Ireland’s national public broadcaster, and has its headquarters in Donnybrook. Fair City is RTÉ’s soap opera, set in fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown . TV3 Media, UTV Ireland, Setanta Sports, MTV, Sky News Ireland and is also based in the city.The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications company Eircom, as well as mobile operators Meteor, Vodafone and 3 are all there. Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Timesand the Irish Independent , as well as local newspapers, The Evening Herald .

Besides being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin is also the host of the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and many local stations.Commercial radio stations based in the city include 4FM (94.9 MHz), Dublin’s 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038 (103.8 MHz) FM104 (104.4 MHz), TXFM (105.2 MHz) and Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz). There are also many community and interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), close to FM (90.3 MHz), Phoenix FM (92.5 MHz), Raidió na Life (106.4 MHz) and West Dublin access radio (96.0 MHz).

Sports

GAA

Croke Park

Croke Park is the largest sports stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, has a capacity of 84,500. It is the fourth largest stadium in Europe after the Nou Camp in Barcelona, Wembley Stadium in London and Santiago Bernabeu Stadium in Madrid. [90] It hosts the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, international rules football and irregularly other sports and non -sportevenemang including concerts. During the redevelopment of Lansdowne Road, it played host to the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Ireland national team and the host förHeineken 2008-09 Cup rugby semi-final between Munster and Leinster who set a world record attendance for a club rugby match. [91] The Dublin GAA team plays most of their home league games throwing at Parnell Park.

Rugby

Aviva Stadium

IRFU Lansdowne Road Stadium was built in 1874. This was a place for home games for both the Irish Rugby Union Team and Ireland national football team. A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the government, saw it converted into a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010. [92] Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final . [93] Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their competitive home matches in the RDS and the Aviva Stadium while Donnybrook Stadium hosted its friendly matches and games, Ireland A and women, Leinster schools and young people, and the home club game of the all Ireland League clubs Old Wesley and Bective Rangers . Dublin is home to 13 of the leading rugby union clubs in Ireland, including five of the 10 sides in the top division 1A. [94]

Football

County Dublin is home to six League of Ireland clubs associations, Bohemian FC Shamrock Rovers St Patricks Athletic, University College Dublin, the Shelbourne and newly elected sidaCabinteely. Current FAI Cup champions are St Patrick’s Athletic. [95] The first Irish side to reach the group stage of a European competition (2011-12 UEFA Europa League group stage) ärShamrock Rovers [96] who play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin.Bohemian FC play at Dalymount Park which is the oldest football stadium in the country, after playing host to Ireland’s football team from 1904 to 1990. St. Patricks Athletic games at Richmond Park, University College Dublin play their home games at the UCD Bowl in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, while Shelbourne based on Tolka Park. Cabinteelykommer to play on Stradbrook Road. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl, and Tallaght Stadium, along with Carlisle Grounds Bray, host all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions Cup. [97]

Other

The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 on the last Monday of October. The Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a public holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world. [98]

Dublin area has several racetracks including Shelbourne Park and the Leopards. Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Cup in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in the National Stadium on the South Circular Road. The National Basketball Arena in Tallaght is located, is home to the Irish basketball team, is the location of the basketball league finals and has also hosted boxing and wrestling events. National Aquatic Centre in Blanchard is Ireland’s largest indoor water leisure facility. Dublin has two ODI Cricket grounds in Castle Avenue, Clontarf and Malahide Cricket Club and College Park test mode and played host to Ireland’s only test cricket match so far, a women’s match against Pakistan in 2000. [99] There is also the Gaelic handball, hockey and athletics arenas, notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics.

Irish

There are 10.469 students in the Dublin region participating in 31 gaelscoileanna (Irish-speaking schools) and 8 gaelcholáistí (Irish-speaking schools). [100] Dublin has the highest number of Irish medium schools in the country. It can also be up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht speakers who lives in Dublin. Two Irish language radio station Raidió Na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta have studios in the city, and on the web and DAB station Raidió ri-Ra broadcasts from studios in the city. Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least one hour of Irish programming per week. Many Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language courses, has a bookstore and is a regular meeting place for various groups. The nearest Gaeltacht to Dublin County Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 kilometers (34 mi) away.

Twin cities

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Dublin is twinned with the following places: [32] [101]

City Nation Since
San Jose United States [102] 1986
liverpool United Kingdom [103] 1986
Barcelona Spain [104] [105] 1998
Peking China [106] [107] 2011
Emmetsburg, Iowa United States 1961

The city is also in talks to Twin with Rio de Janeiro, [108] and the Mexican city of Guadalajara. [109]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • dublin English
  • List of people from Dublin
  • List of subdivisions of County Dublin

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Dublin City Council, Dublin Coat of Arms”. Dublincity.ie.Hämtad29 August 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ “Population of each Province, County and City, 2011”. Central Statistics Office. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  3. Jump up ^ “Census of Population 2011” (PDF). Preliminary results.Central Statistics Office. June 30, 2011. p. 21. Archives of the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  4. Jump up ^ “Census of Population 2011”. Population density and the size of cities by size, Census and Statistics. Central Statistics Office. April 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
  5. Jump up ^ Greater Dublin Area
  6. Jump up ^ “Census of Population 2011” (PDF). Profile 1 – Town and Country .Central Statistics Office. 26 April 2012. p. 11th Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab “global city GDP in 2014”. Brookings Institution.Hämtad18 November 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “The growth and development of Dublin”. Archived from the original (PDF) of 30 March 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  9. Jump up ^ “primate city Definition and examples.” Hämtad21 October of 2009.
  10. Jump up ^ “Dublin Region facts – Dublin Chamber of Commerce” .Dubchamber.ie.
  11. Jump up ^ “Global Financial Centres Index 8” (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  12. Jump up ^ “The World According GaWC 2008”. Globalization and World Cities Research Network: Loughborough University. 3 June, 2009.Hämtatsex November 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ Holder, Alfred (1896). Alt celtischer sprachschatz (in German). Leipzig: BG Teubner. col.1393. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland: Duibhlinn / Devlin.”Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  15. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland: Béal Duibhlinne / Ballydivlin”. Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  16. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland: Duibhlinn / Difflin”.Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  17. ^ Jump up to: ab Davies, Norman. (1999) The Isles: A History. London: Macmillan.s. 1222. ISBN 0-333-76370-X.
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab “A Brief History of Dublin, Ireland.” Dublin.info.Hämtad19 August 2011.
  19. Jump up ^ “Fitzhenry, Meiler.” Dictionary of National Biography.London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885-1900.
  20. Jump up ^ ” The Story of Ireland ‘. Brian Igoe (2009). p.49.
  21. Jump up ^ ” Black Death “. Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). p.58. ISBN 0-313-32492-1
  22. ^ Jump up to: abc “A Brief History of Dublin” (PDF). visiting Dublin.Hämtad19 August 2011.
  23. Jump up ^ ” Dublin: a cultural history “. Siobhán Marie Kilfeather (2005). Oxford University Press USA. pp. 34-35. ISBN 0-19-518201-4
  24. Jump up ^ Lyons, FSL (1973). Ireland since the Famine. Suffolk: Collins / Fontana. s.880. ISBN 0-00-633200-5.
  25. Jump up ^ Irish Statute Book. Local Government (Dublin) Act
  26. Jump up ^ “Irish statute book, municipal Provisional Order Confirmation Act 1953” .Irishstatutebook.ie. March 28, 1953. Retrieved 13 September, 2013.
  27. Jump up ^ “Local elections 2014”. Dublin City Council. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  28. Jump up ^ Taoiseach: Guide to Government Buildings (2005)
  29. Jump up ^ “Constituency Commission Report 2012”. Constituency Commission. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  30. Jump up ^ “2004 local elections – Electoral Area Details”. Election Ireland. Hämtadskrevs 16 September 2011.
  31. Jump up ^ “2011 general election”. Election Ireland. Retrieved twelve May 2013.
  32. ^ Jump up to: ab “Dublin City Council: Facts about Dublin City”. Dublin City Council .Hämtad July 8, 2014.
  33. Jump up ^ “Final Characterization Report” (PDF). Eastern River Basin District. Sek.7: Description of the Liffey catchment. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  34. Jump up ^ “Northside vs Southside”. Wn.com. 25 February 2009.Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  35. Jump up ^ “Temperature – Climate – Met Éireann – The Irish Meteorological Service Online”. Met.ie. January 2, 1979. Retrieved August 202010th
  36. Jump up ^ “climatology information about Station Dublin (Ringsend), Ireland and index RR: Precipitation sum”. European Climate Assessment & dataset .Hämtad 21 December 2012.
  37. Jump up ^ Met Éireann – Irish weather Extremes
  38. Jump up ^ “climatological information for Merrion Square, Ireland”.European Climate Assessment & Dataset.
  39. Jump up ^ “Dublin Insider Tips – Get off the beaten track with these local tips – Visit Dublin”.
  40. Jump up ^ “Dublin Town – Creative Quarter – Dublin Town – What’s on, shopping and events in Dublin – Dublin Town”. What’s on, shopping and events in Dublin – Dublin Town.
  41. Jump up ^ McCarthy, Denis; Benton, David (2004). Dublin Castle: at the heart of Irish history. Dublin: Irish Government Stationery Office. pp. 12-18.ISBN 0-7557-1975-1.
  42. Jump up ^ “Spire cleaners get prime view of the city.” Irish Independent.5 June 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  43. Jump up ^ “The Dublin Spire.” Archi Seek. In 2003. Retrieved October 202011th
  44. Jump up ^ “Some famous landmarks in Dublin – Dublin Hotels & Travel Guide” .Traveldir.org. March 8, 1966. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  45. Jump up ^ “Dublin City Parks.” Dublin City Council. Hämtad1 September 2015.
  46. Jump up ^ It is over twice the size of New York’s Central Park. “If – Phoenix Park”. Office of Public Works. Are downloaded January 2010.
  47. Jump up ^ “Outline History Áras an Uachtaráin”. Aras an Uachtarain.Hämtadsyv January 2013.
  48. Jump up ^ “richest cities in the world by purchasing power in 2009”.Mayor. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  49. Jump up ^ “richest cities in the world of personal income in 2009 ‘.Citymayors.com. August 22, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  50. Jump up ^ “Dublin fall in the city cost rankings.” Irish Times. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  51. Jump up ^ Dublin employment at Internet Archive PDF (256 KB) Archives March 30, 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. Jump up ^ “IFSC”. IFSCie. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
  53. Jump up ^ “E-Flow Site”. eFlow. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  54. Jump up ^ “DART (Dublin Area Rapid Transit).” Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  55. Jump up ^ “rail passenger services by type of trip and years – the State Bank – data and statistics.” Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  56. Jump up ^ “Luas – Frequently asked questions”. Luas.ie.
  57. Jump up ^ “Luas – Frequently asked questions”. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  58. Jump up ^ “Luas Cross City”. Projects & Investment. Irish Rail. August 2013. Retrieved 2 August, 2013.
  59. Jump up ^ “53 – Dublin Bus.” Dublinbus.ie.
  60. Jump up ^ “opening date for Terminal 2 set”. Rte. 21 October 2010.Hämtadjuli 29, 2011.
  61. Jump up ^ “Cycling Maps”. Dublincitycycling.ie. Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  62. Jump up ^ “Copenhagenize Consulting -” Copenhagenize index of bicycle-friendly cities in 2011 ”. Copenhagenize.eu. Retrieved 13 August september2013.
  63. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bikes – How does it work?”. Dublin Bikes. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  64. Jump up ^ “Dublin Bikes Strategic Planning Framework 2011-2016” (PDF) .Dublin City Council. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  65. Jump up ^ “Report on trends in the mode share of vehicles and people crossing the Grand Cordon 2006-2013” (PDF). Dublin City Council and the National Transport Authority. 2013. p. 4, 8; 16. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  66. Jump up ^ “ESOF Dublin”. Euroscience. 2012. Retrieved 29 August augusti2015.
  67. Jump up ^ Walshe, John; Reigel, Ralph (25 November 2008).”Celebrations and hard work begins after the capital lands science” Olympics “of 2012”. Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  68. Jump up ^ “DCU Incorporation of CICE, St Pat’s and Mater Dei”. DCU.2014. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  69. Jump up ^ Call for improved infrastructure for Dublin 2 April 2007
  70. Jump up ^ “Dublin heralds a new era in publishing for immigrants.” The Guardian, March 12, 2006.
  71. Jump up ^ Foreign nationals are now 10% of the Irish population July 26, 2007
  72. Jump up ^ “Dublin”. Open Cities, a British Council project. Archive March 30, 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. Jump up ^ Catholic Church’s hold on schools that are current in the Changing Ireland The New York Times, January 21, 2016
  74. Jump up ^ Irish Independent – Delight in the City of Literature Award for Dublin. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  75. Jump up ^ “National Museum of Ireland.” Museum.ie. 8 June 2010.Retrieved Seventeen June 2010.
  76. Jump up ^ Conway, Richard (22 November 2010). “Dublin independent art scene is a bright spot in the recession hit the city.” The Guardian .London.
  77. Jump up ^ “Baroque Music in Dublin, Ireland.”
  78. Jump up ^ “RTÉ report on the World Design Capital” list. RTE News. 21 June, 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  79. Jump up ^ McDonald, Frank (22 June 2011). “Dublin list to be the” World Design Capital ”. Irish Times. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  80. Jump up ^ “The Irish Experience”. The Irish Experience. Hämtad17 June 2010.
  81. Jump up ^ “Dublin Guide, tourist information, travel planning, tours, sightseeing, attractions, things to do”. TalkingCities.co.uk. October 6, 2009. Archived from the original on August 29, 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  82. Jump up ^ Article on stag / hen parties in Edinburgh, Scotland (who mentions their popularity in Dublin), which refers to Dublin. Retrieved 15 February, 2009.
  83. Jump up ^ “New Lonely Planet guide hit Ireland for being too modern, Ireland vacation”. Irish Central. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  84. Jump up ^ Morse, Caroline (4 April 2014). “10 most disappointing places in the world”. Huffington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  85. Jump up ^ Doyle, Kevin (17 December 2009). “Let’s open up for Sunday shoppers says Moore Street”. The Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  86. Jump up ^ McKenna, John (7 July 2007). “Public appetite for real food.”The Irish Times. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  87. Jump up ^ Van Kampen, Sinead (21 September 2009). “Miss Thrifty: Death to the mall.” Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  88. Jump up ^ Mooney Sinead (7 July 2007). “Food Shorts”. The Irish Times .Hämtad 28 December 2009.
  89. Jump up ^ Dublin Food Co-op website ref. Markets / News / Recent Events / Events Archive
  90. Jump up ^ “Main site – Facts and figures”. Crokepark.ie. Hämtad13 September, 2013.
  91. Jump up ^ “World Record crowd watches Harlequins Saracens sink”.The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  92. Jump up ^ “Prime Minister officially opens the Aviva Stadium”.IrishRugby.ie. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  93. Jump up ^ “Website of Lansdowne Road Development Company (IRFU and FAI JV)”. Lrsdc.Ie. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  94. Jump up ^ Irish Rugby Club & Community: Ulster Bank League: Ulster Bank League Tables Archives August 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  95. Jump up ^ “Irish Daily Mail FAI Senior Cup”. Fai.ie.
  96. Jump up ^ Shamrock Rovers FC # European record
  97. Jump up ^ 2011 UEFA Regions Cup Tour # 3
  98. Jump up ^ “History”. VHI Women’s Mini Marathon. 2015. Hämtad29 August 2015.
  99. Jump up ^ “Ireland Women v Pakistan Women, 2000 Only Test”.CricketArchive. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  100. Jump up ^ “Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn said Ghalltacht 2010-2011” (PDF) (in Irish). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  101. Jump up ^ “Dublin City Council: International Relations Unit.” Dublin City Council. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  102. Jump up ^ “Sister City Program”. City of San Jose. June 19, 2013. Eight Retrieved July 2014.
  103. Jump up ^ “Liverpool City Council twinning”. Liverpool.gov.uk.17 November 2008. Archived from the original February 11, 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  104. Jump up ^ “Ciutats warehouse urged, Relacions bilateral, L’Acció outer” .Barcelona. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
  105. Jump up ^ “Barcelona City Council signs cooperation agreement with Dublin, Seoul, Buenos Aires and Hong Kong.” Ajuntament de Barcelona.26 November 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  106. Jump up ^ “Dublin sign twinning agreement with Beijing.” Dublin City Council. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  107. Jump up ^ Coonan, Clifford (3 June 2011). “Dublin is officially twinned with Beijing” .Irish Times. Retrieved July 8, 2014. (Subscription required)
  108. Jump up ^ Coonan, Clifford (21 May 2011). “Dublin was also in talks with Rio de Janeiro in Brazil twinning with the town” .irishtimes.com.Retrieved 1 June 2011. (Subscription required)
  109. Jump up ^ “Mexican town to be connected to Dublin, said the mayor.”irishtimes.com. March 21 2013. Filed originalpå from 30 March 2013.Retrieved 29 March 2013. (Subscription required)

Howth Head

Howth Head ( Ceann Bhinn Éadair in Irish) is a peninsula northeast of Dublin in Ireland. Howth falls under the local control of Fingal County Council. Entry to the cape is Sutton while bynHowth and the port is on the north shore. Baily Lighthouse is located on the southeastern part of Howth Head. Nearby are the districts of Baldoyle and Portmarnock.

History

The earliest mention of the peninsula was on a map printed Claudius Ptolemy, where it was called Edri Deserta or Greek Edrou Heremos . It was described as an island, but it is unclear whether this was due to actual separation from the cape or incorrect data cartographer.

Place

Originally an island, [ citation needed ] Howth Head is connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of land, or tombolo, and forms the northern boundary of the large crescent of Dublin Bay, roughly corresponding to Killiney Hill to the south.

nature

Most of the cape is undulating, with peaks 171 m Black Linn, the Ben of Howth, on a side street off the Green Hill Quarries on Loughereen Hills, Shielmartin Hill (163 m) overlooking Carrickbrack Road, Carrickbrack and Dun Hill. There are also steep areas such as and Muck Rock (Carrickmore), and Kilrock, and there are steep sea cliffs around parts, especially on the north coast. Gorse grows in many places on the Cape. Fires are common during dry summers.

The cliffs supports a large colony of seabirds, especially razorbills, guillemots, fulmars, gulls and cormorants. The scrubland above supports multiple heathland species, including the skylark, meadow pipit, thorns, Linnet, Stonechat ochbuskskvätta. The most commonly seen birds of prey the kestrel, peregrine falcons and buzzards.

Gallery

  • Howth Head watched from the North Bull Island iDublin Bay
  • Cliffs at Howth Head with Baily guy in Fjärran
  • Baily Lighthouse on the southeastern tip of Howth Head
  • Optics from the Baily lighthouse installed in 1902 and removed in 1972 when the lighthouse was modernized
  • Go on Howth Head

Leisure time

As one of the northern ends of the Dublin Area Rapid Transit system (DART), Howth is a popular destination for day-trippers from the capital.Walkers can choose from a wide range of ways, including the Cliff Walk, which leads to the old cairn on one of Howth’s several summits. On clear days, the Wicklow Mountains can be seen, with Dublin below. Slieve Donard, a 852 meter peak in Northern Ireland may also be visible – a distance of 90 km (56 mi) .Ganska often, Snowdon (1085 m) in the Snowdonia National Park in Wales also seen – a distance of 138 km (86 mi ).

popular culture

Howth Head is the place where Leopold Bloom suggests Molly in James Joyce’s Ulysses . In the short story Eveline, another work by James Joyce is from the collection “Dubliners”, it is mentioned that Eveline and her family once had a picnic on the hill of Howth. Howth Head is also central to Joyce final work, Finnegans Wake, where one of the protagonists, HCE, include representatives of the mountain.

The peninsula has also been in the background of several paintings by Irish artist William Orpen (1878-1931).

Howth Head is mentioned in the text of the title track of Kate Bush’s 1989 album The Sensual World : “… took six large wheels and rolled our bodies / off Howth Head and into the flesh, mmh, yes … ‘. The song is inspired by Molly Bloom’s monologue in Joyce’s “Ulysses.”

© 2018 victoriasway.eu

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑