The Shankill Road (from Irish Sean Chill, which means “old church”)  is one of the main roads running through west Belfast, Northern Ireland. It goes through främstregeringstrogna working class area known as the Shankill. The road stretches westwards for approximately 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from central Belfast and is lined, to an extent, by shops. The residents live in the many streets that branch off the main road. The area along the Shankill Road is part of the court’s district electoral area.
Ulster loyalist banners and graffiti on a side street outside the building Lower Shankill, early 1970s
The first Shankill residents lived at the bottom of what is now called Glencairn: a small settlement of ancient people inhabited a ring soon. Built where Ballygomartin and Forth rivers meet 
A settlement around the point where the Shankill Road becomes Woodvale Road, at the junction of Cambrai Street, was known as the Shankill from the Irish Sean Chill means “old church”. Believed to be back to 455 CE,  it was known as the “Church of St. Patrick White Boy” and the time had six smaller churches, the so-called “alterages” attached to it over the west bank of the River Lagan.  The church was an important place of pilgrimage and it is likely that the creditors of the River Farset, which later became the core of Belfast, was important because of its location on the pilgrimage route.
As a paved road Shankill dates back to around the sixteenth century, which at that time was part of the main road to Antrim, a role now filled by the A6.  The lower parts of the Shankill Road where in ancient times the edge of Belfast with both Boundary Street on the Lower Shankill and Townsend Street in the center Shankill take their name from the fact that when they built the marked the approximate end of Belfast. 
The area expanded sharply in the mid to late 19’s with the growth of the linen industry. Many of the streets in the Shankill area, such as the Leopold Street, Cambrai Street and Brussels Street, named after places and people related to Belgium or Flanders, where flax linen was woven grown. Linn industry along with other previously successful in the area declined in the mid-20th century, leading to high levels of unemployment, which remains in the current situation. The Harland and Wolff shipyard, but on the other side of Belfast, was also a traditional employer for the area,  and it also has seen its number of employees decreased in recent years.
The area was also a common scene of riots in the nineteenth century, often of a sectarian nature of the Irish Catholic areas on the Falls Road and Ardoyne appeared along with the city’s prosperity.  Such rioting occurred June 9, 1886 after the defeat of the Government of Ireland Bill 1886 when a crowd of about 2,000 locals clashed with the Royal Irish Constabulary police try to stop the mob from looting a liquor store. Local police had to barricade themselves in Bower Hill barracks where a long siege followed.  Bower Hill was a name in the field of road between Agnes Street and Crimea Street. 
The West Belfast Division of the original Ulster Volunteer Force organized on the Shankill and drilled in Glencairn and many of its members saw service in World War I with the 36th (Ulster) Division.  A memorial garden next to the cemetery and a mural on Conway Street to celebrate those who fought in the war. Recruitment was also high during the Second World War and the conflict saw the damage to the Shankill Road as part avBelfast Blitz when a Luftwaffe bomb hit a guard at Percy Street, killing many people. The location of the destruction visited by the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester shortly after the attack. 
During the unrest, Shankill was a center of loyalist para-militarism. The modern Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) had its genesis in the Shankill and its first attack occurred on the road May 7, 1966 when a group of UVF men led by Gusty Spence petrol bombed a Catholic-owned pub. Fire engulfed also the house next door, killing the older Protestant widow Matilda Gould (77), who lived there.  This was followed on May 27 by the assassination of John Scullion (28), a Catholic, as he walked home from a pub.  June 26 a Catholic civilian, Peter Ward (18), a native of Ireland, was killed and two others were injured as they left a pub in Shankill’s Malvern Street.  Shortly after this attack, Spence and three others were arrested and later convicted.  the UVF would continue to be active on the Shankill during the unrest, most familiar with the Shankill Butchers led by Lenny Murphy, as well as the likes of William Marchant ochFrankie Curry, the latter a member of the Red Hand Commando. [Citation needed]
Similarly, the Ulster Defence Association, was founded in September 1971 also began on the Shankill when vigilante groups such as the John McKeague sShankill Defence Association and the Woodvale Defence Association merged into a larger structure.  Under the leadership of initially Charles Harding Smith and later Andy Tyrie Shankill Road became the center of UDA activity with the movement to establish its headquarters on the way and leading members of James Craig, Davy Payne and Tommy Lyttle make their homes in the area. Shankill covered by the West Belfast Battalion of the UDA was split into three companies A (Glencairn and Highfield), B (middle Shankill) and C (lower Shankill).  In the 1990s, C Company under Johnny Adair became one of the most active units in UDA with armed men as Stephen McKeag responsible for several murders.  C Company would later feud with both the UVF and the rest of the UDA until 2003 when they were forced out.  after the exile of Adair and his supporters, as well as the murder of something that Alan McCullough, the lower Shankill UDA again brought into line with the rest of the movement during the past Adair supporter Mo Courtney. 
Greater Shankill and its inhabitants were also subjected to a number of bombings and shootings by Irish republican paramilitaries. In 1971, two pub bombings took place on the Shankill, one in May on the Mountain Tavern, where several people were injured and another four Step Inn in September, which resulted in two deaths.  Another bomb exploded at Balmoral interior Company December 11 the same year, resulting in four deaths, including two children.  another pub attack followed the August 13, 1975 when the IRA opened fire on customers outside Bayardo bar and then left a bomb inside the crowded bar area, killing four civilians and a UVF member. Brendan McFarlane received a life sentence for his part in the attack. 
The Shankill Road bombing occurred on October 23 1993. A bomb exploded in Frizzell Fish Shop, the UDA’s Shankill headquarters. The bomb exploded prematurely because it planted. Nine people were killed in addition to the bomber, Thomas Begley. None of the loyalist paramilitaries targeted injured, because they had postponed a planned meeting. Begley accomplice, Sean Kelly, survived and was jailed.
Shankill Road begins at Peter Hill, a path that flows from North Street in Belfast city center and quickly turns into Shankill on the Westlink. Peter Hill is adjacent to the Unity Flats / Carrick Hill, a small nationalist area north of downtown. The area housing the lower Shankill around Agnes Street was known colloquially as “The Hammer,” one of several nicknames applied to areas included “Nick”.  Hammer recalled the name of Hammer Sports Complex, home of amateur football side Shankill United FC  Lower Shankill have been built in recent years, but during the 1960s the house was ranked as the worst in Belfast.  A Lower Shankill Community Association is active in the area while the Shankill Leisure Centre is also located here.  the Shankill Women’s Centre, a women’s education initiative established by May Blood (now Baroness Blood), 1987, is also located on the lower Shankill.  George McWhirter, an author and the first Poet Laureate in Vancouver, BC, Canada, also came from the area originally. [Citation needed]
The “Diamond Jubilee Bar”, a popular UDA hold
Several streets linking Shankill Road to neighboring Crumlin Road with the area around the North Boundary Street former stronghold Johnny Adair’s C Company. Several members of C Company who have died are celebrated on murals around the area, especially Stephen McKeag, William “Bucky” McCullough, who was killed by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) in 1981 as part of a series of tit for tat killings between this group and UDA  and Jackie Coulter, was killed by the UVF during enregeringstrogna feud 2000.  the Shankill links theoretically neighboring Falls Road in a few places, although most of these exits blocked by peace lines .Ingången on Northumberland Street is sometimes open although it has lockable gates at the midpoint.
The lower Shankill is home to many loyalist pubs, the most notable is the “Malvern weapons”, in connection with the UVF and the “Diamond Jubilee” – a UDA places that became notorious as the most important meeting place for “C Company” during the early 1990s . “Long Bar” and “Windsor Bar”, both frequented by UVF in the 1970s, has since disappeared. According to investigative journalist Martin Dillon, was later used a center of activity for the UVF platoon led by Anthony “Chuck” Berry. 
Middle and Upper Shankill
Severe WA Sterling, among the youngest people were killed in active service during the First World War
Although there is no exact dividing line between the lower, middle and upper Shankill locally It is often said that the lower Shankill ends at Agnes Street.  The area was renovated sometime before the lower Shankill leads to feelings locally to the upper part of the road was better compared to the “Apaches” of the lower Shankill as they were colloquially known.  a number of Protestant churches located in this area, including West Kirk Presbyterian Church,  Shankill Methodist Church and independent Church of God. 
The West Belfast Orange Hall is near the top of the road. This building, which houses the No. 9 District Orange Lodge has received a facelift of the Belfast City Council.  The same applies to the nearby Shankill cemetery, a small graveyard which is funerals for approximately 1000 years. The cemetery is known for the statue of Queen Victoria and adjacent memorial members of the 36th Ulster Division who died at the Battle of the Somme.  Among those buried in the cemetery is the Rev. Isaac Nelson, a Presbyterian minister who was also active in the nationalist politik.Nelson lived on Sugar Field House on the Shankill, which then gave its name to Sugar Field Street.  Also buried here are 2nd Private WA Sterling, was killed in battle with the Royal Air Force November 5, 1918 at age 14.
The “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street, one of the drinking dens used by Lenny Murphy and Shankill Butchers
The area includes Lanark Way, one of the few direct links to neighboring nationalist areas, leading directly to the Springfield Road (although the street is gated near Springfield Road end and these are locked at night). A common way for UDA armed men seeking access to the Falls during the unrest, it was named the “Yellow Brick Road” by Stephen McKeag and his men. 
A number of pubs frequented by UVF members were in the area. These included the “Berlin weapon” on the Shankill and the Berlin Street intersection, and “Bayardo,” which was located in the corner of the Shankill and Aberdeen Street. The pub was close to “The Eagle” where the UVF “Brigade staff” had its headquarters in the rooms above a chip shop of the same name at the Shankill and Spiers Place intersection. “Brown Bear” pub loyalist Lenny Murphy as his headquarters for directing his infamous murder gangs – the Shankill Butchers -. Low in the upper corner of the Shankill and Mountjoy Street  The pub, which went bankrupt, has since been demolished. Another drink it in the area used by Murphy and his gang were “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street. The “Rex Bar” on the middle Shankill is one of the oldest pubs on the Shankill Road and is frequented by members of the UVF. This bar was attacked by members of the UDA’s C Company in 2000 to launch a loyalist feud between the two groups. 
Mural depicting James Buchanan on Ainsworth Street
The terms Greater Shankill used by a number of groups operating in the region, primarily the Greater Shankill Partnership,  to refer to both the Shankill Road and union / loyalist areas surrounding it. The most important areas in this field is Woodvale, Glencairn and Highfield. Greater Shankill as a whole has a population of about 22,000. [Citation needed]
The Woodvale area begins after Ainsworth Avenue when the road changed from the Shankill Road, Woodvale Road. As well as comprehensive housing Woodvale area also contains Woodvale Presbyterian Church, a building on the corner of Woodvale and Ballygomartin roads dating back to 1899.  The area got its name from Woodvale Park, public gardens and sports area, which opened in 1888. 
Furthermore, there is locally St. Matthew’s Church of Ireland, which was built in 1872, takes its name from the original church that had been sitting in the grounds of the cemetery. The architecture of this church is called the trefoil, which means that it is built in the shape of a shamrock. The shamrock is the national emblem of Ireland and was probably used by St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland to förklaraHeliga Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. There is a book about the church that says that St. Matthew is actually a replica of a church in Salonika, which rounded “blade” does not have depressions leaves of white clover. The water in the stone outside the door was supposed to cure warts and really up to the 1990s, was considered to cure colic for a new, open safety pin thrown in. [Citation needed] The oldest stone in the Shankill cemetery was known locally as “Bullaun least” and traditionally said to cure warts on the work area was rubbed on the stone. It was removed to the grounds of St. Matthews in 1911. 
Ballygomartin Road, seen from Martin Spring Road, showing its largely rural nature
Glencairn is an area based on Ballygomartin Road, which runs outside Woodvale Road, and the Forth River Road. It is adjacent to Crumlin Road. As a large residential area also includes Glencairn Park, a large wooded area in the bottom of Divis Mountain. Former estate of the Cunningham family area was open to the public in 1962.  The park Fernhill House, the ancestral family home, which is not only used by Edward Carson to drill their Ulster Volunteers, but was also the setting for the announcement of the Combined Loyalist Military Command ( CLMC) ceasefire 13 October 1994.  it then became a museum, but was closed in late 2010 and early 2011. the additional area of housing, called the Lyndhurst area after a number of local streets, located west of Glencairn Park ( the Glencairn estate east of the forest area). Lyndhurst area hit the headlines in 2003 when two leading loyalists, Jim Spence of the UDA and Jackie Mahood of the Loyalist Volunteer Force, reported brawling in the streets of Lyndhurst area where they both lived.  The Ballygomartin Road stretches as far as the nationalist Upper Whiterock Road although after Spring Martin area is predominantly rural.
The farm was the scene of the murder of two prominent loyalists. In 1982, Lenny Murphy shot and killed by the Provisional IRA near his girlfriend’s house in the yard.  In 2001, William Stobie was killed by members of the UDA, a group that Stobie had previously belonged after he was supposed to testify at a public inquiry into the death of Pat Finucane. Stobie killing, which occurred near his home on the Forth River Road, was widely claimed the Red Hand Defenders, a cover name used by various loyalist groups on ceasefire. 
The Spring Martin barrier, with the New Barnsley police station at one end
Highfield is a residential area located around the West Circular and Martin Spring roads, both of which fall outside the Ballygomartin Road. Highfield is near the nationalist Springfield Road and there is limited access between the two areas through the West Circular and Spring Martin. Thanks to its location parts of the area sometimes known as Spring Martin property.  Highfield seen as an enclave and has been the scene of frequent sectarian tensions.  As a result of this Spring Martin Road is home to a 18-foot-high (5.5 m) peace line that runs the length of the road from the junction with the Springfield Road until close to the Ballygomartin Road.  in May 1972 the area was the scene of a two-day gun battle between Republican and loyalist paramilitaries and the British army, but a combination of peace lines and demographic changes meant that such open conflict was not repeated later in the unrest.
Democratic Unionist Party Office, Woodvale Road
Shankill has traditionally union and loyalist, albeit with a certain strength is also held by the labor movement. Belfast Shankill, which covers the northwestern part of the Shankill Road, was founded as a constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1929 and existed until the body was abolished in 1973. During that time the seat was held by three men, Tommy Henderson (1929-1953), Henry Holmes (1953-1960 ) and Desmond Boal (1960-1973). Of these, only Holmes belonged to the usual Ulster Unionist Party for his entire career with Boal once a member which is also designated as both independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist Party and Henderson always and independence for a time was part of the independent Unionist Association .Henderson was born Dundee Street on the Shankill.  A Belfast Shankill constituency also returned member of the UK Parliament from 1918 to 1922, with the Labour Unionist Samuel McGuffinhåller seat. The areas south of the road covered by Belfast Woodvale place at Westminster and a place with the same name at Stormont. Robert John Lynn of the Irish trade union alliance represented the seat in Westminster for the whole of its existence (1918-1922). Stormont seat held by John William Nixon (Independent Unionist) from 1929 to 1950, Ulster Unionists Robert Harcourt (1950-1955) and Neville Martin (1955-1958), Billy Boyd in Northern Ireland Labour Party until 1965, finally, John McQuade, who in different ways Ulster Unionist independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist until the seat was abolished in 1972.
Shankill is now part of the West Belfast constituency of Northern Ireland Assembly and Westminster. At the parish Shankill represented by four Sinn Féin MLAs and one each from the Social Democratic and Labour Party and people before profit Alliance. In Westminster, since 1966, when the seat was lost by the last sitting unionist Jim Kilfedder, it has always had a nationalist or republican MP. The abstentionist policy Sinn Fein MP Gerry Adams, who was West Belfast MP until his retirement in 2011, led to an attempt judicial review of the mayor Frank McCoubrey who claimed Shankill residents are denied their right to be represented.  The case was not a success.
At Belfast City Council Greater Shankill area covered by the court electoral area. At the 2011 elections, the five councilors elected were William Humphrey, Naomi Thompson and Brian Kingston of the Democratic Unionist Party, regardless Frank McCoubrey (who is a member of the Ulster Political Research Group) and the Progressive Unionist Party is Hugh Smyth. 
Robert McCartney, who led his own British Unionist Party and represented North Down in Westminster, is also originally from the Shankill. 
High schools serving Shankill include Belfast Boys Model School and the Belfast Model School for Girls because of their location in the Ballysillan area adjoining Crumlin Road. Students from the area also participate Hazelwood college or Malone College, both of which are integrated schools, and Victoria College and the Royal Belfast Academical Institution who are both grammar school. Before its closure, and before several name changes, Cairnmartin Secondary School was also greater Shankill area. Famous pupils include footballer Norman Whiteside  and boxers Wayne McCullough. The school, then known as Mount Gilbert Community College, closed permanently in 2007 after a decline in the number of students. 
Schools in the greater Shankill area includes the Forth River Primary School on Ballygomartin Road. Founded in 1841, the original building was cramped and inspection reports commented on the high level of instruction despite inadequate building years. [Citation needed] In the 1980s and 1990s, closure and merging both proposed and vigorously oppose all associated with the school. Ultimately, a new £ 1.4m state-of-the-art school was announced as a replacement for the old building and the new school, located on the adjacent Cairnmartin Road, was officially opened by Prince Andrew, Duke of York, 2005.  Other schools include three in the Shankill Road itself in Glenwood Primary School, which was founded in 1981,  Eden Brooke Primary School in Tennent Street and Malvern Primary School and Black Mountain Primary School and Spring Primary Schoolpå Martin Spring Road.
Boxing mural, Hopewell Crescent
Wayne McCullough, a gold medalist at the Commonwealth Games and a champion in the bantamweight division world and an Olympic silver medalist in the 1992 Olympics summer representing Ireland, was born in Shankill. He is one of a number of boxers from the area to be presented on a mural on Gardiner Street to celebrate the area’s strong legacy in boxing.  The image has since been moved to Hopewell Crescent. McCullough trained in Albert Foundry boxing club, located in Highfield Estate where he grew up.  Other locals to make an impact in the sport have included Jimmy Warnock, a boxer from the 1930s who beat world champion Benny Lynch twice, and his brother Billy.
Football is also a popular sport in the region with local teams including the Shankill United, Albert Foundry, which plays at West Circular Road, Lower Shankill, who share Hammer ground with United  and Woodvale who won the Junior Cup in 2011.  All four clubs are members of the northern Amateur Football League. The most important club in the area, however Linfield Linfield with a supermarket trading on the Shankill Road, despite the club based on the Lisburn Road in south Belfast.  A Linfield Supporters and Social Club, located in the Crimea Street. An Ulster Rangers club is also open on the road, with the Glasgow club broad support among Northern Irish Protestants. Norman Whiteside, free Northern Ireland and Manchester United midfielder, lived on the Shankill. Whiteside also lends his name to Norman Whiteside Sports Facility, a community sports field used by Woodvale FC  The resort is located on Sydney Street West between Shankill and neighboring Crumlin Road. George O’Boyle, who had a long career in Scottish football, is also a native of Shankill. 
The Ballygomartin Road is also home to a cricket ground of the same name, which in 2005 hosted a List A match between Canada and Namibia in 2005 ICC Trophy.  The land is home to Woodvale Cricket Club, founded in 1887. 
Although Shankill Road originally grew as part of the main road to the Antrim, it is no longer a part of something larger network that connects Belfast to neighboring towns with their peripheral roads all closed either in the mountains or link to Springfield Road. Belfast was served by a network of trams in the first half of the 20th century and the Shankill was the last part of the city to see this service is removed in the 1950s.  Public transport is now provided by Metro Transportation arm of Shankill eleventh form of the company’s twelve corridors. Buses link to Belfast estates on top of Shankill and Ballysillan area of Crumlin Road.  Routes 11A / B and C follow each other up Shankill Road and Woodvale Road as far as Woodvale Park. 11A continues straight through Ardoyne, Crumlin Road, Bilston Road, Ballysillan Road and ends at the Silver (Ballysillan Park). 11B and C turn right on Ballygomartin Road with 11B continues to Spring Martin and 11C turn right at Forth River Road up to the terminus at Glencairn is on the top of the hill.
In popular culture
Shankill area plays a prominent role in The Fall, in that Jimmy and Liz Tyler, grief counseling clients, Paul Spector, as well as two of Spector victims (Annie and Joseph Brawley) appear to live there, as well as a woman Spector meets on the train. Throughout the series, Spector, members of the police and other characters equally, leading the hostile inhabitants of the neighborhood, sometimes after going into the neighborhood, and at other times when the residents have sought them out Shankhill.
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- Jump up ^ funeral murdered Loyalist
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- Jump up ^ “West Kirkwood site”. Westkirk.org. Hämtadtio juni2011.
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- Jump up ^ “Shankill Graveyard”. Belfastcity.gov.uk. Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ “Myths, legends and facts about Olde Belfast” .Joegraham.rushlightmagazine.com. Hämtadtio juni2011.
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- Jump up ^ “Greater Shankill Partnership place”. Greatershankillpartnership.org.Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ “Woodvale Presbyterian Church website” .Woodvalepresbyterianchurch.com. Hämtadtio juni2011.
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- Jump up ^ “Glencairn”. Belfastcity.gov.uk. Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, pp. 274-275
- Jump up ^ loyalists in the feud fights, The People
- Jump up ^ McKittrick, David & McVea, David (2002). Making Sense of the unrest: the story of the conflict in Northern Ireland. New Amsterdam Books. p.149
- Jump up ^ Henry McDonald & Jim Cusack, UDA – Inside the heart of Loyalist Terror., Penguin Ireland, 2004, pp 310-311
- Jump up ^ Film explores bonfire camaraderie
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- Jump up ^ Interface No.6: Martin Spring Road – Upper Ballygomartin Road
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- Jump up ^ McCartney biography on CAIN
- Jump up ^ Norman Whiteside, my memories of Manchester United, 2003, p. 11
- Jump up ^ BBC report on the closure of the Mount Gilbert
- Jump up ^ “HRH the Duke of York officially opens the Forth River Primary School, Belfast Northern Ireland // // Media Centre / Media Detail”. Nio.gov.uk.Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ Glenwood Primary School: About our school
- Jump up ^ “McCullough in the new mural.” BBC News. July 2, 2009. Hämtattio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ “Wayne McCullough.” Culturenorthernireland.org. 15 April 2011. Hämtattio juni2011.
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- Jump up ^ “Woodvale FC site”. Woodvalefc.com. Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ “Linfield Super News”. Linfieldfc.com. Hämtadtio juni2011.
- Jump up ^ Norman Whiteside Sports Facility
- Jump up ^ DISTILLERY: New management set to let the good times roll
- Jump up ^ “List-A matches played on Ballygomartin Road”.