The  Falls Road  (from Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , which means “territory attachments”  [1]  ) is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, which runs from Divis Street in Belfast city center to Anderson’s in the suburbs. Its name is synonymous with Republican community in the city, while neighboring Shankill Road are mainly loyalists, separated from the Falls Road avfredslinjer. The road is usually called  the  Falls Road, rather than as Falls Road. It is known as the  Faas Raa  in Ulster-Scots.  [2]


Nearby White Rock Road 1968

The Falls Road got its name from the Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , an Irish small kingdom whose name means “territory attachments”.  [1]  This territory was roughly the same as the church congregation in Shankill, which spanned a large part of today’s Belfast.  [1]

The Falls Road itself was originally a road leading from the center but the population in the area expanded rapidly in the 19th century with the construction of several large linen factories. All of these have now closed or repurposed. This initial area, which was centered on the intersection of today’s Millfield and Hamill Street in what is now the Divis Street, was known as the Falls and lent its name to the road,  [3]  previously called the “pound”.  [Citation needed ]  the homes in area developed in the 19th century and organized in the narrow streets of small radhus.Många of these streets were named after characters and events of the Crimean War (1853-1856), which is present at the time.  [1]  

These included Raglan Street (named after Lord Raglan, the commander of the British forces in the Crimean War), Alma Street (named after the Battle of Alma), Balaclava Street (named after the Battle of Balaklava), Inkerman Street (named after the Battle of Inkerman) and Sevastopol Street (named after the siege of Sevastopol).  [1]

The view from the Falls Road to the city center, 1981

In the 1960s the buildings in the area had fallen considerably and the Belfast Corporation introduced a greater development plan that involved whole scale demolition of large parts of the area and replaced with a series of flat complex. The highest point in this transformation was the Divis Tower, built on top of the historic district formerly known as Pound Loney.  [4]


Bobby Sands mural on the Falls Road

A predominantly working class community Falls Road has historically had a strong socialist tradition before 1970 had been less Irish nationalist than other parts of Northern Ireland. James Connolly, a resident of Upper Falls during a period in the early 20th century and was involved in organizing the workers in linen factories  [ citation needed ]  , but the area was generally seen as a bedrock of Irish parliamentary party (IPP) at the time. Éamon de Valera lost heavily here in the 1918 UK general election the IPP Joe Devlin. Connolly secretary Winifred Carney also stayed at the Falls with her husband, George McBride, a Protestant and World War I veteran.  [ Citation needed ]    

The last century has seen an ongoing competition between different versions of the labor / socialist and nationalist / Irish Republican leadership elections in the area. In the 1929 elections to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, Belfast, Falls constituency was won by nationalist Richard Byrne after a bitter contest with William McMullen, a supporter of Connolly.  [Citation needed ]  

In the 1945 election, Harry Diamond won the seat stands for Socialist Republican Party. He held the position until 1969, when he was defeated by Paddy Devlin stands for Northern Ireland Labour Party. Devlin, who had once been a member, along with the Diamond, in Belfast branch of the Irish Labour Party, became a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party in 1970 and remained a member until Parliament has been prorogued in 1972.  [ citation needed ]  

Garden of Remembrance, Falls Road.

In 1964, Billy McMillen stood as a Republican clubs candidate for Belfast West constituency in the Westminster election. His office was in the Divis Street and the Irish tricolor along Starry Plough of Connolly’s Irish Citizen Army was displayed in the window. The public display of the flag of Ireland was prohibited by the Northern Ireland government. Protestant preacher Ian Paisley insisted Royal Ulster Constabulary remove the flag or he would organize a march and remove it yourself. The police feared a backlash from loyalists, and removed it, causing unrest and riots by nationalists.  [5]

Frederick Douglass mural on “Solidarity Wall”, then painted.

In the late 1960s, many Catholics from all over Northern Ireland began the campaign, many with NICRA, against discrimination in housing and employment, under the banner of a civil rights campaign in conscious imitation of philosophy and tactics used by the American Civil Rights Movement.  [6 ]

Many activists saw NICRA as an Irish Republican Trojan horse, designed to destabilize Northern Ireland, and force members of a united Ireland.  [7] [8] Several streets around the Falls Road burned by loyalists in August 1969. In response to the worsening situation, the British government utplaceradebrittiska army on Falls Road. The troops were initially welcomed by many but not all Falls residents to protect them, but the heavy-handed tactics of the most mainland British-born members of the army who do not know or understand the situation would alienate most Catholics and nationalists. [9] [10]  

In 1970, the road was the scene of what became known as the Falls Curfew.3000 British troops sealed off the streets around the Falls Road, home to about 10,000 people, setting off tear gas. The UK measures was received by the Official IRA (OIRA), who engaged them in a vicious firefight. Over the weekend, four Catholic civilians were killed by the British army. Ninety rifles were recovered.  [11]  It is generally regarded as the end of the British Army “honeymoon” period with the Nationalists in Belfast.  [12]

For the next three decades, the British Army had a significant presence on the Falls Road, with a base on top of Divis Tower. This was removed in August 2005 as part of the British government’s normalization program for Provisional Irish Republican Army’s claim that it ends its armed activity. In the meantime, Falls Road saw some of the worst violence “troubles”. The last British soldier to be killed on the road itself was private Nicholas Peacock, was killed by a trap bomb left outside Rock Bar, opposite the top of the Donegall Road.  [13]

1991 IRA hit squads based in Upper Falls and Beech Mount was involved in attacks against loyalist paramiliaries in the nearby village area. In September 1991, they shot dead 19 years old up UVF John Hanna at his home in the Donegall Road, and in November the same year, they shot dead William King Berry and his stepson Samuel Mehaffey, members of the UDA and the RHC, respectively, in their home on Lecale Street .  [13]


Falls Road Library, opened 1908th

Since the 1960s there has been a significant recovery of the traditional culture of the Irish language, dance and music. These are all showcased during the Feile an Phobail, an annual festival of Irish culture. The road is also home to Culturlann, an Irish cultural center that is open all year.  [ Citation needed ]  

One of three Carnegie libraries were built in Belfast is on the Falls Road. It opened on 1 January 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Belfast still serves as a library.  [14]

Educational institutions and hospitals

Several major educational institutions in the area, including St. Dominic Grammar School for Girls, St. Rose High School, St Mary’s University College, and the Irish school Coláiste Feirste.

St. Louise’s Comprehensive College is one of the largest comprehensive girls schools in Europe. St Finian’s and St. Catherine’s schools were closed because of falling student numbers. Katarina together with St. John’s girls and St. Gallen boys to form St. Clares in September 2005. St. Mary’s Christian Brothers Grammar School was originally located in Barrack Street off Divis Street in the Lower Falls but was transferred to a new establishment on the Glen Road in the Upper Falls in the 1960s. There are several major hospitals in the area, including the Royal Victoria Hospital, the Royal Maternity and Children’s Hospital.  [ Citation needed ]  


KyrkogårdarDet are several Catholic churches in the Falls Road. These include St. Church, St. Paul’s Church in the center of the Falls and St. John’s Church in Upper Falls. Nearby is Clonard Monastery, home of the Redemptorist religious order. Father Alec Reidsom played a key role in the Northern Ireland peace process was based here.

Two large cemeteries located on top of the Falls Road: Belfast City Cemetery and Milltown Cemetery.

other buildings

Although the area is largely residential, there are several large (former)), industrial and other buildings. The most famous of the original factory buildings Conway Mill Conway Street (named after the Conway family, a famous rich family of Clonard Area), originally a flax spinning mill, now houses a community enterprise in small business, studios, retail space and training floor. The Dunlewey Centre (Belfast Metropolitan College campus) is a community training center in the heart of the Lower Falls.

See also

  • Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast
  • Lower Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Upper Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Raidió Fáilte


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e placental NI Falls
  2. Jump up ^ Language / Cultural Diversity – Irish Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Belfast history,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ Megan Deirdre Roy.  Divis Flats: the social and political consequences of a modern housing project in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1968-1998  ,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Peter Taylor.  Loyalists  , ISBN 0-7475-4519-7, p. 32
  6. Jump up ^  Weiss, Ruth. Peace in his time: War and Peace in Ireland and South Africa. p. 34.
  7. Jump up ^ Lord Cameron,  Disturbances in Northern Ireland: Report of the Commission appointed by the governor in Northern Ireland  (Belfast, 1969)
  8. Jump up ^ Purdie, Bob.  Politics in the streets: the origins of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland  , The Black Staff Press, ISBN 0-85640-437-3.
  9. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  10. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ Ed Moloney.  A Secret History of the IRA  , ISBN 0-14-101041-X, p. 91.
  12. Jump up ^ Richard English.  Armed struggle  (2003), p. 136
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b McKittrick, Feeney, Thornton, Kelters, David, Brian, Chris, Seamus (2004). Lost lives. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 1158, 1248, 1257-1258.
  14. Jump up ^  “Catalogue of the photo exhibition Irish Carnegie Library” (PDF). An Chomhairle Leabharlanna (The Library Council Sweden).Retrieved 4 September 2012.


mural  is a piece of artwork painted or applied directly to a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinctive feature of the mural is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Some murals are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (eg with marouflage). If these jobs can be accurately called “murals” is the subject of some controversy in the art world  [ who? ]  , But the technology has been in general use since the late 19th century.  [1]  


Jataka stories frånAjantagrottorna, 7th Century

Murals of sorts date to the Upper Paleolithic times that the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France (around 30,000 BC). Many old wall paintings have survived in Egyptian tombs (about 3150 BC),  [2]  the Minoan palaces (Middle period III of Neopalatial period from 1700 to 1600 BC) and Pompeii (about 100 BC – AD 79) .

In medieval times, the wall paintings were mostly done on dry plaster (Secco). The huge collection of Kerala mural dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco.  [3] [4]  In Italy, around 1300, the technique for painting frescoes on wet plaster reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of the mural .  [5] 

In modern times, the term became more familiar with Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The most famous is probably  the fresco  , using water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a quick use of the resulting mixture over a large area, often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry. The  marouflage  method has also been used for millennia.

Painting today is painted in a variety of ways, using oil or aqueous media.The styles can vary from abstract to  trompe l’oeil  (a French term for “fool” or “fool the eye”). Initiated by the works of wall artists like Graham Rust and Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe l’oeil painting has experienced a revival in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas which is then pasted on a wall surface  (see the wallpaper, Frescography)  to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene.


Historic wall techniques

The 18-century BC fresco of the installation of Zimrilim  discovered vidKungliga castle in Old Navy in Syria

In the history of the mural, several methods have been used:

A fresco  painting from the Italian word  affresco  which derives from the adjective  fresco  ( “fresh”), describes a method in which the color is applied to the plaster on walls or ceilings. The  Buon fresco  technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water in a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is then absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. After that the painting stays for a long period of time up to centuries in fresh and bright colors.

Fresco-secco  painting is done on dry plaster (  Secco  is “dry” in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

Mezzo fresco  painted on almost dry plaster, and was defined by the sixteenth-century writer Ignazio Pozzo as “firm enough not to take a thumb-print” so that the pigment penetrates only slightly into the drywall. At the end of the sixteenth century this had largely displaced the  buon fresco  method, and was used by artists who Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of  a secco  work.


In Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic paints were used in a cold state is used.  [6] [7] 

Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods of the mural. The tempera pigments are bound in a proteinaceous media such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.

In 16th century Europe, oil on canvas emerged as a simpler method for the mural. The advantage was that the artwork would be completed in the artist’s studio and later transported to their destination and attached to the wall or taket.Oljefärg can be a less satisfactory medium of murals because of its lack of brilliance in color. Even pigments yellowed by the binder or easily affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more vulnerable to rapid deterioration over a patch of ground.  [ Citation needed ]  Various muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, be it oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints  [8]  applied by brush, roller or airbrush / aerosols . Customers will often ask for a certain style and the artist can adapt to the appropriate technology.  [9]  

A consultation usually leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a quotation to the customer approves muralist before starting work. The area to be painted can be structured to match the design allows the image to be peeled carefully, step by step. In some cases the design is projected directly onto the wall and traced with a pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without Sketch, prefer the spontaneous technique.

Once completed, the mural can be given layer of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work against UV rays and surface damage.

In modern, fast form of muralling young enthusiasts also use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give the desired models on a canvas board. The fabric later set aside to let the mud dry. Once dried, the cloth and the shape painted with your choice of colors and later coated with lacquer.

CAM designed Frescography by Rainer Maria Latzke digitally printed on canvas

As an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural can be digitally printed murals also applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and then reproduced in close to original quality.

The disadvantages of prefabricated murals and decals is that they often mass produced and lacking attractiveness and exclusivity of an original work of art. They are often not adapted to the individual wall sizes of the customer and their personal ideas or requests can not be added to the mural as it progresses. The Frescography technology a digital method of manufacture (CAM) was invented by Rainer Maria Latzke up some of the personalization and size restrictions.

Digital technology is often used in advertisements. A “wall cape” is a big advertisement on or attached to the outer wall of a building. Wallscapes can be painted directly on the wall as a wall painting, or printed on vinyl, and securely attached to the wall just like a plate. Although not strictly classified as paintings, large scale printed media is often referred to as such.Advertising paintings traditionally painted on buildings and shops of recordings authors, recent large-scale poster signs.

The significance of murals

The San Bartolo mural

Murals are important that they take the art in the public space. Because of the size, cost, and work to create a mural, muralists must often on behalf of a sponsor.Ofta it is the local authorities or a business, but many murals have been paid with grants of patronage. For artists, their work to a wide audience that otherwise might not set foot in an art gallery. A town benefits by the beauty of a work of art.

Murals can be a relatively effective tool of social emancipation or achieving a political objective.  [10] The  paintings have sometimes created the law, or have been commissioned by local bars and cafes. Often the visual effects are an enticement to attract public attention to social issues. State-sponsored public art expressions, particularly paintings, often used avtotalitära regimes as a tool for propaganda. Despite the propagandistic nature of that work, some of them still have an artistic value.

Murals can have a dramatic impact on the conscious or unconscious attitudes passer, when added to the areas where people live and work. It can also be argued that the existence of large public murals can add aesthetic improvement of the daily lives of residents or employees at a company site.

Other world-famous wall paintings can be found in Mexico, New York, Philadelphia, Belfast, Derry, Los Angeles, Nicaragua, Cuba and India. [1] They have served as an important means of communication for members of socially, ethnically and racially divided communities in times of conflict.They also showed to be an effective tool in a dialogue and thus solve the cleavage in the long run. The Indian state of Kerala has exclusive murals.These Kerala mural on the walls of Hindu temples. They can be dated from the 9th century.

The San Bartolo murals of the Maya civilization in Guatemala, is the oldest example of this technique in Mesoamerica and is dated to 300 BC.

Many rural towns have begun using murals to create tourist attractions in order to increase economic income. Colquitt, Georgia is one such city.Colquitt was elected to host the 2010 Global Mural Conference. The city has more than twelve paintings completed, and will be hosting the conference along with the Dothan, Alabama, and Blakely, Georgia. In the summer of 2010, Colquitt begin work on its icon painting.

Murals and politics

Diego Rivera’s mural depicting Mexico’s history vidNational Palace in Mexico City

The Bardia Mural, photographed in the 1960s, before its damage by corruption and the ravages of time.

Wall paintings show the Marxist view of the press in this cafe in East Berlin in 1977 was covered by advertising after Germany was reunited

The Mexican mural movement in the 1930s brought a new prominence to the murals that a social and political tool. Diego Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros was the most famous artists in the movement. Between 1932 and 1940, Rivera also painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York. In 1933 he completed a famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels entitled  Detroit Industry  on the walls of a courtyard of the Detroit Institute of Arts.  [11]  During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the yard defend the artistry of the murals while attacking his policies “abominable”.

The Colombian government in 1948 hosted IX Pan-American Conference to establish the Marshall Plan for America. The head of the OEA and the Colombian government commissioned Master Santiago Martinez Delgado, to paint a mural in the Colombian Congress building to commemorate the event. Martinez decided to do it on the Cucuta Congress, and painted Bolívar front of Santander, upset liberals do; so, because of the murder of Jorge Eliezer Gaitan mobs El bogotazo tried to burn the capital, but the Colombian army stopped them. Several years later, in the 1980s, with the Liberals in charge of Congress, passed a resolution to shut down the whole house of the elliptical room 90 degrees to put the main mural on the side and mission Alejandro Obregon to paint an impartial mural in the surreal style.

Northern Ireland contains some of the most famous political murals in the world.  [12]  Nearly 2,000 paintings have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s.  [13]  More recently, many murals are non-sectarian, political and social issues such as racism and environmentalism and many are completely a-political, depicting children at play and scenes from everyday life. (Senordirländska murals.)

One is not political, but social belonging mural covering one wall of an old building, once a prison, on top of a cliff in Bardiyah in Libya. It was painted and signed by the artist in April 1942 weeks before his death on the first day of the first battle of El Alamein. Known as the Bardia Mural, was created by the English artist, Private John Frederick Brill.  [14]

In 1961, East Germany began erecting a wall between East and West Berlin, which became known as the Berlin Wall. Also on the painting side of East Berlin were not allowed, artists painted on the western side of the wall from the 80th century until the fall of the Wall, 1989.

Many unknown and known artists such as Thierry Noir and Keith Haring painted on the wall, “the world’s longest canvas”. Sometimes detailed artwork often painted over within hours or dagar.På the western side of the wall was not protected, so that everyone can paint on the wall. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the eastern side of the Wall was also a popular “canvas” for many mural and graffiti artists. Orgosolo, Sardinia, is a very important center for paintings policies.

It is also common for wall painting graffiti used as a memoir. In the book “Someone said to me,” Rick Bragg writes about a number of communities, mainly in New York, which has walls dedicated to the innocent lives lost.  [15]These memorials, both the written word and mural style, gives the deceased to be present in the communities where they lived. Bragg says that “murals has woven itself into the fabric of the neighborhoods and the city.” These memorials serve as a constant reminder to the living community of innocent lives lost due to inner city violence.

Murals in modern interior

Traditional interior murals

Forest mural of  a red shoe  in private homes, England 2007

Many people like to express their individuality by commissioning an artist to paint a mural in their home, this is not an activity exclusively for owners of large houses. A mural artist is only limited by the charge and therefore the time of the painting; dictate the level of detail; a single wall painting may be added to the smallest of the walls.

Private tasks can be for dining, bathroom, living room, or, as is often the case-the children’s bedroom. A child’s room can be transformed into “fantasy world” of a forest or the racetrack, encourage imaginative play and an awareness of art.

The current trend for feature walls has increased behalf of muralists in the United Kingdom. A large hand-painted mural can be designed on a theme, incorporate personal pictures and elements and can be changed during the painting. The personal interaction between client and muralist is often a unique experience for an individual usually does not participate in the arts.

In the 1980s, illusionary wall painting experienced a revival in private homes.The reason for this revival of the interior can in some cases be attributed to the reduction of living space for the enskilde.Faux architectural features as well as scenery and views can lead to “open out” walls. Urban areas of housing can also contribute to people’s feelings of being cut off from nature in its free form. A mural commission of this kind may be an attempt by some people to re-establish a balance with nature.

Commissions of murals in schools, hospitals and retirement homes can achieve an attractive and welcoming atmosphere in these care institutions.Murals in other public buildings such as pubs are also common.

Graffiti interior murals

Mint & Serf at Ace Hotel, New York

Recently, graffiti and street art has played a key role in modern mural. Such graffiti / street artists such as Keith Haring, Shepard Fairey, ABOVE, Mint & Serf, Futura 2000 OS GÊMEOS and Faile, among others, has successfully crossed their street art aesthetic outside the walls of the cityscape and on the walls of private and corporate clients. As graffiti / street art became more mainstream in the late 1990s, the youth-oriented brands like Nike, Red Bull and Wieden Kennedy turned to graffiti / street artists to decorate the walls of their offices. This trend continued in the 2000s with graffiti / street art to get more recognition from art institutions worldwide.

Ethnic murals

Rajasthani motifs mural of Kakshyaachitra, Bombay 2014

Many homeowners choose to display the traditional art and culture of their community or events from their history in their homes. Ethnic paintings have become an important form of decoration. Warli painting paintings become a preferred way of wall decoration in India. Warli painting is an ancient Indian art form where the tribal people used to depict different stages of life on the walls of their mud houses.

Tile mural

Panel of tiles by Jorge Colaço (1922) depicts an episode from the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) between the Portuguese and Castilian arméer.En piece of public art in Lisbon, Portugal.

Tile murals are murals made of stone, ceramic, porcelain, glass or metal trays that are installed in, or added to the surface of an existing wall. They are also inlaid in the floor. Wall tiles are painted, glazed, sublime printed (as described below) or the more traditional cut or broken into pieces. Unlike the traditional painted murals as described above, the tile paintings are always done with the use of plates.

Mosaic murals are made by combining small 1/4 “to 2” size pieces of colored stone, tile ceramic or glass and then put out to create an image. Today’s modern technology has made commercial mosaic wall makers to use the computer program to separate the photographs in colors that automatically cut and glued onto discs with a mask create precise paintings quickly and in large quantities.

The azulejo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐzuleʒu], Spanish pronunciation: [aθulexo]) refers to a typical form of Portuguese or Spanish painted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. They have become a typical aspect of Portuguese culture, manifesting without interruption for five centuries, the successive trends in art.

Azulejos can be found inside and outside the churches, palaces, ordinary houses and even train stations or subway stations.

They are used not only as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity as temperature control in homes. Many azulejos chronicle major historical and cultural aspects of Portuguese history.

Custom Printed tile murals can be produced using digital images of kitchen splashbacks, wall displays, and floors. Digital images and artwork can be resized and printed to accommodate the desired size of the area to be decorated. Custom tile printing using a variety of techniques, including dye sublimation and ceramic type laser toners. The latter technique can provide fade-resistant custom plates which are suitable for long term outdoor exposure.

notes muralists

  • Edwin Abbey
  • Carlos Almaraz
  • Added Dorothy
  • Judy Baca
  • Banksy
  • Arnold Belkin
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • John T. Biggers
  • Torsten Billman
  • Henry Bird
  • Edwin Howland Blashfield
  • Pale le Rat
  • Steve Bogdanoff
  • Giotto di Bondone
  • Gabriel Bracho
  • Paul Cadmus
  • Eleanor Coen
  • Dean Cornwell
  • John Steuart Curry
  • Robert Dafford
  • Dora The Larios
  • Santiago Delgado Martinez
  • Faile
  • Shepard Fairey
  • Piero della Francesca
  • Louis Grell
  • Satish Gujral
  • Manav Gupta
  • Richard Haas
  • Keith Haring
  • Albert Henry Krehbiel
  • Susan Krieg
  • Rainer Maria Latzke
  • Tom Lea
  • Will Hicok Low
  • Sofia Maldonado
  • John Anton Mallin
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Reginald Marsh
  • knox Martin
  • Peter Max
  • Michelangelo
  • Mario Miranda
  • Claude Monet
  • Roberto Montenegro
  • Frank Nuderscher
  • violet Oakley
  • Edward O’Brien
  • Juan O’Gorman
  • Pablo O’Higgins
  • José Clemente Orozco
  • Rufus Porter
  • Aarón Pina Mora
  • Archie Rand
  • Raphael
  • Freydoon Rassouli
  • Diego Rivera
  • Graham Rust
  • Sadequain
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Eugene Savage
  • Conrad Schmitt
  • Clément Serveau
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros
  • Frank Stella
  • Rufino Tamayo
  • Titian
  • Alton Tobey
  • Allen Tupper True
  • Kent Twitchell
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • John Walker Augustus
  • Oliver Henry Walker
  • lucia Wiley
  • Ezra Winter
  • Robert Wyland
  • Isaiah Zagar
  • PK Sadanandan


  • Stylized mural of the miners’ leader Warren James, at a pub in Parkend, Gloucestershire.
  • Painting of Erykah Badu iSutton, Greater London, United Kingdom
  • Mural in Satriano, Italy.
  • 15th century Christ in Majesty in Jaleyrac
  • Building, Boston, Massachusetts, around 1992
  • Paint, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Graffiti mural in Gutovka, Prague 10, Czech Republic, 2012
  • The tree of life, stairway mural of Manav Gupta
  • Orr C. Fischer,  The Corn Parade,  1941, oil on canvas, agricultural -themed mural on the wall of the post office, Mount Ayr, Iowa.  [16]
  • Largest mural stamp of artist Francisco Vargas
  • Mural on Israel’s security barrier
  • Mural against indifference to evil in Warsaw, Poland

See also

  • anamorphosis
  • Bogside Artists
  • Brixton mural painting
  • Detachment of murals
  • List of US post office paintings
  • Mexican muralism
  • Murals in Kerala, India
  • MURAL Festival
  • Newtown area graffiti and street art
  • Post Office paintings
  • Propaganda
  • public art
  • social realism
  • socialist realism
  • The Manchester paintings
  • tiled print
  • Trompe l’Oeil
  • Wall Poetry


  1. Jump up ^ Clare AP Willsdon (2000). Mural in Britain 1840-1940: Image and Meaning. Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-817515-5. Retrieved syv May 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Only after 664 BC are dates secure. See Egyptian chronology for details.  “Chronology”. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Pulled 03/25/2008.
  3. Jump up ^ Mena Chery, George (ed.):  St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India  , Vol. II, 1973; (Eds.) Mena Chery, George  Native American Church History Classics, Vol. I, Nazranies  , Saras, 1998
  4. Jump up  ^ ” ‘Pallikalile Chitrabhasangal” (PDF).
  5. Jump up ^ Péter Bokody,  mural painting as a medium: Technology, Entertainment and liturgy  , in the  image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle Ages  , Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014, 136-151
  6. Jump up ^ Selim in August. La Tecnica dell’Antica pittura parietal Pompeiana. Pompeiana, Studi per il 2 ° Centenario degli Scavi di Pompei. Napoli 1950, 313-354
  7. Jump up ^ Jorge CuNi, Pedro CuNi, Brielle Eisen, Rubén Savizki and John Bove. “Characterization of the binding medium used in the Roman encaustic paintings on the wall and the wood.” Analytical methods.Retrieved February 2012.  Check date values in: (help) | Access-date =
  8. Jump up ^  “used by Eric cumini paintings”. Eric cumini. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  9. Jump up ^  “Toronto mural”. Technical aspects of the mural. Toronto muralists. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Sebastian Vargas. “Seizing the public space”. D + C Development and Cooperation. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  11. Jump up ^  “Diego Rivera”. Olga Gallery. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  12. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Looking for a neutral identity in Northern Ireland’s political murals. In: Peace Review 24 (4).
  13. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Importance of paintings during the unrest: Analyze the Republican use of murals in Northern Ireland. In: Machin, D. (Ed.) Visual Communication Reader. De Gruyter.
  14. Jump up ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission. “Final resting place”. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  15. Jump up ^ Bragg, Rick.  Someone said to me: Newspaper Stories of Rick Bragg  . New York: Vintage Books, 2001.
  16. Jump up ^  “The Corn Parade”. History Matters. George Mason University. Retrieved 27 August of 2010.


Belfast City Hall  is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, is on the north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas in the city center.


The White Linen Hall, and Linen Hall Library as it was in 1888. Now replaced by City Hall.

The site is now occupied by the Belfast City Hall was once the home of the White Linen Hall, an important international linen exchange. The street that runs from the back door of Belfast City Hall through the middle of linen Quarter’s Linen Hall Street.  [2]

Plans for the City Hall began in 1888 when Belfast was granted city status by Queen Victoria. This was in recognition of Belfast’s rapid expansion and thriving linen, rope-making, shipbuilding and engineering industries. During this period passed Belfast Dublin cards as the most populous city in Ireland. [3]

Construction began in 1898 under the supervision of architect Sir Alfred Brumwell Thomas and was completed in 1906 at a cost of £ 369 tusen.Belfast Corporation (now Council) used their profits from the gas industry to pay for the building of the Belfast City Hall. Local firms H & J Martin and WH Stephens were among those involved in the construction business. James G. Gamble, architect, was clerk of works.

City Hall in Durban, South Africa almost an exact copy of Belfast City Hall.  [4] It was built in 1910 and designed by Stanley G. Hudson, who was inspired by Belfast design. The Port of Liverpool Building, designed by Arnold Thornley and was completed in 1913, is another very close relative.  [5]

August 1, 2006 celebrated the City Hall its centenary with a “Century of Memories” exhibit and family picnic day.  [6]

On December 3, 2012 the City Council voted to limit the days that the Union Flag flies from City Hall to a maximum of 18 designated days. Since 1906, the flag flown every day of the year. The move was supported by the Council of Irish nationalist members of the Council and the Alliance Party Council. It objected to the union council, which had a majority in the Council until the Northern Ireland local elections in 2011. On the night of the vote, union and pro-government demonstrators tried to storm the town hall. They held protests across Northern Ireland, some of which turned violent.  [7]


The grounds of the City Hall is popular for relaxation during the summer. In the background is the dome of Victoria Square and Belfast Wheel.

The exterior is built mainly from Portland stone and is in Baroque Revival style. It covers an area of one and a half acres and has an enclosed courtyard.

With towers at each of the four corners, with a lantern -crowned 173 feet (53 m) copper dome in the center dominates the city hall downtown skyline. Like other Victorian buildings in the city center, the town hall copper-clad domes are a distinctive green.

The  Titanic  Memorial in Belfast located on the grounds of Belfast City Hall.

The pediment sculpture is by FW Pomeroy, assisted by local Carver J. Edgar Winter, and on the back of the current line of £ 10, £ 20, £ 50 and £ 100 sterling bank notes issued avNorthern Bank.  [8]

The design of the building is reminiscent of the Old Bailey in London.  [ Citation needed ]  

Highlighting projects

Floodlights have been added to City Hall to illuminate the building in a variety of colors and combinations. Using the same technology as the Empire State Building in New York, a white light is applied to the building, after dusk, and there will also be “color-washed” on special dates.  [9]

Belfast City Hall is lit green for the annual St. Patrick’s Day celebration

Opportunity Date Color
Belfast Pride Saturday, July 6, 2013 Rainbow
orange Fest Friday, July 12, 2013 Orange and purple
Polish Independence Day Monday, November 11, 2013 red and white
Chinese New Year Friday, January 31, 2014 Red and yellow
Valentine’s Day Friday, February 14, 2014 RED
International Women’s Day Saturday, March 8, 2014 Purple
St. Patrick’s Day Monday, March 17, 2014 Green
May 1 Monday, May 5, 2014 RED
The Queen’s official birthday To be confirmed – first or second Saturday in June 2014 Red, white and blue


The interior has a number of notable features including porte-cochere and the Grand Entrance, the grand staircase, reception room and the great hall. The latter was destroyed during the Belfast Blitz, and then rebuilt.

Carrara, Pavonazzo and Brescia bullets are used extensively throughout the building is stained glass window featuring among other Belfast Coat of Arms, portraits of Queen Victoria and William III and shields iprovinserna Ireland.

Various monuments are in the building, including those of Frederick Robert Chichester, Earl of Belfast, Sir Crawford and Lady McCullagh and 36th (Ulster) Division.

The gardens around City Hall is popular with office workers take their lunch during the summer months, as well as tourists and teenagers gather in their dozens to enjoy the green.

Various statues stands in the grounds, including the Queen Victoria by Sir Thomas Brock. There is also a granite column dedicated to American Expeditionary Force, many of which were based in Belfast before D-Day.

Brock has also designed the marble figure of  Thane  , the Titanic Memorial in the memorial to victims of the sinking of the RMS  Titanic  . The ship was built at the Harland and Wolff’s shipyard located in the eastern part of the city. The monument was originally located at the front gate to the town hall, at the junction of Donegall Square North and Donegall Place.

There is a memorial to Sir Edward Harland, former head of the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast and mayor from 1885 to 1886. It also sculpted by Thomas Brock. [10]

The grounds also house Northern Ireland’s largest war memorial, The Garden of Remembrance and the Cenotaph, where wreaths laid on Remembrance Day.

James Magennis VC, the only Northern Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, is also celebrated in the grounds. Leading Seaman won the medal while serving in the Far East in 1945. A 6-foot-high (1.8 m) memorial Magennis, made of Portland stone and bronze, standing in front of city hall. It was built in 1999.

3 January 2006 ratified Belfast City Councillors a plan to erect a statue to the late Belfast footballer George Best in the grounds of City Hall. After approval from the Best family, George Best Memorial trust was created in December 2006. The trust protector David Healy contributed £ 1,000 to the estimated total cost of £ 200,000.  [11]

In October 2007, a 60 m Ferris wheel was built on the plot, which gives passengers panoramic view 200 feet (61 m) above the city. The wheel had 42 air-conditioned capsules, which can contain up to six adults and two children.The wheel finally ended at 18:00 April 11, 2010 and was removed in May 2010.  [12]

In 2008 Imjin River Memorial was moved here when Patrick’s Barracks in Ballymena closed. The monument celebrates the Irish  [13]  troops lost the battle of Chaegunghyon in January 1951 during the Korean War.  [14]

  • Under construction
  • Belfast – Titanic Memorial
  • In building
  • Monument to Queen Victoria
  • Lord Dufferin monuments
  • Statue of Edward James Harland, founder avHarland and Wolff
  • Memorial James Magennis VC (2004)
  • Showing Belfast City Hall with the Belfast Wheel aside, since March 2010
  • Statue of James Horner Haslett, Mayor of Belfast (1887-1888)
  • Statue of Sir Daniel Dixon, first mayor of Belfast (1892-1893, 1901-1904 and 1905-1907)
  • Statue of William James Pirrie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1896-1898)
  • Statue of Robert James McMordie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1910-1914)


  1. Jump up ^Brett, CEB Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914. Page 67. Friar Bush Press, Belfast, 1985.
  2. Jump up ^The Linen Hall Library, one of Belfast’s oldest cultural institutions, which occupies a place in Donegal Square North in front of City Hall today, began life within the walls of the White Linen Hall.
  3. Jump up ^The Victorian Web, National University of (12 September 2006).
  4. Jump up ^BBC Schools website.
  5. Jump up ^Brett, CEB  Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914  . Belfast Friar Bush Press, 1985;  65.
  6. Jump up ^BBC news. BBC News (1 August 2006).
  7. Jump up ^“Violence in Belfast after the Council votes to change the flag of the EU policy,”  BBC News  3 December 2012 Retrieved 5 December 2012
  8. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland”. Ron Wise’s Banknote World. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October of 2008.
  9. Jump up ^Belfast City Hall – Belfast City Council. (1 August 1906).
  10. Jump up ^Belfast City
  11. Jump up ^BBC News (30 January 2007).
  12. Jump up ^Belfast City Council Archive March 17, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Jump up ^  “Royal Ulster Rifles Korean Memorial”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “War Memorial Trust”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.

Sandy Row

Sandy Row is a street in south Belfast, Northern Ireland. It gives its name to the surrounding living environment, which is predominantly Protestant working class. Sandy Row area had a population of 2,153 in 2001. [1] [2] It is a staunchly loyalist area of Belfast, is a traditional center for connection with the paramilitary Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and the Orange Order.


Sandy Row is located in South Belfast, beginning at the edge of the city center, close to the Europa Hotel. The road runs south from Boyne Bridge (formerly saltwater Bridge) over the old Dublin railway at Great Victoria Street station, then cross the Donegall Road and end at the bottom of the Lisburn Road. At the northern end of the road was the famous Murray’s tobacco factory, which first opened in 1810, [3] while the other is a large orange hallway.


The first orange arch erected in Sandy Row, c. 1921. Its builder, Frank Reynolds is seen standing in the photograph, fifth from left

Formerly known as Carrs Row, [4] Sandy Row is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Belfast. [5] The population growth was largely due to the expansion of the linen industry in Rowland Street. [6] The famous Sandy row stemming from the sandbank to contact the road which followed the high water mark as a result of the flow of tidal water in the mouth of the River Lagan. For over two thousand years, the road along the sandbar was the main road leading south from Carrickfergus. [7]

In the 19th century Sandy Row became a bustling shopping area, and at the turn of the 20th century, there were a total of 127 shops and merchants based on the way. It continued to draw customers from all over Belfast until the outbreak of unrest in the late 1960s. [6] The rows of 19th century townhouse in the streets and alleyways branching Sandy Row has been demolished and replaced with modern housing. Six of the houses that formerly lined Rowland Street has been built in the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

It is a traditional protestant, close-knit loyalist community, known for its elaborate Orange Order parades on the Twelfth, with over 40 arches erected in the streets and a marching band of young girls called “Sandy Row Girl Band”. [8] In addition to the arches spanning the road, buildings and homes decorated with flags, bunting and banners. The first orange arch erected by Frank Reynolds in about 1921. [7] In 1690, on his way south to fight at the Battle of the Boyne, King William III of England and his troops traveled along the Sandy Row. [7] According to tradition, a part of his army camp on the land where the Orange Hall now stands. The hall was inaugurated in June 1910 by Lady Henderson, wife of former mayor of Belfast, James Henderson. By 1908 there were 34 Orange lodges in the area. [7] In the 19th and 20th centuries there were very sectarian fighting and riots between Sandy Row Protestants and Catholics from Pound Loney, in the Lower Falls Road. [7]

During the spring of 1941 Belfast Blitz in unfortunate 15 to 16 April raid, Luftwaffe dropped a parachute land mine on top of Blythe Street, dead and fatally injured ten people including children. Townhouse on both sides of the street were badly damaged, many with their facades blown away. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester visited the devastated street.

Sandy Row redevelopment association that was founded in 1970, was one of the first loyalist groups in the community to open a counseling center. [9] In 1996, Sandy Row Community Forum was established. It serves as an umbrella organization for all social groups in the area.

The troubles

Loyalist mural in the corner of Rowland Street (renamed Rowland Way) and Sandy Row, 1981. Building is now demolished.

During the unrest, the area had a strong Ulster Defence Association (UDA) presence. Sandy Row is a part of South Belfast UDA Brigade, commanded for many years by the late John McMichael and currently by Jackie McDonald. Its first known commander was Sammy Murphy, who also led the Sandy Row UDA. He engaged in talks with the British Army in Ulster Council working Strike in May 1974 to defuse a potentially violent confrontation between the army and the UDA across the street barricades that had been erected in Sandy Row. [10]

In December 1972, the senior member UDA Ernie Elliott was shot to death outside a Sandy Row club by a fellow UDA man after a drunken brawl. [11] On February 7, 1973 Brian Douglas, a Protestant firefighter from Sailor Town was shot dead by the UDA while fighting a fire caused by street disturbances in Bradbury Place. [12] Sandy Row UDA members also launched a series of attacks on nearby Durham Street, a mainly Catholic area between Sandy Row, and the Falls Road, in the early 1970s with four Catholics killed in the area, including 16-year-old Bernard McErlain, in end of March to april 1973. [13] Two Protestant civilian men were killed March 30, 1974 in a no-warning bomb attack carried out by an unknown republican paramilitary group against the Crescent Bar. On July 24, 1974 Ann Ogilby, a 32-year-old Protestant single mother of four, was brutally beaten to death with bricks and sticks inside the disused Warwick bakery in Hunter Street with two teenagers from Sandy Row women UDA unit, under the command of Elizabeth ‘Lily’ Douglas . The bakery had been converted to a UDA club. [14] Ogilby’s six-year-old daughter was outside the door and heard his mother’s screams inside while loud disco music played. Ogilby was “sentenced to death” in a kangaroo court led by eight UDA women after it was discovered that she had an affair with an older UDA man, who was married to one of the unit members. She had also made offensive comments about her lover’s wife. On 30 January 1976 the Provisional IRA exploded a car bomb outside the Klondike Bar on the corner of McAdam Street. John Smiley, was a middle-aged Protestant civilians were killed directly in explosionen.Många people inside the pub suffered serious injuries, including a barmaid who lost an eye, Vina Galaway. [12] [15] Less than two years before the attack, the Klondike Bar was the subject of a photographic essay by Bill Kirk in a series of photographs taken in Sandy Row. The Klondike was built 1872nd

In the same year in the Klondike bombing had an 18-year-old Catholic girl throat slit behind a Sandy Row pub by loyalist paramilitaries after she had discovered drinking inside with Protestant friends. [16]

An army patrol crossing the intersection with the Donegall Road, 1981. All buildings except the City Hospital tower and chimney in the background, now demolished.

Thomas Vance, one of the 18 British soldiers killed in ambush Warren, was born in Sandy Row. [Citation needed]

In October 2011, a bomb was discovered on a patch of ground on Bradbury Place, which caused a security alert, resulting in the evacuation of homes, bars and businesses in the area. Army bomb disposal experts carried out a controlled explosion on the device.

The large UDA / Ulster Freedom Fighters mural was one of many loyalist murals that are in Sandy Row; it could be seen from the northern end of gatan.Muralmålningen was supposed to mirror Free Derry Corner Republican mural. It was announced in June 2012 that the mural would be painted over with another shows William of Orange .Tillkännagivandet made by Jackie McDonald after a year of talks with residents and business leaders, some of whom argued that the existence of the mural was to discourage other companies from settling in office buildings around. [17] It was removed on June 25 and replaced with a mural depicting William of Orange. [18] [19]

Sandy Row contains a loyalist souvenir shop, “Ulster One Stop Shop”, selling UDA and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) stuff. [20] John McMichael Centre (named after the former South Belfast UDA leader) which helps former loyalist prisoners, is also located on Sandy Row.


Sandy Row Neighbourhood Renewal Area (NRA) was appointed by the Department of Social Development in 2004, with borders stretching along the West, Donegall Road and Great Victoria Street. On census day (29 April 2001), there were a total of 2,153 persons living in Sandy Row NRA. Of these: [1] [2]

  • 20% were younger than 16 years old and 21% were aged 60 and over,
  • 44% of the population were male and 56% were women;
  • 10% were from a Catholic community background;
  • 86% were from a “Protestant and other Christian (including Christian related) community background;
  • 14% of people aged 16-74 were unemployed.

For more information see: NI Neighbourhood Information Service.


The Linfield FC was formed in Sandy Row in March 1886 by workers from Ulster Spinning Company Linfield Mill. Originally called Linfield Athletic Club, its games ground, “meadow”, was behind the mill. [21] Linfield first captain Sam “Thaw” Torrans.

Celebrated snooker champion Alex “Hurricane” Higgins was born in Sandy Row, born in Abingdon Drive, off the Donegall Road. He first started playing at the age of 11 in Jampot club. [22]

In popular culture

In the song “Madame George” on his album Astral Weeks Van Morrison sings:

Then you know that you have to go on the train from Dublin to Sandy Row

– Van Morrison, “Madame George” (1968) [23]


  1. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row Project Team (December 2004). “Section 5: Sandy Row”. The Task Force – meet the needs of the working class Protestant communities: Final Report (DOC). (Report) Department of Social Development. pp. 26-27. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row Project Team (December 2004). “Appendix 4: Census data.” The Task Force – meet the needs of the working class Protestant communities: Final Report (DOC). (Report) Department of Social Development. pp. VI-XXV. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ Owen, DJ (1921). History of Belfast. W. & G. Baird. p. 313th Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “McCausland – new name for Sandy Row housing systems” (Press release). Northern Ireland Executive. 15 September 2011. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  5. Jump up ^ Sandy Row: a small part of Belfast
  6. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row History Part 1
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d eSandy Row history, part 2
  8. Jump up ^ Murphy, p.288
  9. Jump up ^ Nelson, Sarah (1984). Ulster uncertain Defenders: Protestant political, paramilitary and community groups and the Northern Ireland conflict. Belfast Apple Press. p.141
  10. Jump up ^ Fish, Robert (1975). Point of No Return: the strike that broke the British in Ulster. London: Times Books. pp.145-148
  11. Jump up ^ McDonald, Henry & Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: Inside the Heart of Loyalist Terror. Penguin Ireland. pp. 34-35
  12. ^ Jump up to: a bKain: Sutton Index deaths – 1973 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; the name “Cain” defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  13. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, p. 54
  14. Jump up ^ Simpson, Alan (1999). Murder Madness: True violations during the unrest. Dublin: Gill & McMillan. pp.38-39
  15. Jump up ^ “I forgive bombers and shame his family.” The newsletter. March 24, 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  16. Jump up ^ Murphy, Dervla (1979). A Place Apart. Harmondsworth: Penguin ISBN 0140050302; p. 144
  17. Jump up ^ O’Neill, Julian (1 June 2012). “Sandy Row loyalist murals replaced by William of Orange painting” .BBC Online. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ “Sandy Row loyalist murals replaced by William of Orange painting”. BBC Online. 25 June 2012. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  19. Jump up ^ “King Billy portrait replaces UFF mural at Sandy Row ‘. BBC Online. July 2, 2012. Twelve Retrieved August 2012.
  20. Jump up ^ image of the store
  21. Jump up ^ Garnham, Neal (2004). Association football and society in pre-partition Ireland. Ulster Historical Foundation. p.47
  22. Jump up ^ McKeown, Lesley-Anne (27 July 2012). “Two years later and still no Alex Higgins memorial”. Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  23. Jump up ^ “Belfast: Looking for Van Morrison.” Texas Monthly. October 1975. Retrieved 11 August 2012.

Shankill Road

The Shankill Road (from Irish Sean Chill, which means “old church”) [1] is one of the main roads running through west Belfast, Northern Ireland. It goes through främstregeringstrogna working class area known as the Shankill. The road stretches westwards for approximately 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from central Belfast and is lined, to an extent, by shops. The residents live in the many streets that branch off the main road. The area along the Shankill Road is part of the court’s district electoral area.


Ulster loyalist banners and graffiti on a side street outside the building Lower Shankill, early 1970s

The first Shankill residents lived at the bottom of what is now called Glencairn: a small settlement of ancient people inhabited a ring soon. Built where Ballygomartin and Forth rivers meet [2]

A settlement around the point where the Shankill Road becomes Woodvale Road, at the junction of Cambrai Street, was known as the Shankill from the Irish Sean Chill means “old church”. Believed to be back to 455 CE, [3] it was known as the “Church of St. Patrick White Boy” and the time had six smaller churches, the so-called “alterages” attached to it over the west bank of the River Lagan. [4] The church was an important place of pilgrimage and it is likely that the creditors of the River Farset, which later became the core of Belfast, was important because of its location on the pilgrimage route.

As a paved road Shankill dates back to around the sixteenth century, which at that time was part of the main road to Antrim, a role now filled by the A6. [5] The lower parts of the Shankill Road where in ancient times the edge of Belfast with both Boundary Street on the Lower Shankill and Townsend Street in the center Shankill take their name from the fact that when they built the marked the approximate end of Belfast. [6]

The area expanded sharply in the mid to late 19’s with the growth of the linen industry. Many of the streets in the Shankill area, such as the Leopold Street, Cambrai Street and Brussels Street, named after places and people related to Belgium or Flanders, where flax linen was woven grown. Linn industry along with other previously successful in the area declined in the mid-20th century, leading to high levels of unemployment, which remains in the current situation. The Harland and Wolff shipyard, but on the other side of Belfast, was also a traditional employer for the area, [7] and it also has seen its number of employees decreased in recent years.

The area was also a common scene of riots in the nineteenth century, often of a sectarian nature of the Irish Catholic areas on the Falls Road and Ardoyne appeared along with the city’s prosperity. [8] Such rioting occurred June 9, 1886 after the defeat of the Government of Ireland Bill 1886 when a crowd of about 2,000 locals clashed with the Royal Irish Constabulary police try to stop the mob from looting a liquor store. Local police had to barricade themselves in Bower Hill barracks where a long siege followed. [9] Bower Hill was a name in the field of road between Agnes Street and Crimea Street. [10]

The West Belfast Division of the original Ulster Volunteer Force organized on the Shankill and drilled in Glencairn and many of its members saw service in World War I with the 36th (Ulster) Division. [11] A memorial garden next to the cemetery and a mural on Conway Street to celebrate those who fought in the war. Recruitment was also high during the Second World War and the conflict saw the damage to the Shankill Road as part avBelfast Blitz when a Luftwaffe bomb hit a guard at Percy Street, killing many people. The location of the destruction visited by the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester shortly after the attack. [12]

The troubles

During the unrest, Shankill was a center of loyalist para-militarism. The modern Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) had its genesis in the Shankill and its first attack occurred on the road May 7, 1966 when a group of UVF men led by Gusty Spence petrol bombed a Catholic-owned pub. Fire engulfed also the house next door, killing the older Protestant widow Matilda Gould (77), who lived there. [13] This was followed on May 27 by the assassination of John Scullion (28), a Catholic, as he walked home from a pub. [14] June 26 a Catholic civilian, Peter Ward (18), a native of Ireland, was killed and two others were injured as they left a pub in Shankill’s Malvern Street. [13] Shortly after this attack, Spence and three others were arrested and later convicted. [15] the UVF would continue to be active on the Shankill during the unrest, most familiar with the Shankill Butchers led by Lenny Murphy, as well as the likes of William Marchant ochFrankie Curry, the latter a member of the Red Hand Commando. [Citation needed]

Similarly, the Ulster Defence Association, was founded in September 1971 also began on the Shankill when vigilante groups such as the John McKeague sShankill Defence Association and the Woodvale Defence Association merged into a larger structure. [16] Under the leadership of initially Charles Harding Smith and later Andy Tyrie Shankill Road became the center of UDA activity with the movement to establish its headquarters on the way and leading members of James Craig, Davy Payne and Tommy Lyttle make their homes in the area. Shankill covered by the West Belfast Battalion of the UDA was split into three companies A (Glencairn and Highfield), B (middle Shankill) and C (lower Shankill). [17] In the 1990s, C Company under Johnny Adair became one of the most active units in UDA with armed men as Stephen McKeag responsible for several murders. [18] C Company would later feud with both the UVF and the rest of the UDA until 2003 when they were forced out. [19] after the exile of Adair and his supporters, as well as the murder of something that Alan McCullough, the lower Shankill UDA again brought into line with the rest of the movement during the past Adair supporter Mo Courtney. [20]

Greater Shankill and its inhabitants were also subjected to a number of bombings and shootings by Irish republican paramilitaries. In 1971, two pub bombings took place on the Shankill, one in May on the Mountain Tavern, where several people were injured and another four Step Inn in September, which resulted in two deaths. [21] Another bomb exploded at Balmoral interior Company December 11 the same year, resulting in four deaths, including two children. [22] another pub attack followed the August 13, 1975 when the IRA opened fire on customers outside Bayardo bar and then left a bomb inside the crowded bar area, killing four civilians and a UVF member. Brendan McFarlane received a life sentence for his part in the attack. [23]

The Shankill Road bombing occurred on October 23 1993. A bomb exploded in Frizzell Fish Shop, the UDA’s Shankill headquarters. The bomb exploded prematurely because it planted. Nine people were killed in addition to the bomber, Thomas Begley. None of the loyalist paramilitaries targeted injured, because they had postponed a planned meeting. Begley accomplice, Sean Kelly, survived and was jailed.

Shankill Road begins at Peter Hill, a path that flows from North Street in Belfast city center and quickly turns into Shankill on the Westlink. Peter Hill is adjacent to the Unity Flats / Carrick Hill, a small nationalist area north of downtown. The area housing the lower Shankill around Agnes Street was known colloquially as “The Hammer,” one of several nicknames applied to areas included “Nick”. [24] Hammer recalled the name of Hammer Sports Complex, home of amateur football side Shankill United FC [25] Lower Shankill have been built in recent years, but during the 1960s the house was ranked as the worst in Belfast. [26] A Lower Shankill Community Association is active in the area while the Shankill Leisure Centre is also located here. [27] the Shankill Women’s Centre, a women’s education initiative established by May Blood (now Baroness Blood), 1987, is also located on the lower Shankill. [28] George McWhirter, an author and the first Poet Laureate in Vancouver, BC, Canada, also came from the area originally. [Citation needed]

The “Diamond Jubilee Bar”, a popular UDA hold

Several streets linking Shankill Road to neighboring Crumlin Road with the area around the North Boundary Street former stronghold Johnny Adair’s C Company. Several members of C Company who have died are celebrated on murals around the area, especially Stephen McKeag, William “Bucky” McCullough, who was killed by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) in 1981 as part of a series of tit for tat killings between this group and UDA [29] and Jackie Coulter, was killed by the UVF during enregeringstrogna feud 2000. [30] the Shankill links theoretically neighboring Falls Road in a few places, although most of these exits blocked by peace lines .Ingången on Northumberland Street is sometimes open although it has lockable gates at the midpoint.

The lower Shankill is home to many loyalist pubs, the most notable is the “Malvern weapons”, in connection with the UVF and the “Diamond Jubilee” – a UDA places that became notorious as the most important meeting place for “C Company” during the early 1990s . “Long Bar” and “Windsor Bar”, both frequented by UVF in the 1970s, has since disappeared. According to investigative journalist Martin Dillon, was later used a center of activity for the UVF platoon led by Anthony “Chuck” Berry. [31]

Middle and Upper Shankill

Severe WA Sterling, among the youngest people were killed in active service during the First World War

Although there is no exact dividing line between the lower, middle and upper Shankill locally It is often said that the lower Shankill ends at Agnes Street. [32] The area was renovated sometime before the lower Shankill leads to feelings locally to the upper part of the road was better compared to the “Apaches” of the lower Shankill as they were colloquially known. [33] a number of Protestant churches located in this area, including West Kirk Presbyterian Church, [34] Shankill Methodist Church and independent Church of God. [35]

The West Belfast Orange Hall is near the top of the road. This building, which houses the No. 9 District Orange Lodge has received a facelift of the Belfast City Council. [36] The same applies to the nearby Shankill cemetery, a small graveyard which is funerals for approximately 1000 years. The cemetery is known for the statue of Queen Victoria and adjacent memorial members of the 36th Ulster Division who died at the Battle of the Somme. [37] Among those buried in the cemetery is the Rev. Isaac Nelson, a Presbyterian minister who was also active in the nationalist politik.Nelson lived on Sugar Field House on the Shankill, which then gave its name to Sugar Field Street. [38] Also buried here are 2nd Private WA Sterling, was killed in battle with the Royal Air Force November 5, 1918 at age 14.

The “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street, one of the drinking dens used by Lenny Murphy and Shankill Butchers

The area includes Lanark Way, one of the few direct links to neighboring nationalist areas, leading directly to the Springfield Road (although the street is gated near Springfield Road end and these are locked at night). A common way for UDA armed men seeking access to the Falls during the unrest, it was named the “Yellow Brick Road” by Stephen McKeag and his men. [39]

A number of pubs frequented by UVF members were in the area. These included the “Berlin weapon” on the Shankill and the Berlin Street intersection, and “Bayardo,” which was located in the corner of the Shankill and Aberdeen Street. The pub was close to “The Eagle” where the UVF “Brigade staff” had its headquarters in the rooms above a chip shop of the same name at the Shankill and Spiers Place intersection. “Brown Bear” pub loyalist Lenny Murphy as his headquarters for directing his infamous murder gangs – the Shankill Butchers -. Low in the upper corner of the Shankill and Mountjoy Street [40] The pub, which went bankrupt, has since been demolished. Another drink it in the area used by Murphy and his gang were “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street. The “Rex Bar” on the middle Shankill is one of the oldest pubs on the Shankill Road and is frequented by members of the UVF. This bar was attacked by members of the UDA’s C Company in 2000 to launch a loyalist feud between the two groups. [41]

Greater Shankill

Mural depicting James Buchanan on Ainsworth Street

The terms Greater Shankill used by a number of groups operating in the region, primarily the Greater Shankill Partnership, [42] to refer to both the Shankill Road and union / loyalist areas surrounding it. The most important areas in this field is Woodvale, Glencairn and Highfield. Greater Shankill as a whole has a population of about 22,000. [Citation needed]


The Woodvale area begins after Ainsworth Avenue when the road changed from the Shankill Road, Woodvale Road. As well as comprehensive housing Woodvale area also contains Woodvale Presbyterian Church, a building on the corner of Woodvale and Ballygomartin roads dating back to 1899. [43] The area got its name from Woodvale Park, public gardens and sports area, which opened in 1888. [44]

Furthermore, there is locally St. Matthew’s Church of Ireland, which was built in 1872, takes its name from the original church that had been sitting in the grounds of the cemetery. The architecture of this church is called the trefoil, which means that it is built in the shape of a shamrock. The shamrock is the national emblem of Ireland and was probably used by St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland to förklaraHeliga Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. There is a book about the church that says that St. Matthew is actually a replica of a church in Salonika, which rounded “blade” does not have depressions leaves of white clover. The water in the stone outside the door was supposed to cure warts and really up to the 1990s, was considered to cure colic for a new, open safety pin thrown in. [Citation needed] The oldest stone in the Shankill cemetery was known locally as “Bullaun least” and traditionally said to cure warts on the work area was rubbed on the stone. It was removed to the grounds of St. Matthews in 1911. [45]


Ballygomartin Road, seen from Martin Spring Road, showing its largely rural nature

Glencairn is an area based on Ballygomartin Road, which runs outside Woodvale Road, and the Forth River Road. It is adjacent to Crumlin Road. As a large residential area also includes Glencairn Park, a large wooded area in the bottom of Divis Mountain. Former estate of the Cunningham family area was open to the public in 1962. [46] The park Fernhill House, the ancestral family home, which is not only used by Edward Carson to drill their Ulster Volunteers, but was also the setting for the announcement of the Combined Loyalist Military Command ( CLMC) ceasefire 13 October 1994. [47] it then became a museum, but was closed in late 2010 and early 2011. the additional area of housing, called the Lyndhurst area after a number of local streets, located west of Glencairn Park ( the Glencairn estate east of the forest area). Lyndhurst area hit the headlines in 2003 when two leading loyalists, Jim Spence of the UDA and Jackie Mahood of the Loyalist Volunteer Force, reported brawling in the streets of Lyndhurst area where they both lived. [48] The Ballygomartin Road stretches as far as the nationalist Upper Whiterock Road although after Spring Martin area is predominantly rural.

The farm was the scene of the murder of two prominent loyalists. In 1982, Lenny Murphy shot and killed by the Provisional IRA near his girlfriend’s house in the yard. [49] In 2001, William Stobie was killed by members of the UDA, a group that Stobie had previously belonged after he was supposed to testify at a public inquiry into the death of Pat Finucane. Stobie killing, which occurred near his home on the Forth River Road, was widely claimed the Red Hand Defenders, a cover name used by various loyalist groups on ceasefire. [50]


The Spring Martin barrier, with the New Barnsley police station at one end

Highfield is a residential area located around the West Circular and Martin Spring roads, both of which fall outside the Ballygomartin Road. Highfield is near the nationalist Springfield Road and there is limited access between the two areas through the West Circular and Spring Martin. Thanks to its location parts of the area sometimes known as Spring Martin property. [51] Highfield seen as an enclave and has been the scene of frequent sectarian tensions. [52] As a result of this Spring Martin Road is home to a 18-foot-high (5.5 m) peace line that runs the length of the road from the junction with the Springfield Road until close to the Ballygomartin Road. [53] in May 1972 the area was the scene of a two-day gun battle between Republican and loyalist paramilitaries and the British army, but a combination of peace lines and demographic changes meant that such open conflict was not repeated later in the unrest.


Democratic Unionist Party Office, Woodvale Road

Shankill has traditionally union and loyalist, albeit with a certain strength is also held by the labor movement. Belfast Shankill, which covers the northwestern part of the Shankill Road, was founded as a constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1929 and existed until the body was abolished in 1973. During that time the seat was held by three men, Tommy Henderson (1929-1953), Henry Holmes (1953-1960 ) and Desmond Boal (1960-1973). Of these, only Holmes belonged to the usual Ulster Unionist Party for his entire career with Boal once a member which is also designated as both independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist Party and Henderson always and independence for a time was part of the independent Unionist Association .Henderson was born Dundee Street on the Shankill. [54] A Belfast Shankill constituency also returned member of the UK Parliament from 1918 to 1922, with the Labour Unionist Samuel McGuffinhåller seat. The areas south of the road covered by Belfast Woodvale place at Westminster and a place with the same name at Stormont. Robert John Lynn of the Irish trade union alliance represented the seat in Westminster for the whole of its existence (1918-1922). Stormont seat held by John William Nixon (Independent Unionist) from 1929 to 1950, Ulster Unionists Robert Harcourt (1950-1955) and Neville Martin (1955-1958), Billy Boyd in Northern Ireland Labour Party until 1965, finally, John McQuade, who in different ways Ulster Unionist independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist until the seat was abolished in 1972.

Shankill is now part of the West Belfast constituency of Northern Ireland Assembly and Westminster. At the parish Shankill represented by four Sinn Féin MLAs and one each from the Social Democratic and Labour Party and people before profit Alliance. In Westminster, since 1966, when the seat was lost by the last sitting unionist Jim Kilfedder, it has always had a nationalist or republican MP. The abstentionist policy Sinn Fein MP Gerry Adams, who was West Belfast MP until his retirement in 2011, led to an attempt judicial review of the mayor Frank McCoubrey who claimed Shankill residents are denied their right to be represented. [55] The case was not a success.

At Belfast City Council Greater Shankill area covered by the court electoral area. At the 2011 elections, the five councilors elected were William Humphrey, Naomi Thompson and Brian Kingston of the Democratic Unionist Party, regardless Frank McCoubrey (who is a member of the Ulster Political Research Group) and the Progressive Unionist Party is Hugh Smyth. [56]

Robert McCartney, who led his own British Unionist Party and represented North Down in Westminster, is also originally from the Shankill. [57]


High schools serving Shankill include Belfast Boys Model School and the Belfast Model School for Girls because of their location in the Ballysillan area adjoining Crumlin Road. Students from the area also participate Hazelwood college or Malone College, both of which are integrated schools, and Victoria College and the Royal Belfast Academical Institution who are both grammar school. Before its closure, and before several name changes, Cairnmartin Secondary School was also greater Shankill area. Famous pupils include footballer Norman Whiteside [58] and boxers Wayne McCullough. The school, then known as Mount Gilbert Community College, closed permanently in 2007 after a decline in the number of students. [59]

Schools in the greater Shankill area includes the Forth River Primary School on Ballygomartin Road. Founded in 1841, the original building was cramped and inspection reports commented on the high level of instruction despite inadequate building years. [Citation needed] In the 1980s and 1990s, closure and merging both proposed and vigorously oppose all associated with the school. Ultimately, a new £ 1.4m state-of-the-art school was announced as a replacement for the old building and the new school, located on the adjacent Cairnmartin Road, was officially opened by Prince Andrew, Duke of York, 2005. [60] Other schools include three in the Shankill Road itself in Glenwood Primary School, which was founded in 1981, [61] Eden Brooke Primary School in Tennent Street and Malvern Primary School and Black Mountain Primary School and Spring Primary Schoolpå Martin Spring Road.


Boxing mural, Hopewell Crescent

Wayne McCullough, a gold medalist at the Commonwealth Games and a champion in the bantamweight division world and an Olympic silver medalist in the 1992 Olympics summer representing Ireland, was born in Shankill. He is one of a number of boxers from the area to be presented on a mural on Gardiner Street to celebrate the area’s strong legacy in boxing. [62] The image has since been moved to Hopewell Crescent. McCullough trained in Albert Foundry boxing club, located in Highfield Estate where he grew up. [63] Other locals to make an impact in the sport have included Jimmy Warnock, a boxer from the 1930s who beat world champion Benny Lynch twice, and his brother Billy.

Football is also a popular sport in the region with local teams including the Shankill United, Albert Foundry, which plays at West Circular Road, Lower Shankill, who share Hammer ground with United [64] and Woodvale who won the Junior Cup in 2011. [65] All four clubs are members of the northern Amateur Football League. The most important club in the area, however Linfield Linfield with a supermarket trading on the Shankill Road, despite the club based on the Lisburn Road in south Belfast. [66] A Linfield Supporters and Social Club, located in the Crimea Street. An Ulster Rangers club is also open on the road, with the Glasgow club broad support among Northern Irish Protestants. Norman Whiteside, free Northern Ireland and Manchester United midfielder, lived on the Shankill. Whiteside also lends his name to Norman Whiteside Sports Facility, a community sports field used by Woodvale FC [67] The resort is located on Sydney Street West between Shankill and neighboring Crumlin Road. George O’Boyle, who had a long career in Scottish football, is also a native of Shankill. [68]

The Ballygomartin Road is also home to a cricket ground of the same name, which in 2005 hosted a List A match between Canada and Namibia in 2005 ICC Trophy. [69] The land is home to Woodvale Cricket Club, founded in 1887. [70]


Although Shankill Road originally grew as part of the main road to the Antrim, it is no longer a part of something larger network that connects Belfast to neighboring towns with their peripheral roads all closed either in the mountains or link to Springfield Road. Belfast was served by a network of trams in the first half of the 20th century and the Shankill was the last part of the city to see this service is removed in the 1950s. [71] Public transport is now provided by Metro Transportation arm of Shankill eleventh form of the company’s twelve corridors. Buses link to Belfast estates on top of Shankill and Ballysillan area of Crumlin Road. [72] Routes 11A / B and C follow each other up Shankill Road and Woodvale Road as far as Woodvale Park. 11A continues straight through Ardoyne, Crumlin Road, Bilston Road, Ballysillan Road and ends at the Silver (Ballysillan Park). 11B and C turn right on Ballygomartin Road with 11B continues to Spring Martin and 11C turn right at Forth River Road up to the terminus at Glencairn is on the top of the hill.

In popular culture

Shankill area plays a prominent role in The Fall, in that Jimmy and Liz Tyler, grief counseling clients, Paul Spector, as well as two of Spector victims (Annie and Joseph Brawley) appear to live there, as well as a woman Spector meets on the train. Throughout the series, Spector, members of the police and other characters equally, leading the hostile inhabitants of the neighborhood, sometimes after going into the neighborhood, and at other times when the residents have sought them out Shankhill.


  1. Jump up ^ placental NI Shankill
  2. Jump up ^ “What to do” .Shankill tourism. Hämtad22 december2013.
  3. Jump up ^ “Shankill 455AD” .Större Shankill Partnership. Hämtad22 december2013.
  4. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 1
  5. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p.2
  6. Jump up ^ Graham, Joe. “Belfast’s history” .TALGDANK Magazine. Hämtad22 december2013.
  7. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 28
  8. Jump up ^ McKittrick, David (23 August 2000). “Shankill Road was always tough, and getting tougher.” London: Hämtadtio juni2011.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Belfast Riots of 1886”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  10. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 9
  11. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 14
  12. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 19
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab “a chronology of key events in Irish history from 1800 to 1967” Hämtadtio juni2011.
  14. Jump up ^ Dillon, Martin. Shankill Butchers: the real story about the cold-blooded mass murder. Routledge, 1999, pages. 20-23
  15. Jump up ^ Taylor, Peter (1999) .Lojalister.Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 44.ISBN 0-7475-4519-7.
  16. Jump up ^ “Cain Web service: Abstracts of organizations”.ämtadsexton juni2010.
  17. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, p. 24.
  18. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA
  19. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, pp. 370-73.
  20. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, pp. 390-99.
  21. Jump up ^ Henry McDonald & Jim Cusack, UDA – Inside the heart of Loyalist Terror, Dublin: Penguin Ireland, 2004, p. 8
  22. Jump up ^ “a chronology of the conflict – 1971”. Cain.
  23. Jump up ^ Taylor, Peter (1999) .Lojalister.Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 149.ISBN 0-7475-4519-7.
  24. Jump up ^ “Belfast street then and now” Hämtadtio juni2011.
  25. Jump up ^ “Hammer Sports Complex”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  26. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, p. 9
  27. Jump up ^ “Shankill Leisure Centre”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  28. Jump up ^ “Welcome to the Shankill Women’s Centre” January 4, 2011. Hämtad10 juni2011.
  29. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, p. 119
  30. Jump up ^ funeral murdered Loyalist
  31. Jump up ^ Dillon, p.40
  32. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, p. 332
  33. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, pp. 9-10
  34. Jump up ^ “West Kirkwood site”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  35. Jump up ^ “Church of God spot”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  36. Jump up ^ “Shankill Road”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  37. Jump up ^ “Shankill Graveyard”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  38. Jump up ^ “Myths, legends and facts about Olde Belfast” Hämtadtio juni2011.
  39. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, p.227
  40. Jump up ^ Taylor, Peter (1999). Loyalists. p.153
  41. Jump up ^ Henry McDonald & Jim Cusack, UDA – Inside the heart of Loyalist Terror., Penguin Ireland, 2004, pp 325-327
  42. Jump up ^ “Greater Shankill Partnership place”.ämtadtio juni2011.
  43. Jump up ^ “Woodvale Presbyterian Church website” Hämtadtio juni2011.
  44. Jump up ^ “Woodvale Park”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  45. Jump up ^ Hamitlon, p. 1
  46. Jump up ^ “Glencairn”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  47. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, UDA, pp. 274-275
  48. Jump up ^ loyalists in the feud fights, The People
  49. Jump up ^ McKittrick, David & McVea, David (2002). Making Sense of the unrest: the story of the conflict in Northern Ireland. New Amsterdam Books. p.149
  50. Jump up ^ Henry McDonald & Jim Cusack, UDA – Inside the heart of Loyalist Terror., Penguin Ireland, 2004, pp 310-311
  51. Jump up ^ Film explores bonfire camaraderie
  52. Jump up ^ “Northern Ireland’s major plan to tackle sectarianism”. July 28, 2010. Hämtad10 juni2011.
  53. Jump up ^ Interface No.6: Martin Spring Road – Upper Ballygomartin Road
  54. Jump up ^ Hamilton, p. 17
  55. Jump up ^ “Adams may face court over ‘forgotten ingredients.'” London: The Guardian. 14 January 2003. Hämtattio juni2011.
  56. Jump up ^ “Belfast City Council: Your council from District Electoral Area”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  57. Jump up ^ McCartney biography on CAIN
  58. Jump up ^ Norman Whiteside, my memories of Manchester United, 2003, p. 11
  59. Jump up ^ BBC report on the closure of the Mount Gilbert
  60. Jump up ^ “HRH the Duke of York officially opens the Forth River Primary School, Belfast Northern Ireland // // Media Centre / Media Detail”.ämtadtio juni2011.
  61. Jump up ^ Glenwood Primary School: About our school
  62. Jump up ^ “McCullough in the new mural.” BBC News. July 2, 2009. Hämtattio juni2011.
  63. Jump up ^ “Wayne McCullough.” 15 April 2011. Hämtattio juni2011.
  64. Jump up ^ “Lower Shankill.” Hämtadtio juni2011.
  65. Jump up ^ “Woodvale FC site”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  66. Jump up ^ “Linfield Super News”. Hämtadtio juni2011.
  67. Jump up ^ Norman Whiteside Sports Facility
  68. Jump up ^ DISTILLERY: New management set to let the good times roll
  69. Jump up ^ “List-A matches played on Ballygomartin Road”.

Titanic Belfast

Titanic Belfast visitor attraction and a monument to Belfast’s maritime heritage at the site of the former Harland & Wolff shipyard in the city’s Titanic Quarter where RMS Titanic was built. It tells the stories of the ill-fated Titanic, which hit an iceberg and sank during its maiden voyage in 1912, and her sister ship RMS Olympic and HMHSBritannic. The building contains more than 12,000 square meters (130,000 sq ft) of floor space, most of which is occupied by a number of galleries, plus private meeting rooms and common facilities.


The building is located on Queen’s Island, an area of land at the entrance to Belfast Lough extracted from the water in the middle of the 19th century. It was used for many years by shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, which built large grinders and graving docks to accommodate the concurrent construction of Olympic and Titanic. The decline in shipbuilding in Belfast left much of the area deserted. Most of the discarded structures on the island demolished. A number of cultural heritage was given listed status, including Olympic and Titanic slipways and graving docks, as well as the iconic Samson and Goliath cranes. [1]

The devastated areas was renamed the “Titanic Quarter” in 2001 and earmarked for regeneration. [2] building rights of 185 acres then bought by Harcourt Developments at a cost of £ 46 million, [3] with a further 23 acres reserved for a science park. The renovation plans include housing, hotels and leisure facilities, plus a maritime heritage museum and science center. [4] In 2005, plans were announced to build a museum dedicated to the Titanic to attract tourists to the area, in order to complete it by 2012 to mark the centenary of the Titanic’s maiden voyage. [5]

A number of ideas were raised for the attraction. Among the ideas considered was to reconstruct the massive steel portal where the Titanic and Olympic were constructed, [5] or build a lighted wireframe outline of the Titanic in the dock where she was fitted. [6] In June 2008, details of a project – known then as “Titanic Signature Project” -. announced [7] Northern Ireland’s Tourism Minister, Arlene Foster, announced that the Northern Ireland Executive would give 50 per cent of the attractions financing by the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, with the remaining 50 percent comes from the private sector, in the form of Titanic Quarter Ltd, a sister company of Harcourt The development and Belfast Harbour Commissioners. Additional funding promised by Belfast City Council. The task to create attraction visitors were on the Titanic Foundation, a charity that aims to “educate people on Belfast social, historical, industrial and maritime heritage through the history of the Titanic.” [8]

The building, now called the Titanic Belfast, expected to attract 425,000 visitors annually, of which between 130000-165000 would come from outside Northern Ireland. It is meant to serve a similar transformative function of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, designed by Frank Gehry, as a focus for the regeneration of the city. [8] It is part of the Titanic-related relics in the Titanic Quarter, including the abandoned headquarters and take office Harland & Wolff, the SS Nomadic – the last surviving White Star Line ships – and Hamilton Dock, Titanic’s Dock and Pump House and Titanic and Olympic. grinds [9]

The first figures are visitors greatly exceeded forecasts with 807.340 visitors pass through its doors, of which 471 702 were from outside Northern Ireland, according to the Titanic Belfast.Attraktionskraften also sold 1,376 bottles of champagne and hosted over 350 conferences. [10] [11]

Design and construction

Eric Kuhne and Associates was commissioned by concept architects, with Todd Architects appointed to senior consultants. The building’s design is intended to reflect Belfast’s history of ship making and industrial heritage bequeathed by Harland & Wolff. Its angular shape is reminiscent of the shape of the vessels PROWS, with its essential “bow” angled down the middle avTitanic and Olympic grinds against the flame. [8] Alternatively, it has been suggested that the building looks like an iceberg, and the locals have already nicknamed “The Iceberg”. [12] Most of the building’s facade is clad in 3,000 individual silver anodized aluminum shards. [9] it is (38 m) in the same height as 126 feet high, the Titanic’s hull. [12]

The interior of the eight-storey building offers 12,000 square meters (130,000 sq ft) of space. [8] Its centerpiece is a series of interpretive galleries explore aspects of the building, design, flags and older of the Titanic. On the top floor of the museum is Belfast’s largest conference and reception space, the Titanic Suite, a banquet facility capable of seating 750 people. A reproduction of the original staircase of the Titanic, made famous by the James Cameron film Titanic in 1997, is located in the conference center. [13] The building also offers education, community, retail and restaurant as well as a community resource center. [14]

Construction of the building cost £ 77 million with a further £ 24 million is spent on pre-planning and public realm förbättringar.Grunden to the building involved one of the largest ever concrete pour of 4,200 cubic meters (150,000 cu ft) of concrete that comes with 700 concrete trucks in 24 hours. Harcourt Construction (NI) Ltd oversaw the design and construction phase of the project. [9], a subsidiary of Dublin-based property company Harcourt Developments Ltd. [14]

In front of the building is Titanica, a sculpture by Rowan Gillespie shows a diving female figure. Of bronze, it is mounted on a brass base, and recalls the design of figureheads on ships PROWS, and is meant to represent hope and positivity. The figure was unveiled by representatives föranglikanska, Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian churches, March 27, 2012, a few days before the opening of Titanic Belfast. [15]


Titanic Belfast exhibition was designed by the London-based exhibition designers Events Communications and consists of nine interpretive and interactive galleries, covering the following themes:

  • Boomtown Belfast – the city in the early 20th century

The first gallery back scenes from Belfast at the time of the Titanic ‘s construction in 1909-1911. It shows the city’s major industries before leading through an initial set of ports from Harland and Wolff shipyard into an interactive floors featuring Titanic’s construction plans, along with original drawings and scale models of the ship. [16]

  • Shipyard – a ride aboard a mini-car up and around a replica of the Titanic’s rudder

The second gallery is dominated by a steel scaffolding which stands 20 meters (66 feet), which alludes to the Arrol Gantry built to facilitate the construction of Titanic and Olympic. An elevator takes visitors to the top of the portal, where scenes of shipbuilding shown through sound and pictures. The visit continues on a six-seater car that takes visitors on a journey through a re-creation of a shipyard that moves through a scale copy of the Titanic’s enormous rudder. [16]

  • The launch – the Titanic was launched May 31, 1911

Launch Gallery depicting scenes from the spring day when Titanic was launched in Belfast Lough, watched by 100,000 people. It overlooks slip that the Titanic was launched and a window, visitors can see the slipways and jetties as they appear now. [16]

  • Fit-Out – interior of the Titanic from its launch until April 1912

The fourth gallery presents a large-scale model of the Titanic to illustrate how the ship appeared to their passengers and crew, depicting all three classes of cabins. A central feature of the gallery presents a 360-degree computer-generated tour of the Titanic through all levels of the ship, from the engine room to the dining salons and bridge. [16]

  • maiden voyage – journey from Belfast to Southampton, and from there to Cherbourg, Queenstown (Cobh) and west

Disastrous maiden vessel shown in the fifth gallery, depicting ship boat deck. Visitors can walk across the wooden deck, sit on the benches or watching a view of the harbor and the harbor. The gallery also shows pictures of the ship vidJesuit photographer Father Francis Browne, who was on board the Titanic for the leg from Southampton to Queenstown (now Cobh) in Southern Ireland. [16]

  • Sinking – disaster on 14-15 April 1912

The sixth gallery depicting the sinking of the Titanic with background audio Morse code SOS messages sent to other vessels. Pictures of sinking combined with sound survivors tell their stories and illustrations of the confused press reports of the disaster. The iceberg is developed by a wall of 400 life jackets replica, on which a picture of the sinking ship calculated. [16]

  • The aftermath – the legacy of the disaster

The aftermath of the sinking documented in the seventh gallery, dominated by a full-size copy of one of the lifeboats used to evacuate passengers from the ship. The US and British investigations catastrophe depicted on each side of the lifeboat through videos and information panels. Visitors can use interactive screens to search passenger and crew lists to find out if one of their relatives were on board the ship. The gallery also presents information on the subsequent history of Harland and Wolff and Titanic’s sister ship. [16]

  • Myths and legends – the facts behind some of the stories of the Titanic

The disaster gave rise to many legends and myths, perpetuated by movies, plays, books and poems. With Celine Dion’s song My Heart Will Go On playing in the background, visitors have the opportunity to explore aspects avpopulärkultur inspired by the Titanic. Interactive screens also make it possible for the visitor to explore the myths about the ship. [16]

  • During the Titanic – the wreck of the Titanic and its rediscovery

The last gallery presents the Titanic as she is now, (3700 m) 12,000 feet below the surface of the North Atlantic. Presented in conjunction with the discoverer of the wreck of the Titanic, Dr. Robert Ballard, the gallery shows his expeditions to the ship through images, sounds and images. A fish-eye view of the wreck is set under the glass floor. Under the floor is the Ocean Exploration Centre, Titanic Belfast’s main teaching tool, showing marine biology and exploration in Northern Ireland’s coastal waters, and Ballard’s various expeditions around the world. [16]


  1. Jump up ^ DOENI case study.
  2. Jump up ^ Macalister February 6, 2001.
  3. Jump up ^ The Guardian February 8, 2001.
  4. Jump up ^ Cowan & Gow 13 April 2002.
  5. ^ Jump up to: a Barendt 5 May 2005.
  6. Jump up ^ Peterkin 19 October 2005.
  7. Jump up ^ McHugh 19 June 2008.
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c dMcConnell October to November of 2010.
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b cBelfast Telegraph, 15 April 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ “Foster welcome boost for the cruise industry.” Belfast Telegraph .13 Jun, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Smyth, Jamie (16 June 2013). “Northern Ireland focus: Titanic’s success raises hopes for tourism”. The Financial Times. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  12. ^ Jump up to: a bEdiss 15 April 2012.
  13. Jump up ^ Grand staircase RMS Titanic
  14. ^ Jump up to: a bMcGonagle 19 April 2011.
  15. Jump up ^ Richardson, 27 March 2012.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h iDougan 2 April 2012.


  • Arendt, Paul (May 2005 5). “Titanic to come ‘home’ to Belfast.” The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • Dougan, Patrice (2 April 2012). “Inside Titanic Belfast – a guided tour” .Belfast Telegraph. Are downloaded April 2012.
  • Cowan, Rose; Gow, David (13 April 2002). “Titanic connection proves Belfast lifeline”. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • Ediss, Tina (15 April 2012). “Belfast is based on the legacy of the Titanic.” Sunday Express.
  • Macalister, Terry (6 February 2001). “Belfast yard on three days a week for £ 26m loss”. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
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