CategoryCounty Antrim

Rathlin Island

Rathlin Island  (from Irish:  Reachlainn  ) is an island and the parish off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland.

Geography

Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island Northern Ireland, with a growing population of about 145 people, and is the northernmost inhabited island off the coast of Ireland. The inverted L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles (6 km) from east to west, and 2.5 miles (4 km) from north to south.

The highest point on the island is Slieveard, 134 meters (440 feet) above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles (25 km) from the Mull of Kintyre, the southern tip of Scotland’s Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, and represented by Rathlin Development & Community Association.  [2]

Town Country

Rathlin is part of the traditional Baroni Cary (around town Bally), and the district Moyle. The island is a parish and is divided into 22 townlands:

townland Area acre [3] 
 
Population
Ballycarry 298
Ballyconagan 168
Bally Gill USA 244
Bally Gill North 149
Bally Gill South 145
Ballynagard 161
Ballynoe 80
Carravinally (Corravina Beg) 116
Carravindoon (Corravindoon) 188
church Quarter 51
Cleggan (Clagan) 202
Craigmacagan (Craigmacogan) 153
demesne 67
glebe 24
Kebble 269
Kilpatrick 169
Kinkeel 131
Kinramer North 167
Kinramer South (Kinramer) 173
Knockans 257
Mullindross (Mullindress) 46
Roonivoolin 130

Transport

A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles (10 km) away. Two ferries on the route – a quick foot passenger only catamaran ferry called “Rathlin Express” and a larger ferry, owned by the Scottish Government, called “MV  Canna  “, carrying both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.  [ 4] [5]  Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 as a subsidized “lifeline” service.  [6]  there is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners.  [7] 

nATURAL HISTORY

Rathlin is a prehistoric volcanic origin, which have been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province.  [8]

Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland. It is home to tens of thousands of sea birds, including guillemots, kittiwakes, puffins and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is a popular place förfågelskådare, with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve with spectacular views of Rathlin’s bird colony. The RSPB has also managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the chough. Northern Ireland’s only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively barren island is impressive, standing 70 meters (230 feet) high. Bruce’s cave  [9]  is named after Robert Bruce, also known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider. As described as inspiring Bruce to continue their struggle for Scottish independence  [10] The  island is also the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.  [11]

2008-09, the Coast Guard in the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland implemented bathymetric survey work in the area north of County Antrim, update Admiralty charts (Joint Irish bathymetric survey Project) .By doing so a number of interesting underwater geological identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged or the crater lake on a plateau with clear evidence of the rivers that feed it. This suggests the events that led to the flooding – ground subsidence or rising water levels – was extremely quick.Marine research in the area has also identified new species of anemone, rediscovered fan mussel (the UK’s largest and rarest mussels – thought to be found only in Plymouth Sound and a few places off the West of Scotland) and a number of shipwreck sites,  [12] [13]  , including HMS Drake (1901),  [14]  , which was torpedoed and sank just off the island 1917th 

History

Rathlin probably known to the Romans, Pliny refers to “Reginia” and Ptolemy to “Rhicina” or “Eggarikenna”. In the 7th century Adomnán mentions “Rechru” and “Rechrea insula”, and these may also have been early name for Rathlin.  [15]  The 11th century Irish version of History Brittonum indicates that the Fir Bolg “took the man and other islands except -. Arran, Islay and ‘Racha’ ‘another possible early variant  [16]

Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster. The raid, marked by the looting of the island’s church and the burning of its buildings, took place in 795 (  Burning of Reachrainn of looters, and its shrines were broken and looted.  )

In 1306, Robert Bruce sought refuge on Rathlin, which is owned by the Irish Bissett family, staying in Rathlin Castle, originally belonging to their domination in the Glens of Antrim. The Bissetts later displaced by Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, to welcome Bruce.Later, in the 16th century, it came into the possession of Macdonnell in Antrim.

Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront the Scottish refugees on the island, and in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men, women and children in the Clan MacDonnell was killed.  [17] [18]  Also in 1642, Covenanter Campbell Foot soldiers in Argyll encouraged by his commander Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands clan MacDonald. This they did with ruthless efficiency, throwing lots of MacDonald women over cliffs to their death on the rocks below.  [19] [20]  The number of victims of this massacre has been as low as a hundred and as high as three thousand.  

In the later 18th century, kelp production became important with Rathlin become an important center of production. The shoreline is still full of ovens and bins. This was a commercial venture, sponsored by the landowners on the island and encompassed the entire society.  [21]

A 19th century British visitors to the island found that they had an unusual form of government where they chose a judge who sat on the “throne of turf”.  [22]

The world’s first commercial wireless telegraphy link was formed by employees Guglielmo Marconi between East lighthouse on Rathlin to Kenmara House Bally July 6, 1898.  [23]

More recently, Richard Branson crashed his hot air balloon in the sea off Rathlin Island in 1987 after his record flight across the Atlantic from Maine.  [Citation needed ]  

The island formerly boasted a population of over a thousand in the 19th century, and its current permanent population is about 125. This swelled with visitors in the summer, with most going to see the cliffs and their huge seabird populations. Many visitors come for the day, and the island has around 30 beds for overnight visitors. Boathouse visitor center at Church Bay is open seven days a week from April to September, minibus tours and bike rentals also available. The island is also popular with divers who come to explore the many wrecked ships in the surrounding waters.

Rathlin Island dialect of Irish are now extinct, and could have been described as intermediary form between the other Irish and Scottish dialects.

On 29 January 2008 the RNLI Portrush lifeboat, the “Katie Hannan,” grounded after a big swell hit the rear end of the ship on the breakwater rocks just outside the harbor on Rathlin while trying to retrieve an islander RIB. The lifeboat was handed over to an outside salvage company.  [24] [25] 

In July 2013 BT Ireland installed a high-speed wireless broadband pilot project to a number of premises. The first deployment of its kind in the UK and Ireland, “wirelessly to the cabinet” will deliver 80Mbs to the user. [26]

After Brexit referendum June 23, 2016 is Rathlin residents consider being a part of Scotland, to remain within the European Union.  [27]

Archaeology

Tievebulliagh mountain near Cushendall has a Neolithic stone ax factory, and a similar one is to be found in Brockley (a cluster of houses in the townland of Bally Gill USA)  [28]  and has the same porcellanite stone. The island has also been settled during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.There is also a unexcavated Viking vessel in a mound formation.  [29]

Gallery of panoramic photos

  • views of Rathlin Island seen from the boat to Bally
  • panorama of Rathlin Island Harbour
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • views of Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island harbor

Gallery

  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island cliffs and lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island Harbour
  • Rathlin Island from Bengore Head on the North Antrim Coast
  • Rathlin Island Ferry
  • Rue Point on the south of Rathlin Island looking towards Fairhead
  • The island seen from Dry Headmed Fair Head visible to the left
  • Rathlin Island Ferry at Ballycastle

See also

  • References Conservation in the UK
  • northern Ireland
  • List of islands in Ireland
  • List of islands in Great Britain
  • List of civil parishes in County Antrim
  • Chadwick, Hector Munro (1949)  Early Scotland Picts, Scots and Welsh in southern Scotland  . Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, WJ (1994)  The Celtic place names in Scotland  . Edinburgh;Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published in Edinburgh; Celtic Royal Society, the 1926th

Portrush

Portrush  (from Irish:  Port Rois  meaning “cape port”)  [2]  is a small seaside town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, on the County Londonderry border. The main part of the old town, including the railway station and most hotels, restaurants and bars, is built on a mile-long peninsula, Ramore Head, pointing north-northwest. It had a population of 6.454 people, as measured by the 2011 Census. During the off-season, Portrush is a bedroom community for the nearby campus of the University of Ulster in Coleraine. It neighbors the resort Port.

The city is known for its three sandy beaches, West Beach, East Beach and white stones, as well as Royal Portrush Golf Club, the only golf club outside mainland Britain which has hosted the Open Championship.

It was the base for  Katie Hannan  (this life boat was damaged in 2008 after running aground during a rescue on Rathlin Island, now based as a training boat for RNLI), a Severn class lifeboat and  Ken and Mary  , a D class coast by RNLI lifeboat. Lifeboats have operated from Portrush Harbour since 1860, and currently stationed there’s Severn Class William Gordon Burr  and D-class coaster David Roulston  .

Portrush is in the East Londonderry constituency of the UK Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly.

History

A number of flint tools were found during the late nineteenth century shows that the location of Portrush occupied during “Larnian” (late Irish Mesolithic) period,  [4]  Latest estimates to date to about 4000 BC.  [5]

The location of Portrush, with its excellent natural defenses, was probably a permanent solution around the 12 or 13 century. A church is known to have been on Ramore Head at this time, but no part of it survives now. From the records of the papal taxation in 1306, the Portrush Church – seems to have been quite wealthy – and by extension the village. The cape also held two castles, with varying periods. The first of these, Caislean an Teenie, believed to have been on top of Ramore Head, and probably destroyed in the late 16th century; the second, Portrush castle may have been built around the time of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. Nothing survives either castle.  [6]

As a result of the war the Three Kingdoms in the middle of the seventeenth century, became Portrush a small fishing village. It grew considerably during the nineteenth century as a tourist destination, after opening avjärnvägsBallyMena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Portrush Junction in 1855, and at the turn of the twentieth century has become one of the biggest tourist destinations in Ireland, with a number of large hotels and guesthouses, including prominent Northern Counties Hotel. Like the city’s beaches and Royal Portrush Golf Club (opened 1888), the nearby Giant’s Causeway was a popular tourist destination, with the Giant’s Causeway Tramway – at that time one of the world’s longest electrified railways – building in 1893 to cater to travelers coming from Portrush.

The city’s fortunes peaked in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, and declined after World War II with the growth of foreign travel. It escaped any involvement in the Troubles until August 6, 1976, when a series of bombings of buildings burned and destroyed several buildings, but without loss of life.  [7]  In a second attack in April 1987, two officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was shot in the back by the provisional Irish Republican army while on foot patrol on Main Street.  [8]

Demography

Portrush is classified as a small town in the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA)  [9]  (ie with population between 4,500 and 10,000 people). 2011 Census recorded that there were 6.454 people living in Portrush. Of these:

  • 18.89% were younger than 16 years, and 25.11% were aged 60 and over
  • 48.22% of the population were male and 51.78% were women
  • 20.8% listed their religion as Catholic, 50.8% were of Protestant denomination, and 14% said no religion.
  • 4.97% of the population aged 16-74 were unemployed.

For more information, see :. Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service  [10]

Tourist attractions

  • Attractions in the city include the “coastal zone” (formerly Portrush Countryside Centre),  [11]  Waterworld swimming complex, and, in the outskirts of the city, the ties between the Royal Portrush Golf Club, which hosted the 1951 British Open Golf Championship and Ballyreagh golf course. At the 1951 British Open Golf Championship young star Derek McLachlan won the hearts of the local crowd when he led the third day with 3 kind only to run out of bounds twice on the last day of the open and finished tied for 8th place.
  • There are two long sandy beaches in the city, the so-called Western and Eastern Beach. White Rocks and Curran Strand stretch on from the East Strand and are backed by sand dunes. The coast continues past Dunluce Castle to Giant’s Causeway (it was once possible to travel to these attractions from Portrush at the Giant’s Causeway Tramway). A 13-foot high bronze sculpture,  [12] inspired by local traditional sail boats, located at East Beach ( “for the people of the sea” by Cork-based sculptor Holger Lönze).
  • Portrush is home to one of Northern Ireland’s most famous nightclubs.Kelly complex consists of a multitude of bars and clubs and is Northern Ireland’s biggest nightclub complex.  [ Citation needed ]  There are nightclub Lush!  Like attracts many of the world’s top DJ and host BBC Radio 1 events.  
  • Portrush is also home to Barry’s Amusements, the largest amusement park in Northern Ireland. The actor James Nesbitt once worked in Barry.
  • The inserts, a collection of stones lying just off the coast, is an important habitat for several species, some unique to Northern Ireland.
  • Portrush parkrun is a free, weekly, timed 5 km runs along the East Strand beach to the White Rocks and back.  [13]

Events

  • Portrush hosted an annual air show in early September.  [14]
  • The RNLI raft race is a popular annual event. This is a popular game show where contestants must build a raft that can travel from West Strand beach in Portrush Harbour. The race has been on Northern Ireland News broadcasts in several years. The event is a great credit to the RNLI’s popularity in the region.  [15]
  • The North West 200 is a motorcycle race that runs through Port, Coleraine and Portrush each May, a prolonged tourist attraction that has attracted audience of over 150,000 in recent years.  [16]  The late brothers Joey Dunlop and Robert Dunlop have been regular winners at the races : they hold the record for most wins, thirteen and fifteen respectively.

Training

The following schools in Portrush:  [ citation needed ]  

  • Portrush Primary School  : an elementary school with a nursery unit at Crocnamac Road. The school educates about 250 students aged 4-11.Portrush Primary founded 1959th
  • Carnalridge Primary School  : back in 2010 by ex-student and professional golfer Graeme McDowell.  [ Citation needed ]  
  • Mill Strand Integrated Primary School  .
  • St Patricks Primary School  .

People

  • LGBT Activist Mark Ashton lived here.  [17]
  • Golfer Darren Clarke, winner of the Open Championship 2011, live in Portrush.
  • Fred Daly, golfer, winner of the 1947 Open Championship
  • Golfer Graeme McDowell, who was the first Irishman to win the US Open, born in Portrush.

Sports

  • Royal Portrush Golf Club. The only place outside of mainland Britain to host the British Open. 2011 British Open champion Darren Clarke is the resident professional clubs, and live in Portrush.
  • Portrush Hockey Club
  • The Northern Ireland Milk Cup uses Parker Avenue in Portrush as one of the venues for the tournament, and many teams stay within the city itself.
  • All three Portrush beaches often used by water sports enthusiasts, especially surfers and bodyboarders
  • Coleraine afford to maintain tennis courts, bowling greens and a playground on Ramore Head.
  • Fishing is popular from land or at sea, Causeway Lass fishing boat available for rent at the harbor.

Transport

Portrush railway station was inaugurated December 4, 1855 and closed for freight September 20, 1954. The station is the last stop on the Coleraine-Portrush railway line, where travelers can connect with trains to Derry, Belfastoch outside.  [18]

Portrush is a busy seaside resort, with a frequent train service run by Northern Ireland Railways contact with Ulsterbus services related to Bushmills and the Giant’s Causeway.

See also

  • List of RNLI stations
  • Stewart

References

  1. Jump up ^ Dunluce Castle NI US Department of the Environment.Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  3. Jump up ^  “Portrush chapel, Ireland”. Wesleyan Juvenile Offer. London.Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society  VII : March 31, 1850 is taken.Nineteen November 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25506293, p. 244; JSTOR 25513788, p. 238-242
  5. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25800527, p. 249
  6. Jump up^http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/CentreforArchaeologicalFieldworkCAF/PDFFileStore/Filetoupload,274001,en.pdf
  7. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1976
  8. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1987
  9. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website.”
  10. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service website.
  11. Jump up ^  “Education in the coastal areas Portrush”. UK: DOENI.Retrieved 19 August 2014.  External link to (help) | publisher =
  12. Jump up ^  “East Strand Portrush artworks website”.
  13. Jump up ^  http://www.parkrun.org.uk/portrush/.  Missing or empty (help) | title =
  14. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland International Air Show website”.
  15. Jump up ^  “Portrush Royal National sea rescue site.”
  16. Jump up ^ BBC News
  17. Jump up ^ Doward, Jamie (21 September 2014). “The real triumph gay communist behind the hit movie Pride”. The Guardian.
  18. Jump up ^  “Portrush station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Retrieved 28 August of 2007.

The Old Bushmills Distillery

The  Old Bushmills Distillery  is a distillery in Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. As of December 2014, it was in the process of moving from ownership of Diageo plc to Jose Cuervo. All whiskey bottled under the Bushmills whiskey brand is produced in Bushmills Distillery and uses water drawn from Saint Columb’s Rill, which is a tributary of the River Bush. The distillery is a popular tourist attraction, with around 120,000 visitors per year.

The company that originally built the distillery was founded in 1784, but the date of 1608 is printed on the label of the brand -. Referring to an earlier time when a royal license was granted to a local landowner to distill whiskey in the area  [1] [2]  for different periods of closure in its recent history, the distillery has been in continuous operation since it was built after a fire in 1885. 

History

The area has a long tradition of distillation. According to one story, as far back as 1276, called an early settler Sir Robert Savage of Ards, before defeating the Irish in battle, strengthened their troops with “a mighty drop acqua vitae”.  [3]  In 1608, a license was granted Sir Thomas Phillipps by king James in distilling whiskey.  [4]

for the next seven years, in countie of Colrane, otherwise known as O Cahanes countrey, or within territorie called Rowte in Antrim by himselfe or his servauntes, to do, ho, and distill these and SOE large amounts aqua penalty, usquabagh and aqua composita, that he or his assignes shall thinke fitt; and the same to sell, vent and dispose of all people, yerelie yeeldinge Somme 13s 4d …

Bushmills Old Distillery Company itself was not established until 1784 by Hugh Anderson.  [1]  Bushmills suffered many lean years with many periods of closure with no information about the distillery in operation in official records in both 1802 and 1822. In 1860, Belfast spirit merchant Jame McColgan and Patrick Corrigan bought the distillery; In 1880 they formed a limited liability company. In 1885, the original Bushmills buildings were destroyed in a fire, but the distillery quickly rebuilt. In 1890, a steamer owned and operated by the distillery, the SS  Bushmills  , made its maiden voyage across the Atlantic to deliver Bushmills whiskey to America. It is called the Philadelphia and New York before heading to Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama.

In the early 20th century, the US was a very important market for Bushmills (and other Irish whiskey producers). American Prohibition in 1920 came as a huge blow to Irish Whiskey industry, but Bushmills managed to survive.Wilson Boyd, Bushmills’ manager at the time, predicted the end of the ban and had large stores of whiskey ready to export. After World War II the distillery was bought by Isaac Wolfson, and in 1972 it was taken over by Irish Distillers, which means that Irish Distillers controlled the production of all Irish whiskey at the time. In June 1988, Irish Distillers was acquired by French spirits group Pernod Ricard.

In June 2005, the distillery was bought by Diageo for £ 200 million. Diageo has also announced a major advertising campaign to regain market share for Bushmills.

In May 2008, Bank of Ireland issued a new series of sterling banknotes in Northern Ireland, all of which have an illustration of the Old Bushmills Distillery on the front page, replacing the previous notes series which depicted Queen’s University in Belfast.  [5] [6] 

In November 2014 it was announced that Diageo was trading Bushmills brand Jose Cuervo in exchange for 50% of Don Julio tequila brand Diageo does not already own. The transaction is expected to be completed in early 2015.  [7]

Current whiskey range

  • Bushmills Original – Irish whiskey blend is sometimes called the Black Bush, Bushmills White Label. Grain whiskey is stored in American oak barrels.
  • Black Bush – has a significantly higher proportion of malt to grain whiskey than the white label. Spanish Oloroso sherry seasoned oak casks mature malt.
  • Bushmills 10 years single malt – Matured in American bourbon and Oloroso sherry casks for at least 10 years.
  • Bushmills 12 years single malt – A special edition is currently sold only at Bushmills Distillery, mostly matured in sherry casks.
  • Bushmills 16 years single malt – Matured for 16 years or more in a combination of American bourbon, Spanish Oloroso sherry butts and Port tubes.
  • Bushmills 21 years single malt – A limited number of 21 years bottles are made each year, and stored on three different types of barrels: first in American bourbon barrels and then in Spanish Oloroso sherry casks.Together it will be 19 years in these containers, after which it can be in Madeira barrels for another two years until bottling.
  • Bushmills 1608: A special 400th anniversary whiskey. From February 2008 there Bushmills outlets around the world; But from 2009 it will be available only in Whiskey Shop distillery and duty free shops.  [8]
  • Bushmills Sherry Cask Single Malt -. A special edition, the first in the “Steamship Collection”, available only in Belfast, Dublin and London Heathrow Airport  [9]  Matured in Oloroso sherry casks.

Criticism

Some Bushmills has performed well at international Spirit ratings competitions. In particular, the Black Bush Finest blended whiskey received double gold medals at the 2007 and 2010 San Francisco World Spirits competition.  [10] There was also a well-above-average 93 points from the Beverage Testing Institute in 2008 and 2011.  [10]

In popular culture

  • The band NOFX mentions Bushmills in the song “Theme from a NOFX Album” of 2000 release  Pump Up The Valuum
  • Tom Waits mentions “Old Bushmills” in the song “Tom Traubert Blues” (also covered by Rod Stewart)
  • In the third season episode of  The Wire  , the Back Burner, Jimmy McNulty refers to Bushmills “Protestant whiskey” when he offered after that Jameson is available
  • Burt Reynolds plays a police lieutenant in the 1975 film  Hustle  whose favorite alcohol Bushmills
  • In 1982, the film  ‘s Cathedral  , the Paul Newman character Frank Gavin orders Bushmills and water at his neighborhood pub
  • In the Rescue Me series seasons 1-7, the Bushmills whiskey shared the common and favorite of the entire Irish Gavin family and referred to in at least ten episodes

See also

  • Irish whiskey
  • List of Irish whiskey brands
  • Whiskey
  • Barrel
  • Distillation
  • List of oldest companies
  • master mixer
  • Diageo

References

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b Old Bushmills History (official website)
  2. Jump up ^ Alternative Whisky Academy
  3. Jump up ^ Ray Foley (1 January 2006). The best Irish drinks. Source, Inc., p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4022-0678-8. Hämtasoch 31 October of 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ George Hill (1877). A history of the plantation in Ulster in the early seventeenth century, from 1608 to 1620. M’Caw, Stevenson & Orr. p. 393rd Retrieved 31 October of 2010.
  5. Jump up ^  “Bank of Ireland to present the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland a new issue of banknotes”. Bank of Ireland. 02.11.2008.Hämtas2016 / 03 / 07th
  6. Jump up ^  “Bank raises glass to the famous drink”. BBC News. .Hämtas 04/23/2008 10/30/2008.
  7. Jump up ^ Taylor, Charlie (11.03.2014). “Jose Cuervo to acquire Bushmills from Diageo”. The Irish Times. Pulled 03/11/2014.
  8. Jump up ^ Bushmills kick-starting 400th anniversary campaign
  9. Jump up ^ [1]
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b Product review of Bushmills Black Bush Irish Finest blended whiskey

Lough Neagh

Lough Neagh  , (pronounced / ˌ l ɒ xn eɪ /,  lokh ja  ) is a freshwater lake in Northern Ireland. The largest lake by area in the British Isles, deliver the 40% of Northern Ireland’s water.  [3] [4]  Its name comes from the Irish:  Loch nEachach  , which means “Lake of Eachaidh”, but today it is usually spelled Loch nEathach  (Irish : [ɫ̪ɔx n̠ʲahax].) in Irish  [5]  Lough owned by the Earl of Shaftesbury. 

Geography 

With an area of 151 square miles (392 km  2  ), it is the largest lake on the island of Ireland, the 15th largest lake in the European Union  [3] [4]  and is ranked 31 in the list of largest lakes of Europe. Located 20 miles (30 km) west of Belfast, is about 20 miles (30 km) long and nine miles (15 km) wide. It is very shallow around the margins and the average depth in the main part of the lake (9 m), about 30 feet, although the lough deepest is about 80 feet (25m) deep. 

Hydrology

Of the 1760 square miles (4550 km  2  ) catchment, about 9% is located in Ireland and 91% in Northern Ireland,  [6]  a total of 43% of the land area of Northern Ireland is drained into Lough,  [7]  which itself flows out northwards to the sea via the River Bann. As one of the sources, the upper Bann Lough can itself be considered as part of Bann. Lough Neagh is fed by many tributaries, including the rivers  Main  (34 mi) Six Mile Water (21 ml), Upper Bann (40 mi) Blackwater (57 mi) Ballinderry (29 mi) and Moyola (31 mi)  [8]

Islands and peninsulas

  • Coney Island
  • Coney Island Flat
  • Flat Croaghan
  • Derrywarragh Island
  • Flat Kinturk
  • Oxford Island (peninsula)
  • Padian
  • Ram Island
  • Phil Roe plate
  • The shallow Flat
  • Traad (peninsula)

Towns and Villages

Towns and villages near the Lough include Craigavon, Antrim, Crumlin, Randalstown, Toomebridge, Ballyronan, Ballinderry, Moortown, Ardboe, Maghery, Lurgan and Magherafelt.

County

Five of the six counties of Northern Ireland have shores on Lough (only Fermanagh does not), and its area is shared among them. Counties listed clockwise:

  1. Antrim (eastern and northern shores of the lake)
  2. Down (small part in the southeast)
  3. Armagh (south)
  4. Tyrone (west)
  5. Londonderry (northern part of the western shore)

municipal Districts

The area of the lake is divided between four municipal districts in Northern Ireland, listed clockwise:  [9]

  • 3 Antrim and Newtownabbey, in northeastern
  • 4 Lisburn and Castlereagh, east
  • 6 Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon, in the south
  • 9 Mid Ulster in the west

applications

Although the Lough is used for a variety of recreational and commercial activities, it is fragile and tends to get very serious very quickly in windy conditions.

Water supply

Lough used by Northern Ireland Water as a source of fresh water. The Lough supplies 40% of the region’s drinking water. There have long been plans to increase the amount of water drawn from the Lough, through a new treatment plant works at Hog Park Point, but these have not yet been realized. The Lough ownership of the Earl of Shaftesbury has implications for planned changes in government domestic water services in Northern Ireland,  [10]  that the lough is also used as a sewer outlet, and this arrangement is only permitted by the British Crown immunity.  [ Citation needed ] In 2012 it was reported that Earl considering transferring ownership of Lough to the Northern Ireland Assembly.  [11]  

Navigation

Traditional working boats on Lough Neagh include wide beamed from 4.9 to 6.4 meters (16 to 21 feet) clinker-built, Spirits-rigged working boats and smaller flat-bottomed “cots” and “flats”. Barges, here called “lighters” was used until the 1940s to transport coal over the lough and adjacent canals.Until the 17th century, log boats (  coití  ) were the main mode of transportation. Some traditional boats are left now, but a community-based group on the southern shore of the lough is based on a range of workboats. [12]

In the 19th century, three canals were constructed with the help of the lough to connect various ports and cities: Lagan Navigation link from the city of Belfast, the Newry Canal Attached to the port of Newry, and the Ulster canal led to Lough Erne navigation, providing a navigable inland route via the river Shannon to Limerick, Dublin and Waterford. Lower Bann was also navigable to Coleraine and the Antrim coast, and the short Coalisland Canal as a route for coal transportation. Of these waterways, only the lower Bann remains open today, although a recovery plan for the Ulster Canal is underway.

Lough Neagh Rescue provides search and rescue services 24 hours a day. It is a voluntary service funded by the district bordering the Lough. Its members are well trained and is a declared facility for Coast Guard coordinates rescue on Lough Neagh.

Bird-watching

Lough Neagh attracts bird watchers from many nations due to the number and variety of birds that winter and summer in the bogs and beaches around the lough.

Flora

The flora of the northeastern part of Northern Ireland contains algae:  Chara aspera  ,  Chara globe  . Each  sphere  ,  Chara globe  . Where  virgate  ,  Chara vulgaris  . Where  vulgaris  ,  Chara vulgaris  var.  Papillata  ,  Tolypella nidifica  each.  Slick  .  [13] The  record of Angiospermae include:  ranunculus flammula  . was  pseudoreptans  ,  ranunculus auricomus  ,  Ranunculatus sceleratus  ,  Ranunculatus circinatus  ,  Ranunculatus peltatus  ,  extended box  ,  coastline box  . subsp  minus  ,  Nymphaea alba  ,  Ceratophyllum demersum  ,  sylörter water  ,  Erophila Verna  . sub  samples  ,  Cuckooflower  , lundbräsma  ,  Cardamine flexuosa  ,  sumpfräne  ,  fran amphibian  , mignonette  ,  sweet violet  ,  herb pansy  ,  Viola tricolor  ssp.  Violoa tricolor ssp.  curtissi  ,  hypericum androsaemum  ,  Hypericum maculatum  ,  Elatine hydro  ,  Silene vulgaris  ,  Rödblära  ,  SOAPWORT  ,  [13]

Fishing

Eel fishing has been a major industry in Lough Neagh for centuries. These European eel get from the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, about 4,000 miles along the Gulf Stream to the mouth of the River Bann, and then get into the lough. They remain there for about 10 to 15 years, matures, before returning to the Sargasso to spawn. Today Lough Neagh eel fisheries export their eels to restaurants all over the world, and Lough Neagh Eel has been granted protected geographical status under EU law.  [14]

Mythology and folklore

The Irish mythical story  Cath Maige Tuired  ( “Battle of Moytura”), is Lough Neagh known as one of the top 12 Loughs in Ireland.  [15]  The origin of the lake and its name is explained in an Irish tale that was written down in the Middle Ages, but is probably pre-Christian.  [16] [17]  According to the tale, the lake is named after Echaid (modern spelling: Eochaidh or Eachaidh), who was the son of Mairid (Mairidh), a king of Munster. Echaid falls in love with his stepmother, a young woman named Ébliu (Ébhlinne). They try to escape, along with many of its holder, but someone kills their horses. In some versions, the horses are killed by Midir (Midhir), which can be another name for Ébliu husband Mairid.Óengus (Aonghus) will appear and provide them with a huge horse that can carry all their belongings. Óengus warning that they must not let the horse rest or it will be their downfall. But after reaching the Ulster horse stop and urinate, and a spring rising from the site. Echaid decides to build a house there and cover the spring with a cornerstone to stop it overflowing. One night Capstone is not replaced and spring flooding, drowning Echaid and most of his family, and to create  Loch n-Echach  (  Loch nEachach  : Lake Eochaidh or Eachaidh).  [16] [17]  

The character Eochaidh refers to the Daghdha, a god of the ancient Irish also called Eochaidh Ollathair (which means “horsemen, father of all”).  [17] Ébhlinne, Midhir and Aonghus was also the names of the gods. Mary McGrath and Joan Griffith writes that the idea of a supernatural being create the landscape with their own body is an old man that is common to many pre-Christian cultures.  [17]  A Gaelic September called UI Eachach (which means “descendants of Eochaidh”) lived in area and it is likely that their name comes from the cult of the god Eochaidh.  [16]

Another story tells how the lake was formed when Ireland’s legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn McCool) scooped up a bit of earth and threw it at a Scottish rival. It fell into the Irish Sea, form the Isle of Man, while the crater left behind filled with water to form the Lough Neagh.  [18]

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Lough Beg
  • Portmore Lough

References

  1. Jump up ^ Naijural Heirship: Peat Moss NI Environment and Heritage Service.
  2. Jump up ^ org
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b Official Tourism Ireland website
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b com
  5. Jump up ^ Deirdre Flanagan and Laurance Flanagan, Irish placenta (Gill & Macmillan Ltd, 1994)
  6. Jump up ^  “Lough Neagh.” UK Environmental Change Network.Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Rivers Agency
  8. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey of IrelandRivers and their watersheds, 1958 (table reference)
  9. Jump up ^ nisra.gov.uk
  10. Jump up ^  “Sudden death can affect NI Water”. BBC News. 19 May 2005.
  11. Jump up ^  “Earl of Shaftesbury does not exclude Lough Neagh sale”.BBC News.
  12. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Boating Heritage Association
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b Hackney, P. 1992.  Stewart & Corry Flora in northeastern Ireland.  Third Edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen’s University of Belfast. ISBN 0 85389 446 9
  14. Jump up ^ official list of UK protected foods. Taken Accessed 15 christmas 2011.
  15. Jump up ^ Augusta, Lady Gregory. Part I of Book III: the great battle of Magh Tuireadh.  Gods and Fighting Men  (1904) on Sacred-Texts.com.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ó hÓgáin, Daithi.  Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encyclopedia of the Irish folk tradition  . Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.181
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mary McGrath, Joan C. Griffith.  The Irish Draught Horse: A History  . Collins, 2005. p.44
  18. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Heritage: Folklore & Legends

Giant Causeway

The  Giant’s Causeway  is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic eruption.  [1] [2]  It is also known as Clochán a Aifir  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  in Irish  [3]  and  tha Giant Causey  in Ulster -Scots.  [4] 

It is located in County Antrim in the north east coast of Northern Ireland, about three miles (4.8 km) northeast of the town of Bushmills. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986, and a national nature reserve in 1987 by the Ministry of the Environment for Northern Ireland. In a 2005 survey of  Radio Times  readers, Giant’s Causeway was named as the fourth greatest natural wonder in United Kingdom.  [5]  The tops of the columns form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot and disappear under the sea. Most of the columns are hexagonal, but there is also some with four, five, seven or eight sides. The maximum is about 12 meters (39 feet) high, and the solidified lava in the cliffs is 28 meters (92 feet) thick in places.

A large part of the Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast World Heritage Site is currently owned and managed by the National Trust and it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Northern Ireland.  [6]  The rest of the site is owned by the Crown Estate, and a number of private landowners.

Geology

About 50 to 60 million years ago,  [1]  during the Paleocene Epoch, Antrim was the subject of intense volcanic activity, when viscous molten basalt pierced through chalk beds to form an extensive lava plateau. As the lava cooled, the contraction occurred. Horizontal contraction fractured in a manner similar to the drying clay, with cracks propagating according mass was cooled, leaving pillar like structures, which are also broken horizontally in “biscuits”. In many cases, the horizontal fracture resulting in a bottom surface that is convex and the upper face of the lower segment is concave, which produce what is called “batch” leads. The size of the columns in the first place is determined by the speed at which lava from a volcanic eruption cools. [7]  The extensive fracture network produced the distinctive columns seen today. The basalts were originally part of a large volcanic plateau called Thulean plateau formed during the Paleocene.  [8]

Legend

According to legend, the columns are the remains of a causeway built by a giant. The story goes that the Irish giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn MacCool) from the Fenian Cycle of Gaelic mythology, was challenged to a fight by the Scottish giant Bena Donner. Fionn accepted the challenge and built footbridge across the North Channel, so that the two giants could meet.In one version of the story, Fionn down Bena Donner.  [9]  In another, Fionn hides from Bena Donner when he realizes that his enemy is much greater than he. Fionn’s wife, Oonagh, hides Fionn as a baby and put him in a cradle.When Bena Donner sees the size of the “baby”, he expects that the father, Fionn, must be a giant among giants. He flees back to Scotland in fear, destroying the causeway behind him so that Fionn could not follow.  [10] above sea level, are identical basalt columns (part of the same ancient lava flow) at Fingal’s Cave on the Scottish island of Staffa, and it is possible that the story was influenced by this.  [11]

In total Irish mythology, is Fionn mac Cumhaill not a giant but a hero with supernatural abilities. In  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888), it should be noted that, with time, “the pagan gods of Ireland […] grew less and less in the popular imagination, until they turn into fairies, pagan heroes became bigger and bigger until they turn into giants. ”  [12]  there are no surviving pre-Christian tales of the Giant’s Causeway, but it may have originally been associated with the Fomorians (  Fomhóraigh  ),  [13]  the Irish name Clochán na bhFomhóraigh  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  means” stepping stones in  Fomhóraigh  “. The  Fomhóraigh  are a race of supernatural creatures of Irish mythology sometimes described as giants and that may have originally been part of a pre-Christian pantheon.  [14]

Tourism

The discovery of the Giant’s Causeway was announced to the world in 1693 by the presentation of a paper to the Royal Society from Sir Richard Bulkeley, a Fellow of Trinity College, although discoverer had in fact been the Bishop of Derry who had visited the place a year earlier. The site gained international attention when Dublin artist Susanna Drury did watercolors of the year 1739; the Drury won the first award presented avRoyal Dublin Society in 1740 and was engraved in 1743.  [15]  In 1765, a record at the Causeway appeared in volume 12 of the French  Encyclopédie  , which was informed grave Drury work; engraving of the “East Prospect” itself appeared in a 1768 volume of plates published for  the Encyclopédie  .  [16]  In the caption to the plates French geologist Nicolas Desmarest proposed, for the first time in print, that such structures were volcanic origin.

The site first became popular among tourists in the nineteenth century, especially after the opening of the Giant’s Causeway Tramway, and only after the National Trust took over his care in the 1960s were some of the traces of commercialism away. Visitors can walk over basalt columns that are on the edge of the sea, a half mil walk from the entrance to the site.

Visit Centre

Causeway was without a permanent visitors’ center between 2000 and 2012, as previously, built in 1986, burned down in 2000.  [17]  Public funds have been earmarked to build a new center, and after an architectural competition, a proposal was accepted to build a new center, designed by Dublin architects Heneghan Peng, which would be put into the ground to reduce the impact on the landscape. A privately funded proposal received preliminary approval in 2007 by Environment Minister and DUP member Arlene Foster.  [18]  The public funds that had been allocated were frozen as a disagreement developed about the relationship between the private developer Seymour Sweeney and the DUP.  [19]  It was also discussed whether an individual interest should be allowed to take advantage of the location – given its cultural and economic importance and because it is largely owned by the National Trust. Coleraine Borough Council voted against the private plans, and for the benefit of a public development projects  [20]  and Moyle similar signaled dissatisfaction and gave the land on which the former visitor center stood for the National Trust. This gave the Trust control of both the Causeway and surrounding land. Ultimately, Mr. Sweeney dropped a legal challenge to the publicly funded plan.  [21]

The new visitor center was opened by the first minister Peter Robinson and Deputy Prime Minister, Martin McGuinness, in July 2012,  [22]  has with funding raised from the National Trust, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, the Heritage Lottery Fund and public donations.  [23]  Since its inception, the new visitor center gathered very mixed reviews from those who visit the Causeway to their pricing, design, content and placement across the causeway walk descent.  [24]

There was some controversy about the content of some exhibits in the visitor center, which refers to the Young Earth Creationist given the age of the Earth.  [25] [26]  Although these inclusions were welcomed by the chairman of the Northern Irish Protestant group, the Caleb Foundation,  [27 ]  National Trust stated that the inclusions formed only a small part of the exhibition and the Trust “fully supports the scientific explanation for the creation of the stones 60 million years ago.”  [28]  an online campaign to remove creationist materials launched in 2012, and after this, Trust conducted a review and concluded that they should be amended to have the scientific explanation of the footbridge origin as the main focus. Creationist explanations still mentioned, but presented as a traditional belief in some religious communities, rather than a competing explanation for Causeway origin.  [29] 

Notable features

Some of the structures in the area, after having been the subject of several million years of weathering, similar objects, such as  Organ  and  Giant boot structures. Other features include many reddish, weathered low columns known as  Giants Eyes  , created by the displacement of basalt boulders; the Shepherd footsteps  ; the  honeycomb  ; the  giant harp  ; the  chimneys  ; the Giant Gate  and  Camel hump  .

Flora and fauna

The area is a haven for seabirds fulmar, petrel, cormorant, shag, redshank, guillemots and razorbills, while the weathered rock formations host a number of rare and unusual plants, including sea Spleenwort, hare’s foot tooth, vernal squill, sea fescue and frog orchid.

A stromatolite colonies report is available at the Giants Causeway in October 2011 -. A rare find as stromatolites are more common in warmer water with higher content of salt solution than that found by the road  [30]

similar structures

Main article: List of places with column articulated volcanics

Although the basalt columns of the Giant’s Causeway are impressive, they are not unique. Basalt Pillars is a common volcanic feature, and they occur at many scales (because rapid cooling produces smaller columns).

railway access

The Belfast-Derry course run by Northern Ireland Railways connects to Coleraine and along Coleraine-Portrush branch line to Portrush. Local Ulsterbus provide connections to railway stations. It is a beautiful walk 7 miles from Portrush together Dunluce Castle and the Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast ‘. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ Jack Challoner, John Farndon, Rodney Walshaw (2004).Rocks, minerals and the Changing earth. South Water. p. 19.
  3. Jump up ^  “Clochán a Aifir / Giant’s Causeway – placental Database of Ireland ‘.Placen Commission. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. Jump up ^ The crack: Yin giant leap for mankind  newsletter  .Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ Report survey results BBC.co.uk Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  6. Jump up ^  “Giant’s Causeway Northern Ireland still Top Attraction” (Press release). Northern Ireland Tourist Board. August 18, 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  7. Jump up ^  “The University of Toronto (2008, December 25). Mystery of hexagonal column formations “.
  8. Jump up ^ Geoffroy, Laurent; Berg, Françoise; Angelier, Jacques (September 1996). “Brittle tectonism in relation to PALEOGENE development of Thulean / NE Atlantic domain: a study in Ulster”.Geological Journal.  31 (3) :. 259-269 doi: 10.1002 / (SICI) 1099-1034 (199,609) 31: 3 <259 :: AID-GJ711> 3.0.CO, 2-8. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Giant’s Causeway.”  The Dublin Penny Journal  , issue 5 (1832), p.33
  10. Jump up ^ Jones, Richard.  Myths and legends in the UK and Ireland  .New Holland Publishers, 2006. p.131
  11. Jump up ^ formation of basalt columns / pseudocrystals
  12. Jump up ^ “giants.”  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888) .Sacred-Texts.com.
  13. Jump up ^ Lyle, Paul.  Between rocks and hard places: Discovering Ireland’s northern landscapes  . The Stationery Office, 2010. p.3
  14. Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia.  The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore  .Infobase Publishing, 2004. p.198
  15. Jump up ^ Arnold,  Irish art  , p. 62.
  16. Jump up ^ “Susanna Drury, Causeway and the Encyclopédie, 1768”.Lindahall.org.Hämtat 14 March 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ BBC News – Study Causeway blaze – 30 April, 2000
  18. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers set to get the nod Causeway – 10 September 2007
  19. Jump up ^ BBC News – developers DUP link “irrelevant” – 11 September 2007
  20. Jump up ^ BBC News – Causeway must be public; advice – 12 September 2007
  21. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers ends Causeway Challenge – May 2009
  22. Jump up ^ Maguire, Anna (5 July 2012). “Causeway Visitors Centre: A great leap forward?”. Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  23. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway gets £ 9m Tourist contribution”. BBC. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  24. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, TripAdvisor”. TripAdvisor.15 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  25. Jump up ^  “National Trust in the Giant’s Causeway creationism row”.The autonomous. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  26. Jump up ^  “Causeway center provides creation view”. U TV. July 4, 2012.Hämtat5 July 2012.
  27. Jump up ^  “Online conference calls to remove the creation of the exhibition at the Giant’s Causeway.” BBC Northern Ireland. July 5, 2012.Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  28. Jump up ^  “Trust Causeway creationism row”. Irish Independent. July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  29. Jump up ^ confidence, change the Causeway center “Creationist” exhibition  BBC News  October 3, 2012 (retrieved November 30, 2012)
  30. Jump up ^ stromatolite colonies found in the Giant’s Causeway, BBC News. 14 October 2011.

Carrickfergus Castle

Carrickfergus Castle  is a Norman castle in Northern Ireland, which is located in the town of Carrickfergus in County Antrim, on the north shore of Belfast Lough. Besieged in turn by denskotska, Irish, English and French, the castle played an important military role until 1928 and is still one of the best preserved medieval buildings in Northern Ireland. It was strategically good, with 3/4 of the castle perimeter surrounded by water (even in modern times only 1/3 is surrounded by water because of clearance). Today it is maintained by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency as a state care historic monument, at grid ref: J4143 8725th  [1]

Origins

Carrickfergus built by John de Courcy in 1177 as its headquarters, after he conquered eastern Ulster in 1177 and ruled as a petty king until 1204, when he was overthrown by another Norman adventurer, Hugh de Lacy. Initially they Courcy built the Interior Department, a small courtyard at the end of the promontory with a high polygonal wall and east gate. It had several buildings, including the main hall. From its strategic location on a promontory, originally almost surrounded by sea, commanded the castle Carrickfergus Bay (later known as the Belfast Lough), and the ground approaching the walled city developed in its shadows.

English control

It first appears in the official English records in 1210 when King John besieged it and took control of the then Ulster main strategic garrison. After his capture, constables were appointed to command the castle and its surroundings. In 1217 the new constable, The Serlane, was awarded a hundred pounds to build a new curtain wall so that the approach along the mountain can be protected, as well as eastern methods of sand exposed at low tide. The middle-ward curtain wall later reduced to ground level in the eighteenth century, save along the sea side, where it survives with a poster gate and east tower, known for a fine collection of crossbows loops on the basement level.

A chamber on the first floor in the east tower believed to have the castle canopy because of their fine Roman style double window surround, if the original canopy must have been in the inner compartment. The ribbed vaults over the entrance passage of the murderous hole and the massive portcullis at each end of the gatehouse is later realizes started by Hugh de Lacey, who died in 1248 and did not live to see its completion in about 1250. It was completed by King Henry III.

After the collapse of the Earldom of Ulster in 1333, the castle remained in the Crown’s main residential and administrative center of Northern Ireland.During the early stages of the nine-year war (1595-1603), when the English influence in the north became weak, crown forces were provided and maintained by the city’s port. And in 1597, the surrounding countryside was the scene of the Battle of Carrickfergus.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, improvements were made to accommodate artillery, including external splayed gun ports and embrasures for cannons, but these improvements not prevent the castle from being attacked and captured on many occasions during this time. Marshal Schomberg besieged and took the castle in the week-long siege of Carrickfergus in 1689. This is also the place where Schomberg leader, King William III first set foot in Ireland June 14, 1690.

In 1760, after heavy fighting in the city, it was handed over to the French invaders under the command of François Thurot. They looted the castle and the town and then left, only to be captured by the Royal Navy.

Subsequent use

In 1778, a small but important event in the American War of Independence began in Carrickfergus, when John Paul Jones, given the reluctance of his crew approached too close to the castle, attracted a Royal Navy ship from its moorings in the North Channel, and won an hour long struggle. In 1797 the castle, which had on several occasions been used to house prisoners of war, became a prison and it was heavily defended during the Napoleonic Wars; six cannons on the eastern battery remaining twenty-two used in the 1811th

For a century remained a magazine and armory. During the First World War it was used as a garrison and ammunition store, and during World War II as a bomb shelter.

It was garrisoned continuously for about 750 years until 1928, when ownership was transferred from the British army to the new government in Northern Ireland for the conservation of an old monument .Many of its after Norman and Victorian additions removed to restore the castle’s original Norman look. It remains open to the public. Assembly Hall has been completely renovated and there are many exhibits to show what life was like in the Middle times. It was built and rebuilt three times, and still stands today.

railway access

The castle is a short walk from Carrickfergus railway station. Trains connect west to Belfast Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street and east to Whitehead and Larne port operated by Northern Ireland Railways.

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • Castles in Northern Ireland
  • Castles in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^  “Carrickfergus Castle” (PDF). Environment and Heritage Service NI – State Care of historical monuments. Be checked out three December 2007.

Belfast–Derry Railway Line

The  Belfast-Derry railway line  (called  Derry ~ Londonderry line  with NI Railways  [1]  ) runs from Belfast to Londonderry Derry in Northern Ireland.This line consists mainly of single track from just under Mossley West station up to Londonderry Waterside station with venues in Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Castle.

Current position

Services on Derry ~ Londonerry line runs on an alternating pattern to and from Belfast. The trains will change every hour between services from Great Victoria Street Londonderry Waterside (and vice versa), and a service from Great Victoria Street Coleraine, which then continues to Portrush via Coleraine-Portrush railway.

On weekdays, stations between Great Victoria Street, Coleraine every hour in both directions, with each outgoing trains alternating between a service to Londonderry Waterside, and a service to Portrush, except for some rush hour trains that stop at Coleraine. In the other direction, all the trains run every hour to Great Victoria Street, with the exception of a few late night and peak time services, that ends at Belfast Central. Stations between Coleraine and Londonderry Waterside served every hour in each direction.

On Saturdays, the service is still very much the same throughout the line during the week, except for a reduction in peak-time services.

On Sundays, all trains running between Great Victoria Street, Londonderry Waterside, except for the first and last service of the day, starting from or ending in Coleraine. Only seven trains go each way on Derry ~ Londonderry line on Sundays.  [2]

All passengers traveling to Portrush on the Derry-based services, or to Derry at Portrush-bound services, must change Coleraine Station.

previous activities

Before 2001 and the resumption of the Bleach Green Line, services operated via Crumlin, Glenavy, Ballinderry and Lisburn. The resumption of Bleach Green Line resulted in shorter travel between Belfast and Londonderry. A skeleton service continued on the Lisburn-Antrim line until 2003, when the line and its stations were closed. This section of railway is now used exclusively for driver training, for emergency diversions needed.

Recent history and future

In August 2011 it was planned to reduce services in Coleraine to Londonderry section to five services in each direction on weekdays, to facilitate safety improvement works in 2012. A reconstruction of the line was due to commence in April 2012, but the £ 75 million it was to be sold, was not tillgänglig.Detta resulted in opposition from supporters of the section who feared that the line would be permanently shut down.  [3]

In October 2011, after years of uncertainty, DRD Minister Danny Kennedy moved funds from the A5 dual development project upgrade railway projects, allowing for a three Phase upgrade, which began in July 2012.

Phase 1 saw the line near the 9 months to completely relay two sections (Coleraine Castle and Eglinton Londonderry) of the stretch, extend the life of the remaining portion by converting the current hit track continuous welded rail, eliminating the wet spots and essential bridge repairs. This ended March 24, 2013 and the new timetable changes have resulted in a morning train to reach Derry before 9:00 for the first time since Northern Ireland Railways took control of the network in the 1960s.

Phase 2 was due to begin in 2014/15, but is currently delayed, consisting of the introduction of a passing track and resignalling route. It will see the signal cabins Castle and Londonderry turn, centralize signaling in Coleraine, and deliver every hour between Derry and Belfast.  [4]

Phase 3 will include the entire relay tracks between Castle and Eglinton 2021 deliver half-hour services.  [5]

Other future plans for Londonderry line includes a reinstatement of the double line of Antrim Ballymena, doubling the track from Monkstown Templepatrick, and any transfers of the route terminal in Londonderry.

Railway Technology function

Coleraine is a bascule bridge for railway over navigable river Bann.  [6] Shortly after Castle station are two tunnels created during an event called the Big Blast in October 1845. Castle tunnel is 668 yards long and is the longest operating railway tunnel in Northern Ireland . After passing through a short opening train passes the shorter Downhill tunnel is 301 yards in length.  [7]

Signal

The signal on the line from Great Victoria Street to slaught level crossing (just south of Ballymena station) is controlled by the Belfast Central control terminal. From Ballymena, are signaling and level crossings controlled by Coleraine signal cabin. After trains depart Coleraine an electric train crew system works between Coleraine and Castle. This is when the driver receives a token to access the portion of the line. Castle has its own signal cabin, which controls the signaling from up to Ballykelly, where the driver hand symbol to the signal controller and allowed another to make it possible for trains to move on to Londonderry. Londonderry also has a signal control terminal that controls the signaling from Eglinton.De most of Belfast to Londonderry line is controlled by color light signals, but Castle station still has semaphore signals from the somersault-type typical of the NCC functions.

Rolling

After a full withdrawal of NIR NIR Class 80 and Class 450 trains, the line is now served by a combination of NIR NIR Class 3000 and Class 4000 diesel units.

References

  1. Jump up ^  “NI Railways Timetable – Derry Line, Winter 2012” (PDF).Translink. Be checked out three January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Railways (March 2013). “NIR Service 3 Timetable”. Translink. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Kennedy calls for more money for Londonderry rail link.”BBC News. August 25, 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Londonderry Line” Andy Milne Rail Staff May 2012.
  5. Jump up ^  “Derry railway upgrade on the right track.” Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ http://www.movablebridges.org.uk/BridgePage.asp?BridgeNumber=1100
  7. Jump up ^http://www.coastlinecastlerock.org/history/therailway02.php

FALLS ROAD

The  Falls Road  (from Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , which means “territory attachments”  [1]  ) is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, which runs from Divis Street in Belfast city center to Anderson’s in the suburbs. Its name is synonymous with Republican community in the city, while neighboring Shankill Road are mainly loyalists, separated from the Falls Road avfredslinjer. The road is usually called  the  Falls Road, rather than as Falls Road. It is known as the  Faas Raa  in Ulster-Scots.  [2]

History

Nearby White Rock Road 1968

The Falls Road got its name from the Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , an Irish small kingdom whose name means “territory attachments”.  [1]  This territory was roughly the same as the church congregation in Shankill, which spanned a large part of today’s Belfast.  [1]

The Falls Road itself was originally a road leading from the center but the population in the area expanded rapidly in the 19th century with the construction of several large linen factories. All of these have now closed or repurposed. This initial area, which was centered on the intersection of today’s Millfield and Hamill Street in what is now the Divis Street, was known as the Falls and lent its name to the road,  [3]  previously called the “pound”.  [Citation needed ]  the homes in area developed in the 19th century and organized in the narrow streets of small radhus.Många of these streets were named after characters and events of the Crimean War (1853-1856), which is present at the time.  [1]  

These included Raglan Street (named after Lord Raglan, the commander of the British forces in the Crimean War), Alma Street (named after the Battle of Alma), Balaclava Street (named after the Battle of Balaklava), Inkerman Street (named after the Battle of Inkerman) and Sevastopol Street (named after the siege of Sevastopol).  [1]

The view from the Falls Road to the city center, 1981

In the 1960s the buildings in the area had fallen considerably and the Belfast Corporation introduced a greater development plan that involved whole scale demolition of large parts of the area and replaced with a series of flat complex. The highest point in this transformation was the Divis Tower, built on top of the historic district formerly known as Pound Loney.  [4]

Policy

Bobby Sands mural on the Falls Road

A predominantly working class community Falls Road has historically had a strong socialist tradition before 1970 had been less Irish nationalist than other parts of Northern Ireland. James Connolly, a resident of Upper Falls during a period in the early 20th century and was involved in organizing the workers in linen factories  [ citation needed ]  , but the area was generally seen as a bedrock of Irish parliamentary party (IPP) at the time. Éamon de Valera lost heavily here in the 1918 UK general election the IPP Joe Devlin. Connolly secretary Winifred Carney also stayed at the Falls with her husband, George McBride, a Protestant and World War I veteran.  [ Citation needed ]    

The last century has seen an ongoing competition between different versions of the labor / socialist and nationalist / Irish Republican leadership elections in the area. In the 1929 elections to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, Belfast, Falls constituency was won by nationalist Richard Byrne after a bitter contest with William McMullen, a supporter of Connolly.  [Citation needed ]  

In the 1945 election, Harry Diamond won the seat stands for Socialist Republican Party. He held the position until 1969, when he was defeated by Paddy Devlin stands for Northern Ireland Labour Party. Devlin, who had once been a member, along with the Diamond, in Belfast branch of the Irish Labour Party, became a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party in 1970 and remained a member until Parliament has been prorogued in 1972.  [ citation needed ]  

Garden of Remembrance, Falls Road.

In 1964, Billy McMillen stood as a Republican clubs candidate for Belfast West constituency in the Westminster election. His office was in the Divis Street and the Irish tricolor along Starry Plough of Connolly’s Irish Citizen Army was displayed in the window. The public display of the flag of Ireland was prohibited by the Northern Ireland government. Protestant preacher Ian Paisley insisted Royal Ulster Constabulary remove the flag or he would organize a march and remove it yourself. The police feared a backlash from loyalists, and removed it, causing unrest and riots by nationalists.  [5]

Frederick Douglass mural on “Solidarity Wall”, then painted.

In the late 1960s, many Catholics from all over Northern Ireland began the campaign, many with NICRA, against discrimination in housing and employment, under the banner of a civil rights campaign in conscious imitation of philosophy and tactics used by the American Civil Rights Movement.  [6 ]

Many activists saw NICRA as an Irish Republican Trojan horse, designed to destabilize Northern Ireland, and force members of a united Ireland.  [7] [8] Several streets around the Falls Road burned by loyalists in August 1969. In response to the worsening situation, the British government utplaceradebrittiska army on Falls Road. The troops were initially welcomed by many but not all Falls residents to protect them, but the heavy-handed tactics of the most mainland British-born members of the army who do not know or understand the situation would alienate most Catholics and nationalists. [9] [10]  

In 1970, the road was the scene of what became known as the Falls Curfew.3000 British troops sealed off the streets around the Falls Road, home to about 10,000 people, setting off tear gas. The UK measures was received by the Official IRA (OIRA), who engaged them in a vicious firefight. Over the weekend, four Catholic civilians were killed by the British army. Ninety rifles were recovered.  [11]  It is generally regarded as the end of the British Army “honeymoon” period with the Nationalists in Belfast.  [12]

For the next three decades, the British Army had a significant presence on the Falls Road, with a base on top of Divis Tower. This was removed in August 2005 as part of the British government’s normalization program for Provisional Irish Republican Army’s claim that it ends its armed activity. In the meantime, Falls Road saw some of the worst violence “troubles”. The last British soldier to be killed on the road itself was private Nicholas Peacock, was killed by a trap bomb left outside Rock Bar, opposite the top of the Donegall Road.  [13]

1991 IRA hit squads based in Upper Falls and Beech Mount was involved in attacks against loyalist paramiliaries in the nearby village area. In September 1991, they shot dead 19 years old up UVF John Hanna at his home in the Donegall Road, and in November the same year, they shot dead William King Berry and his stepson Samuel Mehaffey, members of the UDA and the RHC, respectively, in their home on Lecale Street .  [13]

Culture

Falls Road Library, opened 1908th

Since the 1960s there has been a significant recovery of the traditional culture of the Irish language, dance and music. These are all showcased during the Feile an Phobail, an annual festival of Irish culture. The road is also home to Culturlann, an Irish cultural center that is open all year.  [ Citation needed ]  

One of three Carnegie libraries were built in Belfast is on the Falls Road. It opened on 1 January 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Belfast still serves as a library.  [14]

Educational institutions and hospitals

Several major educational institutions in the area, including St. Dominic Grammar School for Girls, St. Rose High School, St Mary’s University College, and the Irish school Coláiste Feirste.

St. Louise’s Comprehensive College is one of the largest comprehensive girls schools in Europe. St Finian’s and St. Catherine’s schools were closed because of falling student numbers. Katarina together with St. John’s girls and St. Gallen boys to form St. Clares in September 2005. St. Mary’s Christian Brothers Grammar School was originally located in Barrack Street off Divis Street in the Lower Falls but was transferred to a new establishment on the Glen Road in the Upper Falls in the 1960s. There are several major hospitals in the area, including the Royal Victoria Hospital, the Royal Maternity and Children’s Hospital.  [ Citation needed ]  

Churches

KyrkogårdarDet are several Catholic churches in the Falls Road. These include St. Church, St. Paul’s Church in the center of the Falls and St. John’s Church in Upper Falls. Nearby is Clonard Monastery, home of the Redemptorist religious order. Father Alec Reidsom played a key role in the Northern Ireland peace process was based here.

Two large cemeteries located on top of the Falls Road: Belfast City Cemetery and Milltown Cemetery.

other buildings

Although the area is largely residential, there are several large (former)), industrial and other buildings. The most famous of the original factory buildings Conway Mill Conway Street (named after the Conway family, a famous rich family of Clonard Area), originally a flax spinning mill, now houses a community enterprise in small business, studios, retail space and training floor. The Dunlewey Centre (Belfast Metropolitan College campus) is a community training center in the heart of the Lower Falls.

See also

  • Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast
  • Lower Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Upper Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Raidió Fáilte

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e placental NI Falls
  2. Jump up ^ Language / Cultural Diversity – Irish Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure, dcalni.gov.uk; accessed 30 March 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Belfast history, rushlightmagazine.com; accessed 30 March 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ Megan Deirdre Roy.  Divis Flats: the social and political consequences of a modern housing project in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1968-1998  , uiowa.edu; accessed 30 March 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Peter Taylor.  Loyalists  , ISBN 0-7475-4519-7, p. 32
  6. Jump up ^  Weiss, Ruth. Peace in his time: War and Peace in Ireland and South Africa. p. 34.
  7. Jump up ^ Lord Cameron,  Disturbances in Northern Ireland: Report of the Commission appointed by the governor in Northern Ireland  (Belfast, 1969)
  8. Jump up ^ Purdie, Bob.  Politics in the streets: the origins of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland  , The Black Staff Press, ISBN 0-85640-437-3.
  9. Jump up ^ co.uk; accessed 31 March 2015.
  10. Jump up ^ ulst.ac.uk; accessed 31 March 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ Ed Moloney.  A Secret History of the IRA  , ISBN 0-14-101041-X, p. 91.
  12. Jump up ^ Richard English.  Armed struggle  (2003), p. 136
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b McKittrick, Feeney, Thornton, Kelters, David, Brian, Chris, Seamus (2004). Lost lives. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 1158, 1248, 1257-1258.
  14. Jump up ^  “Catalogue of the photo exhibition Irish Carnegie Library” (PDF). An Chomhairle Leabharlanna (The Library Council Sweden).Retrieved 4 September 2012.

MURAL

mural  is a piece of artwork painted or applied directly to a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinctive feature of the mural is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Some murals are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (eg with marouflage). If these jobs can be accurately called “murals” is the subject of some controversy in the art world  [ who? ]  , But the technology has been in general use since the late 19th century.  [1]  

History

Jataka stories frånAjantagrottorna, 7th Century

Murals of sorts date to the Upper Paleolithic times that the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France (around 30,000 BC). Many old wall paintings have survived in Egyptian tombs (about 3150 BC),  [2]  the Minoan palaces (Middle period III of Neopalatial period from 1700 to 1600 BC) and Pompeii (about 100 BC – AD 79) .

In medieval times, the wall paintings were mostly done on dry plaster (Secco). The huge collection of Kerala mural dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco.  [3] [4]  In Italy, around 1300, the technique for painting frescoes on wet plaster reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of the mural .  [5] 

In modern times, the term became more familiar with Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The most famous is probably  the fresco  , using water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a quick use of the resulting mixture over a large area, often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry. The  marouflage  method has also been used for millennia.

Painting today is painted in a variety of ways, using oil or aqueous media.The styles can vary from abstract to  trompe l’oeil  (a French term for “fool” or “fool the eye”). Initiated by the works of wall artists like Graham Rust and Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe l’oeil painting has experienced a revival in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas which is then pasted on a wall surface  (see the wallpaper, Frescography)  to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene.

Technique

Historic wall techniques

The 18-century BC fresco of the installation of Zimrilim  discovered vidKungliga castle in Old Navy in Syria

In the history of the mural, several methods have been used:

A fresco  painting from the Italian word  affresco  which derives from the adjective  fresco  ( “fresh”), describes a method in which the color is applied to the plaster on walls or ceilings. The  Buon fresco  technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water in a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is then absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. After that the painting stays for a long period of time up to centuries in fresh and bright colors.

Fresco-secco  painting is done on dry plaster (  Secco  is “dry” in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

Mezzo fresco  painted on almost dry plaster, and was defined by the sixteenth-century writer Ignazio Pozzo as “firm enough not to take a thumb-print” so that the pigment penetrates only slightly into the drywall. At the end of the sixteenth century this had largely displaced the  buon fresco  method, and was used by artists who Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of  a secco  work.

Material

In Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic paints were used in a cold state is used.  [6] [7] 

Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods of the mural. The tempera pigments are bound in a proteinaceous media such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.

In 16th century Europe, oil on canvas emerged as a simpler method for the mural. The advantage was that the artwork would be completed in the artist’s studio and later transported to their destination and attached to the wall or taket.Oljefärg can be a less satisfactory medium of murals because of its lack of brilliance in color. Even pigments yellowed by the binder or easily affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more vulnerable to rapid deterioration over a patch of ground.  [ Citation needed ]  Various muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, be it oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints  [8]  applied by brush, roller or airbrush / aerosols . Customers will often ask for a certain style and the artist can adapt to the appropriate technology.  [9]  

A consultation usually leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a quotation to the customer approves muralist before starting work. The area to be painted can be structured to match the design allows the image to be peeled carefully, step by step. In some cases the design is projected directly onto the wall and traced with a pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without Sketch, prefer the spontaneous technique.

Once completed, the mural can be given layer of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work against UV rays and surface damage.

In modern, fast form of muralling young enthusiasts also use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give the desired models on a canvas board. The fabric later set aside to let the mud dry. Once dried, the cloth and the shape painted with your choice of colors and later coated with lacquer.

CAM designed Frescography by Rainer Maria Latzke digitally printed on canvas

As an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural can be digitally printed murals also applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and then reproduced in close to original quality.

The disadvantages of prefabricated murals and decals is that they often mass produced and lacking attractiveness and exclusivity of an original work of art. They are often not adapted to the individual wall sizes of the customer and their personal ideas or requests can not be added to the mural as it progresses. The Frescography technology a digital method of manufacture (CAM) was invented by Rainer Maria Latzke up some of the personalization and size restrictions.

Digital technology is often used in advertisements. A “wall cape” is a big advertisement on or attached to the outer wall of a building. Wallscapes can be painted directly on the wall as a wall painting, or printed on vinyl, and securely attached to the wall just like a plate. Although not strictly classified as paintings, large scale printed media is often referred to as such.Advertising paintings traditionally painted on buildings and shops of recordings authors, recent large-scale poster signs.

The significance of murals

The San Bartolo mural

Murals are important that they take the art in the public space. Because of the size, cost, and work to create a mural, muralists must often on behalf of a sponsor.Ofta it is the local authorities or a business, but many murals have been paid with grants of patronage. For artists, their work to a wide audience that otherwise might not set foot in an art gallery. A town benefits by the beauty of a work of art.

Murals can be a relatively effective tool of social emancipation or achieving a political objective.  [10] The  paintings have sometimes created the law, or have been commissioned by local bars and cafes. Often the visual effects are an enticement to attract public attention to social issues. State-sponsored public art expressions, particularly paintings, often used avtotalitära regimes as a tool for propaganda. Despite the propagandistic nature of that work, some of them still have an artistic value.

Murals can have a dramatic impact on the conscious or unconscious attitudes passer, when added to the areas where people live and work. It can also be argued that the existence of large public murals can add aesthetic improvement of the daily lives of residents or employees at a company site.

Other world-famous wall paintings can be found in Mexico, New York, Philadelphia, Belfast, Derry, Los Angeles, Nicaragua, Cuba and India. [1] They have served as an important means of communication for members of socially, ethnically and racially divided communities in times of conflict.They also showed to be an effective tool in a dialogue and thus solve the cleavage in the long run. The Indian state of Kerala has exclusive murals.These Kerala mural on the walls of Hindu temples. They can be dated from the 9th century.

The San Bartolo murals of the Maya civilization in Guatemala, is the oldest example of this technique in Mesoamerica and is dated to 300 BC.

Many rural towns have begun using murals to create tourist attractions in order to increase economic income. Colquitt, Georgia is one such city.Colquitt was elected to host the 2010 Global Mural Conference. The city has more than twelve paintings completed, and will be hosting the conference along with the Dothan, Alabama, and Blakely, Georgia. In the summer of 2010, Colquitt begin work on its icon painting.

Murals and politics

Diego Rivera’s mural depicting Mexico’s history vidNational Palace in Mexico City

The Bardia Mural, photographed in the 1960s, before its damage by corruption and the ravages of time.

Wall paintings show the Marxist view of the press in this cafe in East Berlin in 1977 was covered by advertising after Germany was reunited

The Mexican mural movement in the 1930s brought a new prominence to the murals that a social and political tool. Diego Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros was the most famous artists in the movement. Between 1932 and 1940, Rivera also painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York. In 1933 he completed a famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels entitled  Detroit Industry  on the walls of a courtyard of the Detroit Institute of Arts.  [11]  During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the yard defend the artistry of the murals while attacking his policies “abominable”.

The Colombian government in 1948 hosted IX Pan-American Conference to establish the Marshall Plan for America. The head of the OEA and the Colombian government commissioned Master Santiago Martinez Delgado, to paint a mural in the Colombian Congress building to commemorate the event. Martinez decided to do it on the Cucuta Congress, and painted Bolívar front of Santander, upset liberals do; so, because of the murder of Jorge Eliezer Gaitan mobs El bogotazo tried to burn the capital, but the Colombian army stopped them. Several years later, in the 1980s, with the Liberals in charge of Congress, passed a resolution to shut down the whole house of the elliptical room 90 degrees to put the main mural on the side and mission Alejandro Obregon to paint an impartial mural in the surreal style.

Northern Ireland contains some of the most famous political murals in the world.  [12]  Nearly 2,000 paintings have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s.  [13]  More recently, many murals are non-sectarian, political and social issues such as racism and environmentalism and many are completely a-political, depicting children at play and scenes from everyday life. (Senordirländska murals.)

One is not political, but social belonging mural covering one wall of an old building, once a prison, on top of a cliff in Bardiyah in Libya. It was painted and signed by the artist in April 1942 weeks before his death on the first day of the first battle of El Alamein. Known as the Bardia Mural, was created by the English artist, Private John Frederick Brill.  [14]

In 1961, East Germany began erecting a wall between East and West Berlin, which became known as the Berlin Wall. Also on the painting side of East Berlin were not allowed, artists painted on the western side of the wall from the 80th century until the fall of the Wall, 1989.

Many unknown and known artists such as Thierry Noir and Keith Haring painted on the wall, “the world’s longest canvas”. Sometimes detailed artwork often painted over within hours or dagar.På the western side of the wall was not protected, so that everyone can paint on the wall. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the eastern side of the Wall was also a popular “canvas” for many mural and graffiti artists. Orgosolo, Sardinia, is a very important center for paintings policies.

It is also common for wall painting graffiti used as a memoir. In the book “Someone said to me,” Rick Bragg writes about a number of communities, mainly in New York, which has walls dedicated to the innocent lives lost.  [15]These memorials, both the written word and mural style, gives the deceased to be present in the communities where they lived. Bragg says that “murals has woven itself into the fabric of the neighborhoods and the city.” These memorials serve as a constant reminder to the living community of innocent lives lost due to inner city violence.

Murals in modern interior

Traditional interior murals

Forest mural of  a red shoe  in private homes, England 2007

Many people like to express their individuality by commissioning an artist to paint a mural in their home, this is not an activity exclusively for owners of large houses. A mural artist is only limited by the charge and therefore the time of the painting; dictate the level of detail; a single wall painting may be added to the smallest of the walls.

Private tasks can be for dining, bathroom, living room, or, as is often the case-the children’s bedroom. A child’s room can be transformed into “fantasy world” of a forest or the racetrack, encourage imaginative play and an awareness of art.

The current trend for feature walls has increased behalf of muralists in the United Kingdom. A large hand-painted mural can be designed on a theme, incorporate personal pictures and elements and can be changed during the painting. The personal interaction between client and muralist is often a unique experience for an individual usually does not participate in the arts.

In the 1980s, illusionary wall painting experienced a revival in private homes.The reason for this revival of the interior can in some cases be attributed to the reduction of living space for the enskilde.Faux architectural features as well as scenery and views can lead to “open out” walls. Urban areas of housing can also contribute to people’s feelings of being cut off from nature in its free form. A mural commission of this kind may be an attempt by some people to re-establish a balance with nature.

Commissions of murals in schools, hospitals and retirement homes can achieve an attractive and welcoming atmosphere in these care institutions.Murals in other public buildings such as pubs are also common.

Graffiti interior murals

Mint & Serf at Ace Hotel, New York

Recently, graffiti and street art has played a key role in modern mural. Such graffiti / street artists such as Keith Haring, Shepard Fairey, ABOVE, Mint & Serf, Futura 2000 OS GÊMEOS and Faile, among others, has successfully crossed their street art aesthetic outside the walls of the cityscape and on the walls of private and corporate clients. As graffiti / street art became more mainstream in the late 1990s, the youth-oriented brands like Nike, Red Bull and Wieden Kennedy turned to graffiti / street artists to decorate the walls of their offices. This trend continued in the 2000s with graffiti / street art to get more recognition from art institutions worldwide.

Ethnic murals

Rajasthani motifs mural of Kakshyaachitra, Bombay 2014

Many homeowners choose to display the traditional art and culture of their community or events from their history in their homes. Ethnic paintings have become an important form of decoration. Warli painting paintings become a preferred way of wall decoration in India. Warli painting is an ancient Indian art form where the tribal people used to depict different stages of life on the walls of their mud houses.

Tile mural

Panel of tiles by Jorge Colaço (1922) depicts an episode from the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) between the Portuguese and Castilian arméer.En piece of public art in Lisbon, Portugal.

Tile murals are murals made of stone, ceramic, porcelain, glass or metal trays that are installed in, or added to the surface of an existing wall. They are also inlaid in the floor. Wall tiles are painted, glazed, sublime printed (as described below) or the more traditional cut or broken into pieces. Unlike the traditional painted murals as described above, the tile paintings are always done with the use of plates.

Mosaic murals are made by combining small 1/4 “to 2” size pieces of colored stone, tile ceramic or glass and then put out to create an image. Today’s modern technology has made commercial mosaic wall makers to use the computer program to separate the photographs in colors that automatically cut and glued onto discs with a mask create precise paintings quickly and in large quantities.

The azulejo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐzuleʒu], Spanish pronunciation: [aθulexo]) refers to a typical form of Portuguese or Spanish painted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. They have become a typical aspect of Portuguese culture, manifesting without interruption for five centuries, the successive trends in art.

Azulejos can be found inside and outside the churches, palaces, ordinary houses and even train stations or subway stations.

They are used not only as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity as temperature control in homes. Many azulejos chronicle major historical and cultural aspects of Portuguese history.

Custom Printed tile murals can be produced using digital images of kitchen splashbacks, wall displays, and floors. Digital images and artwork can be resized and printed to accommodate the desired size of the area to be decorated. Custom tile printing using a variety of techniques, including dye sublimation and ceramic type laser toners. The latter technique can provide fade-resistant custom plates which are suitable for long term outdoor exposure.

notes muralists

  • Edwin Abbey
  • Carlos Almaraz
  • Added Dorothy
  • Judy Baca
  • ABOVE
  • Banksy
  • Arnold Belkin
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • John T. Biggers
  • Torsten Billman
  • Henry Bird
  • Edwin Howland Blashfield
  • Pale le Rat
  • Steve Bogdanoff
  • Giotto di Bondone
  • Gabriel Bracho
  • Paul Cadmus
  • Eleanor Coen
  • Dean Cornwell
  • John Steuart Curry
  • Robert Dafford
  • Dora The Larios
  • Santiago Delgado Martinez
  • Faile
  • Shepard Fairey
  • Piero della Francesca
  • OS GÊMEOS
  • Louis Grell
  • Satish Gujral
  • Manav Gupta
  • Richard Haas
  • Keith Haring
  • Albert Henry Krehbiel
  • Susan Krieg
  • Rainer Maria Latzke
  • Tom Lea
  • Will Hicok Low
  • Sofia Maldonado
  • John Anton Mallin
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Reginald Marsh
  • knox Martin
  • Peter Max
  • Michelangelo
  • Mario Miranda
  • Claude Monet
  • Roberto Montenegro
  • Frank Nuderscher
  • violet Oakley
  • Edward O’Brien
  • Juan O’Gorman
  • Pablo O’Higgins
  • José Clemente Orozco
  • Rufus Porter
  • Aarón Pina Mora
  • Archie Rand
  • Raphael
  • Freydoon Rassouli
  • Diego Rivera
  • Graham Rust
  • Sadequain
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Eugene Savage
  • Conrad Schmitt
  • Clément Serveau
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros
  • Frank Stella
  • Rufino Tamayo
  • Titian
  • Alton Tobey
  • Allen Tupper True
  • Kent Twitchell
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • John Walker Augustus
  • Oliver Henry Walker
  • lucia Wiley
  • Ezra Winter
  • Robert Wyland
  • Isaiah Zagar
  • PK Sadanandan

Gallery

  • Stylized mural of the miners’ leader Warren James, at a pub in Parkend, Gloucestershire.
  • Painting of Erykah Badu iSutton, Greater London, United Kingdom
  • Mural in Satriano, Italy.
  • 15th century Christ in Majesty in Jaleyrac
  • Building, Boston, Massachusetts, around 1992
  • Paint, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Graffiti mural in Gutovka, Prague 10, Czech Republic, 2012
  • The tree of life, stairway mural of Manav Gupta
  • Orr C. Fischer,  The Corn Parade,  1941, oil on canvas, agricultural -themed mural on the wall of the post office, Mount Ayr, Iowa.  [16]
  • Largest mural stamp of artist Francisco Vargas
  • Mural on Israel’s security barrier
  • Mural against indifference to evil in Warsaw, Poland

See also

  • anamorphosis
  • Bogside Artists
  • Brixton mural painting
  • Detachment of murals
  • List of US post office paintings
  • Mexican muralism
  • Murals in Kerala, India
  • MURAL Festival
  • Newtown area graffiti and street art
  • Post Office paintings
  • Propaganda
  • public art
  • social realism
  • socialist realism
  • The Manchester paintings
  • tiled print
  • Trompe l’Oeil
  • Wall Poetry

References

  1. Jump up ^ Clare AP Willsdon (2000). Mural in Britain 1840-1940: Image and Meaning. Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-817515-5. Retrieved syv May 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Only after 664 BC are dates secure. See Egyptian chronology for details.  “Chronology”. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Pulled 03/25/2008.
  3. Jump up ^ Mena Chery, George (ed.):  St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India  , Vol. II, 1973; (Eds.) Mena Chery, George  Native American Church History Classics, Vol. I, Nazranies  , Saras, 1998
  4. Jump up  ^ ” ‘Pallikalile Chitrabhasangal” (PDF).
  5. Jump up ^ Péter Bokody,  mural painting as a medium: Technology, Entertainment and liturgy  , in the  image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle Ages  , Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014, 136-151
  6. Jump up ^ Selim in August. La Tecnica dell’Antica pittura parietal Pompeiana. Pompeiana, Studi per il 2 ° Centenario degli Scavi di Pompei. Napoli 1950, 313-354
  7. Jump up ^ Jorge CuNi, Pedro CuNi, Brielle Eisen, Rubén Savizki and John Bove. “Characterization of the binding medium used in the Roman encaustic paintings on the wall and the wood.” Analytical methods.Retrieved February 2012.  Check date values in: (help) | Access-date =
  8. Jump up ^  “used by Eric cumini paintings”. Eric cumini. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  9. Jump up ^  “Toronto mural”. Technical aspects of the mural. Toronto muralists. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Sebastian Vargas. “Seizing the public space”. D + C Development and Cooperation. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  11. Jump up ^  “Diego Rivera”. Olga Gallery. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  12. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Looking for a neutral identity in Northern Ireland’s political murals. In: Peace Review 24 (4).
  13. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Importance of paintings during the unrest: Analyze the Republican use of murals in Northern Ireland. In: Machin, D. (Ed.) Visual Communication Reader. De Gruyter.
  14. Jump up ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission. “Final resting place”. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  15. Jump up ^ Bragg, Rick.  Someone said to me: Newspaper Stories of Rick Bragg  . New York: Vintage Books, 2001.
  16. Jump up ^  “The Corn Parade”. History Matters. George Mason University. Retrieved 27 August of 2010.

BELFAST CITY HALL

Belfast City Hall  is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, is on the north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas in the city center.

History

The White Linen Hall, and Linen Hall Library as it was in 1888. Now replaced by City Hall.

The site is now occupied by the Belfast City Hall was once the home of the White Linen Hall, an important international linen exchange. The street that runs from the back door of Belfast City Hall through the middle of linen Quarter’s Linen Hall Street.  [2]

Plans for the City Hall began in 1888 when Belfast was granted city status by Queen Victoria. This was in recognition of Belfast’s rapid expansion and thriving linen, rope-making, shipbuilding and engineering industries. During this period passed Belfast Dublin cards as the most populous city in Ireland. [3]

Construction began in 1898 under the supervision of architect Sir Alfred Brumwell Thomas and was completed in 1906 at a cost of £ 369 tusen.Belfast Corporation (now Council) used their profits from the gas industry to pay for the building of the Belfast City Hall. Local firms H & J Martin and WH Stephens were among those involved in the construction business. James G. Gamble, architect, was clerk of works.

City Hall in Durban, South Africa almost an exact copy of Belfast City Hall.  [4] It was built in 1910 and designed by Stanley G. Hudson, who was inspired by Belfast design. The Port of Liverpool Building, designed by Arnold Thornley and was completed in 1913, is another very close relative.  [5]

August 1, 2006 celebrated the City Hall its centenary with a “Century of Memories” exhibit and family picnic day.  [6]

On December 3, 2012 the City Council voted to limit the days that the Union Flag flies from City Hall to a maximum of 18 designated days. Since 1906, the flag flown every day of the year. The move was supported by the Council of Irish nationalist members of the Council and the Alliance Party Council. It objected to the union council, which had a majority in the Council until the Northern Ireland local elections in 2011. On the night of the vote, union and pro-government demonstrators tried to storm the town hall. They held protests across Northern Ireland, some of which turned violent.  [7]

Exterior

The grounds of the City Hall is popular for relaxation during the summer. In the background is the dome of Victoria Square and Belfast Wheel.

The exterior is built mainly from Portland stone and is in Baroque Revival style. It covers an area of one and a half acres and has an enclosed courtyard.

With towers at each of the four corners, with a lantern -crowned 173 feet (53 m) copper dome in the center dominates the city hall downtown skyline. Like other Victorian buildings in the city center, the town hall copper-clad domes are a distinctive green.

The  Titanic  Memorial in Belfast located on the grounds of Belfast City Hall.

The pediment sculpture is by FW Pomeroy, assisted by local Carver J. Edgar Winter, and on the back of the current line of £ 10, £ 20, £ 50 and £ 100 sterling bank notes issued avNorthern Bank.  [8]

The design of the building is reminiscent of the Old Bailey in London.  [ Citation needed ]  

Highlighting projects

Floodlights have been added to City Hall to illuminate the building in a variety of colors and combinations. Using the same technology as the Empire State Building in New York, a white light is applied to the building, after dusk, and there will also be “color-washed” on special dates.  [9]

Belfast City Hall is lit green for the annual St. Patrick’s Day celebration

Opportunity Date Color
Belfast Pride Saturday, July 6, 2013 Rainbow
orange Fest Friday, July 12, 2013 Orange and purple
Polish Independence Day Monday, November 11, 2013 red and white
Chinese New Year Friday, January 31, 2014 Red and yellow
Valentine’s Day Friday, February 14, 2014 RED
International Women’s Day Saturday, March 8, 2014 Purple
St. Patrick’s Day Monday, March 17, 2014 Green
May 1 Monday, May 5, 2014 RED
The Queen’s official birthday To be confirmed – first or second Saturday in June 2014 Red, white and blue

Furnishings

The interior has a number of notable features including porte-cochere and the Grand Entrance, the grand staircase, reception room and the great hall. The latter was destroyed during the Belfast Blitz, and then rebuilt.

Carrara, Pavonazzo and Brescia bullets are used extensively throughout the building is stained glass window featuring among other Belfast Coat of Arms, portraits of Queen Victoria and William III and shields iprovinserna Ireland.

Various monuments are in the building, including those of Frederick Robert Chichester, Earl of Belfast, Sir Crawford and Lady McCullagh and 36th (Ulster) Division.

The gardens around City Hall is popular with office workers take their lunch during the summer months, as well as tourists and teenagers gather in their dozens to enjoy the green.

Various statues stands in the grounds, including the Queen Victoria by Sir Thomas Brock. There is also a granite column dedicated to American Expeditionary Force, many of which were based in Belfast before D-Day.

Brock has also designed the marble figure of  Thane  , the Titanic Memorial in the memorial to victims of the sinking of the RMS  Titanic  . The ship was built at the Harland and Wolff’s shipyard located in the eastern part of the city. The monument was originally located at the front gate to the town hall, at the junction of Donegall Square North and Donegall Place.

There is a memorial to Sir Edward Harland, former head of the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast and mayor from 1885 to 1886. It also sculpted by Thomas Brock. [10]

The grounds also house Northern Ireland’s largest war memorial, The Garden of Remembrance and the Cenotaph, where wreaths laid on Remembrance Day.

James Magennis VC, the only Northern Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, is also celebrated in the grounds. Leading Seaman won the medal while serving in the Far East in 1945. A 6-foot-high (1.8 m) memorial Magennis, made of Portland stone and bronze, standing in front of city hall. It was built in 1999.

3 January 2006 ratified Belfast City Councillors a plan to erect a statue to the late Belfast footballer George Best in the grounds of City Hall. After approval from the Best family, George Best Memorial trust was created in December 2006. The trust protector David Healy contributed £ 1,000 to the estimated total cost of £ 200,000.  [11]

In October 2007, a 60 m Ferris wheel was built on the plot, which gives passengers panoramic view 200 feet (61 m) above the city. The wheel had 42 air-conditioned capsules, which can contain up to six adults and two children.The wheel finally ended at 18:00 April 11, 2010 and was removed in May 2010.  [12]

In 2008 Imjin River Memorial was moved here when Patrick’s Barracks in Ballymena closed. The monument celebrates the Irish  [13]  troops lost the battle of Chaegunghyon in January 1951 during the Korean War.  [14]

  • Under construction
  • Belfast – Titanic Memorial
  • In building
  • Monument to Queen Victoria
  • Lord Dufferin monuments
  • Statue of Edward James Harland, founder avHarland and Wolff
  • Memorial James Magennis VC (2004)
  • Showing Belfast City Hall with the Belfast Wheel aside, since March 2010
  • Statue of James Horner Haslett, Mayor of Belfast (1887-1888)
  • Statue of Sir Daniel Dixon, first mayor of Belfast (1892-1893, 1901-1904 and 1905-1907)
  • Statue of William James Pirrie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1896-1898)
  • Statue of Robert James McMordie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1910-1914)

References

  1. Jump up ^Brett, CEB Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914. Page 67. Friar Bush Press, Belfast, 1985.
  2. Jump up ^The Linen Hall Library, one of Belfast’s oldest cultural institutions, which occupies a place in Donegal Square North in front of City Hall today, began life within the walls of the White Linen Hall.
  3. Jump up ^The Victorian Web, National University of Singapore.Victorianweb.org (12 September 2006).
  4. Jump up ^BBC Schools website. co.uk.
  5. Jump up ^Brett, CEB  Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914  . Belfast Friar Bush Press, 1985;  65.
  6. Jump up ^BBC news. BBC News (1 August 2006).
  7. Jump up ^“Violence in Belfast after the Council votes to change the flag of the EU policy,”  BBC News  3 December 2012 Retrieved 5 December 2012
  8. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland”. Ron Wise’s Banknote World. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October of 2008.
  9. Jump up ^Belfast City Hall – Belfast City Council. gov.uk (1 August 1906).
  10. Jump up ^Belfast City Council.gov.uk.
  11. Jump up ^BBC News (30 January 2007).
  12. Jump up ^Belfast City Council Archive March 17, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Jump up ^  “Royal Ulster Rifles Korean Memorial”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “War Memorial Trust”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.

Belfast

Belfast ( / b ɛ l . F ɑː s t / eller / b ɛ l . F æ s t / , från Irish : Béal Feirste , som betyder ” mun av sandbankar “) [11] är huvudstad och största staden Nordirland , och i mitten av den tionde största Primär stadsgränsen i Storbritannien . [12] på Lagan , hade en befolkning på 286 tusen vid folkräkningen 2011 och 333.871 efter 2015 reform av rådet [1] Belfast beviljades stadsrättigheter 1888.

Belfast var ett centrum för de irländska linne , tobak, repslageri och varvsindustrin: i början av 20-talet, Harland and Wolff , som byggde RMS Titanic , var den största och mest produktiva varv i världen. Belfast spelade en nyckelroll i den industriella revolutionen , och var en global industrikoncern centrum förrän under senare delen av 20-talet.Industrialiseringen och inflyttning det tog gjort Belfast den största staden i Irland i början av 20-talet.

Idag är Belfast ett centrum för industrin, liksom konsten, högre utbildning, näringsliv, och lag, och är den ekonomiska motorn i Nordirland. Staden drabbades hårt under period av konflikter som kallas ” oroligheterna “, men på senare tid har genomgått en lång period av lugn, fri från den intensiva politiska våld av tidigare år, och betydande ekonomiska och kommersiella tillväxt. Dessutom, Belfast centrum har genomgått omfattande expansion och förnyelse under de senaste åren, särskilt runt Victoria Square .

Belfast har två flygplatser: George Best Belfast City Airport i staden, och Belfast International Airport 15 miles (24 km) väster om staden. Belfast är en stor hamn, med kommersiella och industriella bryggor dominerar Belfast Lough kusten, inklusive Harland and Wolff varvet och är noterat av Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) som englobal stad . [13]

Namn

Namnet Belfast kommer från den irländska Béal Feirsde , som senare stavat Béal Feirste . [14] Ordet Beal betyder “mun” eller “rivermouth” medan feirsde / feirste är genitiv singularis av fearsaid och hänvisar till en sandrev eller tidvatten ford över en flod mun. [14] [15] namnet skulle alltså översätta ordagrant som “(flod) mynning sandrev” eller “(flod) mynning ford”. [14] Denna sandrev bildades vid sammanflödet av två floder på vad är nu Donegall Quay: den Lagan , som rinner ut i Belfast Lough och dess biflod Farset . Detta område var det nav kring vilket den ursprungliga bosättningen utvecklas. [16] Den irländska namn Béal Feirste delas av en townland i County Mayo , vars namn har anglicized somBelfarsad . [17]

En alternativ tolkning av namnet är “mun [floden] av sandrev”, en anspelning på floden Farset, som rinner ut i Lagan där sandrev var belägen. Denna tolkning gynnades avEdmund Hogan och John O’Donovan . [18] Det verkar dock klart, att själva floden fick sitt namn efter den tidvatten korsningen. [14]

I Ulster Scots namnet på staden är Bilfawst [19] [20] eller Bilfaust , [21] även om “Belfast” används också. [22] [23]

Historia

Huvudartikel: History of Belfast

Även om länet stad i Belfast skapades när den beviljades stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888, [24] staden fortsätter att ses som gränsöverskridande County Antrim ochCounty Down . [25]

Origins

Platsen för Belfast har varit ockuperat sedan bronsåldern . Den Giant Ring , en 5000-årig henge , ligger nära staden, [26] och resterna av järnåldern fornborgar kan fortfarande ses i de omgivande bergen. Belfast förblev en liten bosättning av liten betydelse under medeltiden . John de Courcy byggt ett slott på vad som nu är Castle Street i stadens centrum på 12-talet, men det var i mindre skala och inte så strategiskt viktigt som Carrickfergus Castle till norr, som byggdes av de Courcy i 1177. O’Neill klanen hade en närvaro i området.

I den 14: e århundradet, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, ättlingar Aodh Buidhe O’Neill byggde Grey slott på Castlereagh, nu i östra delen av staden. [27] Conn O’Neill av Clannaboy O’Neills ägde stora landområden i området och var den sista invånare i Grey slott, en kvarvarande länk vara Conn Water flod som rinner genom östra Belfast. [28]

Tillväxt

Belfast blev en betydande lösning i 17-talet efter att ha etablerats som en stad av Sir Arthur Chichester , [29] som ursprungligen avgjordes av protestantiska engelska och skotska invandrare vid tidpunkten för Plantation of Ulster . (Belfast och länet Antrim, dock inte en del av denna Plantation system som de privatkoloniserade.) 1791, den United Irishmen grundades i Belfast, efter Henry Joy McCracken och andra framstående presbyterian från staden inbjuden Theobald Wolfe Tone och Thomas Russell till ett möte, efter att ha läst Tone s “Argument på uppdrag av katolikerna i Irland”. [30] Bevis på denna period av Belfast tillväxt kan fortfarande ses i de äldsta delarna av staden, som kallas inlägg .

Belfast blommade som en kommersiellt och industriellt centrum i den 18: e och 19-talen och blev Irlands framstående industristad. Industrier frodades, inklusive linne, repslageri, tobak, tung industri och varvsindustrin, och i slutet av 19-talet, gick om Belfast kort Dublin som den största staden i Irland. De Harland and Wolff varv blev en av de största skeppsbyggare i världen, som sysselsätter upp till 35.000 arbetare. [31] I 1886 staden drabbades intensiva upplopp i frågan om självstyre, som hade delat staden. [32]

I 1920-1922, blev Belfast huvudstad i den nya enheten i Nordirland som ön Irland delades . Den medföljande konflikten (den irländska frihetskriget ) kosta upp till 500 liv i Belfast, den blodigaste sekteristiska stridigheter i staden tills oroligheterna i slutet av 1960-talet. [33]

Belfast var kraftigt bombat under andra världskriget . I en räd, 1941, tyska bombplan dödade cirka tusen personer och lämnade tiotusentals hemlösa. Bortsett från London, var detta den största förlusten av liv i en nattrazzia under blitzen . [34]

Besvärar

Huvudartikel: De Troubles

Belfast har varit huvudstad i Nordirland sedan starten 1921 efter Government of Ireland Act 1920 . Det hade varit skådeplats för olika episoder av sekteristiska konflikt mellan dess katolska och protestantiska befolkning. Dessa motsatta grupper i denna konflikt nu ofta benämns republikan ochloyalist respektive, även om de är också löst kallade ” nationalistisk ” och ” fackförenings ‘. Det senaste exemplet på denna konflikt var känd som besvärar – en civil konflikt som rasade från cirka 1969 till 1998. [35]

1972 Donegall Street bombningarav provisoriska IRA

Belfast såg några av de värsta oroligheterna i Nordirland, särskilt under 1970-talet, med rivaliserande paramilitära grupper som bildats på båda sidor. Bombning, lönnmord och gatuvåld bildade en bakgrund till liv under oroligheterna. Den provisoriska IRA detonerade 22 bomber inom ramarna för Belfast centrum på 1972, på vad som är känt som ” blodiga fredagen “, dödade elva personer. Regeringstrogna paramilitärer inklusive Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) och Ulster Defence Association (UDA) hävdade att dödandet de genomförts var i vedergällning för IRA kampanjen . De flesta av deras offer var katoliker utan kopplingar till den provisoriska IRA. [36] En särskilt ökänd grupp, baserat på Shankill Road i mitten av 1970-talet, blev känd som Shankill Butchers .

Sammanlagt var över 1600 personer dödats i politiskt våld i staden mellan 1969 och 2001. [37] Sporadiska våldsamma händelser fortsätter från och med 2015 , även om det inte stöds av de tidigare antagonisterna som hade nått en politisk överenskommelse 1998.

Styre

Belfast beviljades stad status av Jakob I av England i 1613 och officiellt stadsrättigheter av drottning Victoria i 1888. [38] Sedan 1973 har det varit en lokal styrningområde under lokal administrering av Belfast kommunfullmäktige .[39] Belfast är representerat i både det brittiska underhuset och i Nordirlands beslutande församling . För val till Europaparlamentet , är Belfast i Nordirland valkretsen .

Lokala myndigheter

Belfast kommunfullmäktige är kommunen som ansvarar för staden. Stadens förtroendevalda är borgmästare Belfast , biträdande borgmästare och höga Sheriff som väljs bland 60fullmäktigeledamöter . Den första överborgmästare i Belfast var Daniel Dixon, som valdes i 1892. [40] Den borgmästare för 2016-17 är Alderman Brian Kingston i Demokratiska unionistparti , medan vice borgmästaren är Mary Ellen Campbell av Sinn Féin , både varav valdes i juni 2016 för att avtjäna ett år i taget. The Lord Mayor uppgifter hör ordförande över rådets möten, ta emot framstående besökare till staden, och företräda och främja staden på nationell och internationell nivå. [40]

1997, unionister förlorade övergripande kontroll över Belfast kommunfullmäktige för första gången i sin historia, med Alliance parti Nordirland vinner maktbalansen mellan nationalister och unionister. Denna ståndpunkt bekräftades i de tre efterföljande Valen, med borgmästare från Sinn Féin och socialdemokratiska och arbetarpartiet (SDLP), vilka båda är nationalistiska partier, och eftersom mellan befolkningsgrupperna alliansparti väljs regelbundet. Den första nationalistiska överborgmästare i Belfast var Alban Maginness av SDLP, 1997.

De senaste valen till Belfast kommunfullmäktige hölls den 22 maj 2014 med stadens väljare val sextio råds över tio distrikt val- områden . Resultaten var: 19 (3) Sinn Féin, 13 (-2)Demokratiska unionistparti (DUP), 8 (2) Alliance Party , 7 (-1) SDLP , 7 (4) Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) , 3 (1) Progressiv Unionist Party (PUP), med traditionella Unionist Voice . gröna ochmänniskor före vinst Alliance alla vinnande deras första platser. [41]

Belfast råd deltar i vänortssystemet , [42] och kopplas samman med Nashville i USA, [43] Hefei i Kina, [44] och Boston i USA. [45] [46]

Nordirländska församlingen och Westminster

Stormont är hem till den nordirländska församlingen.

För mer information om detta ämne, se Nordirland Montering och Storbritanniens parlament .

Se även: Belfast (Nordirland parlamentets valkretsar) och Belfast (UK parlamentvalkretsen)

Som Nordirlands huvudstad, är Belfast värd för nordirländska församlingen på Stormont , platsen för den decentraliserade lagstiftaren för Nordirland. Belfast är indelad i fyra Nordirland Montering och brittiska parlaments valkretsar: North Belfast , West Belfast , South Belfast och östra Belfast . Alla fyra sträcker sig utanför stadsgränserna för att inkludera delar avCastlereagh , Lisburn och Newtownabbey distrikt. I Nordirland Monterings Val i 2016 , valdes Belfast 24 medlemmar av den lagstiftande församlingen (MLAs), 6 från varje valkrets . Belfast valdes åtta DUP , 7 Sinn Féin , 3 SDLP , 3 Alliance Party , ett UUP , en grön och en PBPA MLAs. [47] I 2015 brittiska allmänna valet, valde Belfast en MP från varje valkrets till huset vid Westminster , London. Detta bestod av 2 DUP, en SDLP, och en Sinn Féin. [48]

Vapenskölden och motto

Belfast vapen antogs 1890

Staden Belfast har latinska motto ” Pro tanto quid retribuamus .” Detta är hämtat från Psaltaren 116 Vers 12 i den latinska Vulgate bibeln och är bokstavligen “För så mycket vad ska vi återbetala” Versen har översatts i biblar annorlunda – till exempel som “Vad skall jag göra till Herren för alla sina fördelar mot mig? “. [49] det är också översatt som” i gengäld så mycket, vad skall vi ge tillbaka? ” [50] den Queens University Students ‘Union Rag Week publikation PTQ har fått sitt namn från de tre första orden i mottot .

Den vapenskölden av staden utformades av John Vinycomb och skildras som Party per fesse argent och azurblå, chef en hög gråverk och på en kanton Gules en klocka argent, i botten ett skepp med segel satt argent på vågorna i havet korrekt . Denna heraldiska språk beskriver en sköld som är uppdelad i två horisontellt ( part per fesse ). Den övre ( chef ) av skärmen är silver ( argent ), och har en punkt-down triangel ( en stapel ) med en repeterande blå-vitt mönster som representerar päls ( Vair ). Det finns också en röd fyrkant i det övre hörnet ( en kantonen gules ) på vilken det finns en silverklocka. Det är troligt att klockan är ett exempel här på “sned” (eller punning) heraldik, som representerar den första stavelsen i Belfast. I den nedre delen av skärmen ( i bas ) finns en silver segelfartyg visas seglar på vågorna färgade i de faktiska färgerna i havet ( korrekt ). Den supporter på “Dexter” sida (höger sida, att notera att i heraldik “rätt och” vänster “är från bäraren av skölden perspektiv) är en kedjad wolf, medan den” illavarslande “(till vänster från innehavarens perspektiv) är en sjöhäst. den krönetovanför skärmen är också en sjöhäst. Dessa armar går tillbaka till 1613, när Jakob i av England beviljade Belfast stad status. den tätningen som används av Belfast köpmän hela 17-talet på sina skyltar och handels-mynt. [51] ett stort blyinfattade fönster i stads~~POS=TRUNC visar armarna, där en förklaring antyder att sjöhäst och fartyget avser Belfast betydande maritima historia. vargen kan vara en hyllning till stadens grundare, Sir Arthur Chichester , och hänvisar till sin egen vapensköld. [51]

Geografi

Flygfoto över Belfast.

Belfast är i den västra delen av Belfast Lough och vid mynningen av floden Lagan ger det en idealisk plats för varvsindustrin som en gång gjorde det berömda. När Titanic byggdes i Belfast i 1911-1912, Harland and Wolff hade den största varvet i världen. [52] Belfast ligger på Nordirlands östra kust vid 54 ° 35’49 “N 05 ° 55’45” W . En konsekvens av denna nordliga breddgrad är att det både tål korta vinterdagar och har långa sommarkvällar. Under vintersolståndet , är lokal solnedgång den kortaste dagen på året före 16:00 medan soluppgången är ca 08:45.Detta balanseras av sommarsolståndet i juni, när solen går ner efter 22:00 och stiger före 05:00. [53]

OpenStreetMap Belfast

År 1994 en fördämning byggdes över floden från Laganside Corporation att höja den genomsnittliga vattennivån så att det skulle täcka de opassande lera lägenheter som gav Belfast sitt namn [54] (från irländsk Béal Feirste , som betyder “Sand ford på mynningen “). [15] området Belfast Local Government District är 42,31 kvadrat miles (109,6 km 2 ). [55]

Den floden Farset är också uppkallad efter detta slam insättning (från den irländska Feirste betyder “sand spotta”). Ursprungligen en större flod än vad det är idag, Farset bildade en brygga på High Street fram till mitten av 19-talet. Bank Street i stadens centrum hänvisade till älvstranden och Bridge Street namngavs för platsen för en tidig Farset bro. [56] Ersatt av floden Lagan som viktigare floden i staden, försmäktar i Farset nu i dunkel, enligt high Street. Det finns inte mindre än elva andra mindre vattendrag i och runt Belfast, nämligen Blackstaff, Colin, den Connswater, den Cregagh, den Derriaghy, Forth, Knock, den Legoniel, den Milewater, den Purdysburn och Ravernet. [57 ]

Cavehill , en basalt kulle med utsikt över staden

Staden omges i norr och nordväst av en rad kullar, inklusive Divis Mountain , Black Mountain och Cavehill , tros vara inspirationen för Jonathan Swift’s Gullivers resor . När Swift bodde på Lilliput stuga nära botten av Belfasts Kalksten Road, inbillade han att Cavehill liknade formen av en sovande jätte skydda staden. [58] Formen på jätte näsa, som lokalt kallas Napoleons näsa , officiellt kallas McArt Fort namnges förmodligen efter konst O’Neill, en 17-tals hövdingen som kontrollerade området vid den tiden. [59] de Castlereagh Hills utsikt över staden på den sydöstra.

Klimat

Liksom resten av Irland, har Belfast en tempererat eller havsklimat, med ett smalt intervall av temperaturer och regn under hela året. Klimatet i Belfast är betydligt mildare än vissa andra platser i världen på en liknande latitud, på grund av uppvärmningen påverkan av Golfströmmen. Det finns för närvarande 5 väder observera stationer i Belfast: Helens Bay, Stormont, Newforge, Castlereagh och Ravenhill Road. Lite längre bort är Aldergrove Airport. [60] Den högsta uppmätta temperaturen vid någon officiell väderstation i Belfast var 30,8 ° C (87 ° F) vid Shaws Bridge den 12 juli 1983. [61] Belfast innehar rekordet för Nordirlands varmaste natten minst 19,6 ° C (67,3 ° F) vid Whitehouse den 14 augusti 2001. [62]

Staden blir kraftig nederbörd (större än 1 mm) på 157 dagar i ett genomsnittligt år med en genomsnittlig årlig nederbörd på 846 mm (33,3 tum), [63] mindre än områden i norra England eller de flesta av Skottland , [61] , men högre än Dublin eller sydöstra kusten av Irland. [64] Som en urban och kustområde, Belfast blir vanligtvis snö på färre än 10 dagar per år. [61] den absoluta maximala temperaturen vid väderstationen i Stormont är 29,7 ° C ( 85 ° F), utspelar sig under juli 1983. [65] i ett genomsnittligt år den varmaste dagen kommer att stiga till en temperatur av 24,4 ° C (75,9 ° F) [66] med en dag av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller ovan inträffar ungefär en gång vartannat i tre år. [67] den absoluta minimitemperatur på Stormont är -9,9 ° C (14 ° F), under januari 1982 [68] men i ett genomsnittligt år den kallaste natten faller lägre än -4,5 ° C (24 ° F) med luft frost registreras på bara 26 nätter. [69] Den lägsta temperaturen att inträffa under de senaste åren var -8,8 ° C (16,2 ° F) den 22 december 2010. [70]

Den närmaste väderstationen som solsken data och långsiktiga observationer längre finns är Belfast International Airport ( Aldergrove ). Extrema temperaturer här har något mer variation på grund av den mer inre platsen. Den genomsnittliga varmaste dag på Alder exempelvis kommer att nå en temperatur av 25,4 ° C (77,7 ° F), [71] (1,0 ° C [1,8 ° F] högre än Stormont) och 2,1 dagar [72] bör uppnå en temperatur av 25,1 ° C (77,2 ° F) eller högre totalt.Omvänt den kallaste natten medel år -6,6 ° C (20,1 ° F) [73] (eller 1,9 ° C [3,4 ° F] lägre än Stormont) och 39 nätter bör registrera en luft frost. [74] Några 13 mer frostiga nätter än Stormont. Den lägsta temperatur vid Alder var -14,2 ° C (6 ° F), under december 2010.

Areas and Districts

Main article: Subdivisions in Belfast

For more information about the City Layout, see § Transport in Belfast city layout.

Belfast expanded very rapidly from being a market town to become an industrial town during the 19th century. Because of this, it is less an agglomeration of villages and cities that have expanded into each other, than other comparable cities, such as Manchester or Birmingham. The city expanded into the natural barrier of the hills that surround it, overwhelming other settlements. Accordingly roads along which the expansion took place (e.g., Falls Road or Newtownards Road) is greater than in the districts define nuclear settlements. Belfast is still segregated by walls, commonly known as the “peace lines”, built by the British army after August 1969, and which still divide 14 districts in the inner city. [79] In 2008, a process was proposed for the removal of “peace walls”. [80] In June 2007, a £ 16 million program announced that will change and clean up the streets and public places in the center. [81] Major thoroughfares (quality bus corridor) in the city include the Antrim Road, Shore Road, Holywood Road, Newtownards Road , Castlereagh Road, Cregagh Road, Ormeau Road, Malone Road, Lisburn Road, Falls Road, Springfield Road, Shankill Road, and Crumlin Road, Four Winds. [82]

Belfast city center is divided into two postcode districts, BT1 for the area located north of the City Hall, and BT2 for the area in the south. Industrial and Docklands BT3. The rest of Belfast for the city is divided roughly clockwise systems from BB3 in northeast around to BT15, BT16 and BT17 with further out to the east and west respectively. ÄvenBT derived from Belfast, the BT postcode area stretches across Northern Ireland. [83]

Since 2001, boosted by increasing the number of tourists, the City Council has developed a number of cultural quarters. The Cathedral Quarter takes its name from St Anne’s Cathedral (Church of Ireland) and has taken on the mantle of the city’s most important cultural city. [84] It hosts an annual visual and performing arts festival.

Custom House Square is one of the city’s largest outdoor places for free concerts and street entertainment. The Gaeltacht Quarter is an area around the Falls Road in West Belfast which promotes and encourages the use of the Irish language. [85] The Queen’s Quarter of South Belfast is named after Queens University. The area has a high proportion of students and hosts the annual Belfast Festival at Queens every autumn. It is home to botanical gardens and the Ulster Museum, which reopened in 2009 after extensive refurbishment. [86] The Golden Mile is the name of the mile between Belfast City Hall and Queen’s University. With the Dublin Road, Great Victoria Street, Shaftesbury Square, Bradbury Place, contains some of the best bars and restaurants in the city. [87] Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the nearby Lisburn Road has developed into the city’s most exclusive shopping strip. [88] [89] Finally, the Titanic Quarter covers 0.75 km 2 (0 sq mi) of reclaimed land adjacent to Belfast Harbour, formerly known as the Queen of Iceland. Named after the RMS Titanic, which was built here in 1912, [52] work has begun which promises to transform some former shipyard land into “one of the largest waterfront development in Europe”. [90] The plans include apartments, a river entertainment district, and a major Titanic-themed museum. [90]

Cityscape

Architecture

Main articles: Architecture Belfast, Buildings in Belfast, and List of tallest buildings and structures in Belfast

The architectural style of Belfast buildings ranging from Edwardian, like City Hall, the mother, who Waterfront Hall. Many of the city’s Victorian landmarks, including the viktigasteLanyon building at Queens University Belfast and Line Hall Library, designed by Sir Charles Lanyon.

City Hall was completed in 1906 and was built to reflect Belfast city status, granted by Queen Victoria in 1888. The Edwardian architectural style of Belfast City Hall influenced Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, India, and Durban City Hall in South Africa. [91] [92] The dome is 173 feet (53 m) high and numbers above the door state “Hibernia encouraging and promoting commerce and art in the city.” [93]

Among the city’s most beautiful buildings are two former banks: Ulster Bank in Waring Street (built in 1860) and Northern Bank, in nearby Donegall Street (built in 1769). The Royal Courts of Justice in Chichester Street is home to Northern Ireland’s highest court. Many of Belfast’s oldest buildings are the Cathedral Quarter area, which is currently undergoing redevelopment as the city’s largest cultural and tourist area. [84] Windsor House, 262 feet (80 m) high, has 23 floors and is the second tallest building (as opposed to the structure) in Ireland. [94] Work has begun on longer Obel Tower, which already surpasses the height of the Windsor House in its unfinished state.

Scottish Provident Institution, an example of Victorian architecture in Belfast

Ornately decorated Crown Liquor Saloon, designed by Joseph Anderson in 1876, in Great Victoria Street is one of only two pubs in the UK owned by the National Trust (the other is the George Inn, Southwark in London). It was made internationally famous as the setting for the classic film, Odd Man Out, starring James Mason. [95] The restaurant panels in the Crown Bar was originally made for Britannic, the sister ship of the Titanic, [93] built in Belfast.

Harland and Wolff shipyard has two of the largest dry docks in Europe, [96], where giant cranes, Samson and Goliath stand out against Belfast’s skyline. Including Waterfront Hall and the Odyssey Arena, Belfast has several other venues for the performing arts. The architecture of the Grand Opera House has an oriental theme and was completed in 1895. It was bombed several times during the unrest, but has now been restored to its former glory. [97] The Lyric Theatre, (re-opened May 1, 2011 after undergoing a refurbishment program) is the only full-time producing theater in the country, where film star Liam Neeson began his career. [98] The Ulster Hall (1859-1862) was originally designed for large dances but now mainly used as a concert and sporting venue. Lloyd George, Parnell and Patrick Pearse all attended political rallies there. [93]

Parks and gardens

Main article: List of parks and gardens in Belfast

Palm House in Botanic Gardens

Sitting at the mouth of the River Lagan where it becomes a deep and protected lough, Belfast is surrounded by mountains that create a microclimate that promotes horticulture. From the Victorian Botanic Gardens in the heart of the city to the heights of Cave Hill Country Park, the large expanse of Lagan Valley Regional Park [99] to Colin Glen, Belfast contains an abundance of park and forest parks. [100]

Parks and gardens are an integral part of Belfast’s heritage, and home to an abundance of local wildlife and popular places for a picnic, a stroll or a jog. A large number of events take place throughout including festivals such as Rose Week and special activities such as bird watching evenings and great beast hunts. [100]

Belfast has over forty public parks. Forest of Belfast is a partnership between the state and local groups in 1992 to manage and conserve the city’s parks and open spaces. They have ordered more than 30 public sculptures since 1993. [101] In 2006, the City Council set aside £ 8 million to continue this work. [102] The Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club was founded in 1863 and is administered by the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. [103]

With an average of 670,000 visitors per year between 2007 and 2011, is one of the most popular parks, the Botanic Gardens, [104] in the Queen’s Quarter. Built in 1830 and designed by Sir Charles Lanyon, Botanic Gardens Palm House is one of the earliest examples of a curvilinear and cast iron greenhouse. [105] Other attractions in the park include the Tropical Ravine, a humid jungle glen built in 1889, rose gardens and public events ranging from live opera broadcasts to pop concerts. [106] U2 played here in 1997. Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park, south of the city center, attracts thousands of visitors each year to its International Rose Garden. [107] Rose the week of July each year features over 20,000 summer. [108] It has an area of 128 acres (0.52 km 2) by meadows, forests and gardens and has a Diana memorial garden, a Japanese garden, a walled garden, and Golden Crown Fountain commissioned in 2002 as part of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee celebrations. [107]

In 2008, Belfast finalist in the big city (200,001 and over) category of the RHS Britain in Bloom competition along with the London Borough of Croydon and Sheffield.

Belfast Zoo is owned by Belfast City Council. The Council spends £ 1.5 million each year to run and promote the zoo, which is one of the few local government-funded zoos in the UK and Ireland. The zoo is one of the best visit the attractions of Northern Ireland, which receives more than 295,000 visitors per year. The majority of the animals are endangered in their natural habitat. The zoo houses more than 1,200 animals of 140 species, including Asian elephants, Barbary lions, Malayan sun bears (one of the few in the UK), two species of penguin, a family of western lowland gorilla, a squad common chimpanzees, a pair of red pandas , a pair of Goodfellow tree-kangaroos and Francois’ langurs. The zoo also carries out important conservation work and participates in European and international breeding programs that help to ensure the survival of many endangered species. [109]

Demography

For more information on this topic, see List of people from Belfast.

Ethnic groups in the census 2011

White (96.7%)

Asian (2.2%)

Black (0.4%)

Mixed (0.5%)

Others (0.2%)

Irish Member (0.08%)

At the 2001 census, the population was 276,459, [110] whereas 579.554 people lived in the wider Belfast Metropolitan Area. [111] This was the fifteenth largest city in the UK, but the eleventh largest metropolitan region. [112] Belfast experienced a huge growth in population in the first half of the twentieth century. This increase subsided and reached around the beginning of the unrest in 1971 census shows nearly 600,000 people in Belfast city limits. [113] Since then, the inner city numbers have dropped dramatically as people have moved to swell the Greater Belfast suburb population. The 2001 census population in the city limits had dropped to 277.391 [110] people, with 579.554 people living in the greater Belfast Metropolitan Area. [111] The 2001 census registered 81.650 people from Catholic backgrounds and 79.650 people from Protestant backgrounds in working age live in Belfast. [114] The population density in 2011 was 24.88 people / hectare (compared to 1.34 for the rest of Northern Ireland). [115] Like many cities, Belfast city center is characterized today by the elderly, students and single young people, while families tend to live in the periphery. Socio-economic areas radiate out from the Central Business District, with a pronounced wedge of prosperity extends Malone Road and Upper Malone Road in the south. [113] An area of greater loss extends to the west of the city. The areas around the Falls and Shankill Roads are the most deprived wards in Northern Ireland. [116]

Despite a period of relative peace, most areas and districts of Belfast still reflect the divided nature of Northern Ireland as a whole. Many areas are still very segregated along ethnic, political and religious lines, especially in working-class areas. [117] These zones – Catholic / Republican on the one hand and the Protestant / Loyalist on the other – is always marked by flags, graffiti and murals. Segregation has existed throughout the history of Belfast, but has been maintained and increased by any outbreak of violence in the city. This escalation of segregation, described as a “ratchet effect”, have shown few signs of easing. [118] When violence flares, it tends to be in interface areas. The highest levels of segregation in the city are in West Belfast with many areas greater than 90% Catholics. Opposite but comparatively high levels seen in predominantly Protestant east Belfast. [119] Areas where segregated working-class areas meet is called interface areas and sometimes marked by peace lines.

Ethnic minority communities have been in Belfast since the 1930s. [120] The largest groups are Poles, Chinese and Indians. [121] [122] Since the enlargement of the EU, the numbers have increased by an influx of Eastern European immigrants. Census figures (2011) showed that Belfast has a total non-white population of 10,219, or 3.3%, [122] while 18,420, or 6.6% [121] of the population born outside the UK and Ireland. [121] Nearly half of those born outside the UK and Ireland live in South Belfast, where they make up 9.5% of the population. [121] Most of the estimated 5,000 Muslims [123] and 200 Hindu families [124] living in Northern Ireland living in the Greater Belfast area.

Judging by the fact that 6.6% of the population was born outside the UK, it is likely that Belfast is approximately 92.5% White Irish / British and 3.3% non-white. This makes the city about as ethnically diverse as Sunderland and York.

Belfast City Council area in 2011 census
pOPULATION dENSITY
Percent Catholic or raised Catholic
The most cited national identity
Percentage of people born outside the UK and Ireland

Economy

Main article: Economy of Belfast

The IRA ceasefire in 1994 and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 has given investors confidence to invest in Belfast. [125] [126] This has led to a period of sustained economic growth and large-scale reconstruction of the city center. Developments include Victoria Square, the Cathedral Quarter, and Laganside with the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall.

Waterfront Hall. Built in 1997, is a concert hall, exhibition and conference center.

Other important developments include the regeneration of the Titanic Quarter, and the construction of the Obel Tower, a skyscraper set to be the tallest tower on the island. [127] Today, Belfast Northern Ireland educational and commercial hub. In February 2006, Belfast unemployment at 4.2%, lower than both Northern Ireland [128] and the average British 5.5%. [129] In the past 10 years, employment has grown by 16.4 percent, compared with 9.2 per cent for the UK as a whole. [130]

Northern Ireland’s peace has led to soaring property prices in the city. In 2007, Belfast saw house prices grow by 50%, the fastest growth rate in the UK. [131] In March 2007, the average house in Belfast cost £ 91,819, with the average in South Belfast is £ 141,000. [132] In 2004, Belfast had the lowest utilization owners in Northern Ireland at 54%. [133]

Fred has increased the number of tourists coming to Belfast. There were 6.4 million visitors in 2005, an increase of 8.5% from 2004. The visitors spent £ 285.2 million, supporting more than 15,600 jobs. [134] The number of visitors increased by 6% to 6.8 million in 2006, with tourists spending £ 324 million, an increase of 15% compared to 2005. [135] the city’s two airports have contributed to making the city one of the most visited weekend destinations in Europe. [136]

Belfast has been the fastest growing economy in the thirty largest cities in the UK over the past decade, a new economy report by Howard Spencer found. “It is because [of] the fundamentals of the UK economy, and [why] people actually want to invest in the UK,” he commented on the report. [137]

BBC Radio 4’s World reported furthermore that despite higher corporation tax in the UK than in the Republic. There are “large quantities” of foreign investment coming into the country.

Times wrote about Belfast’s growing economy: “According to the region’s development agency, in the 1990s Northern Ireland had the fastest growing regional economy in the UK, with GDP increasing by 1 percent per year faster than the rest of the country. any modern economy, the services sector is crucial for the development of Northern Ireland and enjoys good growth. in particular, the region has a thriving tourist industry with record levels of visitors and tourist revenues and has established itself as an important location for call centers. “[138] Since the end of the conflict areas, tourism has the biggest in Northern Ireland, heavily using low cost. [138]

Der Spiegel, a German weekly newspaper of politics and economy, titled Belfast as The New Celtic Tiger which is “open for business”. [139]

Industrial growth

A 1907 stereoscopic postcards showing the construction of a passenger liner (RMS Adriatic) at Harland and Wolff shipyard

As the population of Belfast town began to grow in the 17th century, its economy based on trade. [140] It provided a market for the surrounding countryside and the natural inlet of Belfast Lough gave the city its own port. Gateway delivered a route for trade with Britain and later Europe and North America. In the middle of the 17th century Belfast exported beef, butter, hides, tallow and corn and it imported coal, cloth, wine, brandy, paper, wood and tobacco. [140]

At this time, linen trade in Northern Ireland blossomed and in the mid-18th century, one fifth of all the linen exported from Ireland delivered from Belfast. [140] The present town, however, is a product of the industrial revolution. [141] it was not until industry transformed linen and shipbuilding industries as the economy and population greatest. At the turn of the 19th century, Belfast had turned into the largest linen producing center in the world, [142] earning the nickname “Linenopolis”.

Belfast Harbor was dredged in 1845 to provide deeper berths for larger ships. Donegall Quay was built out into the river when the harbor was developed further and trade flourished. [143] The Harland and Wolff shipyard was founded in 1861, and at the time the Titanic was built, in 1912, it had become the largest shipyard in the world. [52]

Samson and Goliath, Harland & Wolff’s gantry cranes.

Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company based in Belfast. It was the first aircraft manufacturing companies in the world. The company began its cooperation with Belfast in 1936, with short and Harland Ltd., a company jointly owned by Shorts and Harland and Wolff. Now known as Shorts Bombardier it works as an international aircraft manufacturer is located near the port of Belfast. [144]

The rise of mass-produced and cotton clothing after World War I were some of the factors that led to the decline of Belfast’s international linen trade. [142] Like many British cities dependent on traditional heavy industry, Belfast suffered serious decline since the 1960s, become much worse during the 1970s and 1980s by the unrest. More than 100,000 manufacturing jobs have disappeared since the 1970s. [145] For decades, requires Northern Ireland’s fragile economy significant public support from the British exchequer of up to £ 4 billion per year. [145]

Infrastructure

niversity of Ulster, Belfast Campus

Belfast saw the worst unrest in Northern Ireland, with almost half of the total deaths in the conflict occurring in the city. Since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, there has been a significant urban renewal in the city center, including Victoria Square, Queens Island and Laganside and the Odyssey complex and the landmark Waterfront Hall. The city has two airports: DenGeorge Best Belfast City Airport adjacent to Belfast Lough and Belfast International Airport which is near Lough Neagh. Queens University in Belfast is the largest university in staden.Den University of Ulster also maintains a campus in the city, which concentrates on art, design and architecture.

Belfast is one of the constituent towns that make up the Dublin-Belfast corridor region, which has a population of just under 3 million.

Utilities

Silent Valley Reservoir, showing the masonry spills

Most of Belfast’s water is supplied from the Silent Valley Reservoir in County Down, created to collect water from the Mourne Mountains. [146] The rest of the city’s water comes from Lough Neagh, via Dunore water treatment plant in County Antrim. [147] the citizens of Belfast pay for their water in their rates bill. Plans to bring in additional water tariffs have been shot divisional centralization in May 2007. [148] Belfast has about 1300 km (808 mi) of sewage, which is currently being replaced in a project costing over £ 100 million and will be completed in 2009. [149]

Northern Ireland Electricity is responsible for the transmission of electricity in Northern Ireland. Belfast electricity comes from Kilroot Power Station, a 520 megawatt dual coal and oil fired plant, located näraCarrickfergus. [147] Phoenix Natural Gas Ltd. began supplying customers in the Greater Belfast and Larne with natural gas in 1996 through the newly Scotland-Northern Ireland pipeline. [147] prices in Belfast (and the rest of Northern Ireland) was reformed in April 2007. The discrete capital value system means rates bills are determined by the capital value of each domestic property assessed avvärderings and Lands Agency. [150] The recent dramatic increase in house prices has made these reforms unpopular. [151]

health

The Belfast Health & Social Care Trust is one of five trusts created April 1, 2007 by the Department of Health. Belfast contains most of Northern Ireland’s regional specialist centers. [152] The Royal Victoria Hospital is an internationally recognized center of excellence in trauma care and provide specialized trauma care for the whole of Northern Ireland. [153] It also gives the city a specialist neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ENT and dental services. The Belfast City Hospital is the regional specialist center for hematology and is home to a cancer center that competes with the best in the world. [154] The Mary G McGeown Regional Nephrology Unit at the city hospital’s kidney transplant center, the regional renal services for Northern Ireland. [155] Musgrave Park Hospital in south Belfast specializes in orthopedics, rheumatology, sports medicine and rehabilitation. It is home to Northern Ireland first acquired brain injury unit, costing £ 9 million and opened by the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall in May 2006. [156] Other hospitals in Belfast include the Mater Hospital in north Belfast and Children’s Hospital

Transport

Main article: Transport in Belfast

Great Victoria Street station Northern Ireland Railways

Belfast is a relatively car-dependent city by European standards, with an extensive network of roads including the 22.5 miles (36 km) M2 and M22 motorway route. [157] A 2005 study of how people travel in Northern Ireland showed that people in Belfast made 77% of all journeys by car, 11% by public transport and 6% on foot. [158] it showed that Belfast has 0.70 cars per household compared to figures of 1.18 and 1.14 in the East in the Western Northern Ireland. [158] A road improvement systems in Belfast began in early 2006, with the upgrading of two junctions along West dual carriageway for overpass standard. The improvement scheme was completed five months earlier than planned in February 2009 with the official opening will take place on 4 March 2009. [159]

Commentators have argued that this could create a bottleneck at York Street, the next street intersection, until it also upgraded. [Citation needed] On October 25, 2012 Stage 2 report for York Street intersection approved [160] and in December 2012 planned upgrade moved into the third stage of the development process. If successfully completed the necessary statutory procedures, work on the flyover to connect the West to the M2 / M3 motorway is scheduled to take place between 2014 and 2018, [161] to create a continuous link between M1 and M2, the two main highways in Northern Ireland.

Black taxis are common in the city, which operates on a stock basis in some areas. [162] These outnumbered by private hire taxis. The bus and rail public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by a subsidiary of TransLink. Bus services in the city proper and the closer suburbs operated by Translink Metro, with services that focus on connecting residential areas with the city center in 12kvalitet bus corridors running along the main radial roads, [163]

More distant suburbs are served by Ulsterbus. Northern Ireland Railways provides suburban services along three lines running through Belfast’s northern suburbs to Carrickfergus, Larne and Larne Harbour eastwards towards Bangor and south west towards Lisburn and Portadown. This service is called the Belfast Suburban Rail system. Belfast is linked directly to Coleraine, Portrush and Derry. Belfast has a direct train to Dublin called Enterprise which is run jointly by the NIR and Iarnród Éireann, the national railway company of the Republic of Ireland. There is no train service to cities in other countries in the UK, because of the lack of a bridge or tunnel connecting Britain to the island of Ireland. However, there is a combined ferry and train ticket between Belfast and the cities in the UK, called Sail Rail. [164]

In April 2008, the Department for Regional Development, reported on a plan for a light rail system, similar to the one in Dublin. The consultants said Belfast do not have the population to support a tramway, which suggests that investment in bus-based rapid transit would be preferable.The study showed that bus-based rapid transit produces positive economic results, but light rail do not. The report by Atkins & KPMG, however, said that there would be an opportunity to migrate to the light rail in the future should the increased demand. [165] [166]

The city has two airports: Belfast International Airport offers domestic, European and international flights to Newark (New York) operated by United Airlines, Orlando and Las Vegas are both operated by Thomas Cook. The seasonal flight to Orlando is also operated by Virgin Atlantic. The airport is located northwest of the city, near Lough Neagh, while George Best Belfast City Airport, which is closer to the center by train from Sydenham påBangor Line, adjacent to Belfast Lough, offers UK domestic flights and some European flights. In 2005, Belfast International Airport was the 11th busiest commercial airport in the UK, which accounts for just over 2% of all UK terminal passengers while George Best Belfast City Airport was the 16th busiest and had a% of UK terminal passenger. Belfast – Liverpool route is the busiest domestic route in the UK, excluding London with 555.224 passengers in 2009. Over 2.2 million passengers flew between Belfast and London in 2009. [167]

Belfast has a large port used for exports and imports of goods and passenger ferry service. Stena Line operates regular routes to Cairnryan in Scotland using their conventional vessels – with an overpass of about 2 hours and 15 minutes. Until 2011, the route went to Stranraer and used, among other things, a HSS (High Speed Service) vessel – with a crossing of about 90 minutes. Stena Line also operates a route to Liverpool. A seasonal sailing to Douglas, Isle of Man operated by Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Belfast

AC / DC with Bon Scott (center) pictured with guitarist Angus Young (left) and bassist Cliff Williams (back), performing at the Ulster Hall in August 1979

Belfast’s population is evenly split between the Protestant and Catholic residents. [110] These two distinct cultural groups both have contributed greatly to the city’s culture. Full Troubles, Belfast artists continued to express themselves through poetry, art and music. In the period since the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, Belfast has begun a social, economic and cultural transformation gives it a growing international cultural reputation. [168] In 2003, Belfast had an unsuccessful bid for the 2008 European Capital of Culture. The bid was run by an independent company, Imagine Belfast, who boasted that it would “make the Belfast venue for Europe’s legends, where the sense of history and faith find a home and a sanctuary from caricature, parody and oblivion.” [169] According to The Guardian the bid may have been undermined by its history and volatile politics. [170]

2004-05, the arts and cultural events in Belfast attended 1.8 million people (400,000 more than last year). That same year, 80,000 people participated in cultural and arts activities, twice as many as in 2003-04. [171] A combination of relative peace, international investment and the active promotion of art and culture attract more tourists to Belfast than ever before. 2004-05, 5.9 million people visited Belfast, an increase of 10% compared with the previous year, and spent £ 262.5 million. [171]

The Beatles come to the Ritz Cinema, Belfast after their concert November 8 in 1963.

The Ulster Orchestra, based in Belfast, Northern Ireland is the only full-time symphony orchestra and is well known in the UK. Founded in 1966, it has existed in its present form since 1981, when the BBC Northern Orchestra disbanded. [172] The music school Queens University is responsible for arranging a remarkable series of lunchtime and evening concerts, often given by renowned musicians who usually given in Harty Room at the university (University Square).

There are many traditional Irish bands playing throughout the city and a lot of music schools concentrate on teaching traditional music. Well-known city center venues would include Kelly’s Cellars, Maddens and the Hercules bar. Famous artists would include McPeakes, Brian Kennedy and the band 9Lies.

Musicians and bands have written songs about or dedicated to Belfast: U2, Van Morrison, Snow Patrol, Simple Minds, Elton John, Rogue Male, Katie Melua, Boney M., Paul Muldoon, Stiff Little Fingers, Nanci Griffith, Glenn Patterson, Orbital James Taylor, Fun Boy Three, Spandau Ballet, The Police, Barnbrack, Gary Moore, Neon Neon, toxic waste, and energy Orchard.

Furthermore, in Belfast the Oh Yeah Music Centre located (Cathedral Quarter), a project that was founded to give young musicians and artists a place where they can share ideas and get started his music career as a chance to be supported and promoted by professional musicians Northern Irish music scene.

Belfast has a long underground club scene, which was formed in the early 1980s. [173]

Like all areas of the island of Ireland outside the Gaeltacht, the Irish in Belfast not an unbroken intergenerational transmission. Because of the Community’s activities in the 1960s, including the establishment of Shaws Road Gaeltacht community, vast in Irish art, and the progress made in the availability of Irish medium education in the city, it can now be said that there is a “native” community of speakers. [Dubious – discuss]. language is heavily promoted in the city and is particularly visible in the Falls Road, where the signs of both the iconic black taxis and buses are bilingual [174] Belfast has the highest concentration of Irish speakers in Northern Ireland. [citation needed] Project to promote language the city funded by various sources, especially Foras na Gaeilge, an all-Ireland body funded by both the Irish and British governments. There are a number of Irish primary schools and a secondary school in Belfast. The provision of certain resources for these schools (such as the provision of textbooks) are supported by the charity of the TACA.

Media

Belfast Telegraph Headquarters

Belfast is home to the Belfast Telegraph, Irish News and Newsletter, the oldest English-language newspaper in the world still in publication. [175] [176] The city has a number of free publications including Fate magazine, Go Belfast and Vacuum, distributed through bar, cafes and public places.

The city is the headquarters of BBC Northern Ireland, ITV station UTV and commercial radio stations Belfast City Beat and U105. Two community radio stations, Tops 106 and Irish-language station Raidió Fáilte, sent to the city from west Belfast, as well as Queen Radio, a student-run radio station that broadcasts from Queens University Student Union. One of Northern Ireland’s two community television stations, nvtv, is based in the Cathedral Quarter of the city. There are two independent cinemas in Belfast: the Queens Film Theatre and the Beach Cinema, which host screenings during the Belfast Film Festival and the Belfast Festival at Queens. Sending only through the Internet is homely Planet, culture radio station for Northern Ireland, which supports community relations. [177]

The city has become a popular film location; Paint Hall at Harland and Wolff has become one of the UK Film Council’s main studios. The complex consists of four stages of 16,000 square feet (1000 m 2). Show filmed at The Paint Hall feature film City of Ember (2008) and HBO’s Game of Thrones series (starting in late 2009).

In November 2011, Belfast was the smallest city to host the MTV Europe Music Awards. [178] The event was hosted by Selena Gomez and celebrities like Justin Bieber, Jessie J, Hayden Panettiere, and Lady Gaga traveled to Northern Ireland to take part in the event, held at the Odyssey Arena. [179]

Sports

Main article: Sport in Belfast

The Kingspan Stadium is home förUlster Rugby

Belfast has several notable sports teams playing a variety of sports such as soccer, Gaelic games, rugby, cricket and hockey. The Belfast Marathon is run annually on the first of May, and attracted 20,000 participants in 2011. [180]

The Northern Ireland football team, ranked 43rd October 2014 in the World Cup Rankings, [181] play their home games at Windsor Park. The current Irish League champions Crusaders are based at Seaview, in the northern part of the city. Other Premier teams include 2008/09 champions Glentoran, Linfield and Cliftonville. Intermediate-level clubs are: Donegal Celtic, Dundela, Harland & Wolff Welders, Newington Youth, PSNI, Queen’s University, and Sports & Leisure Swifts, who specializes in NIFL Championship; Albert Foundry FC, Ballysillan Swifts, Bloomfield FC, Crumlin Star FC, East Belfast FC Grove United FC, Immaculata FC, Malachians FC, Orange Old Boys’ Association FC, Rosario Youth Club FC, St. Patrick Young Men FC, Shankill United FC, short Brothers FC and Sirocco Works FC in the northern Amateur Football League and Brantwood Ballymena & Provincial League. Belfast was the hometown of Manchester United legend George Best who died in November 2005. On the day he was buried in the city, 100,000 people lined the road from his home on the Cregagh road to Roselawn Cemetery. [182] Since his dödCity Airport was named after him and trust has been set up to fund a memorial to him in the center. [183]

Gaelic football is the most popular spectator sport in Ireland, [184] and Belfast is home to over twenty football and hurling clubs. [185] Casement Park in west Belfast, home to the Antrim county teams, has a capacity of 32,000, making it the second largest Gaelic Athletic Association ground in Ulster. [186] The 1999 Heineken Cup champions Ulster Rugby plays at Kingspan Stadium in the southern part of the city. Belfast has four teams in rugby’s All-Ireland League: Belfast Harlequinsi Division 1B; and Instonians, Queen’s University and Malone in Division 2A.

Ice hockey is one of Northern Ireland’s most popular sports mainly down to it’s home to one of the largest British clubs, the Belfast Giants. The Giants founded in 2000 and play their matches at the 9500 capacity Odyssey Arena, the audience normally range from 4.000 to 7.000. Many ex-NHL players have been featured on the Giants roster, none more famous than the world super Theo Fleury. The Giants play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League is the top league in England. The Giants have been league champions four times, most recently in the 2013-14 season. The Belfast Giants is a huge brand in Northern Ireland and their growing stature in the game led to the Belfast Giants play the Boston Bruins in the NHL, October 2, 2010 at Odyssey Arena in Belfast, losing the game 5-1.

Other notable athletes from Belfast include double world snooker champion Alex “Hurricane” Higgins [187] and world champion boxers Wayne McCullough and Rinty Monaghan. [188] Leander ASC is a well known swimming club in Belfast. Belfast produced Formula One racing stars John Watson, who competed in five different teams during his career in the 1970s and 1980s, and Ferrari driver Eddie Irvine.

Famous residents

Gerry Adams, outpatient Main article: List of people from Belfast

A blue plaque adorned Belfast birthplace of former President IsraelChaim Herzog

  • John Stewart Bell, a physicist
  • George Best, soccer players, Ballon d’Or winner
  • Danny Blanchflower, footballer and manager
  • Jackie Blanchflower football
  • Sir Kenneth Branagh, actor
  • Christopher Brown, football player
  • Jocelyn Bell Burnell, astro
  • Patrick Carlin, Victoria Cross recipients
  • Ciaran Carson, author
  • Frank Carson, comedian
  • Craig Cathcart, footballer
  • Shaw Clifton, former General of the Salvation Army
  • Lord Craigavon, former Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
  • Mal Donaghy, footballer
  • Jamie Dornan, actor
  • Barry Douglas, musicians
  • John Boyd Dunlop, inventor
  • Jonny Evans, football
  • Corry Evans, football
  • Carl Frampton, boxer
  • Sir James Galway, musicians
  • Craig Gilroy, rugby union players
  • Chaim Herzog, former president of Israel
  • Alex Higgins, snooker player
  • Eamonn Holmes, programs
  • Paddy Jackson, rugby union players
  • Oliver Jeffers, artist
  • Lord Kelvin, physicist and engineer
  • CS Lewis, author
  • James Joseph Magennis, Victoria Cross recipients
  • Jim Magilton, footballer and manager
  • Paula Malcomson, actor
  • Mary McAleese, former President of Ireland
  • Gerry McAvoy, musician and long time bassist with Rory Gallagher
  • Wayne McCullough, Olympic silver medalist, WBC World Champion Boxer, Patron Northern
  • Ireland Children’s Hospice
  • Alan McDonald, footballer
  • Sammy McIlroy, footballer and manager
  • Gary Moore, guitarist
  • Van Morrison, singer and songwriter
  • Doc Neeson, singer-songwriter
  • Mary Peters, Olympic sports
  • Patricia Quinn, actor
  • Pat Rice, football players and coaches
  • Trevor Ringland, rugby union players
  • Peter Robinson, first minister of Northern Ireland
  • Bobby Sands, the IRA hunger striker
  • David Trimble, former First Minister of Northern Ireland, Nobel Peace Prize winner
  • Gary Wilson, cricketer

Training

See also: List of schools in Belfast, List of high schools in Belfast, and the List of grammar schools in Belfast

The Lanyon Building of Queen’s University in south Belfast

Belfast has two universities. Queens University Belfast was founded in 1845 and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of 20 leading research-intensive universities in the UK. [189] It is one of the largest universities in the UK with 25,231 basic and postgraduate students spread over 250 buildings, of which 120 are listed as of architectural value. [190] University of Ulster, created in its current form in 1984, is a multi-center universities a university campus in the Cathedral quarter of Belfast. Belfast campus has a special focus on art and design and architecture, and is currently undergoing major refurbishment. The Jordan campus, just seven miles (11 km) from Belfast city center focusing on technology, health and social sciences. The Coleraine campus, about 55 mi (89 km) from Belfast city center concentrates on a wide range of topics. Course provision is broad – biomedicine, environmental science and geography, psychology, business, humanities and languages, film and journalism, travel and tourism, teacher training and computers are among the campuses forces. The Magee campus, about 70 mi (113 km) from Belfast city center has many educational strengths; including business, computers, creative techniques, care, Irish language and literature, social sciences, law, psychology, peace and conflict studies and performing arts. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) Web Service gets funding from both universities and is a rich source of information and sources of unrest as well as society and politics in Northern Ireland. [191]

Belfast Metropolitan College is a large further education college with three main locations around the city, including several smaller buildings. Formerly known as the Belfast Institute of Further and Higher Education, specializing in vocational training. The College has over 53,000 students enrolled on full-time and part-time courses, making it one of the largest further education colleges in the UK and the largest on the island of Ireland. [192]

The Belfast Education and Library Board was established in 1973 as the municipality is responsible for education, youth and library services in the city. [193] There are 184 primary, secondary and grammar schools in the city. [194]

The Ulster Museum in Belfast.

Tourism

Titanic Belfast, Belfast devoted built RMS Titanic, was opened in 2012

Belfast is one of the most visited cities in the UK, [195] and the second most visited on the island of Ireland. [Citation needed] In 2008, 7.1 million tourists visited the city. [Citation needed] Many popular tour bus companies and boat trips run there throughout the year.

Frommers, the American travel guidebook series, which is listed Belfast as the only UK destination in its Top 12 destinations to visit in 2009. The other listed destinations were Berlin (Germany), Cambodia, Cape Town (South Africa), Cartagena (Colombia), Istanbul (Turkey), the Lassen Volcanic National Park (USA), Saqqara (Egypt), the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail (US), Waiheke Island (New Zealand), Washington, DC (USA), and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada ). [196]

Belfast City Council is currently investing in the whole rebuilding of the Titanic Quarter, which is planned to consist of apartments, hotels, and a river entertainment district. A major tourist attraction, Titanic Belfast is a monument to Belfast’s maritime heritage at the site of the former Harland & Wolff shipyard was opened on 31 March 2012. It has a cross by escalators and suspended walkways and nine high-tech galleries. [197] They also hope to invest in a new modern transport systems (including high-speed and others) for Belfast, with a cost of £ 250 million. [198]

There is a tourist information office is located on Donegall Place. [199]

Twin towns – Sister cities

Belfast has the following twin cities: [200]

Nashville, Tennessee, United States (since 1994)
Hefei, Anhui Province, China (since 2005)
Boston, Massachusetts, United States (since 2014)
Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China (since 2016)

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Ballycastle, County Antrim

Bally (from Irish: Baile an Chai Style, which means “city of the castle”) [4] is a small town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.

The town lies on the north-eastern coastal tip of the island of Ireland, at the northern mainland boundary of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Rathlin Island and the Mull of Kintyre in Scotland can be seen from the coast. The Ould Lammas Fair is held every year on the last Monday and Tuesday of August. Bally is home to Corrymeela Community. It was the main seat and the dismantling of the old Moyle and is part of the North Antrim constituency. Its elected MP Ian Paisley Jr. Bally was named the best place to stay in Northern Ireland in a list compiled by The Sunday Times in 2016.

Demography

Bally is classified as a small town on the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. [5] On April 29, 2001 2001 census, the population of Bally was 5089, of the following:

25.3% were younger than 16 years, and 18.7% were aged 60 and over

46.8% of the population were male and 53.2% were women

77.7% were from a Catholic background and 20.5% were from a Protestant background

6.5% of the population aged 16-74 were unemployed

Tourist attractions

Breakers on the Antrim Coast near Ballyshannon, Ireland, with cliffs Fairhead .Skottland appears in the distance on clear days.

Fairhead, Ballycastle’s promontory rising 196 meters (643 feet) from the bay. Goats can be seen roaming among the rocks below the cliffs, where a walkway called “The Gray Man road winds around the rugged coastline. From the road, an artificial island or the Iron Age Crannog can be seen in the middle of a large lake. [6]

Knocklayde, a heather-covered mountains with an altitude of 1,695 feet, crowned by Carn na Truagh (heap sorrow), and offers sweeping views of Ballycastle, Rathlin Island, Fair Head and Scotland. [7]

Glentaisie, the northernmost of the nine Glens of Antrim, at the foot of the mountain Knocklayde. It is named after Princess Taisie, daughter of King Dorm of Rathlin Island. According to legend Taisie, known for its great beauty, was betrothed to Congal, heir to the Kingdom of Ireland. King of Norway also sought her hand in marriage, and when he came to claim his bride, her wedding party to Congal had begun. The king and his army tried to capture Taisie, but in the ensuing battle he was killed, and his army fled leaderboard and empty-handed.

Carey, Glenshesk and Tow Rivers flow down from the valleys of the River Margy. It then flows into the Sea of Moyle beginning of the Strand. [8]

Strands Beach Bally designated a Blue Flag beach.

Pans Rocks, which are the remains of an iron salt desert is located at the far end of Ballycastle Beach, stands out in the sea provides a popular spot for fishing.

Marconi memorial

Devils Churn, located just beyond the Pans Rocks, has steps carved in stone leading to an underwater tunnel.

Clare Clare Park Road, was a farm owned by the then local nobility, the McGildownys. The 17th century building has been pulled down, but it was in a place high up on the Antrim coast.

A bike path runs from Bally to Cushendun, dry-head, with spectacular views and scenery. From the road above the Dry Head entire Moyle (the North Channel can) be seen. A popular place for coastal sea fishing, Torr Head has also enkustbevakning station, which is remarkable because it was built on and out of the remnants of Dunvarragh, fort Barach.

The Corrymeela Community (a Christian organization that promotes peace and reconciliation, founded in 1965) is based on Corrymeela, just outside Ballymena.

Overlooking the harbor, there is a monument to Guglielmo Marconi, whose employees have created the world’s first commercial wireless telegraph transmission between Bally and East Lighthouse påRathlin Island.

Buildings of note

Rathlin Island Ferry, Ballycastle Harbour

Holy Trinity, Church of Ireland, located in Diamond, that is, the main square. Like the rest of the Diamond, is the church of class “A” shown. Built by Colonel Hugh Boyd, who bore the total cost, the church was completed in 1756. It was built in the Greco-Italian style with an apse-shaped chancel, and an octagonal spire of about 100 feet high. It was effectively a chapel for the Boyd family and the estate for many years. The remains of many Boyd descendants are in the vaults below – although it was always the subject of Episcopal jurisdiction. It was given to the Church of Ireland in about 1950. The church is open every day 9:00-05:00.

Bonamargy Friary Cushendall is off the road on the approach to and the Bally is a late Franciscan Foundation was founded in 1485 by Rory MacQuillan. Locked vault holding the remains of the famous chieftain Sorley Boy MacDonnell, and several of the Earls of Antrim. The Friary most famous residents are the 17th century prophet and hermit Julia MacQuillan. Known as “The Black Nun”, she wanted to be buried at the entrance to the chapel, so that she could be trampled under the feet of those who entered. [Citation needed] A round-holed cross marks his grave.

Kinbane castle is located on a promontory jutting into the sea, about 3 miles (5 km) from Ballymena on the road to Ballintoy. Originally a two-story, it was built in 1547 by the Colla MacDonnell, who died within its walls in the 1558th

There are several churches in Ballymena. Bally’s Presbyterian Church (Castle Street) has a distinctive round towers. [9]

Notable people

Sir Roger Casement, Irish writer and Republican Revolutionary

Michael Dallat, previously titular Bishop of Thala

Michelle Fairley, actor

Conleth Hill, actor

Donal Lamont, Emeritus Bishop of Mutare, nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 1978

David McWilliams, folksinger and musicians

John Samuel Bewley Monsell, priest and hymn writer

Keith Michael Patrick O’Brien, Cardinal and Primate of Scotland [10]

Robert Quigg, soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross

Transport

Bus services in Bally operated by TransLink.

A ferry, which is currently operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Company, runs between the city and Rathlin Island as part of a lifeline service. The ferry service to the island formerly operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. Ferries previously sailed between Ballycastle and Campbeltown in Scotland, but the service was discontinued in June 2002. A passenger ferry service to Campbeltown, run by the Kintyre Express, now go Friday to Monday during the summer months and on Mondays and Fridays during the winter months. [11]

Bally railway station was opened October 18, 1880, but ended 3 July 1950. It was at Bally Railway, a narrow gauge railway that ran 17 miles connecting Ballymoney Ballymoney station, the railway Belfast and northern counties (BNCR), later Northern County Committee (NCC) and now part of the Northern Ireland railways.

Unrest in Ballymena

There have been four cases of what has come to be known as the troubles in Northern Ireland.

Loyalist paramilitaries left a car bomb outside the Roman Catholic Church (St. Patrick and St. Brigid) in the city of 26 August 1973. It was timed to explode as massgoers left the church. But the service was running late, and the bomb detonated when the congregation was still inside the church, to avoid large losses of human lives. 50 people were injured, three of them seriously. [12]

On June 19, 1979 Irish Republican Army bombed five hotels in different coastal towns in Northern Ireland, including Bally Marine Hotel. William Whitten, a 65-year-old Protestant hotel guest, was seriously injured in the explosion, he died three weeks later. [13] [14]

Spence McGarry (46), an off-duty member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), was killed when a Provisional Irish Republican Army trap bomb attached to his car exploded in the Castle Street car park, Bally April 6, 1991. [15] Gerard Butler was sentenced in 1993 for the attack, and was sentenced to 22 years in prison. [16]

In 2001 there was an attempt at mass murder of the Ulster Volunteer Force, when a car bomb was left in Castle Street during the annual Lammas Fair. [17]

Parade disputes

In the past, there has been unrest in the Orange Order parades in the city. In 2001, there was serious unrest at the July 12 parade. As a result, Silver Plains flute band from nearby Moyarget, were forbidden to march in the city because of accusations of sectarian behavior and paramilitary trappings. [18] The North Antrim Orange Order held its annual parade in the city in 2006 after discussions between residents, Orange Order, entrepreneurs, and Sinn Féin parade passed off without incident. [Citation needed]

Climate

As with the rest of the British Isles, Bally experiencing a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest official Met Office weather station that online records available are Bally Patrick Forest, [19] about four miles east-southeast of Bally Patrick.

Sports

Sports of local interest include tennis, bowling (Mary Street), hurling, gaelic football (Whitehall / Leyland Road), and skateboarding. [Citation needed]

Gaelic Games

The McQuillan GAC Bally club has won 17 Antrim Senior Hurling Championships, the second most by a club [citation needed]. The club has won six Ulster Senior Club Hurling Championships and were finalists in the 1980 All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship final. [Citation needed] The club has a number of teams from U8 to both the Senior Hurling and Gaelic football.

The city is also the site of Pairc Mac Uílín, the current Antrim Hurling

Golf

Ballycastle Golf Club offers an 18-hole championship course is open year round for both members and non-members. [21] The track is one of the four courses played each June in the world-famous Causeway Coast Golf Tournament. [22]

Tennis

During the summer, the host city of two tennis tournaments, including one run by Moyle. [23]

The compound football

Ballymena United Football Club together with Moyle FC in 2011, and the team is now competing in Coleraine and District League tomorrow. [24]

Scalar

Ballymena Bowling Club is located outdoors on the sea-front.

Contact: Mr. Samuel Craig 70 Cape Castle Road Ballycastle BT54 6ht Tel: 028 207 51328

See also

Market Houses in Northern Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ North-South Ministerial Council: 2002 annual Ulster Scots
  2. Jump up ^ Bonamargy Friary Guide – Ministry of Environment
  3. Jump up ^ Guide to Dunluce Castle in Ulster-Scots Archive 3 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. HIND.
  4. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  5. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website
  6. Jump up ^ http: //www.thegemsofantrim.com/fairhead.html
  7. Jump up ^ http: //www.ballycastle.info/places/knocklayde/knocklayde.htm
  8. Jump up ^ http: //www.ireland.com/en-us/destinations/northern-ireland/county-antrim/ballycastle/all/2-2420/
  9. Jump up ^ Bally Presbyterian Church
  10. Jump up ^ Robert Pigott (3 March 2013). “Cardinal Keith O’Brien sorry for sexual offenses”. BBC. Be checked out three March 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ “Kintyre Express – ferry services and private charter.” kintyreexpress.com. Be checked out three May 2014.
  12. Jump up ^ Patrick Carville (27 August 1973). “50 hurt in bomb in Ulster”. The Chicago Tribune.
  13. Jump up ^ [1]
  14. Jump up ^ Ken Wharton (August 2014). Wasted years Wasted Lives. 2nd Helion & Company. p. 210. ISBN 9,781,909,982,178th
  15. Jump up ^ “” Unheard Voices “- six stories from the unrest.” Ballymena Times. 6 May 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ “Republicans”. The Daily Telegraph. 27 July 2000.
  17. Jump up ^ “UVF members linked to the bombing.” BBC News. 1 September 2001.
  18. Jump up ^ The Guardian
  19. Jump up ^ “Station Locations”. Met Office.
  20. Jump up ^ “Bally Patrick Long Term Data”. Met Office. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  21. Jump up ^ “Ballycastle Golf Club”. Http://www.ballycastlegolfclub.com/ .Hämtad February 10, 2015. External link to (help) | website =
  22. Jump up ^ “Causeway Coast”. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  23. Jump up ^ Moyle Council
  24. Jump up ^ | “Bally UFC.” Retrieved March 9, 2015.

Antrim Coast and Glens

The Antrim Coast and Glens is an area of County Antrim in Northern Ireland, which is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1988. [1]

The designation takes in the coast from Ballycastle in the north to the south of Larne in County Antrim, and includes Rathlin Island. The hinterland includes the Glens of Antrim and the Antrim plateau that reaches its highest point at Trostan, 550 meters above sea level and consists of 706 square kilometers.

A2 road (Northern Ireland) See also

  • Belfast-Larne
  • Belfast-Derry railway
  • Coleraine-Portrush railway

Notes and references

  1. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Environment Agency

County Antrim

County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, situated in the northeastern part of the island of Ireland. Bordering the northeast coast of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometers (1,176 sq mi), [5] and has a population of about 618,000. It is one of six traditional counties of Northern Ireland and is located within the historical province of Ulster. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometer / 526 people per square mil. [6]

The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, Giant’s Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and nightlife area. The majority of Belfast, capital of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down.

Geography

A large part of Antrim is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest heights achieved. The range runs north and south, and following this direction, the highest points are Knocklayd 514 m (1,690 ft), Slieveanorra 508 m (1,670 ft), Trostan 550 m (1800 feet), Slemish 437 m (1,430 ft), Agnew’s Hill 474 m (1,560 ft) and Divis 478 m (1,570 ft). [7] the inner slope is gradual, but on the north shore area ends in abrupt and almost perpendicular declivities, and therefore has some of the finest coastal scenery in the world are, very different, with their unbroken rows of rocks, from the indented coastline in the West. The most remarkable rocks are formed by perpendicular basalt columns, which extends many miles, and most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the famous Giant’s Causeway. From the east coast mountains rise immediately but less abrupt, and recesses are wider and deeper. On both coasts are several resorts, including Portrush (with well-known golf links), Portballintrae and Bally; on the east of Cushendun, Cushendall and Water in Red Bay, Carnlough and Glenarm, Larne on the Sea of Moyle, and Whitehead on Belfast Lough. All are somewhat exposed to easterly winds prevailing in spring. The only island size is the L-shaped Rathlin Island, off Bally, 11 km (6.8 mi) in total length of 2 km (1.2 mi) maximum width, 7 km (4.3 mi) from the coast, like basalt and limestone formation mainland. It is partly arable, and supports a small population. Island is a peninsula that separates Larne Lough from North Channel.

Dalarna in Bann and Lagan, with intermediate Lough Neagh, forms the fertile lowlands. These two rivers, both rising in County Down, is the only one of importance. The latter flows into Belfast Lough, the former sewage Lough Neagh, which is fed by several smaller streams. Fishing in Bann and Lough Neagh (especially for salmon and eel) are of value both commercially and athletes, the small town of Toome, at the outflow of the river, being in the center. Immediately below this point is Lough Beg, “Small Lake”, about 4.5 m (15 feet) lower than the Lough Neagh.

Transport

County Antrim, a number of aerospace, rail and sea.

Air

Northern Ireland’s main airport, Belfast International Airport at Aldergrove in County Antrim. Belfast International shares its tracks with the Royal Air Force base RAF Aldergrove, which otherwise has its own facilities. [Citation needed] It is the fifth largest regional air cargo center in the UK. There are regular services to the UK, Europe and North America.

The region is also served by George Best Belfast City Airport, one mil east of Belfast city center in County Down side of the city, which was renamed in 2006 to honor the footballer George Best.

Rail

See also: Category: Railway stations in County Antrim

The main TRANSLINK Northern Ireland Railways routes the major route between Belfast, Antrim, Ballymena, Coleraine and Londonderry, Belfast to Carrickfergus and Larne harbor förStranraer in Scotland, and Coleraine to Portrush.

Sea

Two of Northern Ireland’s main ports are in County Antrim, Larne and Belfast.

Ferries sail from Larne Harbour to destinations including Cairnryan and Troon in Scotland and Fleetwood in England.

The Port of Belfast is Northern Ireland’s premier maritime gateway, serving the Northern Ireland economy and all that in Ireland. It is an important center for trade and industry and has established itself as the focus of logistics operations for Northern Ireland. About two-thirds of Northern Ireland’s seaborne trade, and a quarter of Ireland as a whole, handled at the port, which receives over 6000 ship per year. [8]

Population

Population in County Antrim was 615,384 according to the latest census data, making it the most populous county in Northern Ireland.

Irish

Statistics for 2009-2010 shows 1832 students in 12 Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary school) and a Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary school). [9]

Religion

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest religious denomination, followed by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church of Ireland. County Antrim is one of two counties in Ireland, where most people are Protestant, according to the 2001 census, the other is down. The strong Presbyterian presence in the county is largely due to the county’s historical ties with lowland Scotland, which left many immigrants to Ireland. Protestants are in the majority in most of the county, while the Catholics are concentrated in west Belfast, northeast, and on the shores of Lough Neagh.

Administration

The traditional county town is Antrim. More recently, Ballymena was the seat of the provincial government. The counties in Northern Ireland ceased to be administrative units in 1973, with the reorganization of local government.

In Northern Ireland the county structure is no longer used in municipalities. Northern Ireland is divided into districts. The majority of County Antrim residents administered by the following nine areas:

  • Antrim and Newtownabbey
  • Ballymena Borough Council
  • Ballymoney Borough Council
  • Belfast City Council
  • Carrickfergus Borough Council
  • Larne Borough Council
  • Lisburn
  • Moyle

Small portions of the county is administered by the councils that are based in neighboring counties, including the village Aghagallon Craigavon Borough and the city of Portrush Coleraine Borough.

The county contains within it all the five parliamentary constituencies:

  • North Belfast
  • Belfast West
  • East Antrim
  • North Antrim
  • south Antrim
  • Parts of these constituencies is also in County Antrim
  • Belfast South
  • East Londonderry
  • Lagan Valley
  • Upper Bann

settlements

cities

(Places with official city status)

  • Belfast
  • Lisburn

big Cities

(Population of 18,000 or more and 75,000 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • Antrim
  • Mena
  • carrickfergus
  • Larne
  • Newtownabbey

Medium cities

(Population of 10,000 or more and 18,000 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • no

Small towns

(Population of 4,500 or more and 10,000 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • Bally
  • Bally
  • Bally
  • Green
  • Jordan
  • Port
  • Randalstown

Between settlements

(Population of 2250 or more and in 4500 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • Ahoghill
  • Broughshane
  • Crumlin
  • Cullybackey
  • Whitehead

villages

(Population of 1,000 or more and for 2250 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • Bushmills
  • Carnlough
  • Clough Mills
  • Cogry & Kilbride
  • Cushendall
  • Doagh
  • Dunloy
  • Glenavy
  • Kell
  • Portglenone
  • Temple

Small villages and hamlets

(Population of less than 1,000 at the 2001 census) [10]

  • Aghagallon
  • Aghalee
  • Aldergrove
  • Armoy
  • Ballintoy
  • Ballycarry
  • Bally Aston
  • Ballygalley
  • Ballynure
  • Boneybefore
  • Carnalbanagh
  • Cargan
  • Cushendun
  • Dervock
  • Glenarm
  • Glynn
  • Loughguile
  • Moss-Side
  • Newtown Crommelin
  • Parkgate
  • Portballintrae
  • Rasharkin
  • Stranocum
  • Also me
  • Cairncastle

subdivisions

baronies

Main article: Barony (Ireland)

  • Lower Antrim
  • Upper Antrim
  • Lower Belfast
  • Upper Belfast
  • carrickfergus
  • wear
  • Lower Dunluce
  • Upper Dunluce
  • Lower Glenarm
  • Upper Glenarm
  • Kilconway
  • Lower Massereene
  • Upper Massereene
  • Lower Toome
  • Upper Toome

Helge

Main article: List of civil parishes in County Antrim

townlands

Main article: List of townlands in County Antrim

History

Royal Avenue, Belfast .Photochrom out around 1890-1900.

At what point County Antrim formed is not known, but it seems that a certain neighborhood bar this name before the reign of Edward II (early 14th century), and when shiring of Ulster was made by Sir John Perrot in the 16th century, Antrim Down and already recognized divisions, in contrast to the rest of the province. The earliest known inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of pre-Celtic origin, [11], but the names of the townlands or subdivisions, assumed to have been made in the 13th century, all of Gaelic derivation. [Dubious – discuss]

In ancient times, Antrim inhabited by Celtic people called Darini. [12] In the early Middle Ages, the South County Antrim was part of the Kingdom Ulidia, ruled by Dál Fiatach clans Keenan and MacDonlevy / McDunlavey; North was part of Dál Riada, which extended into what is now western Scotland, the Irish Sea. Dál Riada ruled by O’Lynch clan, who were vassals of Ulidians. Besides Ulidians and Dál Riada was the Dál nAraide lower County Antrim, and Cruthin, which was pre-Gaelic Celts and probably related to the Picts in Britain. [13] between the 8th and 11th centuries Antrim exposed to the inroads of the Vikings.

In the late 12th century, Antrim part of the Earldom of Ulster, was conquered by the Anglo-Norman invaders. A revival of Gaelic power followed the campaign Edward Bruce in 1315, lämnarCarrickfergus as the only major English stronghold. In the late Middle Ages, Antrim divided into three parts: the northern Clandeboye, the Glynnes and route. The Cambro Norman MacQuillans was strong in the Route. A branch of the O’Neills Tyrone migrated to Clandeboye in the 14th century and ruled it for some time. Their family was called O’Neill Clannaboy. A gallowglass September, the Macdonnell, became the most powerful in Glynnes in the 15th century.

During the Tudor era (16th century), many adventurers from Britain tried to colonize the region; many Scots settled in Antrim around this time. [14] In 1588 Antrim coast was the scene of one of the 24 wrecks in the Spanish Armada in Ireland. The Spanish ship La Girona wrecked off Lacana Point, Giant’s Causeway in 1588 with the loss of nearly 1,300 lives. [15]

Antrim is divided into sixteen baronies. Lower Antrim, part of the lower Clandeboye, decided September O’Flynn / O’Lynn. Upper Antrim, part of Lower Clandeboye, was the home of O’Keevans. Belfast was part of Lower Clandeboye and held by O’Neill-Clannaboys. Belfast Lower, Upper Belfast and Carrickfergus was also part of the lower Clandeboye. Cary was part of Glynnes; originally ruled by O’Quinn September MacDonnell galloglasses from Scotland took power here in the late Middle Ages and some of O’Hara also migrated from Connaught. Upper and Lower Dunluce was part of the route, and was ruled by the MacQuillans. Upper and Lower Glenarmstyrdes of O’Flynn / O’Lynn September, is considered part of the Glynn. In addition to this September and it O’Quinn, both of which were native, the Scottish gallowglass SEPTS of MacKeown, MacAlister, and MacGee, there där.Kilconway was originally O’Flynn / O’Lynn territory, but was held by MacQuillans as a part of the route, and later by gallowglass September by MacNeill. Lower Massereene was part of Lower Clandeboye and ruled by O’Flynns and O’Heircs. Upper Massereene was part of Cairn Lower, controlled by O’Heircs. Upper and Lower Toome, part of the route, was O’Flynn / O’Lynn territory. Other first ruled by MacQuillans. Later, the Scottish gallowglass Macdonnell and MacAlisters invaded. The Macdonnell was a branch of the Scottish clan MacDonald; the MacAlisters traced its origins back to the Irish Colla UAIS, the oldest of the three Collas.

Iceland had, besides antiquarian remains, a reputation as a home of witchcraft, and the Irish rebellion in 1641 was the scene of an act of retaliation (for the massacre of Protestants) against the Catholic population of the Scottish Covenanter soldiers in Carrickfergus. [Citation needed]

Williamite 1689 during the war in Ireland, County Antrim was a center of Protestant opposition to the rule of the Catholic James II. During the development crisis, James’ garrison at Carrickfergus successfully repulsed an attempt by local Protestants to storm it. After the performance of the Irish army under Richard Hamilton, all County Antrim completed in Jacobite control. Later in the year a large expedition from England under Marshal Schomberglandade in Belfast Lough and successfully besieged Carrickfergus. After having captured most of the largest cities in the area, then marched south towards Dundalk.

historical monuments

Carrickfergus Castle (1177)

See also: Castle in County Antrim

Antiques in the county consists of cairns, brackets or fort, the remains of ecclesiastical and military structures and round towers.

There are three round towers: one in Antrim, one in Armoy, and one on Ram Island in Lough Neagh, only that at Antrim be perfect. There are some remnants of the church facilities påBonamargy where the Earls of Antrim is buried, Kells, Glenarm, Glynn, Muckamore Abbey and White.

The castle at Carrickfergus, dating from the Norman invasion of Ireland, is one of the best preserved medieval buildings in Ireland. However, there are still other ancient castles, somOlderfleet, Cams, Shane, Glenarm, Garron Tower, Red Bay, and Dunluce Castle, known for its dramatic location on a cliff.

The main cairns are: Colin mountain, near Lisburn; a Slieve true, close Carrickfergus; and two Colin Ward. The cromlechs most noteworthy are: a close Cairngrainey, to the northeastern part of the old road from Belfast Templepatrick, the great cromlech at Mount Druid, close Ballintoy; and one at the north end of the Island. Strongholds, forts and entrenchments are very numerous.

The natural rock formations of the Giant’s Causeway on the Antrim coast now designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Saint Patrick

Slemish, about eight miles (13 km) east of Ballymena, is notable as the site of St Patrick’s early life. According to tradition, Saint Patrick was a slave for seven years, close to Mount Slemish until he escaped back to Britain.

Tank Top

Linen production was formerly an important industry in the county. At time Ireland produced a large amount of flax. Cotton spinning Jennie was first introduced to Belfast from industry, Robert Joy and Thomas M’Cabe 1777; and twenty three years later estimated that more than 27,000 people were employed in the industry within ten miles (16 km) in Belfast. Women used in the processing of the patterns on the muslin.

Notable residents

  • James Adair (1709-1783), born in County Antrim, explorers, traders, and historians [16]
  • Charles Clinton Beatty (1715? -1772), Born in County Antrim, noted pastor in the New Jersey area [16]
  • John Bodkin Adams (1899-1983), a general practitioner born in Randalstown and is suspected to have killed 163 patients while practicing in Eastbourne, England. [17]
  • William Arthur (1797-1875), born in Ballymena, quoted antiquitarian and Baptist pastor in the United States. [16]
  • Joey Dunlop, OBE (1952-2000), from Ballymoney, five times World Motorcycle champion.
  • Amy James Kelly (1995-), born in Antrim, known for her role as Maddie Heath in Coronation Street
  • Sir John Jamison (1776-1844), physician and naval surgeon from Carrickfergus who became an important pioneer landowners and constitutional reformers in New South Wales, Australia.
  • George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney (1737-1806), from Ballymoney, first British Ambassador to China 1772nd
  • Eva McGown (1883-1972), chorister, pioneer, and program in Alaska.
  • John O’Kane Murray (1847-1885), born in Antrim, doctors and noted author. [16]
  • James Nesbitt (1965-), from Broughshane (although he lived close to Coleraine for most of his adolescence and adulthood), remarkable actor.
  • Liam Neeson (1952-), from Ballymena, remarkable actor.
  • Tony McCoy (1974-), from Money ice cream, notable jockey.
  • Hugh Boyle (1897-1986), from Dunloy, Catholic Bishop of Port Elizabeth, 1951-1954, Bishop of Johannesburg, 1954-1976.

Flora and fauna

Documentation of seaweed in County Antrim were collected and published in 1907 by J. Adams [18] Noting that the list contains 211 species. Batter list, in 1902, [19] contained 747 species in their catalog of British marine algae.

Of freshwater algae are 10 taxa in Algiers (Charales) recorded from Antrim Chara aspera Deth. ex Willd. our. aspera; Chara globe Thuill. our. orbs, orbs Chara was. virgata (Kutz.) RD, Chara vulgaris L.. were vulgaris Chara vulgaris. was contraria (A. Braun ex Kutz.) JAMoore, Chara vulgaris. was longibracteata (. Kutz) J.Groves & Bullock-Webster, Chara vulgaris var. papillata Wallr. ex A. Braun; Nitella flexilis (L.) Ag. . was flexilis, Nitella translucency (Pers.) CA Ag. and Tolypella nidifica (O.Mull.) Leonh. our. glomerata (Desv.) RD Wood. [20]

Sports

Main article: Antrim GAA

Surname

The most common surnames in County Antrim at the time of the United Kingdom Census 1901, [21] by order of incidence:

  1. Wilson
  2. Johnston
  3. Thompson
  4. Campbell
  5. Smyth
  6. Stewart
  7. Moore
  8. Robinson
  9. Brown
  10. Bell

 

See also

  • Abbey and priories in Northern Ireland (County Antrim)
  • List of townlands in County Antrim
  • List of civil parishes in County Antrim
  • Lord Lieutenant of Antrim
  • High Sheriff of Antrim

References

  1. Jump up ^ Bonamargy Friary Guide Ministry of the Environment.
  2. Jump up ^ North-South Ministerial Council 2004 Annual Report of the Ulster Scots
  3. Jump up ^ Annual Report 2008 in Ulster-Scots Tourism Ireland.
  4. Jump up ^ The Ulster Scotjuni 2011 Charlie “Tha Poocher” Rennals.
  5. Jump up ^ “Antrim”. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  6. Jump up ^ Share the population in the County Antrim (618,108) of the area (3046 km2)
  7. Jump up ^ “mountains”. Simon Stewart. Retrieved 30 August of 2010.
  8. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Belfast Harbour.
  9. Jump up ^ Statistics from Gaelscoil national governing body, reached in January 2012
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f “Statistical Classification of settlements”. NI Neighbourhood Information Service. Taken 23 februari2009.
  11. Jump up ^ Waddell, John (1998). The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland. Galway: University Press Limited. pp. 11-24.
  12. Jump up ^ O’Rahilly, Thomas F. (1946). Early Irish history and mythology. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. p.7.
  13. Jump up ^ O’Rahilly, Thomas F. (1946). Early Irish history and mythology. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.pp. 341-352.
  14. Jump up ^ Benn, George (1877). A history of the city of Belfast. Belfast Marcus Ward & Company. pp 21 ff .., Encyclopaedia Britannica (14th edition), Antrim.
  15. Jump up ^ “La Girona” (PDF). # Annual Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck, 2005. The Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck Sites. p. 35. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c dvem was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who’s Who. 1967. Cite error: Invalid tag; name “Marquis_1607-1896” is defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). <Ref>
  17. Jump up ^ Cullen, Pamela V. “A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams”, London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  18. Jump up ^ Adams, J. The seaweed Antrim coast. Scient. Pap. Ulster Fish. Biol. . Ass Vol.1: 29-37
  19. Jump up ^ batters, EAL A catalog of the British marine algae is the list of all species of seaweed found at the shores of the British Isles, with the locations where they are. J. Bot, Lond .. 40 (Suppl.) (2) + 107th
  20. Jump up ^ Hackney, ed P .. Stewart & Corry Flora in northeastern Ireland. Third Edition Institute of Irish Studies and Queen University of Belfast. ISBN 0 85389 446 9
  21. Jump up ^ “Antrim Genealogy resources and Parish Register – Ulster”.

Sandy Row

Sandy Row is a street in south Belfast, Northern Ireland. It gives its name to the surrounding living environment, which is predominantly Protestant working class. Sandy Row area had a population of 2,153 in 2001. [1] [2] It is a staunchly loyalist area of Belfast, is a traditional center for connection with the paramilitary Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and the Orange Order.

Place

Sandy Row is located in South Belfast, beginning at the edge of the city center, close to the Europa Hotel. The road runs south from Boyne Bridge (formerly saltwater Bridge) over the old Dublin railway at Great Victoria Street station, then cross the Donegall Road and end at the bottom of the Lisburn Road. At the northern end of the road was the famous Murray’s tobacco factory, which first opened in 1810, [3] while the other is a large orange hallway.

History

The first orange arch erected in Sandy Row, c. 1921. Its builder, Frank Reynolds is seen standing in the photograph, fifth from left

Formerly known as Carrs Row, [4] Sandy Row is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Belfast. [5] The population growth was largely due to the expansion of the linen industry in Rowland Street. [6] The famous Sandy row stemming from the sandbank to contact the road which followed the high water mark as a result of the flow of tidal water in the mouth of the River Lagan. For over two thousand years, the road along the sandbar was the main road leading south from Carrickfergus. [7]

In the 19th century Sandy Row became a bustling shopping area, and at the turn of the 20th century, there were a total of 127 shops and merchants based on the way. It continued to draw customers from all over Belfast until the outbreak of unrest in the late 1960s. [6] The rows of 19th century townhouse in the streets and alleyways branching Sandy Row has been demolished and replaced with modern housing. Six of the houses that formerly lined Rowland Street has been built in the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

It is a traditional protestant, close-knit loyalist community, known for its elaborate Orange Order parades on the Twelfth, with over 40 arches erected in the streets and a marching band of young girls called “Sandy Row Girl Band”. [8] In addition to the arches spanning the road, buildings and homes decorated with flags, bunting and banners. The first orange arch erected by Frank Reynolds in about 1921. [7] In 1690, on his way south to fight at the Battle of the Boyne, King William III of England and his troops traveled along the Sandy Row. [7] According to tradition, a part of his army camp on the land where the Orange Hall now stands. The hall was inaugurated in June 1910 by Lady Henderson, wife of former mayor of Belfast, James Henderson. By 1908 there were 34 Orange lodges in the area. [7] In the 19th and 20th centuries there were very sectarian fighting and riots between Sandy Row Protestants and Catholics from Pound Loney, in the Lower Falls Road. [7]

During the spring of 1941 Belfast Blitz in unfortunate 15 to 16 April raid, Luftwaffe dropped a parachute land mine on top of Blythe Street, dead and fatally injured ten people including children. Townhouse on both sides of the street were badly damaged, many with their facades blown away. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester visited the devastated street.

Sandy Row redevelopment association that was founded in 1970, was one of the first loyalist groups in the community to open a counseling center. [9] In 1996, Sandy Row Community Forum was established. It serves as an umbrella organization for all social groups in the area.

The troubles

Loyalist mural in the corner of Rowland Street (renamed Rowland Way) and Sandy Row, 1981. Building is now demolished.

During the unrest, the area had a strong Ulster Defence Association (UDA) presence. Sandy Row is a part of South Belfast UDA Brigade, commanded for many years by the late John McMichael and currently by Jackie McDonald. Its first known commander was Sammy Murphy, who also led the Sandy Row UDA. He engaged in talks with the British Army in Ulster Council working Strike in May 1974 to defuse a potentially violent confrontation between the army and the UDA across the street barricades that had been erected in Sandy Row. [10]

In December 1972, the senior member UDA Ernie Elliott was shot to death outside a Sandy Row club by a fellow UDA man after a drunken brawl. [11] On February 7, 1973 Brian Douglas, a Protestant firefighter from Sailor Town was shot dead by the UDA while fighting a fire caused by street disturbances in Bradbury Place. [12] Sandy Row UDA members also launched a series of attacks on nearby Durham Street, a mainly Catholic area between Sandy Row, and the Falls Road, in the early 1970s with four Catholics killed in the area, including 16-year-old Bernard McErlain, in end of March to april 1973. [13] Two Protestant civilian men were killed March 30, 1974 in a no-warning bomb attack carried out by an unknown republican paramilitary group against the Crescent Bar. On July 24, 1974 Ann Ogilby, a 32-year-old Protestant single mother of four, was brutally beaten to death with bricks and sticks inside the disused Warwick bakery in Hunter Street with two teenagers from Sandy Row women UDA unit, under the command of Elizabeth ‘Lily’ Douglas . The bakery had been converted to a UDA club. [14] Ogilby’s six-year-old daughter was outside the door and heard his mother’s screams inside while loud disco music played. Ogilby was “sentenced to death” in a kangaroo court led by eight UDA women after it was discovered that she had an affair with an older UDA man, who was married to one of the unit members. She had also made offensive comments about her lover’s wife. On 30 January 1976 the Provisional IRA exploded a car bomb outside the Klondike Bar on the corner of McAdam Street. John Smiley, was a middle-aged Protestant civilians were killed directly in explosionen.Många people inside the pub suffered serious injuries, including a barmaid who lost an eye, Vina Galaway. [12] [15] Less than two years before the attack, the Klondike Bar was the subject of a photographic essay by Bill Kirk in a series of photographs taken in Sandy Row. The Klondike was built 1872nd

In the same year in the Klondike bombing had an 18-year-old Catholic girl throat slit behind a Sandy Row pub by loyalist paramilitaries after she had discovered drinking inside with Protestant friends. [16]

An army patrol crossing the intersection with the Donegall Road, 1981. All buildings except the City Hospital tower and chimney in the background, now demolished.

Thomas Vance, one of the 18 British soldiers killed in ambush Warren, was born in Sandy Row. [Citation needed]

In October 2011, a bomb was discovered on a patch of ground on Bradbury Place, which caused a security alert, resulting in the evacuation of homes, bars and businesses in the area. Army bomb disposal experts carried out a controlled explosion on the device.

The large UDA / Ulster Freedom Fighters mural was one of many loyalist murals that are in Sandy Row; it could be seen from the northern end of gatan.Muralmålningen was supposed to mirror Free Derry Corner Republican mural. It was announced in June 2012 that the mural would be painted over with another shows William of Orange .Tillkännagivandet made by Jackie McDonald after a year of talks with residents and business leaders, some of whom argued that the existence of the mural was to discourage other companies from settling in office buildings around. [17] It was removed on June 25 and replaced with a mural depicting William of Orange. [18] [19]

Sandy Row contains a loyalist souvenir shop, “Ulster One Stop Shop”, selling UDA and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) stuff. [20] John McMichael Centre (named after the former South Belfast UDA leader) which helps former loyalist prisoners, is also located on Sandy Row.

Demography

Sandy Row Neighbourhood Renewal Area (NRA) was appointed by the Department of Social Development in 2004, with borders stretching along the West, Donegall Road and Great Victoria Street. On census day (29 April 2001), there were a total of 2,153 persons living in Sandy Row NRA. Of these: [1] [2]

  • 20% were younger than 16 years old and 21% were aged 60 and over,
  • 44% of the population were male and 56% were women;
  • 10% were from a Catholic community background;
  • 86% were from a “Protestant and other Christian (including Christian related) community background;
  • 14% of people aged 16-74 were unemployed.

For more information see: NI Neighbourhood Information Service.

Sports

The Linfield FC was formed in Sandy Row in March 1886 by workers from Ulster Spinning Company Linfield Mill. Originally called Linfield Athletic Club, its games ground, “meadow”, was behind the mill. [21] Linfield first captain Sam “Thaw” Torrans.

Celebrated snooker champion Alex “Hurricane” Higgins was born in Sandy Row, born in Abingdon Drive, off the Donegall Road. He first started playing at the age of 11 in Jampot club. [22]

In popular culture

In the song “Madame George” on his album Astral Weeks Van Morrison sings:

Then you know that you have to go on the train from Dublin to Sandy Row

– Van Morrison, “Madame George” (1968) [23]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row Project Team (December 2004). “Section 5: Sandy Row”. The Task Force – meet the needs of the working class Protestant communities: Final Report (DOC). (Report) Department of Social Development. pp. 26-27. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row Project Team (December 2004). “Appendix 4: Census data.” The Task Force – meet the needs of the working class Protestant communities: Final Report (DOC). (Report) Department of Social Development. pp. VI-XXV. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ Owen, DJ (1921). History of Belfast. W. & G. Baird. p. 313th Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “McCausland – new name for Sandy Row housing systems” (Press release). Northern Ireland Executive. 15 September 2011. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  5. Jump up ^ Sandy Row: a small part of Belfast
  6. ^ Jump up to: a bSandy Row History Part 1
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d eSandy Row history, part 2
  8. Jump up ^ Murphy, p.288
  9. Jump up ^ Nelson, Sarah (1984). Ulster uncertain Defenders: Protestant political, paramilitary and community groups and the Northern Ireland conflict. Belfast Apple Press. p.141
  10. Jump up ^ Fish, Robert (1975). Point of No Return: the strike that broke the British in Ulster. London: Times Books. pp.145-148
  11. Jump up ^ McDonald, Henry & Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: Inside the Heart of Loyalist Terror. Penguin Ireland. pp. 34-35
  12. ^ Jump up to: a bKain: Sutton Index deaths – 1973 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; the name “Cain” defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  13. Jump up ^ McDonald & Cusack, p. 54
  14. Jump up ^ Simpson, Alan (1999). Murder Madness: True violations during the unrest. Dublin: Gill & McMillan. pp.38-39
  15. Jump up ^ “I forgive bombers and shame his family.” The newsletter. March 24, 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  16. Jump up ^ Murphy, Dervla (1979). A Place Apart. Harmondsworth: Penguin ISBN 0140050302; p. 144
  17. Jump up ^ O’Neill, Julian (1 June 2012). “Sandy Row loyalist murals replaced by William of Orange painting” .BBC Online. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ “Sandy Row loyalist murals replaced by William of Orange painting”. BBC Online. 25 June 2012. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  19. Jump up ^ “King Billy portrait replaces UFF mural at Sandy Row ‘. BBC Online. July 2, 2012. Twelve Retrieved August 2012.
  20. Jump up ^ image of the store
  21. Jump up ^ Garnham, Neal (2004). Association football and society in pre-partition Ireland. Ulster Historical Foundation. p.47
  22. Jump up ^ McKeown, Lesley-Anne (27 July 2012). “Two years later and still no Alex Higgins memorial”. Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved twelve August 2012.
  23. Jump up ^ “Belfast: Looking for Van Morrison.” Texas Monthly. October 1975. Retrieved 11 August 2012.

Shankill Road

The Shankill Road (from Irish Sean Chill, which means “old church”) [1] is one of the main roads running through west Belfast, Northern Ireland. It goes through främstregeringstrogna working class area known as the Shankill. The road stretches westwards for approximately 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from central Belfast and is lined, to an extent, by shops. The residents live in the many streets that branch off the main road. The area along the Shankill Road is part of the court’s district electoral area.

History

Ulster loyalist banners and graffiti on a side street outside the building Lower Shankill, early 1970s

The first Shankill residents lived at the bottom of what is now called Glencairn: a small settlement of ancient people inhabited a ring soon. Built where Ballygomartin and Forth rivers meet [2]

A settlement around the point where the Shankill Road becomes Woodvale Road, at the junction of Cambrai Street, was known as the Shankill from the Irish Sean Chill means “old church”. Believed to be back to 455 CE, [3] it was known as the “Church of St. Patrick White Boy” and the time had six smaller churches, the so-called “alterages” attached to it over the west bank of the River Lagan. [4] The church was an important place of pilgrimage and it is likely that the creditors of the River Farset, which later became the core of Belfast, was important because of its location on the pilgrimage route.

As a paved road Shankill dates back to around the sixteenth century, which at that time was part of the main road to Antrim, a role now filled by the A6. [5] The lower parts of the Shankill Road where in ancient times the edge of Belfast with both Boundary Street on the Lower Shankill and Townsend Street in the center Shankill take their name from the fact that when they built the marked the approximate end of Belfast. [6]

The area expanded sharply in the mid to late 19’s with the growth of the linen industry. Many of the streets in the Shankill area, such as the Leopold Street, Cambrai Street and Brussels Street, named after places and people related to Belgium or Flanders, where flax linen was woven grown. Linn industry along with other previously successful in the area declined in the mid-20th century, leading to high levels of unemployment, which remains in the current situation. The Harland and Wolff shipyard, but on the other side of Belfast, was also a traditional employer for the area, [7] and it also has seen its number of employees decreased in recent years.

The area was also a common scene of riots in the nineteenth century, often of a sectarian nature of the Irish Catholic areas on the Falls Road and Ardoyne appeared along with the city’s prosperity. [8] Such rioting occurred June 9, 1886 after the defeat of the Government of Ireland Bill 1886 when a crowd of about 2,000 locals clashed with the Royal Irish Constabulary police try to stop the mob from looting a liquor store. Local police had to barricade themselves in Bower Hill barracks where a long siege followed. [9] Bower Hill was a name in the field of road between Agnes Street and Crimea Street. [10]

The West Belfast Division of the original Ulster Volunteer Force organized on the Shankill and drilled in Glencairn and many of its members saw service in World War I with the 36th (Ulster) Division. [11] A memorial garden next to the cemetery and a mural on Conway Street to celebrate those who fought in the war. Recruitment was also high during the Second World War and the conflict saw the damage to the Shankill Road as part avBelfast Blitz when a Luftwaffe bomb hit a guard at Percy Street, killing many people. The location of the destruction visited by the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester shortly after the attack. [12]

The troubles

During the unrest, Shankill was a center of loyalist para-militarism. The modern Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) had its genesis in the Shankill and its first attack occurred on the road May 7, 1966 when a group of UVF men led by Gusty Spence petrol bombed a Catholic-owned pub. Fire engulfed also the house next door, killing the older Protestant widow Matilda Gould (77), who lived there. [13] This was followed on May 27 by the assassination of John Scullion (28), a Catholic, as he walked home from a pub. [14] June 26 a Catholic civilian, Peter Ward (18), a native of Ireland, was killed and two others were injured as they left a pub in Shankill’s Malvern Street. [13] Shortly after this attack, Spence and three others were arrested and later convicted. [15] the UVF would continue to be active on the Shankill during the unrest, most familiar with the Shankill Butchers led by Lenny Murphy, as well as the likes of William Marchant ochFrankie Curry, the latter a member of the Red Hand Commando. [Citation needed]

Similarly, the Ulster Defence Association, was founded in September 1971 also began on the Shankill when vigilante groups such as the John McKeague sShankill Defence Association and the Woodvale Defence Association merged into a larger structure. [16] Under the leadership of initially Charles Harding Smith and later Andy Tyrie Shankill Road became the center of UDA activity with the movement to establish its headquarters on the way and leading members of James Craig, Davy Payne and Tommy Lyttle make their homes in the area. Shankill covered by the West Belfast Battalion of the UDA was split into three companies A (Glencairn and Highfield), B (middle Shankill) and C (lower Shankill). [17] In the 1990s, C Company under Johnny Adair became one of the most active units in UDA with armed men as Stephen McKeag responsible for several murders. [18] C Company would later feud with both the UVF and the rest of the UDA until 2003 when they were forced out. [19] after the exile of Adair and his supporters, as well as the murder of something that Alan McCullough, the lower Shankill UDA again brought into line with the rest of the movement during the past Adair supporter Mo Courtney. [20]

Greater Shankill and its inhabitants were also subjected to a number of bombings and shootings by Irish republican paramilitaries. In 1971, two pub bombings took place on the Shankill, one in May on the Mountain Tavern, where several people were injured and another four Step Inn in September, which resulted in two deaths. [21] Another bomb exploded at Balmoral interior Company December 11 the same year, resulting in four deaths, including two children. [22] another pub attack followed the August 13, 1975 when the IRA opened fire on customers outside Bayardo bar and then left a bomb inside the crowded bar area, killing four civilians and a UVF member. Brendan McFarlane received a life sentence for his part in the attack. [23]

The Shankill Road bombing occurred on October 23 1993. A bomb exploded in Frizzell Fish Shop, the UDA’s Shankill headquarters. The bomb exploded prematurely because it planted. Nine people were killed in addition to the bomber, Thomas Begley. None of the loyalist paramilitaries targeted injured, because they had postponed a planned meeting. Begley accomplice, Sean Kelly, survived and was jailed.

Shankill Road begins at Peter Hill, a path that flows from North Street in Belfast city center and quickly turns into Shankill on the Westlink. Peter Hill is adjacent to the Unity Flats / Carrick Hill, a small nationalist area north of downtown. The area housing the lower Shankill around Agnes Street was known colloquially as “The Hammer,” one of several nicknames applied to areas included “Nick”. [24] Hammer recalled the name of Hammer Sports Complex, home of amateur football side Shankill United FC [25] Lower Shankill have been built in recent years, but during the 1960s the house was ranked as the worst in Belfast. [26] A Lower Shankill Community Association is active in the area while the Shankill Leisure Centre is also located here. [27] the Shankill Women’s Centre, a women’s education initiative established by May Blood (now Baroness Blood), 1987, is also located on the lower Shankill. [28] George McWhirter, an author and the first Poet Laureate in Vancouver, BC, Canada, also came from the area originally. [Citation needed]

The “Diamond Jubilee Bar”, a popular UDA hold

Several streets linking Shankill Road to neighboring Crumlin Road with the area around the North Boundary Street former stronghold Johnny Adair’s C Company. Several members of C Company who have died are celebrated on murals around the area, especially Stephen McKeag, William “Bucky” McCullough, who was killed by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) in 1981 as part of a series of tit for tat killings between this group and UDA [29] and Jackie Coulter, was killed by the UVF during enregeringstrogna feud 2000. [30] the Shankill links theoretically neighboring Falls Road in a few places, although most of these exits blocked by peace lines .Ingången on Northumberland Street is sometimes open although it has lockable gates at the midpoint.

The lower Shankill is home to many loyalist pubs, the most notable is the “Malvern weapons”, in connection with the UVF and the “Diamond Jubilee” – a UDA places that became notorious as the most important meeting place for “C Company” during the early 1990s . “Long Bar” and “Windsor Bar”, both frequented by UVF in the 1970s, has since disappeared. According to investigative journalist Martin Dillon, was later used a center of activity for the UVF platoon led by Anthony “Chuck” Berry. [31]

Middle and Upper Shankill

Severe WA Sterling, among the youngest people were killed in active service during the First World War

Although there is no exact dividing line between the lower, middle and upper Shankill locally It is often said that the lower Shankill ends at Agnes Street. [32] The area was renovated sometime before the lower Shankill leads to feelings locally to the upper part of the road was better compared to the “Apaches” of the lower Shankill as they were colloquially known. [33] a number of Protestant churches located in this area, including West Kirk Presbyterian Church, [34] Shankill Methodist Church and independent Church of God. [35]

The West Belfast Orange Hall is near the top of the road. This building, which houses the No. 9 District Orange Lodge has received a facelift of the Belfast City Council. [36] The same applies to the nearby Shankill cemetery, a small graveyard which is funerals for approximately 1000 years. The cemetery is known for the statue of Queen Victoria and adjacent memorial members of the 36th Ulster Division who died at the Battle of the Somme. [37] Among those buried in the cemetery is the Rev. Isaac Nelson, a Presbyterian minister who was also active in the nationalist politik.Nelson lived on Sugar Field House on the Shankill, which then gave its name to Sugar Field Street. [38] Also buried here are 2nd Private WA Sterling, was killed in battle with the Royal Air Force November 5, 1918 at age 14.

The “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street, one of the drinking dens used by Lenny Murphy and Shankill Butchers

The area includes Lanark Way, one of the few direct links to neighboring nationalist areas, leading directly to the Springfield Road (although the street is gated near Springfield Road end and these are locked at night). A common way for UDA armed men seeking access to the Falls during the unrest, it was named the “Yellow Brick Road” by Stephen McKeag and his men. [39]

A number of pubs frequented by UVF members were in the area. These included the “Berlin weapon” on the Shankill and the Berlin Street intersection, and “Bayardo,” which was located in the corner of the Shankill and Aberdeen Street. The pub was close to “The Eagle” where the UVF “Brigade staff” had its headquarters in the rooms above a chip shop of the same name at the Shankill and Spiers Place intersection. “Brown Bear” pub loyalist Lenny Murphy as his headquarters for directing his infamous murder gangs – the Shankill Butchers -. Low in the upper corner of the Shankill and Mountjoy Street [40] The pub, which went bankrupt, has since been demolished. Another drink it in the area used by Murphy and his gang were “Lawnbrook Social Club” Centurion Street. The “Rex Bar” on the middle Shankill is one of the oldest pubs on the Shankill Road and is frequented by members of the UVF. This bar was attacked by members of the UDA’s C Company in 2000 to launch a loyalist feud between the two groups. [41]

Greater Shankill

Mural depicting James Buchanan on Ainsworth Street

The terms Greater Shankill used by a number of groups operating in the region, primarily the Greater Shankill Partnership, [42] to refer to both the Shankill Road and union / loyalist areas surrounding it. The most important areas in this field is Woodvale, Glencairn and Highfield. Greater Shankill as a whole has a population of about 22,000. [Citation needed]

Woodvale

The Woodvale area begins after Ainsworth Avenue when the road changed from the Shankill Road, Woodvale Road. As well as comprehensive housing Woodvale area also contains Woodvale Presbyterian Church, a building on the corner of Woodvale and Ballygomartin roads dating back to 1899. [43] The area got its name from Woodvale Park, public gardens and sports area, which opened in 1888. [44]

Furthermore, there is locally St. Matthew’s Church of Ireland, which was built in 1872, takes its name from the original church that had been sitting in the grounds of the cemetery. The architecture of this church is called the trefoil, which means that it is built in the shape of a shamrock. The shamrock is the national emblem of Ireland and was probably used by St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland to förklaraHeliga Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. There is a book about the church that says that St. Matthew is actually a replica of a church in Salonika, which rounded “blade” does not have depressions leaves of white clover. The water in the stone outside the door was supposed to cure warts and really up to the 1990s, was considered to cure colic for a new, open safety pin thrown in. [Citation needed] The oldest stone in the Shankill cemetery was known locally as “Bullaun least” and traditionally said to cure warts on the work area was rubbed on the stone. It was removed to the grounds of St. Matthews in 1911. [45]

Glencairn

Ballygomartin Road, seen from Martin Spring Road, showing its largely rural nature

Glencairn is an area based on Ballygomartin Road, which runs outside Woodvale Road, and the Forth River Road. It is adjacent to Crumlin Road. As a large residential area also includes Glencairn Park, a large wooded area in the bottom of Divis Mountain. Former estate of the Cunningham family area was open to the public in 1962. [46] The park Fernhill House, the ancestral family home, which is not only used by Edward Carson to drill their Ulster Volunteers, but was also the setting for the announcement of the Combined Loyalist Military Command ( CLMC) ceasefire 13 October 1994. [47] it then became a museum, but was closed in late 2010 and early 2011. the additional area of housing, called the Lyndhurst area after a number of local streets, located west of Glencairn Park ( the Glencairn estate east of the forest area). Lyndhurst area hit the headlines in 2003 when two leading loyalists, Jim Spence of the UDA and Jackie Mahood of the Loyalist Volunteer Force, reported brawling in the streets of Lyndhurst area where they both lived. [48] The Ballygomartin Road stretches as far as the nationalist Upper Whiterock Road although after Spring Martin area is predominantly rural.

The farm was the scene of the murder of two prominent loyalists. In 1982, Lenny Murphy shot and killed by the Provisional IRA near his girlfriend’s house in the yard. [49] In 2001, William Stobie was killed by members of the UDA, a group that Stobie had previously belonged after he was supposed to testify at a public inquiry into the death of Pat Finucane. Stobie killing, which occurred near his home on the Forth River Road, was widely claimed the Red Hand Defenders, a cover name used by various loyalist groups on ceasefire. [50]

Highfield

The Spring Martin barrier, with the New Barnsley police station at one end

Highfield is a residential area located around the West Circular and Martin Spring roads, both of which fall outside the Ballygomartin Road. Highfield is near the nationalist Springfield Road and there is limited access between the two areas through the West Circular and Spring Martin. Thanks to its location parts of the area sometimes known as Spring Martin property. [51] Highfield seen as an enclave and has been the scene of frequent sectarian tensions. [52] As a result of this Spring Martin Road is home to a 18-foot-high (5.5 m) peace line that runs the length of the road from the junction with the Springfield Road until close to the Ballygomartin Road. [53] in May 1972 the area was the scene of a two-day gun battle between Republican and loyalist paramilitaries and the British army, but a combination of peace lines and demographic changes meant that such open conflict was not repeated later in the unrest.

Policy

Democratic Unionist Party Office, Woodvale Road

Shankill has traditionally union and loyalist, albeit with a certain strength is also held by the labor movement. Belfast Shankill, which covers the northwestern part of the Shankill Road, was founded as a constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1929 and existed until the body was abolished in 1973. During that time the seat was held by three men, Tommy Henderson (1929-1953), Henry Holmes (1953-1960 ) and Desmond Boal (1960-1973). Of these, only Holmes belonged to the usual Ulster Unionist Party for his entire career with Boal once a member which is also designated as both independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist Party and Henderson always and independence for a time was part of the independent Unionist Association .Henderson was born Dundee Street on the Shankill. [54] A Belfast Shankill constituency also returned member of the UK Parliament from 1918 to 1922, with the Labour Unionist Samuel McGuffinhåller seat. The areas south of the road covered by Belfast Woodvale place at Westminster and a place with the same name at Stormont. Robert John Lynn of the Irish trade union alliance represented the seat in Westminster for the whole of its existence (1918-1922). Stormont seat held by John William Nixon (Independent Unionist) from 1929 to 1950, Ulster Unionists Robert Harcourt (1950-1955) and Neville Martin (1955-1958), Billy Boyd in Northern Ireland Labour Party until 1965, finally, John McQuade, who in different ways Ulster Unionist independent trade unions and the Democratic Unionist until the seat was abolished in 1972.

Shankill is now part of the West Belfast constituency of Northern Ireland Assembly and Westminster. At the parish Shankill represented by four Sinn Féin MLAs and one each from the Social Democratic and Labour Party and people before profit Alliance. In Westminster, since 1966, when the seat was lost by the last sitting unionist Jim Kilfedder, it has always had a nationalist or republican MP. The abstentionist policy Sinn Fein MP Gerry Adams, who was West Belfast MP until his retirement in 2011, led to an attempt judicial review of the mayor Frank McCoubrey who claimed Shankill residents are denied their right to be represented. [55] The case was not a success.

At Belfast City Council Greater Shankill area covered by the court electoral area. At the 2011 elections, the five councilors elected were William Humphrey, Naomi Thompson and Brian Kingston of the Democratic Unionist Party, regardless Frank McCoubrey (who is a member of the Ulster Political Research Group) and the Progressive Unionist Party is Hugh Smyth. [56]

Robert McCartney, who led his own British Unionist Party and represented North Down in Westminster, is also originally from the Shankill. [57]

Training

High schools serving Shankill include Belfast Boys Model School and the Belfast Model School for Girls because of their location in the Ballysillan area adjoining Crumlin Road. Students from the area also participate Hazelwood college or Malone College, both of which are integrated schools, and Victoria College and the Royal Belfast Academical Institution who are both grammar school. Before its closure, and before several name changes, Cairnmartin Secondary School was also greater Shankill area. Famous pupils include footballer Norman Whiteside [58] and boxers Wayne McCullough. The school, then known as Mount Gilbert Community College, closed permanently in 2007 after a decline in the number of students. [59]

Schools in the greater Shankill area includes the Forth River Primary School on Ballygomartin Road. Founded in 1841, the original building was cramped and inspection reports commented on the high level of instruction despite inadequate building years. [Citation needed] In the 1980s and 1990s, closure and merging both proposed and vigorously oppose all associated with the school. Ultimately, a new £ 1.4m state-of-the-art school was announced as a replacement for the old building and the new school, located on the adjacent Cairnmartin Road, was officially opened by Prince Andrew, Duke of York, 2005. [60] Other schools include three in the Shankill Road itself in Glenwood Primary School, which was founded in 1981, [61] Eden Brooke Primary School in Tennent Street and Malvern Primary School and Black Mountain Primary School and Spring Primary Schoolpå Martin Spring Road.

Sports

Boxing mural, Hopewell Crescent

Wayne McCullough, a gold medalist at the Commonwealth Games and a champion in the bantamweight division world and an Olympic silver medalist in the 1992 Olympics summer representing Ireland, was born in Shankill. He is one of a number of boxers from the area to be presented on a mural on Gardiner Street to celebrate the area’s strong legacy in boxing. [62] The image has since been moved to Hopewell Crescent. McCullough trained in Albert Foundry boxing club, located in Highfield Estate where he grew up. [63] Other locals to make an impact in the sport have included Jimmy Warnock, a boxer from the 1930s who beat world champion Benny Lynch twice, and his brother Billy.

Football is also a popular sport in the region with local teams including the Shankill United, Albert Foundry, which plays at West Circular Road, Lower Shankill, who share Hammer ground with United [64] and Woodvale who won the Junior Cup in 2011. [65] All four clubs are members of the northern Amateur Football League. The most important club in the area, however Linfield Linfield with a supermarket trading on the Shankill Road, despite the club based on the Lisburn Road in south Belfast. [66] A Linfield Supporters and Social Club, located in the Crimea Street. An Ulster Rangers club is also open on the road, with the Glasgow club broad support among Northern Irish Protestants. Norman Whiteside, free Northern Ireland and Manchester United midfielder, lived on the Shankill. Whiteside also lends his name to Norman Whiteside Sports Facility, a community sports field used by Woodvale FC [67] The resort is located on Sydney Street West between Shankill and neighboring Crumlin Road. George O’Boyle, who had a long career in Scottish football, is also a native of Shankill. [68]

The Ballygomartin Road is also home to a cricket ground of the same name, which in 2005 hosted a List A match between Canada and Namibia in 2005 ICC Trophy. [69] The land is home to Woodvale Cricket Club, founded in 1887. [70]

Transport

Although Shankill Road originally grew as part of the main road to the Antrim, it is no longer a part of something larger network that connects Belfast to neighboring towns with their peripheral roads all closed either in the mountains or link to Springfield Road. Belfast was served by a network of trams in the first half of the 20th century and the Shankill was the last part of the city to see this service is removed in the 1950s. [71] Public transport is now provided by Metro Transportation arm of Shankill eleventh form of the company’s twelve corridors. Buses link to Belfast estates on top of Shankill and Ballysillan area of Crumlin Road. [72] Routes 11A / B and C follow each other up Shankill Road and Woodvale Road as far as Woodvale Park. 11A continues straight through Ardoyne, Crumlin Road, Bilston Road, Ballysillan Road and ends at the Silver (Ballysillan Park). 11B and C turn right on Ballygomartin Road with 11B continues to Spring Martin and 11C turn right at Forth River Road up to the terminus at Glencairn is on the top of the hill.

In popular culture

Shankill area plays a prominent role in The Fall, in that Jimmy and Liz Tyler, grief counseling clients, Paul Spector, as well as two of Spector victims (Annie and Joseph Brawley) appear to live there, as well as a woman Spector meets on the train. Throughout the series, Spector, members of the police and other characters equally, leading the hostile inhabitants of the neighborhood, sometimes after going into the neighborhood, and at other times when the residents have sought them out Shankhill.

References

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  8. Jump up ^ McKittrick, David (23 August 2000). “Shankill Road was always tough, and getting tougher.” London: independent.co.uk. Hämtadtio juni2011.
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  13. ^ Jump up to: ab “a chronology of key events in Irish history from 1800 to 1967” .Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Hämtadtio juni2011.
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  15. Jump up ^ Taylor, Peter (1999) .Lojalister.Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 44.ISBN 0-7475-4519-7.
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  58. Jump up ^ Norman Whiteside, my memories of Manchester United, 2003, p. 11
  59. Jump up ^ BBC report on the closure of the Mount Gilbert
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  62. Jump up ^ “McCullough in the new mural.” BBC News. July 2, 2009. Hämtattio juni2011.
  63. Jump up ^ “Wayne McCullough.” Culturenorthernireland.org. 15 April 2011. Hämtattio juni2011.
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Titanic Belfast

Titanic Belfast visitor attraction and a monument to Belfast’s maritime heritage at the site of the former Harland & Wolff shipyard in the city’s Titanic Quarter where RMS Titanic was built. It tells the stories of the ill-fated Titanic, which hit an iceberg and sank during its maiden voyage in 1912, and her sister ship RMS Olympic and HMHSBritannic. The building contains more than 12,000 square meters (130,000 sq ft) of floor space, most of which is occupied by a number of galleries, plus private meeting rooms and common facilities.

History

The building is located on Queen’s Island, an area of land at the entrance to Belfast Lough extracted from the water in the middle of the 19th century. It was used for many years by shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, which built large grinders and graving docks to accommodate the concurrent construction of Olympic and Titanic. The decline in shipbuilding in Belfast left much of the area deserted. Most of the discarded structures on the island demolished. A number of cultural heritage was given listed status, including Olympic and Titanic slipways and graving docks, as well as the iconic Samson and Goliath cranes. [1]

The devastated areas was renamed the “Titanic Quarter” in 2001 and earmarked for regeneration. [2] building rights of 185 acres then bought by Harcourt Developments at a cost of £ 46 million, [3] with a further 23 acres reserved for a science park. The renovation plans include housing, hotels and leisure facilities, plus a maritime heritage museum and science center. [4] In 2005, plans were announced to build a museum dedicated to the Titanic to attract tourists to the area, in order to complete it by 2012 to mark the centenary of the Titanic’s maiden voyage. [5]

A number of ideas were raised for the attraction. Among the ideas considered was to reconstruct the massive steel portal where the Titanic and Olympic were constructed, [5] or build a lighted wireframe outline of the Titanic in the dock where she was fitted. [6] In June 2008, details of a project – known then as “Titanic Signature Project” -. announced [7] Northern Ireland’s Tourism Minister, Arlene Foster, announced that the Northern Ireland Executive would give 50 per cent of the attractions financing by the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, with the remaining 50 percent comes from the private sector, in the form of Titanic Quarter Ltd, a sister company of Harcourt The development and Belfast Harbour Commissioners. Additional funding promised by Belfast City Council. The task to create attraction visitors were on the Titanic Foundation, a charity that aims to “educate people on Belfast social, historical, industrial and maritime heritage through the history of the Titanic.” [8]

The building, now called the Titanic Belfast, expected to attract 425,000 visitors annually, of which between 130000-165000 would come from outside Northern Ireland. It is meant to serve a similar transformative function of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, designed by Frank Gehry, as a focus for the regeneration of the city. [8] It is part of the Titanic-related relics in the Titanic Quarter, including the abandoned headquarters and take office Harland & Wolff, the SS Nomadic – the last surviving White Star Line ships – and Hamilton Dock, Titanic’s Dock and Pump House and Titanic and Olympic. grinds [9]

The first figures are visitors greatly exceeded forecasts with 807.340 visitors pass through its doors, of which 471 702 were from outside Northern Ireland, according to the Titanic Belfast.Attraktionskraften also sold 1,376 bottles of champagne and hosted over 350 conferences. [10] [11]

Design and construction

Eric Kuhne and Associates was commissioned by concept architects, with Todd Architects appointed to senior consultants. The building’s design is intended to reflect Belfast’s history of ship making and industrial heritage bequeathed by Harland & Wolff. Its angular shape is reminiscent of the shape of the vessels PROWS, with its essential “bow” angled down the middle avTitanic and Olympic grinds against the flame. [8] Alternatively, it has been suggested that the building looks like an iceberg, and the locals have already nicknamed “The Iceberg”. [12] Most of the building’s facade is clad in 3,000 individual silver anodized aluminum shards. [9] it is (38 m) in the same height as 126 feet high, the Titanic’s hull. [12]

The interior of the eight-storey building offers 12,000 square meters (130,000 sq ft) of space. [8] Its centerpiece is a series of interpretive galleries explore aspects of the building, design, flags and older of the Titanic. On the top floor of the museum is Belfast’s largest conference and reception space, the Titanic Suite, a banquet facility capable of seating 750 people. A reproduction of the original staircase of the Titanic, made famous by the James Cameron film Titanic in 1997, is located in the conference center. [13] The building also offers education, community, retail and restaurant as well as a community resource center. [14]

Construction of the building cost £ 77 million with a further £ 24 million is spent on pre-planning and public realm förbättringar.Grunden to the building involved one of the largest ever concrete pour of 4,200 cubic meters (150,000 cu ft) of concrete that comes with 700 concrete trucks in 24 hours. Harcourt Construction (NI) Ltd oversaw the design and construction phase of the project. [9], a subsidiary of Dublin-based property company Harcourt Developments Ltd. [14]

In front of the building is Titanica, a sculpture by Rowan Gillespie shows a diving female figure. Of bronze, it is mounted on a brass base, and recalls the design of figureheads on ships PROWS, and is meant to represent hope and positivity. The figure was unveiled by representatives föranglikanska, Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian churches, March 27, 2012, a few days before the opening of Titanic Belfast. [15]

Exhibition

Titanic Belfast exhibition was designed by the London-based exhibition designers Events Communications and consists of nine interpretive and interactive galleries, covering the following themes:

  • Boomtown Belfast – the city in the early 20th century

The first gallery back scenes from Belfast at the time of the Titanic ‘s construction in 1909-1911. It shows the city’s major industries before leading through an initial set of ports from Harland and Wolff shipyard into an interactive floors featuring Titanic’s construction plans, along with original drawings and scale models of the ship. [16]

  • Shipyard – a ride aboard a mini-car up and around a replica of the Titanic’s rudder

The second gallery is dominated by a steel scaffolding which stands 20 meters (66 feet), which alludes to the Arrol Gantry built to facilitate the construction of Titanic and Olympic. An elevator takes visitors to the top of the portal, where scenes of shipbuilding shown through sound and pictures. The visit continues on a six-seater car that takes visitors on a journey through a re-creation of a shipyard that moves through a scale copy of the Titanic’s enormous rudder. [16]

  • The launch – the Titanic was launched May 31, 1911

Launch Gallery depicting scenes from the spring day when Titanic was launched in Belfast Lough, watched by 100,000 people. It overlooks slip that the Titanic was launched and a window, visitors can see the slipways and jetties as they appear now. [16]

  • Fit-Out – interior of the Titanic from its launch until April 1912

The fourth gallery presents a large-scale model of the Titanic to illustrate how the ship appeared to their passengers and crew, depicting all three classes of cabins. A central feature of the gallery presents a 360-degree computer-generated tour of the Titanic through all levels of the ship, from the engine room to the dining salons and bridge. [16]

  • maiden voyage – journey from Belfast to Southampton, and from there to Cherbourg, Queenstown (Cobh) and west

Disastrous maiden vessel shown in the fifth gallery, depicting ship boat deck. Visitors can walk across the wooden deck, sit on the benches or watching a view of the harbor and the harbor. The gallery also shows pictures of the ship vidJesuit photographer Father Francis Browne, who was on board the Titanic for the leg from Southampton to Queenstown (now Cobh) in Southern Ireland. [16]

  • Sinking – disaster on 14-15 April 1912

The sixth gallery depicting the sinking of the Titanic with background audio Morse code SOS messages sent to other vessels. Pictures of sinking combined with sound survivors tell their stories and illustrations of the confused press reports of the disaster. The iceberg is developed by a wall of 400 life jackets replica, on which a picture of the sinking ship calculated. [16]

  • The aftermath – the legacy of the disaster

The aftermath of the sinking documented in the seventh gallery, dominated by a full-size copy of one of the lifeboats used to evacuate passengers from the ship. The US and British investigations catastrophe depicted on each side of the lifeboat through videos and information panels. Visitors can use interactive screens to search passenger and crew lists to find out if one of their relatives were on board the ship. The gallery also presents information on the subsequent history of Harland and Wolff and Titanic’s sister ship. [16]

  • Myths and legends – the facts behind some of the stories of the Titanic

The disaster gave rise to many legends and myths, perpetuated by movies, plays, books and poems. With Celine Dion’s song My Heart Will Go On playing in the background, visitors have the opportunity to explore aspects avpopulärkultur inspired by the Titanic. Interactive screens also make it possible for the visitor to explore the myths about the ship. [16]

  • During the Titanic – the wreck of the Titanic and its rediscovery

The last gallery presents the Titanic as she is now, (3700 m) 12,000 feet below the surface of the North Atlantic. Presented in conjunction with the discoverer of the wreck of the Titanic, Dr. Robert Ballard, the gallery shows his expeditions to the ship through images, sounds and images. A fish-eye view of the wreck is set under the glass floor. Under the floor is the Ocean Exploration Centre, Titanic Belfast’s main teaching tool, showing marine biology and exploration in Northern Ireland’s coastal waters, and Ballard’s various expeditions around the world. [16]

footnotes

  1. Jump up ^ DOENI case study.
  2. Jump up ^ Macalister February 6, 2001.
  3. Jump up ^ The Guardian February 8, 2001.
  4. Jump up ^ Cowan & Gow 13 April 2002.
  5. ^ Jump up to: a Barendt 5 May 2005.
  6. Jump up ^ Peterkin 19 October 2005.
  7. Jump up ^ McHugh 19 June 2008.
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c dMcConnell October to November of 2010.
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b cBelfast Telegraph, 15 April 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ “Foster welcome boost for the cruise industry.” Belfast Telegraph .13 Jun, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Smyth, Jamie (16 June 2013). “Northern Ireland focus: Titanic’s success raises hopes for tourism”. The Financial Times. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
  12. ^ Jump up to: a bEdiss 15 April 2012.
  13. Jump up ^ Grand staircase RMS Titanic
  14. ^ Jump up to: a bMcGonagle 19 April 2011.
  15. Jump up ^ Richardson, 27 March 2012.
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h iDougan 2 April 2012.

References

  • Arendt, Paul (May 2005 5). “Titanic to come ‘home’ to Belfast.” The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • Dougan, Patrice (2 April 2012). “Inside Titanic Belfast – a guided tour” .Belfast Telegraph. Are downloaded April 2012.
  • Cowan, Rose; Gow, David (13 April 2002). “Titanic connection proves Belfast lifeline”. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • Ediss, Tina (15 April 2012). “Belfast is based on the legacy of the Titanic.” Sunday Express.
  • Macalister, Terry (6 February 2001). “Belfast yard on three days a week for £ 26m loss”. The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • McConnell, Turlough (October-November 2010). “Architecture for a New Age” .Irish America.
  • McGonagle, Suzanne (19 April 2011). “Structure designed to capture the spirit of the Titanic in progress – 97 place £ hosted 400,000 visitors per year.” The Irish News.
  • McHugh, Michael (19 June 2008). “Titanic Quarter can get ship shape £ 64m revamp”. Press Association.
  • Peterkin, Tom (19 October 2005). “Relaunch of Titanic shipyard”. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  • Richardson, David (27 March 2012). “The statue was unveiled at Titanic Belfast” .InsideIreland.ie. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  • “With just one year left to the Titanic disaster’s centenary, is Belfast’s major project on course?”. Belfast Telegraph. April 15, 2011.
  • “Titanic fresh start”. The Guardian. 8 February 2001. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  • “Case study 3: Titanic Quarter” (PDF). Northern Ireland Environment Agency. Hämtad19 March 2012.

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