CategoryIreland Attractions

Ferns, County Wexford

Ferns (Irish: Fearna , meaning “al trees” card Fearna Mór Maedhóg ) is a historic town in the north of County Wexford, Ireland. It is 16 km (10 mi) from Enniscorthy, därGorey Enniscorthy N11 road joins the R745 regional road. The remains of Ferns Castle is in the center of the city.

View of Ferns from the castle tower.


Ferns are thought to have formed in the 6th century, when the monastery was founded in 598 dedicated to St. Mogue of Clonmore (St.Aidan) who was a bishop of ferns. [7] The city became the capital icon Kingdom of Leinster and also the capital of Ireland when the kings of the south part of the province established its headquarters in power. It was a very big city yet, but shrunk in the fire that destroyed most of the time. The city stretched all the way down and longer than the River Bann (tributary of the River Slaney), if it is not burned, it has been one of Ireland’s largest cities idag.Kung Dermot MacMurrough founded St. Mary Abbey as a house of the Augustinian Canons c. 1158 and was buried there in 1171. [8]

Ferns Castle, an Anglo-Norman fortress built in the 13th century by William the Earl Marshall. Today, about half of the castle remains. The city also contains 13th century St Edan’s Cathedral (Church of Ireland) this Cathedral is not the original, but the ruins of the original can be found a few meters away from the existing and the existing cathedral today is not fully restored cathedral that was supposed to be (there was order by queen Elizabeth in the construction of its former self of O’Byrnes Wicklow but they only returned part), which is the cathedral today. It can be seen as an artifact and a museum, and of course a church. The tower and the Chapter House was put on in the 19th century. There are also several high crosses and parts of the cross.

The old Catholic Church was at the northern end of town to the 1970s, when there was a roof problems. Parish Priest at the time ordered it, the clearance by the parish to demolish it. A convent is St. Aidan convent of worship now in its stead.

The foundation stone for the new church of St. Aidan was on the Feast of St. Aidan January 31, 1974 the foundation stone is on the northwest corner of the wall of the church at the entrance to the sacristy. The new Catholic church was completed in 1975. During the 2000s, the new church went under a major renovation since it also had a roof leakage problems of the roof and so on, there was an earlier roof problems 15 years after the church was built.They replaced the slate with new composite metal materials, the interior is also renovated and some minor changes were made to the appearance of the building.

A plaque listing the names of parish priests, from 1644, is on the wall to the right of the altar next to the organ. The organ in St.Aidan Catholic Church is more than 100 years old and used to be a “pump” body until the parish changed it into electricity. The pipe organ was transferred from the old church to the new church, and is still in use. Denanglikanska Cathedral and New Catholic Church is open daily Anglican Cathedral – all day and The New Catholic Church – 09:00 until around 4:00, usually or sometimes later on Fridays.

19th century the population reached a peak in 1851, but never reached the levels of the middle ages. Lewis topography of 1834 claimed the town “consists mainly of an irregular street, and includes 106 houses indifferently built, retains no trace of its former significance.” [9] The Abbey, St. Peter’s Church (Catholic and Anglican), and the rest of the great cathedral considered as holy places and is regarded as the Church still this includes the monastery now has the title of a church and monastery.

annalistic references

See Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI741.1 Kl. The rest of Cúán.u, abbot of Ferna and Flann.Feórna son of Colman, king of Ciarraige Luachra [died].

Religion and heritage

The city gave the name to the Diocese of Ferns (both Catholic and Church of Ireland). The city’s religious traditions live on today through the recent establishment of Ferns in a hermitage.

The whole history of modern Ireland are derived from Ferns – Diarmuid MacMurrough, king of Leinster invited the Normans in 1169 to help him fight his battles (they never left) – he sealed the deal with her daughter Aoife marriage of Strongbow.

Ferns have evidence of four different periods in Irish history. Archaeological excavations have revealed homes of copper, iron, early Christian and Norman eras.

Ferns have many church sites dating from the early Christian period by Norman and medieval times. Ancient monuments include

Ferns Castle (Visitor Centre May to late September – 10:00 to 17:00 Open daily, houses Ferns tapestries)

Cathedral cemetery

The tomb king Dermot MacMurrough

Maria in August Abbey

St. Edan’s Cathedral

The remainder of the great medieval Gothic cathedral

High cross Ferns

St. Mogue s Cottage

St. Peter’s Church

St. Mogue s Well

Monument to Father John Murphy (who was born near Ferns)

St.Aidan Church (New Catholic Church)

St. Aidan monastery of worship (monastery in the old Catholic Church site)

For more information about Ferns Heritage


Ferns is located on the N11 road connecting Dublin to Wexford.

Regular (almost every hour) bus link Ferns to Dublin and Rosslare are provided by a number of companies.

Ferns railway station was opened November 16, 1863, closed for passenger traffic March 30, 1964 and to freight traffic November 3, 1975 before eventually closes completely on March 7, 1977. [10]


  • Anne Doyle – former RTÉ newsreader
  • Dermot MacMurrough (d 1171). – Former King of Uí Cheinnselaig and Leinster
  • Gordon D’Arcy professional Ireland and Leinster rugby player

See also

  • Ferns Inquiry
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland.


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-11.
  2. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.” Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  3. Jump up ^ “Histpop – Online Historical Population Reports website.”Histpop.Org. 04.02.2007. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  4. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Census website.” Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ Blue Guide, Ireland. Brian Lalor. (p248) ISBN 0-7136-6130-5
  8. Jump up ^ Gwynn, Aubrey; R. Hadcock Neville (1970). Medieval monasteries Ireland. London: Longman. pp. 175-176. ISBN 0-582-11229-X.
  9. Jump up ^ Lewis, Samuel (1837). A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Samuel Lewis. p. 624th
  10. Jump up ^ “Ferns station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Pulled 10/14/2007.


Castlebar (Irish: Caislean an Bharraigh , which means “Barry Castle”) is the county seat of County Mayo, Ireland. It is in the middle of the county and its largest city by population.

A campus of Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology and country life part of the National Museum of Ireland are two important local amenities. The city is linked by rail to Dublin, Westport and Ballina. The main road on the road is the N5. The city is surrounded by several villages, including Ballintubber. Its economy is primarily service-based. Continue reading

The Museum of Country Life

The Museum of Country Life is located in Turlough Village, 8 km (5.0 mi) northeast of Castlebar, County Mayo in Ireland. Founded in 2001, the museum is part of the National Museum of Irelandoch is the only national museum outside of Dublin. [2] The museum exhibits the lifestyle of rural Irish people between 1850 and 1950, and it is in the grounds of Turlough Park House. There are displays about the home, the natural environment, trade and craft, communities, and works on land and water. Continue reading

Lough Mask

Lough Mask (Irish: Loch Measca ) is a limestone lough (lake) of 20,500 acres (83 km²) in County Mayo, Ireland, north of Lough Corrib. Lough Mask is in the middle of the three lakes, which flow into the Corrib River, through Galway, Galway Bay. Carra flows into Lough Mask, which feeds into Lough Corrib through an underground stream that becomes the River Cong .Lough Mask is the sixth largest lake by area, in Ireland. [1] The eastern half of the Lough Mask is shallow and contains many islands . The other half (Upper Lough Mask) is much deeper, drops to a long ditch with depths exceeding 50 meters. [2] Lough Mask has an average depth of 15m and a maximum depth of 58. [3] The water volume of 1.3 km 3 [4] is only surpassed by the Lough Neagh is 3.5 km 3 in Ireland and it is the largest lake by volume of water in Ireland. [5]

The lake is popular for its trout fishing. The World Cup Trout Fly Fishing Championship takes place annually on Lough Mask Cushlough Bay near Ballinrobe. [6]

In 1338, Sir Edmond de Burgh was drowned in the lake with his cousin Sir Edmond Albannach Bourke County Mayo, in the late Burke civil war from 1333 to 1338. He was captured and taken to påBallinrobe Oilean-a-lara (Earls Island) where he was killed.

Under a side note on the manuscript contains the oldest copy of “Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne” ( “The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne ‘) (Royal Irish Academy Ms. 24.P.9), Irish scribe Dáibhídh Bacach (” lame David “) Ó Duibhgeannáin lived and worked on Oilean Ruadh ( “Red Island”) on Lough Mask in house Tadhg Og O Flaherty in the day, april 1, 1651.

The Lough was the scene of 1882 “Lough Mask Murder”, when two bailiffs working for Lord Ardilaun killed, described as “an old man and a boy.” [7]Tensions had occurred in the area during the land wars and the proximity of land managed Charles Boycott. The corpses were found in the lough itself.The controversial lack of credible witnesses led to four well-publicized trials of the accused in 1882-1883.

According to local legend, a banshee haunting Lead Island, a small island in Lough. It has also been rumored sightings of a banshee around the shores of Lough and other forms of paranormal activity.

Petersburg Outdoor Education Center is located on the shores of Lough near Lead Island. The center uses the lake for many water sports including kayaking, canoeing and sailing.

“Loch Measca” was taken as alias Sean Seoighe (John Joyce) in Eachtra múinteóra an Irish language memoir published in 1929.

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ List of Loughs in Ireland
  2. Jump up ^ The Bathymetry and origin of the larger lakes in Ireland Author (s): JK Charlesworth
  3. Jump up ^ County Council Toormakeady sewage Page 8 [1]
  4. Jump up ^ County Council for URMAKEADY sewage Page 12 [2]
  5. Jump up ^ List of Loughs in Ireland
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^ annual summaries, The Times, 1882, pp. 182-186

Croagh Patrick

Croagh Patrick (Irish: Cruach Phádraig , meaning “(S) Patrick Stack”), [1]nicknamed the Reek , [2] is a 764 meters (2,507 ft) mountain and an important place of pilgrimage in County Mayo iIrland. It is 8 km (5 miles) from Westport, above the villages of Murrisk and Lecanvey. It is the third highest mountain in County Mayo after Mweelrea and Nephin. It increased by pilgrims on Reek Sunday every year, which is the last Sunday in July. It forms the southern part of a U-shaped valley created by a glacier flowing into Clew Bay in the last Ice Age .Croagh Patrick is part of a long east-west ridge;the westernmost peak called Ben Gorm.


Croagh Patrick comes from the Irish Cruach Phádraig sense “(S) Patrick stack”. It is known locally as “Reek”, an Irish English word for “rick” or “stack”.[3] In pagan times it was known as Cruachan Aigle , referred to by that name in the sources Cath Maige Tuired , [4] Buile Shuibhne , [5] meters Dindshenchas, [6] and the Annals of Ulster record for the year 1113. [7] Cruachan is simply a diminutive of Cruach “stack”, but it is not certain what Aigle funds. It is either from the Latin loan aquila “eagle” (usually aicile or acaile ) [8] or a person’s name. [6] [9] In addition to its literal meaning, Cruach in the pagan name may also be related to Crom Cruach.

The Marquess of Sligo, whose headquarters is located near Westport House, carries the titles Baron Mount Eagle and the Earl of Altamont, both derived from the alternative name ( Cruachan Aigle , high-mount ). For Croagh Patrick [10]


Main article: Reek Sunday

Croagh Patrick has sense been a place of pagan pilgrimage, especially for the summer solstice, since 3000 BC [11] It is now a place of Christian pilgrimage associated co aint Patrick fasted on top forty days in the fifth century AD [12]Thousands of people climb the mountain every Reek Sunday, which is the last Sunday of juli.Klättringen led by the Archbishop of Tuam each year. But the amount of visitors -estimated at 40,000 per year -and resulting erosion has caused concern for the safety of both the Catholic Church and local farmers who undertake safety measures. Pilgrimage was canceled because of safety reasons in 2015. [13]

Summit chapel

From St. Patrick’s own time, there had been some kind of a small chapel on the top, [14] called “Team Phádraig”. an archaeological excavation in 1994 found the remains of a foundation at the top. In the 824 Archbishops of Armagh and Tuam disagree over who had jurisdiction. [15]

A small chapel was built on the top and dedicated July 20, 1905. During the pilgrimage July 31, 2005 a plaque commemorating its centennial presented by Michael Neary, the Archbishop of Tuam.

It was decided [ citation needed ] in 2005 to open the church every day during the summer, rather than just on holidays. Mass celebrated in the church on Reek Sunday and 15 August. It opens through information lines.

Gold detection

A seam of gold were discovered in the rock in the 1980s: overall grades of 14 grams of gold per tonne (0.45 oz gold per ton) for at least 12 quartz veins, which can produce 700,000 tons (770,000 tons) of ore – potentially over 300,000 troy oz of gold (worth over € 360). But because of local opposition from the Mayo environmental group led by Paddy Hopkins, the Mayo County Council decided not to allow mining. [16]


  • Unobstructed mountain views from Westport
  • Notice at the base stations of the Catholic climbers, with the statue of Saint Patrick
  • The upper slopes of the mountain
  • Patrick Oratory at the summit
  • Patrick bed at the summit
  • Cairn near the top with views of Clew Bay and Mayo mountains
  • Chapel on top of Croagh Patrick

See also

  • List of mountains in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Croagh Patrick placental Database of Ireland. Pulled: 07/31/2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Croagh Patrick, Taifid chartlainne (archive footage) placental Database of Ireland. Pulled: 07/31/2013.
  3. Jump up ^ New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , the CD edition, 1997, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1973, 1993, 1996.
  4. Jump up ^ CELT: The second battle of Moytura (Translation) – Irish
  5. Jump up ^ CELT: Buile Shuibhne (Translation) – Irish (Cruachan Oighle)
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab CELT: Dindshenchas meters, 88 Cruachan Aigle (Translation) – Irish
  7. Jump up ^ CELT: Annals of Ulster in 1113 (translation) – Irish
  8. Jump up ^ Registration for aicil of Edil
  9. Jump up ^ Old Irish-L: Cruachan Aigle July 31, 2002
  10. Jump up ^ George Edward Cokayne oath. Vicary Gibbs, The Complete Peerage , Volume I (1910) p. 113th
  11. Jump up ^ historical interest Teach na Miasa. Pulled: 07/31/2013.
  12. Jump up ^ “In imitation of the great Jewish legislator on Sinai, he spent forty days on its summit in fasting and prayer, and other penitential exercises.” Catholic Encyclopedia
  13. Jump up ^ Kieran Cooke (11 October 2015). “The sacred mountain that has become too popular.” BBC news. Retrieved eleven October 2015.
  14. Jump up ^ McDonald, Michael. “Croagh Patrick.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. February 21, 2014
  15. Jump up ^ Haggerty, Bridget. “He came to scoff – but stayed to Pray”, Irish culture and customs
  16. Jump up ^ “Obituary Paddy Hopkins.” Mayo News. July 30, 2013.Retrieved 10 September, 2013.

Cong, County Mayo

Cong (Irish: Conga , from Cúnga Fheichín means “Saint Feichin’s narrows”) is a village cross borders County Galway and County Mayo, Ireland. Cong is situated on an island formed by a number of streams that surround it on all sides. Cong located on the isthmus that connects the Loughs Corrib and Mask, near the cities of Headford and Ballinrobe and byarnaClonbur, The Neale and Cross.

Cong is known for its underground streams that connects Lough Corrib Lough Mask to the north. [1] It was also the home of Sir William Wilde, historian and father of prominent playwright, novelist, poet and short story writer Oscar Wilde.

Cong is home to Ashford Castle, a luxury hotel, converted from a Victorian faux Lake Castle, built by the Guinness familjen.Ashford Castle is a tourist attraction in its own right. Cong also has a ruined medieval abbey, Cong Abbey, where Rory O’Connor, the last högkung, spent his last years. [2] It is also the origin of a piece of Celtic art in the form of a metal cross shrine called Cross Cong. The “Cross Cong” now held in the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. There is a High Cross in the village.

The 1111 Synod Ráth Breasail included Cong (Cunga Feichin) among the five pins that have been approved for Connacht, but in 1152 the Synod of Kells excluded it from their list and assigned to what would be the territory of the Archdiocese of Tuam. [3] [ 4] No longer a residential bishop is Cunga Feichin today indicated by the Catholic Church as an ordinary look. [5]

Cong Canal, built over five years by Benjamin Guinness in the 1850s, was a failure. Although it was only three miles long it could not hold water, buried in the porous limestone. The intention was to go Loughs Corrib and Mask and create a secure transport link from Sligo to Galway, avoiding the need to cross the west coast of Ireland. Now it is commonly known as “Dry Canal”;the water level can vary between zero inches and 12 feet, depending on the time of year (summer, dry winter full). and is three miles in length. Built heritage features of the channel remains. [6] [7]

Cong was recording the location of John Ford’s 1952 Oscar -winning film, The Quiet Man , [8] with John Wayne, Maureen O’Hara and Barry Fitzgerald. A large part of the film was shot because of Ashford Castle. The city and the castle area remains little changed since 1952, and Cong connection with the film to make it a tourist attraction. (The film is still celebrated by local “Quiet Man Fan Club”). [9]

Catholic record for Cong not begin until 1870. The Church of Ireland records from the 18th and 19th centuries have survived and are held at the South Mayo Family Research Centre nearby Ballinrobe.

annalistic references

From the Annals of the Four Masters:

  • M1184.12. Donnell O’Flanagan, Lord of Clann-Cahill, died on the conga-Feichin Cong.

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

Gallery of images

  • Autumn Leaves at Ashford Castle
  • The exterior of the old Abbey
  • Locks on the Dry Canal
  • Monk Fish House


  1. Jump up ^ “Geological Survey of Ireland.” Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ Webb, Alfred (1878). A Compendium of Irish Biography.Dublin: MH Gill and Son.
  3. Jump up ^ Michael John Brenan, The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland , Dublin 1864, pp. 120-121, 250
  4. Jump up ^ John Healy, “Tuam” in the Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1912)
  5. Jump up ^ annuario pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 877
  6. Jump up ^ Brief history of the Cong Canal
  7. Jump up ^ Hugh McKnight (1987). Shell’s book waterways. David & Charles. p. 31. ISBN 0-7153-8239-X.
  8. Jump up ^ Cong in County Mayo Site
  9. Jump up ^ “The Quiet Man Cong”. Member of Travel Ireland Network.In 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2015.

Ashford Castle

Ashford Castle is a medieval castle that has expanded over the centuries and turned into a five-star luxury hotel near Cong on the Mayo – Galway border on the beach avLough Corrib in Ireland. It is a member of the Leading Hotels of the World organization and was previously owned by the Guinness family.

The early history

A castle was built on the edge of a monastic site in 1228 by the Anglo-Norman House of Burke. [1]

After more than three and a half centuries in Burgos, whose surname became Burke or Bourke, Ashford passed into the hands of a new champion, after a fierce battle between the forces of Burgos and the English official Sir Richard Bingham, Lord President of Connaught when a ceasefire was agreed.In 1589 the castle fell to Bingham, who added a fortified enclave within its range. [ Citation needed ]

Dominick Browne, of Browne Family (Baron Oranmore) got the farm in a Royal Grant either 1670 or 1678. [2] In 1715, the estate of Ashford established by the Browne family and a hunting lodge in the style of a 17th century French chateau was constructed. The double-headed eagles still visible on the roof represents the arms of Browne. [1]

In the late 18th century a branch of the family inhabited the castle. In the early 19th century, a Thomas Elwood was an agent of Brownes at Ashford and registered as living there in 1814. [3]

Victorian conversion

The estate was bought in 1852 by Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness from congested Estates’ Court. [4] He added two large Victorian-style extensions. [1] He also expanded the farm to 26,000 acres (110 km 2 ), built new roads and planted thousands of trees. The castle was designed for Sir William Wilde book on County Galway. [5] On Benjamin’s death in 1868, the estate passed to his son, Lord Ardilaun, which expanded further building in the Gothic Revival style.[4]

Lord Ardilaun was an avid gardener who oversaw the development of the massive woodlands and rebuilt the entire west wing of the palace, designed by architects James Franklin Fuller and George Ashlin. The new design connected the early 18th century in the east part of the two-Burgo-time tower in the west. Pinnacles added to the whole castle. [1]

He also subsidized the operation of several steamboats, the most notable of these was Lady Eglinton, who twisted between the villages of Upper Lough Corrib and Galway City region, opening the area to boost trade. In a time of agitation of the tenants in the Country war in the late 19th century, epitomized by the action of tenants at nearby Lough Mask House (home of Captain Charles Boycott), he is considered by many to be an “improvement” landlord. Some of his efforts failed, especially Cong Canal, also known as “Dry Canal”, which was built to link the Lough Mask and Lough Corrib, but was a failure, because of their inability to hold water. Despite such setbacks, love worn by him and his wife Olive, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Bantry, the castle and the estate was deep and is best symbolized by the fact that when he was knighted in 1880, he derives his title from the island of Ardilaun, which formed part of the estate on Lough Corrib. [ citation needed ]


The castle passed to Ardilaun’s nephew Ernest Guinness. [ Citation needed ] It was gifted to the Irish government in 1939. [4]

Noel Huggard opened the courtyard of a hotel, which became famous for the provision of country pursuits such as fishing and shooting. Noel Huggard parents had been in the hotel business iWaterville, since 1910, and his grand daughters, Louise and Paula, run the Butler Arms Hotel there today. [ Citation needed ]

In 1951, director John Ford came to the West of Ireland to film The Quiet Man, starring John Wayne and Maureen O’Hara. The grounds of the castle, as well as nearby Cong, formed the backdrop for much of the plot of the movie.

In recent years, the castle has been used as a set of “French Court” in The CW’s hit medieval drama Reign . The castle and surrounding grounds a prominent place in the first three seasons of drama, with actors and film workers return year on year to film on the farm. [ Citation needed ]

In 1970 the castle was bought by John Mulcahy, who oversaw its complete restoration and expansion, doubling its size with the addition of a new wing in the early 1970s, to build a golf course and develop the grounds and gardens. In 1985, a group of Irish American investors, which included Chuck Feeney and Tony O’Reilly, bought Ashford. The castle was sold by these investors in 2007 for 50 million € to Galway-based property investor Gerry Barrett and his family. [6] While some of Barrett extensive property loans would be managed by the Irish National Asset Management Agency (NAMA), Ashford was financed by Bank of Scotland (Ireland), [7] which placed the property in bankruptcy in November 2011, [8] but the hotel continued as a going concern, run by Tifco Hotel Group, an Irish hotel management company. [9] in September 2012, it was voted the best resort in Ireland and the third best in Europe avCondé Nast Traveler. [9]

In October 2012, the hotel put up for sale and are valued at about 25 million €, the hotel is half of what Barrett paid in 2007. Currently 83 bedrooms, including six suites. Barrett’s plan to add another 13 penthouse bedrooms and 30 lodges in the castle grounds have not gone through. [9] In May 2013, people were the hotel was bought by Red Carnation Hotels, a group that owns several other boutique hotels, for € 20 million, the new the owner is planning a major refurbishment and the sale is expected to retain about 160 jobs (high season, dropped to 120 during the low season) [10] on the property.According to the receiver, Ashford Castle was profitable even during the period of bankruptcy. [11] Niall Rochford long time manager of the property, has said that the staff accepted a 20% to 30% paycut to ensure the hotel’s survival. [10]

In January 2014 to the new owners acquired the neighboring Lisloughrey Lodge, with plans to add resort. Ashford Castle itself was scheduled to open March 14 after major renovation that began in early January. [12] [13]

Today, most of the guests come from the US (60 percent, 30 percent in Ireland, 10 per cent from elsewhere)., With Californians account for the largest share of [10]

The castle was reopened in April 2015 following a major refurbishment. All 820 windows were replaced, a new management team installed ceiling and its stone targeted. Approximately € 47m was spent on restoring the property. [14]

In its time the castle has hosted many famous guests, including: King George V and his consort Queen Mary, John Lennon, George Harrison, Oscar Wilde (whose father, Sir William Wilde had an estate adjacent to Ashford, where the author spent a lot of his childhood); President Ronald Reagan, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, Senator Ted Kennedy, John Wayne, Brad Pitt, Pierce Brosnan, and Prince Rainier III of Monaco and his wife, Princess Grace.

2011 public road controversy

In September 2011, ordered Gerry Barrett of electric gates installed, and then shut down, blocking a centuries-old public right of way over a bridge near the castle. The road used daily by families living on the farm as well as locals.After a letter to the castle management asking for the right of way to re ignored, a group of 150 concerned locals and Ashford residents protesting against the blocking of the right way. The group was joined by local politicians and Éamon Ó CUÍV, TD [15] Barrett had previously tried to block the protest by charging a higher court injunction. [16]


  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd Ministry of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (2011). An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of County Galway. pp. 100-101. ISBN 978-1-4064-2534-5.
  2. Jump up ^ “estates database: Browne (Castlemagarret)”. NUI Galway.Hämtad22 May 2013.
  3. Jump up ^ “estates database: Ashford Castle”. NUI Galway. Taken 22 maj2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abc “Landed estates database: Guinness”. NUI Galway.Hämtad22 May 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ “Moytura”.
  6. Jump up ^ Egan, Claire (2 October 2007). “New owners at Ashford Castle”. Mayo News.
  7. Jump up ^ “Can Nama hotel provides five-star treatment?”. Irish Times. February 26, 2010. Archived from the original December 4, 2010.
  8. Jump up ^ “Ashford Castle goes into voluntary bankruptcy” 29 November 2011. Archived from the original August 29, 2012.
  9. ^ Jump up to: abc “Ashford Castle is on the market again.” Irish Times. On October 31, 2012. Archived from the original November 1, 2012.
  10. ^ Jump up to: abc . Boland, Rosita (8 June 2013) “Niall Rochford, head of Ashford Castle, Cong, Co Mayo.” Irish Times. Archived from the original 20 Oct, 2013. Retrieved 16 August, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Fagan, Jack (22 May 2013). “Ashford Castle Hotel Resort was sold for € 20m.” Irish Times. Archived from the original On 1 November, 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  12. Jump up ^ Hancock, Ciarán (25 January 2014). “Ashford Castle owner buys neighboring Lisloughrey Lodge”. Irish Times. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
  13. Jump up ^ Deegan, Gordon (13 March 2014). “Revamped Ashford Castle paid € 785,000 in fees.” Retrieved March 26, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^ “Ashford Castle completes its journey from bankruptcy to luxury restoration” .Irish Independent. 14 April 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  15. Jump up ^ “Ó CUÍV goes Ashford Castle protest”. The Irish Times.Archived from the original September 26, 2011.
  16. Jump up ^ “Ashford Castle secures injunction”. RTÉ.ie. 23 September 2011.

Achill Island

Achill Island (/ k æ əl /; Irish: Acaill, Oilean Acla ) in County Mayo is the largest island off Ireland, and is located off the west coast. It has a population of 2700. Its area is 148 km 2 (57 sq mi). Achill is connected to the mainland by Michael Davitt Bridge, between the villages of Gob an Choire (Achill Sound) and Poll Raithní (Polranny). A bridge first completed here in 1887, replaced by another structure in 1949, and then replaced by the current bridge was completed in 2008. Other population centers include the villages of Keel, Dooagh, Dumha EIGE (Dooega), Dun Ibhir (Dooniver), The Valley and Dugort. Assembly head Gaelic football pitch and two high schools are on the mainland at Poll Raithní. Early settlements believed to have been formed on Achill around 3000 BC. A paddle dating from this period were found at the Crannog close Dookinella. The island is 87% bog. Parish of Achill also includes Curraun peninsula .Some of the people in Curraun consider themselves Achill people, and most residents of Achill refer to this area as “Achill”. There are between 500-600 native Irish speakers in Achill parish.During the summer of 1996 the RNLI decided to station a lifeboat on Kildownet.


It is believed that at the end of the Neolithic period (around 4000 BC), Achill had a population of 500-1000 people. The island would have been mostly forest until Neolithic people börjadeodling of crops. The settlement grew during the Iron Age, and the proliferation of small promontory fort along the coast indicate warlike character of the times. Megalithic tombs (see picture to the right) and fortresses can be seen at Slievemore, along the Atlantic Drive and Achillbeg.


Achill Island is located in the Barony of Burrishoole in the territory of the old Umhall (Umhall Uactarach and Umhall Ioctarach), which originally covered an area stretching from Galway / Mayo border to Achill Head.

Hereditary chiefs Umhall was O’Malley, recorded in the area 814 AD when they successfully repelled an attack by the Vikings in Clew Bay. The Anglo-Norman invasion avConnacht in 1235 AD saw Umhall territory taken over by Butler and later by Burgos. Butler Burrishoole domination continued in the late 14th century when Thomas le Botiller registered as being in possession of Akkyll & Owyll.


In the 17th and 18th centuries it was much migration to Achill from other parts of Ireland, particularly Ulster, because of the political and religious turmoil of the time. For a while there were two different dialects of Irish spoken on Achill. This led to many townlands registered as having two names during the 1824 Ordnance Survey, and some maps today give different names to the same place. Achill Ireland still has many traces of Ulster Irish.

Specific historical places and events

Grace O’Malley castle

Grace O’Malley’s Kildamhnait Castle is a 15th-century tower house in connection with the O’Malley Clan, which was once a ruling family of Achill.Grace O ‘Malley, or Granuaile, the most famous of the O’Malleys, was born on Clare Island around 1530. [ citation needed ] Her father was chief of the Barony of Murrisk. The O’Malley was a powerful shipping family, which are traded in a great extent. Grace was a fearless leader and became known as a sea captain and pirate. She is said to have met with Queen Elizabeth I in 1593. She died about 1603 and is buried in the O’Malley family tomb on Clare Island.

Achill Mission

One of Achill most famous historical sites, the Achill Mission or “colony” in Dugort. In 1831, the Church of Ireland minister Edward Nangle founded a missionary assignment in Dugort.Uppdraget included schools, homes, an orphanage, a medical center and a guest house. The colony was very successful for a time and produced a regular Journal called Achill Herald and western witness . Nangle extended its mission in Mweelin, where a school was built. Achill Mission began to decline slowly after Nangle moved from Achill and finally closed in 1880 talet.Nangle died 1883rd


1894 Westport – Newport railway line was extended to Achill Sound. The railway station is now a hostel. The train provided a great service to Achill, but it also fulfilled an old profetia.Brian Rua O ‘Cearbhain had prophesied that “chariots of iron wheels” would carry the bodies in Achill on their first and last trip. In 1894, the first train on Achill railway through the bodies of the victims of the Clew Bay Drowning. This tragedy occurred when a boat overturned in Clew Bay, drowning thirty youngsters. They had gone to meet the steamship that would take them to Scotland for potato picking.

Kirkintilloch Fire

The Kirkintilloch Fire in 1937 fulfilled the second part of the prophecy, when the bodies of ten victims were carried by rail to Achill. These people had died in a fire in a bothy in Kirkintilloch. This term refers to temporary housing for those who went to Scotland to pick potatoes, a walking pattern which was established in the early nineteenth century.


Kildamhnait on the southeast coast of Achill is named after St. Damhnait or Dymphna, who founded a church there in the 16th century. There is also a holy well just outside the cemetery. The present church was built in the 1700s and the cemetery contains memorials to the victims of two of Achill greatest tragedies, the Kirchintilloch Fire (1937) and Clew Bay Drowning (1894).


In 1852, Dr. John MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam aside in Bunnacurry for the construction of a monastery. A Franciscan monastery was built for many years provided an education for local barn.Ruinerna of this monastery are still seen in Bunnacurry today.

The Valley House

The historic Valley House is located in The Valley, close to Dugort in the north-eastern part of Achill Island. The current building sits on the site of a hunting lodge built by the Earl of Cavan in the 19th century. Its fame stems from an incident in 1894 in which the then owner, an English hostess named Agnes McDonnell, was brutally beaten and the house on fire, allegedly by a local man, James Lynchehaun. Lynchehaun had been employed by McDonnell as her country agent, but the two fell out and he was fired and told to quit their accommodation on her property. A long legal battle ensued, with Lynchehaun refuses to leave. At that time, in the 1890s, the issue of land ownership in Ireland politically charged, and after the events at Valley House in 1894 Lynchehaun was to argue that his actions were motivated by politics. He escaped custody and fled to the United States, where he successfully defeated legal attempt by the British authorities to have him extradited to be prosecuted as a result of the attack and burning of the Valley House. Agnes McDonnell suffered terrible injuries from the attack but survived and lived for another 23 years, dying in 1923. Lynchehaun said to have returned to Achill on two occasions, once in disguise as an American tourist, and eventually died in Girvan, Scotland, in 1937 . the Valley House is now a hostel and bar.

The abandoned village

Near Dugort, at the foot of Slievemore Mountain is the abandoned village.There are some 80 destroyed houses in the village.

The houses were built of stone unmortared, which means that no cement or mortar used to hold the stones together. Each house consisted of only one room and this room was used as a kitchen, living room, bedroom and even stable.

If you look at the fields around the abandoned village and right up the mountain, you can see the tracks in the “lazy beds”, which is the way crops like potatoes grown. In Achill, as in many areas of Ireland, a system called “Rundale” used for agriculture. This meant that the land around the village was rented from a landlord. This land is then shared by all the villagers to graze their cattle and sheep. Each family would then have two or three small pieces of land scattered about the village, which they used to grow crops.

For many years people lived in the village and then in 1845 famine struck in Achill as it did in the rest of Ireland. Most of the families moved to the nearby village of Dooagh, located by the sea, while others emigrated. Living by the sea meant that seafood can be used for food. The village was completely deserted and that is where the name “Deserted Village” came from.

No one has lived in this house since the time of famine, but the families who moved to Dooagh and their descendants continued to use the village as a “Booley village”. This means that during the summer season, would the younger members of the family, teenage boys and girls, to take the cattle graze on the hillside, and they would stay in the houses in the abandoned village. This practice continued until the 1940s. Boolying was also performed in other parts of Achill, including Annagh on Croaghaun mountains and in Curraun.

On Ailt, Kildownet you can see the remains of a similar fate by. This village was in 1855 when the tenants were evicted by the local landlord so that land can be used for grazing cattle, the tenants were forced to lease holdings in Currane, Dooega and Slievemore. Others emigrated to America.


Achill Archaeological Field School is based on Achill Archaeology Centre in Dooagh, which has served as a catalyst for a wide range of archaeological research on the island. It was founded in 1991 and is a school for students in archeology and anthropology. Since 1991, several thousand students from 21 countries come to Achill to study and participate in the ongoing excavations. The school is involved in a study of prehistoric and historic landscapes of Slievemore, which contains a research excavations at a number of places in the deserted village of Slievemore. Slievemore is rich in archaeological monuments spanning the period from 5000 years from the Neolithic to the post medieval. [2] Recent archaeological research suggests the village was occupied year at least as early as the 19th century, but it is known to have served as a seasonal occupation Booley village of the first half of the 20th century. A Booley village (a number which is in a ruined state on the island) is a village occupied only during part of the year, such as a resort community, a lakeside community, or (where appropriate on Achill) a place to live while tend flocks or herds of ruminants during winter or summer grazing. [3] Specifically, some of the people in Dooagh and Pollagh would migrate in summer to Slievemore and then go back to Dooagh fall. In summer 2009 field school excavated Roundhouse 2 on Slievemore Mountain under the direction of archaeologist Stuart Rathbone. Only outside the north wall, the entrance way and the inside of the round house was completely excavated. [4]

From 2004 to 2006 Achill Island Marine Archaeology Project, directed by Chuck Meide was sponsored by the College of William and Mary, the Institute of Maritime, Achill Folklife Centre (now Achill Archaeology Centre), and the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP). This project focused on the documentation of archaeological resources related to Achill’s rich maritime heritage. Maritime archaeologists recorded 19th century fishing village, ice house and boathouse ruins, a number of anchors that had been salvaged from the sea, 19’s and later Currach pens, a number of traditional vernacular watercraft including a possible 100-year-old Achill yawl, and the remains of four historic shipwrecks . [5] [6]

Other points of interest

Despite some progress, the island retains a striking natural beauty. The cliffs of Croaghaun on the western part of the island is the third highest sea cliffs in Europe, but are inaccessible by road. Near the westernmost point of Achill, Achill Head, is Keem Bay. Keel Beach is quite popular among tourists and some locals as a surfing spot. South of Keem Beach ärMoytoge Head, with its rounded appearance drops dramatically down to the sea. An old British observation post, built during the First World War to prevent the Germans from unloading arms to the Irish Republican Army, is still on Moytoge. During World War II this post built by the Irish Defence Forces Look Out Post for Coast Watch service wing of the armed forces. It worked from 1939 to 1945. [7]

The mountain Slievemore (672 m) rises dramatically in the northern part of the island and the Atlantic Drive (along the south / west of the island), some dramatically beautiful views. On the slopes of Slievemore, is an abandoned village (the “Deserted Village”) the abandoned village is traditionally believed to be a relic from a village Gorta Mór (The Great Hunger of 1845-1849).

Just west of the abandoned village is an old Martello tower, again built by the British to warn of a possible French invasion during the Napoleonic Wars.The area also has about 5000 years old Neolithic tomb.

Achillbeg ( Acaill Beag , Little Achill ) is a small island just off the southern tip of Achill. Its inhabitants were relocated on Achill in the 1960s. [8] A plaque to Johnny Kilbane is on Achillbeg and was erected to celebrate 100 years since his first championship win. [9]

The villages Dooniver and Askill has very picturesque landscapes and the bike path is popular with tourists.

Caislean Ghráinne, also known as Kildownet castle, is a small tower house built in the early 1400s. [10] It is in Cloughmore, in the south of Achill Island.It is known for its associations with Grace O’Malley, along with greater Rockfleet castle in Newport.

Achill Island also has a coastal road along the southern part of the island with some beautiful views cliff.


While a number of attempts to establish small industrial units in the island has been made, the economy of the island is largely dependent on tourism.Subsidies from Achill people working abroad, especially in the UK, US and Africa leads many families to stay in Achill during the 19th and 20th centuries. [ Citation needed ] Since the advent of Ireland’s “Celtic Tiger” economy less Achill people were forced seek work abroad. agriculture plays a minor role and the fact that the island is mostly bog means that its potential for agriculture is limited largely sheep farming. In the past, fishing was a significant activity, but this aspect of the economy is small now. At one time the island was known for its shark fishing, basking in particular was fished for its valuable liver oil. There was a big spurt of growth in tourism in the 1960s and 1970s before the life was hard and difficult on the island. Despite the healthy visitor numbers per year, is the common perception that tourism in Achill has slowly declined since its heyday. Currently the largest employers on Achill are two hotels. [11] In late 2009, Ireland’s only Turbot farm opens in Bunnacurry Business Park.


Most people on Achill are either Catholic or Anglican (Church of Ireland).There are three priests on Achill and eight churches [ clarification needed ] in total.

  • Catholic:
    • Bunnacurry Church (St. Joseph)
    • The Valley Church; Open only for certain events.
    • Dookinella Church
    • Currane Church
    • Pollagh Church
    • Derreens Church
    • Dooega Church
    • Belfarsed Church
    • Achill Sound Church
  • Church of Ireland:
    • Dugort Church (St. Thomas Church)
    • Innisbiggle Island church


Hedge schools were in most villages in Achill in different periods of history.A university founded by the missions to Achill in Mweelin. In modern times, there used to be two high schools in Achill, Mc Hale College and Scoil Damhnait. But in August 2011, the two schools merged to form Pobail Coláiste Acla. For primary schools, there are nine national schools including Bull Dartmouth NS, NS Valley, Bunnacurry NS, Dookinella NS, Dooagh NS, Saulia NS, Achill Sound NS, Tonragee NS and NS Curanne. National schools closed include Dooega NS, NS Crumpaun, Ashleam NS.


  • Achill railway station was opened May 13, 1895, but finally closed on October 1, 1937. [12]
  • The Great Western Greenway is a greenway rail trail that follows the line of the former Midland Great Western Railway branch line from Westport to Achill through Newport and Mulranny. [13] It has proven to be very successful in attracting visitors Achill and the surrounding areas.
  • Bus Eireann 440 daily commute to Westport and then from the islands scattered villages.
  • Bus Eireann provides transport for those areas that secondary school children
  • There are many Taxicab and Hackney carriage services on the island


As a popular tourist destination Achill has many bars, cafes and restaurants offering a full range of food. But the island’s Atlantic City seafood is a specialty at Achill with common foods including lobster, mussels, salmon, trout and winkles. With a large sheep population Achill lamb a very popular meal on the island too. Moreover, Achill a large population of cows that produce excellent beef. [ Citation needed ]


Achill has a Gaelic football club competing in the championship and Division 1C Mayo League. There are also Achill Rovers who play in Mayo Association Football League. [14] and Achill Golf Club. [ Citation needed ] Card games, inklusiveWhist and 24 card game is also popular on Achill. [ Citation needed ] The island’s main leisure outdoor center Achill Outdoor Education Centre . [15] Achill Island barren landscape and the surrounding sea provides an ideal location for outdoor activities such as surfing, kite-surfing and sea kayaking. Fishing and water sports are popular among tourists and locals alike. Regattas featuring a local vessel, Achill Yawl, have been popular since the 19th century, although most of the current dinghies, unlike their traditional working boat ancestors, have been structurally modified to encourage increased speed under sail. The island’s waters and stunning underwater sites sometimes frequented by divers, but Achill unpredictable weather in general has prevented a commercially successful recreational diving industry.


In 2011 the population was 2569. The island’s population has declined from about 6,000 before the Great Hunger.


The table below presents data on Achill Island population is taken from theDiscover Islands Ireland (Alex Ritsema, Collins Press, 1999), and the census of Ireland.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1841 4901
1851 4030 -17.8%
1901 4825 + 19.7%
1951 4906 + 1.7%
Year Pop. ±%
1996 2718 -44.6%
2002 2620 -3.6%
2006 2620 + 0.0%
2011 2569 -1.9%
Source: John Chambers. “Islands – Change in population 1841 – 2011” . Retrieved February 24, 2015.


The “Deserted Village” at the foot of Slievemore was a Booley village;seTranshumance

The location of the village is relatively protected

The most famous of these earlier seen in “Deserted Village” Ruins near the cemetery at the foot of Slievemore. Even the houses of the village form a relatively comfortable class of residence, even as recently as a hundred years ago, some people still use “Beehive” style house (small circular single-roomed dwellings with a hole in the roof to let out smoke).

Many of the oldest and most picturesque inhabited cottages are from operations in the Congested District Board for Ireland -a body set up around the turn of the 20th century in Ireland to improve the welfare of the residents of small villages and towns. Most of the houses in Achill at the time was very small and tightly packed together in villages. CDB subsidized the construction of new, more spacious (but still small by modern standards) home outside the traditional villages.

Some of the recent building (1980 onwards) on the island fits so nicely into the landscape as the previous style whitewashed raised gable houses. Many homes have been built, but many of these houses have been built in prominent scenic areas and has damaged the traditional view of the island lying empty for most of the year.

Notable people

  • Charles Boycott (1832-1897) – unpopular landowner from whom the term boycott arose.
  • The artist Paul Henry stayed on the island for a number of years in the early 1900s.
  • Thomas Patten from Dooega died during the siege of Madrid in December 1936th
  • English writer Honor Tracy lived there until his death in 1989
  • Singer James Kilbane live on the island.


Heinrich Böll: Irisches Tagebuch , Berlin 1957
Kingston, Bob: the deserted village of Slievemore , Castlebar 1990
McDonald Theresa: Achill: 5000 BC to 1900 AD Archaeology History Folklore , IAS Publications [1992]
Meehan, Rose: The Story of Mayo , Castlebar 2003
Carney, James: Playboy & Yellow lady 1986 Poolbeg [16] Hugo Hamilton Island Talking, [17] in 2007, Kevin Barry: Beatlebone 2015

See also

  • Achillbeg
  • Achill oysters
  • Achill Sound
  • A skill
  • Bunnacurry
  • Connaught Irish
  • Darren Fletcher
  • Dooagh
  • Dooniver
  • gallowglass
  • Innisbiggle
  • James Kilbane
  • Kevin Kilbane
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Mid West Radio
  • Nevin (surname)
  • Saula
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ “Island Change in population, 1841 – 2011”. 28 January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ “Achill Archaeological Field School 2009”. Achill Archaeological Field School . Archived from the original The 28 February 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  3. Jump up ^ deserted village, Slievemore, Achill Island , Retrieved February 17, 2008.
  4. Jump up ^ Amanda Burt, a member of Achill Field School, summer 2009.
  5. Jump up ^ “Achill Island Marine Archaeology Project | Institute of Maritime History “. February 20, 2012. Hämtat20 March 2012.
  6. Jump up ^ “Meide, Chuck and Kathryn Sikes (2014) Manipulating Maritime Cultural Landscape: Vernacular Boats and economic relations in the nineteenth century Achill Island, Ireland Maritime Journal 9 (1).115-141 “. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ See Michael Kennedy, “Protection Neutral Ireland (Dublin, 2008), p. 50
  8. Jump up ^ Jonathan Beaumont (2005), Achillbeg: The Life of an island , ISBN 0-85361-631-0
  9. Jump up ^ “Login to Facebook – Facebook.” Facebook .
  10. Jump up ^ “Irish Castles Grace O’Malley.” .Pulled 06/13/2016.
  11. Jump up ^ “Achill Island (Co. Mayo)”. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Achill station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways . Archive (PDF) from the original September 26, 2007 is taken. Eight September of 2007.
  13. Jump up ^ “Home.” Great Western Greenway . Retrieved ten August 2011.
  14. Jump up ^ FAI Club Portal for Achill Rovers
  15. Jump up ^ Dave Jordan. “Achill Outdoor”.
  16. Jump up ^ James Carney. “The Playboy & yellow lady”. Open Library.Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  17. Jump up ^ island Talking Hugo Hamilton in the footsteps of Heinrich Böll, 50 years after

Wicklow Head

Wicklow Head is a promontory near the southeastern edge of the city Wicklow County Wicklow, approximately 3 km from the center of town.

Geographically, the most easterly point on mainland Ireland.

See also 

  • Lambay Island
  • Extreme Points in Ireland – at the entry points in each direction around Ireland


Wicklow (Irish: Cill Mhantáin , which means “church toothless one”) [1] [2] is the county town of Wicklow and capital of the Mid-East Region of Ireland.Located south of Dublin on the eastern coast of the island, has a population of 10,356 according to the census of 2011. [3] The town is to the east of the N11 route between Dublin and Wexford. Wicklow is also connected to the rail network with Dublin commuter services now extending to the city.Additional services contact with Arklow, Wexford and Rosslare Europort, a main port. There is also a commercial port, mainly importing timber and textiles. The Vartry River is the main river that runs through town.


Looks north of Wicklow Golf Club (foreground, with rock formations visible on the right), Wicklow Bay towards large Sugarloaf (center) and Bray Head (right) in the distance. Wicklow Town is hidden in the golf club house.

Wicklow town forms a rough semicircle around Wicklow harbor. To the immediate north is “The Murrough,” a popular grassy walking area by the sea, and the eastern coastal strip. The Murrough is a place of growing commercial use, so much so that a road that runs past the town directly to the commercial part of the area began construction in 2008 and was completed in summer 2010. The eastern coastal strip covering the Wicklow bay, a crescent-shaped stone beach about 10 km long .

Ballyguile Hill is in the southwest of the city. A large part of the residential areas in the 1970s and 1980s occurred in this area, despite the significant gradient from the center.

The country rises in the rolling hills to the west, going to meet the Wicklow mountains in the middle of the county. The dominant feature in the south is the rocky headlands of the bride’s head and Wicklow Head, easternmost point of mainland Ireland. On a very clear day it is possible to see the Snowdonia mountain range in Wales.


As with much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Wicklow experience a maritime climate ( Cfb ), with cool summers, mild winters, and lack of extreme temperatures. The average maximum January temperatures are 9.2 ° C (48.6 ° F), while the average maximum August temperature is 21.2 ° C (70.2 ° F). On average the sunniest month in May The wettest month is October with 118.9 mm (4.6 inches) of rain and the driest month is April with 60.7 mm (2.4 inches). With the exception of October and November, the rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with rain falling within a relatively narrow band of between 60 (2.4 in) and 86 mm (3.4 inches) a month. But a significant spike occurs in October and November that records almost double the typical rainfall in April.

Wicklow is protected locally by Ballyguile slope and the more distant of the Wicklow mountains. This sheltered location makes it one of the driest and warmest places in Ireland. It may only be about 60% of the rain on the West Coast. Moreover, since Wicklow is protected by the mountains from the south and westerly winds, has higher average temperature than many parts of Ireland. The average high in August of 21.2 ° C (70.2 ° F) is a full 1 ° C higher than the highest average month in Dublin, only 50 km (30miles) north.

While its location is favorable for protection against the winds that are common to a large part of Ireland’s Wicklow particularly exposed to easterly winds. As these winds come from northern European countries Wicklow, along with a large part of the east coast of Ireland, experience relatively sharp temperature drops in winter for short periods.


Since 1995 the city has undergone major changes and expansion that reflects the simultaneous growth in the Irish economy. Significant residential development has occurred west of the city along Marlton Road (R751). More recently, residential areas concentrated in the northwest of the city towards the neighboring village of Rathnew. The completion of the Ashford / Rathnew Bypass in 2004 has meant that Wicklow is now linked to the capital Dublin, located 42 km north of dual carriageway and motorway. These factors have led to a steady growth in population in Wicklow and its surrounding townlands while its importance as a commuter town for Dublin increasing.


Past spellings of its name include Wykinglo in 1173, Wygingelow in 1185,Wykinglo in 1192, Wykinglowe in 1355. [5] [6]

The Swedish toponymist Magne Oftedal [7] criticize the usual explanation that the name comes from the Old Norse Vikingr (meaning “Viking”) and Norse (which means “meadow”), that is, “the Vikings’ meadow ‘or’ Viking meadow”. He notices that -LO never been used outside Norway (see Oslo) and Scandinavia. Furthermore, this word almost never in combination with a male name or a generic word meaning “a category of persons”. Moreover, it seems “Viking” Never in toponymic records. For him, the first element can be explained as Uikar- or Uik- “bay” in Old Norse, and between N of the old forms is a mistake of the clerks.

But all recorded forms show that N. That is why Liam Price [8] says it’s probably a Norwegian ortnamns and A. Sommerfelt [9] provides that previously Viking-lo and understands it as “Viking” meadow “. Yet the Irish patronimics could Ó hUiginn and Mac Uiginn (anglicised O’Higgins and Maguigan) keep a key to meaning “Meadow of a man named Viking”. [10]

Wykinglo were common names used by Viking seafarers and traders who traveled around the Anglo-Scandinavian world. The Normans and Anglo-Normans who conquered Ireland preferred the non Gaelic placename.

The origins of the Irish name Cill Mhantáin has no connection with the name Wicklow . It has an interesting folklore own. Saint Patrick and a few followers are said to have tried to land on Travailahawk beach, south of hamnen.Fientliga locals attacked them, causing one of Patrick’s party to lose their front teeth. Manntach (toothless one), as he became known, was undeterred and returned to the city, eventually founding a church. [11]Therefore Cill Mhantáin , which means “church toothless one.” Although its anglicised spelling Kilmantan [12] was used for a time, eventually fell out of use.


During the excavations to build the Wicklow way bypass in 2010, was a bronze age cooking pit (Fulach Fiadh) and kennel space revealed in Ballynerrn lower part of town. A radio carbon-dating exercise on location sets timeline discovery in 900BC. [13] The first Celts arrived in Ireland around 600BC. According to the Greek cartographer and historian, Ptolemy, the area around the Wicklow was a Celtic tribe called Cauci / Canci. This strain is believed to have originated in the region that includes today’s Belgium / German border. The area around the Wicklow called Menapia in Ptolemy map which in turn goes back to 130 e.Kr .. [13]

Vikings landed in Ireland around 795 AD and began raiding monasteries and settlements of wealth and to capture slaves. In the mid-9th century, Vikings established a base that utilized the natural harbor in Wicklow. It is from this chapter in Wicklow history that the name “Wicklow” from. [13]

Norman influence can still be seen today in some of its rooms and surname.After the Norman invasion, was granted Wicklow Maurice FitzGerald, who started to build the “Black Castle”, a country facing the fortification is destroyed on the coast just south of the harbor. The castle was briefly held by the local O’Byrne and the O’Toole Kavanagh clans [14] in the uprising in 1641, but was quickly abandoned when British soldiers approached the city.Sir Charles Coote, who led the troops then recorded engaging in “wild and indiscriminate” slaughter of the citizens in an act of revenge. [15] Local oral history claims that one of these documents “wanton cruelty” was trapping and intentional burning to death of an unknown number of people in a building in the city. Although no record of this detail Coote attack on Wicklow is a small laneway, locally called “Melancholy Lane”, said to have been where this event took place.

Even the surrounding County Wicklow is rich in Bronze Age monuments, is the oldest settlement in the city destroyed Franciscan monastery. This is located in the west end of Main Street, in the gardens of local Catholic parish grounds. Other notable buildings include the Town Hall and Gaol was built in 1702 and has recently been renovated as a heritage center and tourist attraction. East breakwaters, arguably the most important building in town, built in the early 1880s Wicklow Harbour Commissioners. The architect was William George Strype and the builder was John Jackson of Westminster.North breakwater was completed by about 1909 – John Pansing was the designer and Louis Nott Bristol builder. The Gaol was a place of execution until the end of the 19th century and it was here that Billy Byrne, a leader of the 1798 uprising, met his end in 1799. He is commemorated by a statue in the square. The prison was closed in 1924 and is now a tourist attraction with live displays and exhibitions. [16]

At Fitzwilliam Square in the center of Wicklow town is an obelisk commemorating career Captain Robert Halpin, commander of the telegraph cable ship Great Eastern, who was born in Wicklow, 1836. [17]


Bus Eireann and Irish Rail both active through the city. Bus Eireann provide an hour which is half an hour at peak time service to Dublin city center and Airport.Also a service operated twice daily via Arklow Rathdrum.

  • Route 133 Wicklow (monuments) -Dublin Airport via Grand Hotel, Wicklow Community College, Lidl, Rathnew, Ashford, Newcastle hospitals, Newtownmountkennedy, Garden Village, Kilpedder, Glen of the Downs, Kilmacanogue, Ballywaltrim, Bray, Loughlinstown Hospital, N11, UCD Belfield , RTÉ, Donnybrook Village, Leeson Street, Dawson Street / Kildare Street, City Quays route to Dublin Airport. [18]
  • Route 133 Wicklow (monuments) -Arklow through the Grand Hotel, Wicklow Community College, Lidl, Rathnew, Glenealy, Rathdrum, Meeting of the Waters, Avoca and Wooden path to Arklow. [18]
  • A train service operates north to Dublin Connolly via Kilcoole, Greystones, Bray, Dun Laoghaire, Pearse Street and Tara Street on the way to Connolly 6 times on Monday to Friday. [19]

Train traffic south to Rosslare Europort via Rathdrum, Arklow, Gorey, Enniscorthy, Wexford and Rosslare Strand. [19]

International relations

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Wicklow has twinning agreements with:

  • Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France [20]
  • Porthmadog, Wales [ citation needed ]
  • Eichenzell, Germany

Notable residents

  • Robert Halpin, (b. 1836) -designed Captain of Brunel’s SS Great Eastern which laid the transatlantic telegraph cable in the late 19th century
  • FE Higgins, author and former resident of Wicklow [21]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ DeAngelis, Camille (2007). Moon handbooks: Ireland. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 1-59880-048-5. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Seán Connors. Mapping Ireland: from kingdoms to the counties , Mercier Press, 2001, ISBN 1-85635-355-9, p45
  3. Jump up ^ “Legal Wicklow Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “Wicklow weather”. Ashford weather station.
  5. Jump up ^ Liam Price, place names in the Barony of Newcastle , p. 171st
  6. Jump up ^ Donall Mac Giolla Easpaig, L’influence scandinave sur la toponymie irlandaise in l’heritage maritime des Vikings Europe a l’Ouest, Colloque International de la Hague, Presses Universitaire de Caen, 2002, p. 467 et 468. Translation Jacques TRANIER.
  7. Jump up ^ Scandinavian place names in Ireland in the Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress (Dublin 1973), B. Alquist and D. Greene Editions, Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, 1976. p. 130th
  8. Jump up ^ Price’s. 172nd
  9. Jump up ^ The English forms of names of the main provinces of Ireland , in Lochlann . A review of Celtic Studies . IA. Sommer Editions, Trad.Meadow. Oslo University Press, 1958. p. 224.
  10. Jump up ^ Mac Giolla Easpaig p. 468
  11. Jump up ^ The Annals of Clonmacnoise, the annals of Ireland from the earliest period AD 1408 . Mageoghagan, Conell & Murphy, Dennis, 1896, p. 66.
  12. Jump up ^ “Wicklow archive”. Placental Database of Ireland Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  13. ^ Jump up to: abc . John Finlay (2013) footsteps by Wicklow past.
  14. Jump up ^ Wills, James lives of brilliant and prominent Irish .MacGregor, Polson, 1840, p. 449th
  15. Jump up ^ Wills, James lives of brilliant and prominent Irish .MacGregor, Polson, 1840, p. 448th
  16. Jump up ^ S Shepherd; et al. (1992). Illustrated Guide to Ireland.Reader’s Digest.
  17. Jump up ^ The illustrated road book of Ireland. Automobile Association.In 1970.
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab
  19. ^ Jump up to: ab
  20. Jump up ^ “Wicklow Town hosted a Scene Europe 2011 – the year to volunteer.” Wicklow County Council. 2012. Retrieved 24 September, 2013.
  21. Jump up ^ “Fiona’s new book to once again be a favorite.” Irish Independent. March 27, 2008. Retrieved four October, 2013.

List of National Parks in Ireland

This is a  list of national parks in Ireland  .

The table below shows the name of the national park and in which county Ireland it is located. The first park that was established in Ireland, Killarney is located in County Kerry in 1932. Since then, five more national parks have been opened; the latest being Ballycroy in County Mayo. The smallest is the Burren National Park in The Burren in County Clare is located on only 15 km 2  in size.

national park Area Land area established
Ballycroy County Mayo 110 km  2  (42 sq mi) 1998  [1]
Connemara County Galway 30 km  2  (12 sq mi) 1990
Glenveagh County Donegal 170 km  2  (66 sq mi) 1984
Killarney County Kerry 105 km  2  (41 sq mi) 1932
Burren County Clare 15 km  2  (5.8 sq mi) 1991  [2]
Wicklow Mountains County Wicklow 205 km  2  (79 sq mi) 1991

See also

  • Conservation in Ireland
  • National Parks in Northern Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Ballycroy National Park website
  2. Jump up ^ / National Parks & Wildlife Service News

The Wicklow Mountains

The Wicklow Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Chill Mhantain , [1] archaic: Cualu) is the largest continuous upland area in Ireland. They occupy the entire center of Wicklow and stretch beyond its borders in County Dublin, Wexford and Carlow. Where the mountains extend into Dublin, locally known as the Dublin Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Bhaile Átha Cliath .) [1] The highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 meters (3,035 feet).

Area consists essentially of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. They have driven up during the Caledonian orogeny in the early Devonian period and are part of Leinster chain, the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK. Bergen owe a large part of its current topography of the effects of the last ice age, which deepened Dalarna and created Corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century.

Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle, Slaney and Avoca rivers. Powerscourt is the highest in Ireland at 121 meters (397 feet). A number of these rivers have been used to create reservoirs for drinking water for Dublin and its surroundings.

Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters. The dominant habitat highlands consist of blanket bog, moor and mountain grasslands. Highlands support a number of bird species, including the merlin and the peregrine falcon. Dalarna is a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests.

The mountains have been inhabited since Neolithic times and a number of ancient monuments, including a series of passage tombs, survive to the present. The monastery at Glendalough, founded in the late sixth century by Saint Kevin, was an important center of the early church in Ireland. After the Norman invasion in the 12th century, the Wicklow Mountains became a stronghold and hideout for Irish clans opposed to English rule. The O’Byrne and the O’Toole family conducted a campaign of harassment against the settlers for nearly five centuries. Later mountains harbored rebels during 1798 Rising. Rebel activity died out after the construction of the Wicklow Military Road in the early 19th century and the mountains began to attract tourists to the ruins at Glendalough and admire the mountain scenery.

Wicklow Mountains continues to be a major attraction for tourism and recreation. The whole mountain area is designated as a special area of conservation and special protection under EU law. The Wicklow Mountains National Park was established in 1991 to preserve local biodiversity and landscape.


Wicklow Mountains takes its name from County Wicklow, which in turn takes its name from Wicklow town. The origin of the name comes from Danish Wykynglo or Wykinlo . [2] The Irish name for Wicklow, Cill Mhantáinmeans “church Mantan”, named after the apostle Saint Patrick. [2] Wicklow was not established as a county until 1606; before that it had been part of County Dublin. [3] An early name for the entire area of the Wicklow Mountains were Cualu . [4] There are also historical names for different areas in the mountains held by local clans: the north of Wicklow and south Dublin was known as Cualann while Glen of Imaal gets its name from the area of Hy Mail . [2] September 1 in the O’Byrne family called Gaval Rannall obsessed area around Glenmalure, known as Gaval-Rannall or Ranelagh . [2] in the Middle Ages, before the establishment of County Wicklow, the English administration in Dublin referred to the region Leinster mountains. [5]


Main article: mountains Wicklow Mountains

Wicklow Mountains is the largest area of continuous high ground in Ireland, which has an unbroken area of over 500 km 2 (190 sq mi) of 300 meters (1000 feet). [6] They occupy the middle of Wicklowoch extends into County Dublin , Carlow and Wexford. [7] the general direction of mountain ranges is from northeast to southwest. [8] the formation of several different groups, namely Kippure in the north, on the border of Dublin and Wicklow, Djouce, Tonelagee, Camaderry and Lugnaquilla center , the church and the Keadeen Mountain in the west; and Croghan Kinsella in the south. [8] In the east, separated from the rest of the range of Vartry plateau, is the group that includes the Great Sugar Loaf, Little Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. [8]

Lugnaquilla is the highest peak in the Wicklow Mountains at 925 meters (3,035 feet) and the 13th highest in Ireland. [9] It is also the highest peak in the Leinster and is the only Irish Munrohittas outside Munster. [10] Kippure is on 757 meters (2,484 feet). [11] There are a total of 39 peaks over 600 meters (2000 feet) in the Wicklow mountains. [12] There are only three passes through the mountains within 600 meters (2,000 feet) with Sally Gap (498 meters ( 1,634 feet)) and the Wicklow Gap (478 meters (1,567 ft)) is the highest road pass in the country. [13]


See also: Geology Ireland

The pointed mica – slate top of Djouce (left) contrasts with the rounded granite peak of War Hill (right)

Wicklow Mountains mainly consists of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. The oldest rocks are quartzites Bray group include Bray Head and Little Sugar Loaf Mountain and the Great Sugar Loaf mountain. [14] These transformed from sandstone deposited in the deep waters of the ancient Iapetus Ocean during kambriumperioden (542-488 million years ago). [15] layers of sediment continued to produce shale and shale along the seabed mixed with volcanic rock pushed up to the Iapetus began to shrink with the process of subduction during the Ordovician period (488-443 million years ago). [16] These stones behind now uplifted peneplain of Vartry plateau between Bray group and subject area.[17]

Iapetus closed up completely at the end of the Silurian period (443-415 million years ago) and the Wicklow Mountains were lifted during the main phase of the Caledonian orogeny at the beginning of the Devonian period (415-358 million years ago), when the continents Baltica and Laurentia collided. [ 18] the collision pushed up a large Batholith granite, known as the Leinster Chain: this is the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK, and runs from the coast of Dun Laoghaire in Dublin to New Ross County Wexford and include Wicklow ochBlackstairs Mountains. [19 ] [20] the heat generated by the collision turned slates and slate surround granite schists that formed a halo (shell) around the granite. [21] the process averosion has removed much of the surrounding slate from the mountain tops, exposing the underlying granite. [22] some remains of the slate roof at some of the mountain peaks, notablyLugnaquilla. [21] the circular granite topped peaks contrast with sharper slate peaks: eg War Hill (granite) and Djouce. (slate) [23]

The last major geological event to shape the Wicklow Mountains was Quaternary glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago). [24] The ice deepened and formed Dalarna in the U-shape that characterizes Wicklow Glens, such as Glendalough and Glenmacnass. [ 25]when the ice melted, the small glaciers left in Corrie which till now Dam lakes of Lough Bray and Nahanagan. [25] Corrie, but lakes also occur, such as the North jail and southern prison Lugnaquilla. [26] Escaping meltwater cut narrow rocky gorges on several sites, including Glen of the Downs, the devil’s Glen and scalp. [17] Ribbon lakes, such as Lough Dan and Glendalough lakes, formed as well. [27]

Mining and quarrying

The zone of collision between continental plates that led to the formation of the Wicklow Mountains also led to mineralization and the formation of Ireland’s most important metal belt. [28] The most important mines have been on the Avoca and Glendalough. Mining has taken place in Avoca since at least the Bronze Age (c. 2.500 to 600 BCE). [29] Iron ore extraction took place between the 12th and 17th centuries before being replaced by lead mining until the mid-18th century. [30] the main activity from 1720 to the closure of the last mine in 1982 was copper mining. [31] sulfur is also taken at certain times and in small quantities, gold, silver and zinc. [32] Lead Mining has been the main activity in Glendalough valley and its Glendasan neighboring valleys and Glenmalure. Lead was first discovered in Glendasan in the early 19th century and lead veins later followed by Camaderry mountain to Glendalough. [33] Mining smaller scale took place in Glenmalure. [34] Ore from these mines was shipped to Bally Corus for processing. [35] the last mine closed in 1957. [36]

In 1795 discovered a local schoolteacher gold in Aughatinavought River, a tributary of the River Aughrim then renamed Gold Mines River which rises on the slopes of Croghan Kinsella mountain. [37] In the ensuing gold rush, around 80 kg (180 pounds) of gold was recovered from the river local gold miners, including a single blob that weighs 682 grams (24.1 ounces), the largest gold nugget ever discovered in Ireland and the UK. [37] mine tunnels then were arrested by the British government extracted an additional 300 kg (660 pounds) of gold . [37] Various attempts have been made to locate motherlode on Croghan Kinsella but in vain. [37]

Granite from the Wicklow Mountains has been used as a material for many buildings in Wicklow and Dublin and beyond. Quarries on Ballyknockan has provided material for buildings such as the Bank of Ireland at College Green in Dublin, Dun Laoghaire Lighthouse and Liverpool Cathedral. [38] Similarly, quarries at Glencullen available stone for buildings to GPO påO’Connell Street and the Industry and Commerce building on Kildare Street in Dublin.[39] Barnacullia, on the slopes of Three Rock Mountain, delivered cobblestones to Dublin Corporation. [40] the quarry at Dalkey supplied granite for Dun Laoghaire Harbour and the Thames embankment. [13]


See also: Rivers of Ireland

Wicklow Mountains are the source of several major river systems. Because the thin blanket bog peat can not keep large amounts of water, many of these rivers has a flashy hydrography, fills quickly after heavy rain. [41]

The River Liffey rises between the mountains of Kippure and Tonduff the Liffey Head Bog. [42] One of the major tributaries of the Liffey, the River Dodder rises near the slopes of Kippure. [43] The King River rises Mullaghcleevaun and connects Liffey near Blessington. [2]

The River Vartry rises on the slopes of Djouce mountain. [2] In the vicinity of the River Dargle rises between Tonduff and War Hill, falls as Powerscourt, Ireland’s highest waterfall at 121 meters (397 feet), [44] over a cliff formed by a glacier at the point of contact between the granite and mica schist of the Wicklow Mountains. [45] the waterfalls at the heads Dalarna Glendalough, Glenmacnass and Glendasan occurs at about the slate-granite crosses, [46]which consider Carrawaystick waterfall in Glenmalure. [47]

The River Slaney rises in northern prison of Lugnaquilla mountains and winds through Glen of Imaal was joined by Leoh, Knickeen and Little Slaney.[48] Another of its tributaries, the river Derreen, rising on Lugnaquilla south side. [49]

Each of the main branches of the River Avoca – the Avonmore, the Avonbeg and Aughrim rivers – has its origin in the smaller tributaries, many of which rises in the Wicklow Mountains. [2] The Glenealo, Glendasan and Annamoe rivers meet to form Avonmore near Laragh. [2] the Annamoe rises near the Sally Gap and is joined by Cloghoge Brook between Lough Tay and Lough Dan and the river Inchavore Lough Dan. [2] the Avonbeg rise påTaffelberget and the three lakes. [2] Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers join to form the river Avoca at the meeting of the waters of the Vale of Avoca, celebrated in songthe meeting ~~ POS = HEAD COMP waters by Thomas Moore. [41] the Avoca joined by the river Aughrim on Wooden, sometimes called “the second meeting of the waters” . [2] the Aughrim formed at the junction between the Derry river water and Ow, of which the latter rises Lugnaquilla. [2]


See also: Water supply and sanitation in Ireland

Several of these rivers have been dammed to create reservoirs that provide drinking water for the residents of Dublin and its surroundings. The first of these was the river Vartry, dammed to create Vartry Reservoir near Roundwood in the 1860s. [50] A second pond was added in 1924 to increase capacity. [50] The River Dodder feed the two Bohernabreena reservoirs in the northern foothills of the Wicklow Mountains on Glenasmole in Dublin, which was built between 1883 and 1887 to supply water to the townland of Rathmines. [51] the Poulaphouca Reservoir, the river Liffey near Blessington, was constructed between 1938 and 1940. [52] There are also two hydroelectric plants in Poulaphouca, built in the 1940s. [53] a pump hydro plant was constructed at Turlough Hill between 1968 and 1974. [54] the water pumped from Lough Nanahangan, a natural corrie lake, in an artificial reservoir on Tomaneena mountains and released at the top the demand for electricity. [55] [56]


See also: Climate of Ireland

Like the rest of Ireland, the Wicklow Mountains to experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters. [57] The annual rainfall reaches 2,000 mm (79 inches) on the highest mountains with more western peaks get the most rainfall (for .g. Djouce mountains, to the east, the c. 1630 mm (64 inches), while Duff Hill, in the West, the c. 1950 mm (77 inches) per year). [58] June and July are generally the driest months and there is an average of four hours of sunshine per day throughout the year. [59]the snow cover in winter can reach an average of 50 days per year on the highest peaks. [59] Strong winds are a major factor in peat erosion summits. [ 58]


See also: Flora and fauna of Ireland in Ireland

The primary habitat of the highlands consists of heath and bog. The mountain blanket bogs formed about 4,000 years ago as a result of a combination of climate change and human activity. [60] Prior to this, the mountains were shrouded with pine trees. [60] A change in the climate is wetter and milder weather left the ground waterlogged and leached nutrients from ground, leading to the formation of peat. [61] Mountain blanket bog found in areas above 200 meters (660 feet) in height, and where there are more than 175 days of rain per year. [61] the most important builders of peat is the Sphagnum sphagnum. [62] Carnivorous plants such as sundew and butterworts specific to bogs and bog asphodel and bog cotton are also common. [61] Shoulders water is essential for reproduction of flies and damselflies and Wicklow mountain bogs also supports insects dust skater whirligig beetles, water sailors and midges as well as the common frog and seaweed lizard. [63] wading birds snipes, curlews and golden plovers feed in the wet marshland. [64]

Because of the drainage of water from bogs as a result of human activity, most of the Wicklow peat has dried out too much for Sphagnum mosses grow and heaths and hedvegetation has taken over. [65] Active peat building still exists in some places, most notably Liffey Head Bog. [61] common heather (or whiting) and bell heather is the most common moorland plants along with blueberries (or fraughan, as it is called in Ireland), bog cotton, deergrass and purple moor grass. [65] species found Wicklow heaths include red grouse, meadow pipit and skylark. [66] the birds of prey found in the highlands include kestrels, hen harriers, merlins and peregrine falcons. [64]the latter of which are protected species. [67] the highlands used for sheep grazing and so moors periodically burned to keep the growth of heather in check and promote the growth of grass. [68]

Feral goat valley in Glenealo

Red deer, once at home in Wicklow but hunted to extinction, reintroduced on Powerscourt in the 18th century. [69] Japanese sika deer were also imported by Powerscourt and harkorsades with red deer. [69] All the deer were found in the Wicklow Mountains originates from Power’s crew and either sika deer or hybrid red sika deer. [70] Other mammals present include wild goats, mountain hares, badgers, stoats, otters, red squirrels, gray squirrels and bats.[71] the Irish Elk is an extinct species of deer that lived Wicklow mountains c. 11,000 years ago, is still to be discovered in large quantities in Ballybetagh Bog near Glencullen. [72] Wolves was also once home in the mountains but were hunted to extinction in Ireland: the last wolf in Wicklow was killed at Glendalough 1710. [73]

Widespread clearance of forests began in the Bronze Age and continued until the early 20th century. [74] Afforestation programs began in the 1920s and accelerated in the 1950s with the widespread planting of coniferous forests, particularly in mountain moorland areas previously considered unsuitable for planting. [75] the dominant tree is the Sitka spruce and 58% of forest plantations, [76] with lodgepole pine, spruce, pine, larch and douglas fir also planted. [77] biodiversity is low in conifer plantations because they are not native tree species. [78] Broadleaf crops are rare, accounting for less than 10% of the forest. [79]

The young rivers in the upper valleys are spawning grounds for salmon and trout. [80] char, isolated in Wicklow lakes after the end of the last ice age, [81]have been recorded at Lough Dan and lakes of Glendalough but are now believed extinct. [ 80] a program to reintroduce them in Upper Lake in Glendalough began in 2009. [82]


See also: History of Ireland

The Neolithic passage grave on top of Seefin Mountain

The earliest traces of human activity in the interior of the Wicklow goes to about 4300 f.Kr .. [83] Passage graves from the Neolithic period, is the earliest and most prominent feature of Irish prehistoric civilization in the Wicklow Mountains. [84] These graves sit on many of the western and northern summits Saggart in Dublin and Baltinglass Wicklow, such vidSeefin and Seefingan. [85] the archaeologist Geraldine Stout has suggested that they had a territorial marking function, much like today’s border crossings. [86] other prehistoric monuments found in the highlands include stone circles, standing stones and rock art. [87] the existence of standing stones at elevations suggests that they may have earned route marking purposes. [88]the largest complex of ancient castles in Ireland is to be found in the hills near Baltinglass. [88]

The earliest known tribes that have controlled the Wicklow Mountains include Dál Messin Corb, the Uí Mail UI Theig and UI Briúin. [89] A member of Dál Messin Corb was Saint Kevin, who founded the monastery in Glendalough in the latter part of the 6th century . [89] Kevin traveled to Glendalough from Hollywood, crosses the mountains through the Wicklow Gap. [90] in the 8th century, Glendalough had grown into a substantial settlement of 500-1000 people and an important place of learning and pilgrimage. [91] monasteries often attacked, especially in times of illness or starvation, and Glendalough wealth made it a common target for both local tribes and later the Scandinavian invaders. [92] monastery declined in importance after the arrival of the Normans in the 12th century and its subsequent annexation to the archdiocese Dublin. [93] it was burned by the English in 1398, although the settlement continued until the end of the 16th century. [93] there are also important early Irish church sites in Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains on Rathmichael and Tully. [94]

1170, during the Norman invasion of Ireland, Strongbow and Dermot MacMurrough successfully besieged Dublin by following a high road through the Wicklow Mountains, prevent defense along the normal route west of the mountains. [95] The Norman invasion offset two important Gaelic clans of Kildare, the O ‘Byrne and O’Toole, who moved into the Wicklow mountains, the O’Byrnes O’Toole in the east and the west. [96] from their strongholds both families carried out a sustained campaign of harassment against the invaders and the Wicklow mountains became known as terra guerre ( “land of war”), in contrast to the terra Pacis ( “land for peace”) of the settled lowlands. [97]

Valley Glenmalure gave an almost unassailable refuge for clans and English forces suffered heavy losses there, first in 1274 and again in 1580 in the Battle of Glenmalure. [98] [99] The latter defeat was at the hands of Fiach McHugh O ‘Byrne, who led that many attacks against the English and helped in escapes many of the hostages held by the English to ensure the loyalty of the Irish clans. [100] such hostages were Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had run away from Dublin Castle at night January 6, 1592 in the company of art O’Neill. [99] the two men crossed the mountains in blizzard conditions, leading to Fiach McHugh O’Byrne foothold in Glenmalure. [99] Art O’Neill died of exposure during the trip and Red Hugh had several toes amputated because of frostbite. [101] a cross and a plaque north of Conavalla mountains mark the place where art O’Neill was killed and an annual walk is now held by the two men’s footsteps. [102] the O’Byrnes “and O’Toole’s dominance came finally to an end with the succession of 1652 when their land was confiscated by the English Commonwealth. [103]

Glendalough Valley, showing the monastery town, Lower Lake and Upper Lake

A longer period of peace reigned in the Wicklow Mountains from the end of the Cromwellian period up to the 1798 Rising. [104] Although the main rebellion quickly defeated, Irish rebels again used the Wicklow Mountains as a hiding place and stronghold of attacking the English for many years afterwards. [ 105] Among their numbers, Michael Dwyer, was born in the Wicklow Mountains, born in townlandav Camara Glen of Imaal, and General Joseph Holt. [106] Both men eventually surrendered and was transported to Australia. [106] determined to prevent any future insurgent activity, a military road through the mountains, similar to those built in the Scottish highlands to curb the jakobitupproren, was proposed by the British government for troops to be deployed rapidly in the region. [107] the Wicklow military road was built between 1800 and 1809, runs from Rathfarnham, Dublin to Aghavannagh, County Wicklow through Glencree, Sally Gap and Laragh. [108]a series of military camps and police stations were built along the route, even if they were little used and soon fell into disrepair as the Wicklow Mountains soon ceased to be a center of insurgent activity after the road was completed. [108]

The census in 1841 recorded a population of 13,000 in Wicklow uplands of 126.143 people in the county as a whole. [109] After the Great Famine, the census in 1891 showed that the population of the county Wicklow had decreased to 62,136 by the proportional fall in the inland regions even greater as the population fate margin countries. [110]

The construction of the railway in the 19th century led to the development of tourism in the Wicklow Mountains. [111] visitors were taken by horse carriage in the mountains from the railway station in Rathdrum. [111]Glendalough established itself quickly as the most popular tourist destination and a train that was considered in 1897 but the proposals came to nothing. [112] tourism ~~ POS = TRUNC potential Military road was seen shortly after its completion and GN Wright Tours in Ireland (1822) is one of the earliest guides to the sights along the way. [113]


See also: Wicklow Mountains National Park

The main agricultural activity in the inland sheep graze, mainly uses Wicklow Cheviot breed. [114] Mark also used for forestry and peat cutting. [115]Tourism and recreation are also important activities in the hinterland.Glendalough is still the most popular destination, receiving about one million visitors each year. [116] Leisure Activities in the mountains include walking, mountaineering, winter climbing, fishing and cycling. [117] Hill walking in the Wicklow Mountains first popularized by JB Malone through a weekly column he wrote in the Evening Herald newspaper. [118] Malone later instrumental in the creation of the Wicklow Way, Ireland’s first National marked trail, which opened in 1980 and crosses the Wicklow Mountains. [118]the Wicklow Way has been joined by the Dublin Mountains Way and St. Kevin’s Way pilgrim road, both of which also pass through parts of the mountains. [119] [120]

At the foot of concern pollution and unwanted development of the Wicklow Uplands, the government announced the creation of the Wicklow Mountains National Park in 1990 to preserve the area’s biodiversity and landscape. [121]The park was officially established in 1991 and now covers an area of over 20,000 hectares (200 square kilometers , 77 square miles). [122] In addition, the Wicklow Mountains (including areas outside the National Park) is classified as a special area of conservation under the EU Habitats Directive and as a special protection area under the EU birds Directive. [123]

Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains is managed by the Dublin Mountains Partnership (DMP), a group formed in May 2008 in order to enhance the recreational experience of users of the Dublin Mountains. [124] Its members include representatives of government agencies, local authorities and recreational users. [124 ] DMP has restored trails and developed hiking trails, orienteering courses and a mountain bike course. [125]



  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Wicklow Mountains”. Placental Database of Ireland.Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs. Taken 5 juli2011.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijkl Joyce 1900.
  3. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 32.
  4. Jump up ^ Corlett 1999, p. 34.
  5. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, p. 154.
  6. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 253rd
  7. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 11.
  8. ^ Jump up to: abc Lewis 1837th
  9. Jump up ^ “Lugnaquilla”. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ “900m Irish mountains”. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  11. Jump up ^ “Kippure”. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  12. Jump up ^ “Vandeleur-Lynam List, 600m Irish mountains” .Hämtad 5 July 2011.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Whittow, 1975, p. 268th
  14. Jump up ^ Holland 2003, p. 22.
  15. Jump up ^ Jackson, Parkes & Simms, 2010, p. 142.
  16. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, pp. 18-22.
  17. ^ Jump up to: ab Whittow, 1975, p. 271.
  18. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, pp. 23-28.
  19. Jump up ^ Holland 2003, p. 23.
  20. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 252nd
  21. ^ Jump up to: ab Holland 2003, p. 27.
  22. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, p. 29.
  23. Jump up ^ Coillte & GSI in 1997, §2.
  24. Jump up ^ Holland, 2003, p. 29.
  25. ^ Jump up to: ab Holland 2003, p. 30.
  26. Jump up ^ Warren, 1993, p. 28.
  27. Jump up ^ “Lakes & Rivers”. Wicklow Mountains National Park.National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  28. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 261st
  29. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 10.
  30. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, pp. 10-11.
  31. Jump up ^ EPA and GSI 2009, pp. 3-4.
  32. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 11.
  33. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 24.
  34. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, pp. 36-37.
  35. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 25.
  36. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 32.
  37. ^ Jump up to: abcd Vines of 2007.
  38. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 64.
  39. Jump up ^ Pearson 1998, p. 315.
  40. Jump up ^ Pearson 1998, p. 321.
  41. ^ Jump up to: a b Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 85.
  42. Jump up ^ Moriarty 1988a, p. 15.
  43. Jump up ^ Moriarty, 1991, p. 15.
  44. Jump up ^ “Waterfall”. Power House & Gardens. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  45. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, pp. 89-90.
  46. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 265th
  47. Jump up ^ Coillte & GSI in 1997, §3.
  48. Jump up ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 19.
  49. Jump up ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 23.
  50. ^ Jump up to: a b Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 93.
  51. Jump up ^ Moriarty, 1991, p. 45.
  52. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 94.
  53. Jump up ^ Moriarty 1988b, p. 57-59.
  54. Jump up ^ “Turlough Hill”. History of ESB. ESB Group. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  55. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 111.
  56. Jump up ^ “Tomaneena”. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  57. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 20-21.
  58. ^ Jump up to: a b Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 21.
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  60. ^ Jump up to: a b Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 20.
  61. ^ Jump up to: abcd “Blanket Bog”. Wicklow Mountains National Park .Nationalparker and wildlife. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  62. Jump up ^ Nairn Crowley, p. 44.
  63. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 44-46 50.
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  71. Jump up ^ “Mammals”. Wicklow Mountains National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
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  79. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 83.
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  82. Jump up ^ “char Release Project”. Wicklow Mountains National Park .Nationalparker and wildlife. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
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  86. Jump up ^ Stout, 1994, p. 10.
  87. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, p. 10.
  88. ^ Jump up to: ab Gurrin 2006, p. 11.
  89. ^ Jump up to: ab Corlett 1999, p. 35.
  90. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 14.
  91. Jump up ^ “Glendalough monastery’s history.” Wicklow Mountains National Park .Nationalparker and wildlife. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  92. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, p. 20.
  93. ^ Jump up to: ab Gurrin 2006, p. 22.
  94. Jump up ^ Corlett 1999, pp. 141-145.
  95. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, p. 151.
  96. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, p. 153rd
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  98. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, pp. 157, 159th
  99. ^ Jump up to: abc Flynn, 2003, p. 30.
  100. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, pp. 29-31.
  101. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 31.
  102. Jump up ^ “O’Neill Art Walk”. Simon Stewart Hill Walking in Ireland.Hämtadsexton July 2011.
  103. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 35.
  104. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 68th
  105. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 69th
  106. ^ Jump up to: ab Flynn, 2003, p 46-48 ..
  107. Jump up ^ Fewer 2007, p. 23.
  108. ^ Jump up to: ab Fewer 2007, passim .
  109. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, p. 71.
  110. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2003, p. 72.
  111. ^ Jump up to: ab Gurrin 2006, p. 72.
  112. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 72, 74th
  113. Jump up ^ Fewer 2007, p. 202.
  114. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 16.
  115. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, pp. 168-9, 179th
  116. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 18.
  117. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 17.
  118. ^ Jump up to: ab Dalby 2009, p. 10.
  119. Jump up ^ “Dublin Mountains Way”. Irish Sports Council. Hämtad17 July 2011.
  120. Jump up ^ “St. Kevin’s Way”. Irish Sports Council. Taken 17 juli2011.
  121. Jump up ^ McDonald, Frank (4 April 1990). “Wicklow to get the National Park”. The Irish Times. Dublin. p. 5.
  122. Jump up ^ “Park History”. Wicklow Mountains National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  123. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 9.
  124. ^ Jump up to: ab “About Dublin Mountains Partnership”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  125. Jump up ^ “activities”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.

Richard Cassels

Richard Cassels (1690-1751), who anglicised his name to Richard Castle , ranked by Edward Lovett Pearce as one of the greatest architects working in Ireland in the 18th century. Cassel was born in 1690 in Kassel, Germany. Even German, his family was of French origin, derived from the Franco-Netherlandish ‘You Ry’ family, known to many architects among their number. A cousin Simon, you Ry designed Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel.

Early work

Richard Cassels, who originally trained as an engineer, came to Ireland in 1728 on behalf of Sir Gustav Hume County Fermanagh designing the Hume a mansion on the shores of Lough Erne. Hume had probably discovered Cassels works in London, where he was influenced by the circle of architects influenced by Lord Burlington. Cassels, shortly after arriving in Ireland, established a thriving architectural practice in Dublin. Architecturally at the time Dublin was an exciting place to be – Edward Lovett Pearce, also newly established in the city, working at Castletown House, the grand mansion of Speaker William Connolly, and the new Irish Houses of Parliament the same time. Both of these buildings were designed in the recently introduced Palladian style. Palladian architecture was currently enjoying a revival that would sweep across Europe and adopted with a glow in Ireland. Cassels was well versed in the concepts of Palladio and Vitruvius, but was also in favor of more baroque style.

In Dublin itself Cassels worked at the Houses of Parliament with Pearce, his mentor and friend. Cassels’ first solo mission was Printing House in Trinity College, to resemble a temple complete with a Doric portico. This portico was an interesting feature that symbolizes Cassels’ early works – a portico is an almost essential feature of Palladian architecture. But that Cassel’s work matured, he tended to just suggest a portico by semi-attached columns supporting a pediment as the focal point of a facade. Perhaps he felt the great Italian arcades that gave protection from the sun is not provided for the house in less clement Ireland. This blind, only suggested, the portico part of his last Dublin masterpiece Leinster House was built for the Earl of Kildare between 1745 and 1751. In 1741 he designed the Bishop’s Palace which is now part of the Waterford Treasures – three museums in the Viking Triangle, Waterford, Ireland. A comparison of the Printing House and Leinster House shows the development of the true Palladian style to, usually called, Georgian style in Ireland in the quarter century that Dublin would almost rebuilt.

Premature death of Edward Lovett Pearce, aged 34, in 1733, did Cassels Ireland’s leading architect working in the coveted Palladian style. He immediately adopted all Pearce’s mission and thus began designing a series of lavish mansions. After completion of the Houses of Parliament, it appeared to have been a rush of aristocracy to build a series of new townhouses in the same style and Cassels was often the first choice for the architect. This led to the creation of what came to be called Georgian Dublin.

For his exteriors he used a Palladian style that was distinctive for its strength and sobriety. In this he seems to have been influenced by Pearce and even James Gibbs. But when it came to the interiors, Cassels gave free rein to his love for the more continental baroque. The walls were covered with stucco reliefs, ceiling medallions and motifs of plaster segments moldings and carvings, in an almost rococo style peculiar to Ireland.

Notable works

Some of the finest works of Cassels starts are listed below. ( Date often varies from one source to another )

Trinity College, the Printing House

This perfect little Doric temple, completed in 1734, and is believed to be Cassels’ first major solo work. A four-columned portico of Doric columns projected from severe rusticated building and the whole is only the width of the portico. ( This building is sometimes attributed to Edward Lovett Pearce ).

Carton House (1739)

Main article: Carton House

Cassels made major changes to Carton House in Kildare from 1739 to 1745 for the Earl of Kildare. The resulting facade was in his usual restrained and symmetrical style. The large garden facade ends medvenetianska windows at each end, while in the center, is a single storey portico so restrained as to be almost a porch. The roof line is hidden by a balustrade, is broken by a pediment supported over the central Gulf. The interior is a riot of plaster-work ornamentation. The Lafranchini brothers, known for its plaster-work, performed some of his finest work here, and would work again with Cassels on Russborough.

The Conolly Folly

The Conolly Folly designed by him and built in 1740 as a park ornament for Castletown House.

Russborough House (1742)

Main article: Russborough House

Russborough was designed by Cassels Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltown. It was built between 1741 and 1755. A central block containing the main rooms are flanked by curved and segmented colonnades leading to two symmetrical service building. The main entrance, in the center of one of Cassels brand “suggested” engineer, is on a raised piano nobile. It is reached by a wide staircase. The main feature of the interior is rococo plaster-work and ceiling, again by the master stuccoists Paul and Philip Lanfrachini; and ornate carved marble fireplaces, all contrasting with the austerity of the exterior.

Summer House (1731)

Summer House was a large Palladian mansion in County Meath originally Pearce, who died before the project began. Cassel took over the project and was responsible for Rococo interiors. The building was damaged by fire in 1920 and finally demolished in the 1970s.

Power House (1741)

Powers House, Wicklow, was a large country house, originally a 13th century castle, which was completely rebuilt by Cassels, beginning in 1730 and ending in 1741. The demesne was about 850 acres (3.4 km 2 ). The three-storey building had at least 68 rooms. The entrance was (18 m) long and 60 feet (12 meters) 40 feet wide where family heirlooms appeared. The main reception rooms were on the first floor instead of the more typical on the ground floor. King George IV was the guest of Richard Wingfield, 5th Viscount Powers in August 1821. [1] Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Powers inherited the title and Powerscourt, which consisted of 49,000 acres (198 km 2) of land in Ireland, at age 8 in 1844 . When he turned 21, he began an extensive reonovation of the house and created new gardens. Inspiration for the garden design followed visits by Powers to ornamental gardens at the Palace of Versailles, Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna and Schwetzingen Palace Heidelberg .Trädgården development took 20 years to complete in 1880. The commanding hilltop Cassels deviated slightly from his usual dark style, to give the house something of what John Vanbrugh would have called “air castle” – a severe palladian facade ends with two circular domed towers. The house was destroyed by fire in 1974 when it was owned by the Slazenger family and renovated in 1996. In the 1830s, the house was a place for a number of conferences on unfulfilled prophecies of the Bible, attending men like John Nelson Darby and Edward Irving. These conferences held under the auspices of Theodosia Wingfield Powers, then widow Lady Powers.

Tyrone House (1740)

Cassels designed this Dublin house for Marcus Beresford, Earl of Tyrone in Marlborough Street between 1740 and 1745. Less than Power House is said to be the first significant aristocratic houses to be built in the northern part of the city. There are good examples of Cassels’ robust sober style. The central Venetian window above the main entrance is the only example of decoration or frivolity to this dramatic severe facade.

Leinster House (1745)

Main article: Leinster House

The house was originally known as Kildare House after James Fitzgerald, the Earl of Kildare, who ordered Cassels to build it between 1745 and 1747. Intended to be Dublin’s magnificent mansion, the result could not have been disappointed Kildare. It is said that another Irish architect James Hoban, later copied facade Leinster House for his design of the White House in Washington (also Castle Coole designed by James Wyatt bears a closer resemblance).

Rotunda Hospital (1757)

Originally the main BB Dublin, it was redesigned by Cassels which converted it to a Palladian palaces, complete with a rotunda that gives the hospital its name.

Watertown House, Westmeath

Built for Gustaf Handcock-Temple in the 1740s. The house was three floors over basement and seven bays wide, was built of brick with stone facing.Cassel’s work includes a pigeon, (almost identical to Killiney Hill Obelisk) walled gardens, courtyard and grotto. The front facade was seven bays wide and three stories high over a basement. The house was abandoned in 1923. It was sold for scrap in 1928 when most of the house was demolished. [2]

Westport House, Mayo.

Built Browne, Westport House is a beautifully located two floors above the basement ashlar stone house overlooking Clew Bay in County Mayo. Cassel decided to move the village of Westport to improve the outlook from the house in öster.Det original house was quite small and was later extended by others.

Succession to Ireland

Richard Cassels died in 1751. His legacy is that he gave Ireland a distinct type of Palladian architecture all their own, to be fully appreciated one must consider the buildings simultaneously externally and internally, the restrained, even severe, but still large external facades, which does not jar the eye of the Irish landscape, gives no hint of flamboyance, even wild rococo opulence within. This is almost nowhere else in Europe, the cold grandeur of England’s finest Palladian mansions Kedleston Hall and Holkham Hall could not be removed further from the joy and the movement of the interior of one of Richard Cassels’s Irish Palladian interiors.

See also

  • Ballyhaise House
  • Bellinter House
  • Hazelwood House, Sligo


  1. Jump up ^ Dooley, Terence (2001). The decline in the large house in Ireland. Wolfound Press Ltd. ISBN 0-86327-850-7.
  2. Jump up ^ ‘Water: the rise and fall of a south Westmeath property “by Richard Coplen.

Russborough House

Russborough House is a stately house is located near the Blessington Lakes in County Wicklow, Ireland, between the towns of Blessington and Ballymore Eustace and is said to be the longest house in Ireland, with a facade measuring 210 m / 700 ft. It is an example of Palladian architecture, designed by Richard Cassels for Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltownoch built between 1741 and 1755. The interior of the house contains some ornate plasterwork on the ceilings of the Lafranchini brothers, who also collaborated with Cassels on Carton House.


The Leeson family has its origin in Northamptonshire and had moved to Ireland in the second half of the 17th century. A sizable fortune made in brewing and property in Dublin on to Joseph Leeson, who bought the land at the former Russell Town. He became an MP and was made Earl of Milltown 1763. [1]

Russborough House was designed for Joseph Leeson Richard Cassels and was built between 1741 and 1755. It remained in the possession of the Earl of Milltown until the sixth jarlen.På death of his widow in 1914 it passed to a nephew, Edmund Turton, who rarely stopped. In Turton’s death in 1929, his widow sold the house to the Captain Denis Bowes Daly, 1931. Sir Alfred and Lady Beit bought Russborough in 1952 from Captain Daly to house his art collection and in 1976 established Alfred Beit Foundation to administer egendomen.Stiftelsen opened the historic mansion and its collections to the Irish public in 1978. Beit died in 1994, but the Lady Beit remain in the home for his own death in 2005. [1]

On 7 February 2010, a fire severely damaged the west wing and caused part of the roof to collapse. No art was damaged, deleted, along with furniture to allow for restoration of the west wing. Initial investigations of the damage suggested an electrical fault from the pipes in the ceiling may have triggered the fire. [2]

In recent years, locally advertised Farmers Markets have been held on a regular basis in the grounds of the house.

Art Collections

Russborough has housed two art collections, begun with the Milltown estate, whose collection was donated to the National Gallery of Ireland by the widow of the sixth Earl.

Sir Alfred Beit bought the house in 1952, where he housed his own family collection of the works of many great artists, including Goya, Vermeer, Peter Paul Rubens and Thomas Gainsborough. This collection then stolen four times: in 1974 by an IRA gang, including British heiress Rose Dugdale, [3] in 1986 by Martin Cahill (nicknamed “The General”); 2001 and 2002 by Martin Cahill associate Martin Foley. Two paintings, Gainsborough’s Madame Bacelli and Vermeer’s Lady writing a letter with her Maid , the latter is probably the most valuable painting in the collection, were stolen twice of theft, even though each subsequently recovered (the latter in 1993, the same year as the recovery of Goya portrait of Dona Antonia Zarate [4] ). Beit collection has donated many of his works to the State but significant proportion of the paintings have been returned and made available for viewing by the owners, Alfred Beit Foundation. Other paintings have returned four Joseph Vernet paintings titled “Morning”, “Midday”, “Sunset” and “Night’- these actually painted Russborough in the 1750s and had stayed in the house for most of the last 260 years .

popular culture

Russborough House was used as a setting in the 2011 movie Haywire .

Russborough House was used as a setting in the 2016 film Love & Friendship , directed by Whit Stillman. [5]

It was featured in Travel Channel mysteries of the castle , retells the story of the 1974 art robbery.

See also

  • Palladian architecture
  • Blessington
  • Poulaphouca Reservoir


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Russborough County Wicklow CONSERVATION PLAN” (PDF). Pulled 12/18/2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Russborough House damaged in the fire, the Irish Times,February 8, 2010. Taken presented on 26 August 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ “No regrets for renegade IRA art robbers Rose Dugdale”. Irish Independent.
  4. Jump up ^ Dolnick, Edward. “How Ireland regained its Vermeer”. The Times , 31 July 2005. Retrieved on 24 May 2009.
  5. Jump up ^ . McGrath, Meadhbh (27 May 2016) “” I loved places, they were perfect for us “- the director Whit Stillman talks filming Love & Friendship in Ireland”. Irish Independent. Retrieved July 15, 2016.


Glendalough (/ ˌ ɡ l ɛ nd ə l ɒ x /; Irish: Gleann DA Loch , meaning “Valley of two lakes”) is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, Ireland, known for an early medieval monastic founded in the 6th century by St Kevin.


Kevin, a descendant of one of the ruling families in Leinster, studied as a boy under the care of three holy men, Eoghan, Lochan and Eanna. During this time he went to Glendalough. He would return later, with a small group of monks to found a monastery where the ‘two rivers form a confluence’. Kevin’s writings discuss his fighting “knights” at Glendalough; Researchers now believe that this refers to the process of self-examination and his personal temptations. [1] His fame as a holy man spread and he attracted many followers. He died in about 618th For six centuries afterwards, Glendalough flourished and the Irish Annals contain references to the death of abbots and raids on the settlement. [2]

Around 1042, the oak wood from Glendalough used to build the second longest (30 m) Viking longship ever recorded. A modern copy of the ship was built in 2004 and is currently located in Roskilde, Denmark. [3]

At the Synod of Rath Breasail in 1111, Glendalough was named one of the two pins in the North Leinster.

The Book of Glendalough was written about 1131st

St. Laurence O’Toole, born in 1128, became the abbot of Glendalough and was well known for his holiness and hospitality. Even after his appointment as Archbishop of Dublin in 1162, he returned occasionally to Glendalough, to the solitude of St. Kevin bed. He died in Eu in Normandy in 1180. [2]

During 1214, the pins in Glendalough and Dublin were. From this point, cultural and ecclesiastical status Glendalough declined. The destruction of the settlement of the English forces in 1398 left it a ruin, but it continued as a church of local importance and a place of pilgrimage.

Glendalough features on the 1598 map “A Modern Display of Ireland, one of the British Isles” by Abraham Ortelius’ Glandalag “.

Descriptions of Glendalough from the 18th and 19th centuries include references to times of “riotous assembly” on the feast of St. Kevin on 3 June.[2]

The current remaining in Glendalough tell only a small part of its history.The monastery in its heyday included workshops, areas for manuscript writing and copying, apartments, an infirmary, farm buildings and housing for both monks and lay a large population. The buildings that survive probably date from between the 10th and 12th centuries. [2]

regular see

Glendalough is currently a full view of the Catholic Church. It is used for bishops who hold no ordinary power of their own and thus are titular Bishop.[4]

titular Bishop

  • Raymond D’Mello (20 December 1969 -13 December 1973)
  • Marian Przykucki (December 12, 1973 to June 15, 1981)
  • Donal Murray (4 March 1982-10 February 1996)
  • Diarmuid Martin (5 December 1998 – October 14, 2014)
  • Guy Sansaricq (6 June 2006 – August 16, 2014) [4]

annalistic references

See Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI800.2 Minndenach, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested.
  • AI809.2 Échtbrann, abbot of Glenn dá Locha [rested].
  • AI1003.6 Dúnchad Ua Mancháin, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested.

Monuments in Lower Valley


Gateway to the monastery town of Glendalough is one of the most important monuments, now totally unique in Ireland. It was originally two floors with two fine granite arch. The antae or protruding walls at each end indicates that it had a wooden roof. Inside the gate, in the west wall, is a cross-inscribed stone. This designated sanctuary, the limit of the area refuge. Paving of the causeway in the monastery town are still preserved in part, but very little remains of the enclosure wall. [2]

The Round Tower

This fine tower built of mica-schist interspersed with granite is approximately 30 meters high, with an entrance hall 3.5 meters from the base. The conical roof was built in 1876 using the original stones. The tower originally had six hours floors connected by ladders. The four floors above the main floor, each lit by a small window; while the upper floors are four windows facing the cardinal points of the compass. round towers, landmarks for approaching visitors, was built as a bell tower, but also served on occasion as a store-house and as safe havens in times of attack. [2]


The largest and most impressive of the buildings at Glendalough, the cathedral had several phases of construction, at the earliest, consisting of the current nave with its antae. The large mica-schist rocks that can be seen up to the height of the square-headed west doorway was reused from a previous smaller church. The chancel and sacristy are from the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The chancel arch and east window was nicely decorated, although many of the stones are now missing. The north door of the nave is also from this period. According south window in the chancel is an ambry or wall cupboard and a piscina, a basin used for washing the sacred vessels. A few meters south of the cathedral an early cross of local granite, with a unpierced ring, commonly known as St. Kevin’s Cross. [2]

Priests’ House

Almost completely reconstructed from the original stones, built on a 1779 sketch made by Beranger, the priests’ house a small Romanesque building, with a decorative bow at the east end. It gets its name from the practice of the Inter Ring priests there in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its initial purpose is unknown, although it may have been used to house relics of St.Kevin. [2]

St. Kevin Church or “kitchen”

This stone roof building originally had only one ship, with the entrance in the west and a little round-headed window in the east gable. The upper part of the window can be seen in what became the chancel arch, while the chancel (now missing) and the sacristy were added later. The steep roof formed by the overlapping blocks, is a carrier of a semicircular arch. Access to the cottage or the roof chamber was through a rectangular opening to the western part of the vault. Church also had one hour the first floor. The bell tower with its conical lid and four small windows rising from the western part of the stone ceiling in the form of a miniature circular tower. [2]

St. Ciarán’s (Kieran’s) Church

The remains of this ship-and-cows church discovered in 1875. The church celebrates probably St. Ciarán (Kieran), the founder of Clonmacnoise, a monastic settlement that had associations with Glendalough in the 10th century. [2]

St Marys or Our Lady’s Church

One of the earliest and most made of churches, Mary or Our Lady’s Church consists of nave with a recent cows. Its granite west door with an architrave has inclined jambs and a massive lintel. In front of the lintel is inscribed with an unusual saltire or x-shaped cross. East windows are round-headed, with a hood molding and carved two very worn heads on the outside. [2]

Trinity Church

A simple nave-and-chancel church, with a fine chancel arch. Trinity Church is located next to the main road. A square-headed doorway in the west side leads to a later annexe, possibly a sacristy. A round tower or bell tower was built in a vault in this chamber. This fell in a storm in 1818. The door into the south wall of the nave also originates from this period. Protruding brackets on the ends would have carried the border joists in the ceiling. [2]

St. Saviour church

The latest of Glendalough churches, the St. Saviour built in the 12th century, probably at the time of St. Laurence O’Toole. Nave and chancel with its fine decorating stones were restored in the 1870s with the help of stones found at the site. The Romanesque chancel arch has three orders, with very ornate capitals. The east window has two round head lights. Its decorated features include a snake, a lion, and two birds holding a human head between its beak.A staircase in the eastern wall leading from a neighboring domestic building would have given access to a room above the choir. [2]

Monument near Upper Lake

Reefert Church

Located in a grove of trees, this ship-and-cows church dates from around 1100. Most of the surrounding walls are modern. The name comes from Righ Fearta , the burial place of kings. The church was built in a simple style, has a granite doorway with sloping side panels and the flat piece and a granite cross bow. The protruding brackets at each end by Verge timber for the roof.East of the church there are two intersections of note, one with a utarbetadinterlace patterns. On the other side of Poulanass River, near the Reefert are the remains of another small church. [2]

St. Kevin Cell

Built on a rocky spur of the lake, this stone structure was 3.6 meters in diameter with walls 0.9 meters thick and a doorway on the east side. Only the foundations survive today and it is possible that the cell had a stone Corbelled roof, similar to the beehive huts on Skellig Michael, County Kerry.[2]

The “Caher”

This stone walls circular enclosure on flat land between the two lakes is 20 meters in diameter and is of unknown date. Nearby are several intersections, apparently used as stations on the pilgrimage. [2]

Temple-na-Skellig and St. Kevin bed

This small rectangular church on the southern shore of the Upper Lake is accessible only by boat, through a series of steps from the bridge. West of the church is a raised platform with stone walls, where the residential huts probably stod.Kyrkan, partly built in the 12th century, has a granite doorway with inclined jambs. At the eastern end is a Latin cross inscribed with several common grave slabs and three small crosses. Nearby is St. Kevin’s bed, a cave in the rock about 8 meters above the level of Upper Lake and said a retreat of St. Kevin and later to St. Laurence O’Toole. Partly artificial, driven back 2 meters into the mountain. [2]


The valley was formed during the last ice age by glaciers that left a moraine valley mouth. The Poulanass river, which plunges into the valley from the south, creating a delta, which eventually awarded the original lake in two. [5]

Vegetation and Natural Resources

Glendalough is surrounded by semi-natural oak forest. A large part of this previously coppiced (cut to the base at regular intervals) to produce wood, charcoal and bark. In spring, the Oakwood floor covered with a display avblåklockor, sorrel and wood anemones. Other common plants are wood rush, bracken, fern ferns and various species of mosses. The bottom is largely of holly, hazel and ash.

In the western part of Upper Lake lie the ruins of an abandoned mining village normally only be reached on foot. The mining of lead took place here from 1850 until about 1957, but the mines in the valley of Glendalough were smaller and less important than those around Glendasan Valley, from where they are separated by Camaderry Mountain. 1859 the Glendasan Glendalough mines and interconnected by a series adits, now flooded, through the rock.This made it easier to transport ore from Glendalough and process it there.


Glendalough is a good place to look for some of Ireland’s newest breeding species, such as the mergansers and great spotted woodpecker, and some of the most rare, such as the redstart and wood warbler, peregrine, dipper, cuckoo, Jay ochormvråk can also be seen. [6]


There are many hiking trails of varying difficulty around Glendalough. In the valley itself are nine color-coded hiking trails maintained by the Wicklow Mountains National Park. They all begin at an information office close to Upper Lough where maps are available. There are also a number of guided walking options.

The Wicklow Way, a long distance waymarked footpath, passes through Glendalough on its way from Rathfarnham in the north to the southernmost point of Clonegal in County Carlow.

Mountaineering Glendalough’s granite rock, located on the hillside above the northwest part of the valley, has been a popular rock-climbing spot since the first climb was established in 1948. The current guidebook, published in 1993, lists about 110 lines, on all grades up to E5 / 6a, but many more climbs, mainly in the higher grades, have been recorded since then. [7]

The climb varies between one and four slots, and up to over 100 meters in length. There are several sectors:

  • Twin Buttress , a major pillar divided in the middle of a seasonal waterfall, which contains the most popular climbs. This area is accessed via a zigzag path at the head of the valley.
  • The upper Cliffs , a band of rocks high up on the hillside east of the Twin Buttress.
  • Acorn Buttress, a small buttress just below the Twin Buttress, which is a popular base camp location.
  • Hobnail Buttress , a small pillar with some easy climbing, on the hillside one kilometer to the east.

The quality of climbing along with various grades attracts climbers of all levels to Glendalough, and make it a favorite destination for climbers Dublin in particular. The Irish’s Club has worked a climbing hut in the area since the 1950s. Below the cliff is an extensive boulder field. This is a popular place for bouldering activities, [8] the blocks within the reach of the path is especially popular.


  • St. Kevin’s Church, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, Ireland 2012
  • Lower Lake.
  • Upper Lake.
  • Round Tower.
  • St. Kevin church
  • 1949 Irish shilling stamp Vox Hiberniae flying over Gleann Da Loc .
  • Upper Lake and Valley
  • The Round Tower at Glendalough.
  • St. Kevin Church on the coat of arms of County Wicklow
  • Glendalough (1890)
  • Glendalough Gatehouse
  • St. Kevin, Glendalough
  • St Kevin B
  • Glendalough (2011)

See also

  • Abbot of Glendalough
  • Bishop of Glendalough
  • Irish round tower
  • Saint Kevin
  • List of abbeys and priories in Wicklow


  1. Jump up ^ Glendalough
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnopq tourist Glendalough, Produced by “The Office of Public Works’ (Oifig na nOibreacha Poibli), Glendalough, County Wicklow.
  3. Jump up ^ “Havhingsten fra Glendalough (Skuldelev 2), trans. Sea Stallion from Glendaloug “. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab Catholic hierarchy List of titular Bishop of Glenndálocha
  5. Jump up ^ Nairn, Richard (2001). Discovering Wild Wicklow.Townhouse and houses. p. 8. ISBN 1-86059-141-8.
  6. Jump up ^ BirdWatch Ireland Irish Birds Vol.7 (2004-5) pp.377,542,547;Vol.8 (2006-9) p 101,103,253,257,367,369,574,576 .; Vol.9 (2010) p.69
  7. Jump up ^ Lyons, Joe; Fenlon, Robbie (1993). Mountaineering Guide to Wicklow. Mountaineering Council of Ireland. ISBN 978-0-902940-11-6.
  8. Jump up ^ TheShortSpan – Bouldering in Ireland


Greystones (Irish: Na Clocha Liatha ) is a coastal town and seaside resort in Wicklow, Ireland. It is located on the east coast of Ireland, 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Bray and 27 km (17 mi) south of Dublin, with a population of about 17,000. The town bordering the Irish Sea in the east, Bray Head in the north and the Wicklow Mountains to the west.

The town was named after one kilometer long gray rocks between the two beaches on the ocean. The port area and the railway station is on the northern and southern ends respectively. North Beach, which begins at the harbor, is a rocky beach and a portion of its length is overlooked by the southern cliffs of Bray Head, which is subject to erosion. South Beach is a wide sandy beach about one kilometer long. There is a Blue Flag beach and receives many visitors and tourists, mainly during the summer.

In 2008 Greystones named the world’s most liveable society “at the Awards in China. [1]


Greystones is south of the site of an ancient castle of the Barony of Rathdown. There was a small village, like the castle, was known as Rathdown, which appeared on a 1712 map. This site occupied an area now called the Grove, north of Greystones harbor, but only the ruins of a chapel, St. Crispin Cell survive. Greystones is a very recent settlement and first mentioned in Topographia Hibernica , a 1795 publication. It is described as a“noted fishing spot four miles outside Bray.”

In the early 19’s there were some families scattered around the harbor, Black, Wind Gates, Killincarrig and Rathdown. Delgany was a more extensive and longer-established village. However Greystones put on the map with the arrival of the railway in 1855, a difficult task carried out in consultation with Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the famous engineer. The train station was built on the line between the properties of two landowners; the La Touche family, Bellevue House (now in ruins, near Delgany), and Hawkins-Whitshed family Killincarrig House (now Greystones Golf Club). That gave contacts with Bray and Dublin, and left room for development on adjacent farms.

During the latter half of the 19th century, under the ownership of William Robert La Touche, Greystones “development momentum. North of the station, where Church Road, Victoria Road and Trafalgar Road and set many houses built in the years after the arrival of the railroad. After his father’s death, Elizabeth Hawkins-Whitshed was the sole heir of his property. In 1879, she married Frederick Gustavus Burnaby; a soldier, politician and travel. Burnaby died in battle in 1885, Elizabeth married twice, but the property continued to be called Burnaby Estate. In the early 20’s, began to Burnaby to expand the town on his side of the station, and the roads and houses in Burnaby has been developed and the population grew rapidly. The names of these two families remain well known today, with many roads and residential areas that bears their name.

Between 1885 and 1897, people Greystones campaign for a port to help the fishing industry and imports such as coal. The pier, dock, sea wall and boat slip left but has endured significant damage. In the early 20th century, the city felt the effects of coastal erosion (which is still a major problem); loss of fields and most of the houses on the North Beach Road , and costly internal relocation of the railway has all led to. In 1968, the old Kis to the lighthouse foundation added to the end of the pier.

At the end of World War II, cars and petrol became widely available, making Grey will gradually expand, filling the space between itself and outlying areas such as Black, Killincarrig and Delgany. But the popularity of the railroad declined; its existence is in danger in the 1980s, as government cutbacks reduced service only a few trains per day. During the 1990s, a revival with the arrival of the electrified DART from Bray, and a much more frequent schedule.

Grey has experienced a huge increase in its population since the 1970s with the construction of several large residential areas. A new development at Charles Country, just south of the city, including over 1,000 apartments. As of the 2006 census, the population in Greystones, including town and surrounding areas, amounting to 14,569 making it the second largest town in the county after Bray. [2]

Along with residential neighborhoods, the roads and facilities improved to cater for growth. The road between Greystones and Bray has expanded and realigned. A new two-lane road link (R774) connecting Greystones to N11 has been completed. The construction of a full interchange with the N11 has also been completed.

According to the 2006 census, Greystones Ireland’s largest church attendance as a part of the population (9.77%).



Greystones is accessible from the N11 Dublin-Wexford road; a new interchange (Junction 11 on the N11) constructed near the Charles Country connecting to the city via a dual carriageway.


Greystones train station, which opened October 30, 1855 [3] is the southern terminus of the DART railway, a service that connects thirty stations along the east coast of Dublin. Iarnród Éireann diesel commuter and intercity trains also serve Greystones, connecting the city with Wicklow, Arklow, Gorey, Wexford, and Ross Euro in the south, and Dublin’s Connolly Station in the north.


Grey is served by 84, 184 and 84X Dublin Bus routes, while road 702 Aircoach service begins at Charles Country connecting the area with Dublin Airport.


Bray and Grey is associated with a Cliff Walk, which follows the route of the railroad around Bray Head. The walk is 6 km long and takes about two hours.[4]


Greystones is part of South EP constituency and Wicklow Dáil constituency.In municipal Greystones has six councilors on Wicklow County Council, representing Greystones municipal district.

The following elected officials are based in and around Grey and Stone municipality:


  • Stephen Donnelly, TD (Ind)
  • Simon Harris TD (FG)

County Councillors:

  • Cllr. Gráinne McLoughlin (FK, Cathaoirleach of Greystones Municipal District)
  • Cllr. Jennifer Whitmore (Ind, Leas-Cathaoirleach of Greystones Municipal District)
  • Cllr. Tom Fortune (Ind)
  • Cllr. Nicola Lawless (SF)
  • Cllr. Derek Mitchell (FG)
  • Cllr. Gerry Walsh (FF)

Future development


This would be a € 300 million redevelopment scheme for the port, to be built by the consortium Sispar (Sispar is a joint venture consortium of Sisk and Michael Cotter park development) of a public-private partnership with Wicklow County Council. This has been and remains an important current issue in the city. Objections centered on the privatization of public beach land without broad public understanding, [5] but the work began. The development was the introduction of a new port, 341 apartments, a 230 berth marina, a new public plaza and facilities for local sports clubs. [6]

If the granting of planning permission, was 6.210 submissions received from An Bord Pleanála on the original plans, which more than 6200 were objections. [7] Many of the objections came from outside the County Wicklow, according to a spokesman for Wicklow County Council. [8] many opposed the details of the plan at the same time accept the general idea. A hearing was held and the board asked the developers to make some changes that resulted in plans scaled down by about 10%. [9] Some 3700 objections were raised on these updated planer.Den August 9, 2007, the Board approved the final plans, while imposing 13 conditions for construction works, including preservation of public access to the Cliff Walk during the development period, strict guidelines when it comes to dust control, recycling of demolition materials and restrictions on operating hours and noise levels. The Board also ruled over a former inspector’s report, rather than allow an old unlicensed landfill to remain at the new apartments. [9] [10]

In February 2010 it was announced that the development of the port would be paused indefinitely because of conditions in the Irish property market. [11]

After the development was halted loans attributable to development transferred to NAMA. Sispar insisted that it needed the support of NAMA to finish the project. [12] in September 2012 it was reported that NAMA had written off € 50 is payable for the troubled development of Greystones Harbour. It turned out that it was not Sispar consortium but Sisk alone who controlled the loans. [13]


Greystones and its surroundings (including Delgany) is home to several celebrities including:

  • Damien Rice; Musician
  • Andrew Hozier-Byrne; Musician
  • Éamon the Buitléar; wildlife filmmaker and naturalist.
  • Reggie Corrigan; former professional rugby player, Irish team member and former most capped Leinster player of all time.
  • Ronnie Drew of The Dubliners lived in Greystones.
  • John L. Murray, Chief Justice of Ireland 2004-2011.
  • George Hamilton; commentator for RTÉ television.
  • Frank Kelly; the actor who portrayed Father Jack in Father Ted .
  • Paul McNaughton; Former Swedish International Rugby players, as Leinster manager
  • Sean FITZPATRICK; former chairman of Anglo Irish Bank [14]
  • Stephen Donnelly; TD
  • Amy Bowtell; Irish Female professional tennis player.
  • Marten Toonder, artist, creator of Oliver B. Bumble
  • Paul Dunne (golfer)


The compound football

The city is home to a successful association football club, Grey United, [15]which is based at the Woodlands near the southern beach. GUFC is the largest school / girls soccer club in the country, and has more than 700 members. [15] Perhaps the club’s most famous alumni are current Irish international Paul McShane. Another successful club, Grey AFC, located on “The Arch Field” just beside the railway bridge in the harbor. Five of their players have represented Ireland at various levels. Ian Horan, Chris Mason and Stephen McCann has represented the Irish Between the team and Stephen Roche and Richie O’Hanlon has represented the Irish Colleges team.The Saturday and Sunday both sides play in the top division in the Leinster Senior League


St. Kilian’s Badminton Club plays in Shoreline Leisure Center on Mill Road every Thursday. Their website can be found at St. Kilian’s Club Badminton


Greystones is home to Greystones Mariners Baseball Club, catering to all ages. Sailors adult team competing nationally and several of the players representing Ireland at the National baseball team.


A lawn bowling club is located on Burnaby Park.


Cricket returned to Greystones in 2012 with the formation of Greystones Cricket, a vibrant and family-oriented club that currently practice (networks) at Greystones RFC and play their home games at Greystones United FC grounds. They have three senior men’s team and a women’s team plays in the Leinster Cricket Union competitions, a Taverners and two junior teams.

Gaelic game

Éire Og Grey GAA Club is located on Mill Road, in the southern part of the city. The club has recently undergone an extensive renovation that saw the improvements made to the clubhouse, seats, lighting and parkeringsplatser.Det is now one of the most used club facilities in the Greystones area.


There are two 18-hole golf courses and a driving range in the city. Greystones Golf Club was founded in 1895 and allows for great views of the city, the landscape, and the Irish Sea. Charles Country Golf Club is newer, flatter and located by the sea. These places can be reached by walking from the train station. There are other courses within a short driving distance (less than eight km) Delgany, Glen of the Downs, Kilcoole, Druids Glen (just outside Kilcoole), Bray and Woodbrook.


Grey has many marine-based clubs including sailing and windsurfing, fishing, diving, rowing and Sea Scouts.

Grey Rowing Club was founded in 1920 and is still ongoing today.

Shore angling for cod and plaice on the beaches and the harbor attracts many people, especially during the summer. Swimming is popular in warmer weather, especially on the south shore. The coast is also suitable for jogging and hiking.


Main article: Grey RFC


Grey Lawn Tennis Club is a vibrant, active club with 12 lighted outdoor courts and a large clubhouse. Located on Mill Road, on the southern part of town near the rugby and GAA clubs regularly hosts regional and national competitions, has a large number of tennis activities and coaching opportunities for children and adults and runs a number of social events during the year.


See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Grey has twinning agreements with:

  • Holyhead, Wales, UK. [16]


Greystones various Christian denominations in the town, with most divisions traditional Christianity represented. There is a Roman Catholic, [17]a Presbyterian, [18] an Anglican (Church of Ireland), [19] an evangelical, [20] and one Armenian Evangelical [21] church in Greystones. Carraig Eden Theological College is the main Pentecostal center for theological studies and ministerial training in Ireland, offering BTH and MTH degrees in applied theology [22] The majority of the residents are Roman Catholic, but Greystones is the city with the highest population of Protestants in Ireland with 9.77% of the population claiming to be the Church of Ireland (according to 2006 census).

Education and research

Grey has seven elementary schools:

  • St. Kevin’s National School (Catholic, former Christian Brothers)
  • St. Brigid’s National School (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Laurence National School (Roman Catholic)
  • Patrick’s National School (mostly Church of Ireland)
  • Greystones Educate Together National School (Educate Together, non-denominational)
  • Gaelscoil na gCloch Liath (inter-denominational, teaching given through the Irish language).
  • Grey Community National School (non-denominational)

The city also has a Roman Catholic high school:

  • St. David’s Holy Faith Secondary School is a public, co-educational school with about 500 students.

A church in Ireland, has been co-educational secondary school opened its doors in 2014 in Greystones; Temple Carrig School. Yet it is relatively common for local young people to attend schools in neighboring towns.

It is a Spanish school, school SEK-Dublin, the Belvedere Hall in Wind Gates.

Wicklow County Council manages a Carnegie library opposite Burnaby Park on Main Street (Church Road).


Grey has a number of entertainment facilities; Charles Country Sports and Entertainment Park which includes a skate park, several all-weather soccer and basketball courts and a playground. [23] A large number of gigs organized by local independent youth takes place, played by mostly local bands even if the international punk and hardcore acts have played in city. The Grey Theater, suitable for drama, dance, concerts and other events, is in the center and is complemented by Greystones Studios, which offers classes, performance space, rehearsal rooms and AV studios. [24]

Film and TV

  • Ormonde cinema in Greystones, which closed in July 2007, with theFather Ted episode “The Passion of St. Tibulus “and also in an episode of Custer’s Last Standup . [25]
  • Greystones featured as a backdrop for some scenes in the popular BBC series Ballykissangel .
  • In the 1980s, many scenes from a series called “Rose of Dublin” filmed around the port area of Greystones.
  • The city generally used in the Irish program Glenroe .
  • The film Taffin starring Pierce Brosnan, was filmed in Greystones.
  • Greystones in an episode of Dream Team , a Sky One football soap series.
  • Parts of George Gently , a 2007 British detective-off of the BBC, was filmed around the harbor. Martin Shaw played in production, set in 1960s Britain (Northhumberland). Beach House pub was renamed “The Mariner Rest” for the occasion.
  • The film Yesterday’s Children , starring Jane Seymour, was filmed in Greystones.


Greystones is home to several local companies that was founded in the city and is now recognized nationally. Happy Pear organic food companies, [26] [27]headquarters in their restaurant on the High Street, [28] [29] [30]telecommunications company headquartered in Church Road; and RTÉ Dragons’ Den -winning now Smart Storage. [31] [32] Although based in Porvoo is an international bottle top manufacturer Caps United, which has six production plants and 16 sales offices across Europe /.


  • Harbour and Little Sugar Loaf
  • Street ~~ POS = TRUNC
  • sea

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Greystones” the world’s most liveable society ”. ” Rte. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ “Table 14A people in every town of 1500 inhabitants and over classified by age” (PDF). CSO. Be checked out three February 2009.
  3. Jump up ^ “Greystones and Delgany station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 8 September of 2007.
  4. Jump up ^ Greenwood, Margaret; Connolly, Mark; Wallis, Geoff (2003).The Rough Guide to Ireland. London: Rough Guides. p. 158. ISBN 1-84353-059-7.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ The proposed development Greystones on 23 May 2006. Archive March 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. Jump up ^ Proposal to the city € 300 Marina “serious shortcomings” the Irish Independent on 28 March 2006. downloaded the 24 May 2006.
  8. Jump up ^ Grey Marine Plan generates 5,500 submissions Irish Times on 16 February 2006. Retrieved August 9, 2007.
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab € 300m Greystones development to proceed RTÉ News 9 August 2007. Retrieved August 9 in 2007.
  10. Jump up ^ Greystones development gets go-ahead the Irish Times, 9 August 2007. Retrieved August 9 in 2007.
  11. Jump up ^ Greystones development break the Irish Times, 22 February 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  12. Jump up ^ Burke, Roisin (8 April 2012). “NAMA now struggling to survive as Cotter € 1m sailing yacht”. Business. Dublin. Sunday Independent.
  13. Jump up ^ Burke, Roisin (2 September 2012). “NAMA agree to debt reduction”. Business. Dublin. Sunday Independent.
  14. Jump up ^ Heffernan, Breda (22 December 2012). “Sean Fitzpatrick was released on bail after facing new charges.” Irish Independent. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  15. ^ Jump up to: ab “Greystones United”. Grey United Football Club. Be checked out three February 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ Williams, Ffion (18 January 2012). “Holyhead to officially twinned with Irishtown Greystones on Friday.” Bangor and Anglesey Mail. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  17. Jump up ^ “Welcome”. January 30, 2006. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
  18. Jump up ^ “Welcome – Greystones Presbyterian Church”. Grey Presbyterian Church. Are downloaded February 2009.
  19. Jump up ^ “Church of Ireland – a province of the Anglican Communion.” Be checked out three February 2009.
  20. Jump up ^ “Hillside Evangelical Church – Home.” Be checked out three February 2009.
  21. Jump up ^ Northern European Field Manager Philip McAlister. “Ireland † Nazarene Northern Europe Field”. Archived from the original February 15, 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  22. Jump up ^ “Carraig Eden Theological College”. Retrieved 31 October of 2008.
  23. Jump up ^ “Charles Country Sports and Recreational Park”. Wicklow Council. Archived from the original The 20 December 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  24. Jump up ^ “Greystones Theatre”. Greystones Theatre. Are downloaded February 2009.
  25. Jump up ^ “Custer’s Last Stand-Up TV programs –”. Be checked out three February 2009.
  26. Jump up ^
  27. Jump up^
  28. Jump up ^
  29. Jump up^
  30. Jump up^
  31. Jump up ^
  32. Jump up^


Powerscourt (Irish: Eastát Chuirt a Phaoraigh ), located in Ennis, County Wicklow, Ireland, is a large country estate which is famous for its houses and gardens, today occupying 19 hectares (47 acres). The house, originally a 13th century castle, was extensively altered during the 18th century by German architect Richard Cassels, beginning in 1731 [1] and ends in 1741. A fire in 1974 left the house situated as a shell until it was renovated in 1996.

Today the farm is owned and operated by the Slazenger family, the founder and former owner of Slazenger sporting goods company. It is a popular tourist attraction, and includes a golf course, enAvoca Hand Weavers restaurant and an Autograph Collection Hotel.


13th century house

The original owner of the 13-century castle, was a man named La poet, who eventually anglicised to “Power.” The castle’s position was of strategic military importance since the castle’s owner can control access to the nearby Dargle, Glencree and Glencullen rivers.

The three-storey building had at least 68 rooms. The entrance hall, where family heirlooms were shown, was 18 meters (60 feet) long and 12 meters (40 feet) wide. The main reception rooms were on the first floor instead of on the ground floor, the more typical place. A mil long avenue of beech trees leads to the house.

18th century house

Power House was extensively altered during the 18th century by German architect Richard Cassels, beginning in 1731 and ending 1741st

On a commanding hill, Richard Cassels deviated slightly from his usual dark style, giving the house something of what John Vanbrugh would have called “castle air.” This is most noticeable in the structure difficult Palladian facade bookended by two circular domed towers.

King George IV was the guest of Richard Wingfield, fifth Viscount Powers in August 1821. In the 1830s, the house was a place for a number of conferences on unfulfilled prophecies of the Bible, attending men like John Nelson Darby and Edward Irving. These conferences held under the auspices of Theodosia Wingfield Powers, when the Dowager Lady Powers. Her letters and papers were published in 2004, including summaries avPowersprofetiska conferences. [2] [3]

19-century gardens

In 1844, at the age of eight, Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Powers inherited the title and Powerscourt, consisting of 200 square kilometers (49,000 acres) of land in Ireland. When he turned 21, he embarked on an extensive renovation of the house and created new gardens.

Main attractions due include the Tower Valley (with stone tower), Japanese gardens, winged horse statues, Triton Lake, pets cemetery, Dolphin Pond, walled gardens, Bamberg Gate and the Italian garden. Pepperpot Tower said to be designed after a favored 3-tumspepperpot Lady Wingfield. Of particular interest is the pets cemetery, whose tombstones have been described as “astonishingly personal”. [ Citation needed ]

Inspiration for the garden design followed visits by Powers to ornamental gardens at the Palace of Versailles, Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna, ochSchwetzingen Castle near Heidelberg. The garden development took 20 years to complete the 1880th

20’s fire and renovation

In 1961, the estate was sold by the 9th Viscount, Mervyn Patrick Wingfield, the Slazenger family, who still own it today. Wendy Slazenger, daughter of the late Ralph Slazenger, married 10 Viscount, Niall Mervyn Wingfield, 1962. Through their children, Hon. Anthony Mervyn Wingfield and Hon. Julia Wingfield, remains a strong relationship between the two families and Powerscourt.

The house was destroyed by fire in November 4, 1974 and then renovated in 1996. Only two rooms are open to the public as they once appeared while Powers had inhabitants, while the rest of the ground floor and the first floor is now a shop units.

In 2011, Lonely Planet voted Powers in the top ten houses in the world, while in 2014, the National Geographic listed Powers as No. 3 in the world’s top ten Gardens.

21st Century

Tara’s Palace Museum of Childhood

Tara’s Palace Museum of Childhood moved from Malahide Castle near Dublin to Power House in June 2011. The museum has dollhouses, miniatures, dolls, historical toys and Tara’s Palace, one of the largest dollhouse in the world, on a par with Fairy Castle at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois, and queen Mary’s Dolls’ House at Windsor Castle. [ citation needed ]


Powerscourt and its surrounding valley is also owned by Powerscourt, even if the two sites are no longer directly connected. At 121 meters, it is the highest waterfall in Ireland. 1858 established the seventh Viscount Powers a deer park around the waterfall, resulting in the successful introduction of the Japanese Sika Ireland.

Regular bus service from Powers to the waterfall was discontinued in 2005, but during the high summer season, intermittent bus services are still available. The waterfall is seven kilometers from Ennis, and walk. While the distance is not insurmountable, can walking be dangerous because the road is narrow and lacks a shaft for long stretches.

A separate entrance fee is required for access to the waterfall, which range from € 3.50 (children) to € 5.50 (adults). [4]


Power Golf Club , located at Powerscourt in County Wicklow, Ireland, is home to two par 72, 18-hole courses: the East, which was first created, and the West. Both contain fast greens and undulating fairways, and they were over 6900 yards long. 1998 East Course hosted the PGA Championship Irish.[5] [6]

popular culture

  • The house was used as a filming location most famous in Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon , which was filmed there before the 1974 fire. [Citation needed ]
  • The Slazenger family invited Lynn Garrison move its flights film unit, collection and airplane hangars, from Leixlip to Powersourt airfield in 1973. The collection would feature in Irish productions, including the Blue Max, Darling Lili, Zeppelin and Von Richthofen and Brown . It remained here until 1981. [ citation needed ]
  • The farm was used as the background and the ancestral home of the “Artist” and Moll Flanders love interest in the film Moll Flanders . [ Citation needed ]
  • 2002 version of The Count of Monte Cristo was filmed there. [7]
  • David Copperfield was filmed there in 2000. [ citation needed ]
  • Where is Jack? Filmed there in 1969. [ citation needed ]
  • Outdoor scenes for 2005 movie The League of Gentlemen’s Apocalypse , which include William III of England (aka “Good King Billy”) is played by Bernard Hill and Queen Mary II, played by Victoria Wood. [ Citation needed ]
  • A key scene from the 1981 film Excalibur , where Arthur is fighting Lancelot was filmed at the waterfall. [ Citation needed ]
  • Power House is the ancestral home of the fictional Lord Francis Powers in David Dickinson series of novels about the Victorian detective (Goodnight Sweet Prince , Death and the Jubilee , death called to the Bar ).[ Citation needed ]
  • The gardens used to sign Celtic Woman’s Songs from the Heart DVD and TV special. [ Citation needed ]
  • The Hallmark Channel original movie “Honeymoon for a” starring Nicollette Sheridan was filmed at the farm with the help of external scenes in the house and waterfall. [8] The film’s plot included a fight between the owners of “Castlewilde” (Powers) and local citizens concerned about the construction of a golf course, which has properties. [9]


  1. Jump up ^ Power House & Gardens
  2. Jump up ^ “You’ve Got Mail – Evangelicals now.” Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  3. Jump up ^ Viscountess, Powers, Theodosia A. (1 January 2004). “The letters and papers of Lady Powers.”. Chapter two. Retrieved July 20, 2016 – via The Open Library.
  4. Jump up ^ “Waterfall – Powerscourt”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  5. Jump up ^ “Gibbons finds perfection in Powers”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  6. Jump up ^ “Bernard Gibbons honored for service to the golf industry –”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  7. Jump up ^ “The Count of Monte Cristo”. January 25, 2002 is taken. July 20, 2016 – via IMDb.
  8. Jump up ^ “Wicklow Film Commission – Filming in Ireland”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  9. Jump up ^


Ennis (historically Anna Kerry , from Irish: Áth na Sceire , which means “robust debt”) [2] is a village in County Wicklow, Ireland. It had a population of 1,811 at the census of 2011.


The city is located on the Glencullen River in the foothills of the Dublin Mountains to the east of the island, just 5 minutes south of Dublin and the border about 24 km (15 mi) south of Dublin city center. The R117 road, colloquially called “The Twenty-One Bends’ connecting the city to the main N11 road to Dublin.Den 185 Dublin Bus route connects the village hours to Bray, the nearest large town. 44 Dublin Bus route connects the village with the Dublin city center.


The Protestant population of the village was the church in the grounds of Powers Demesne until 1859. Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Power built a new church, Saint Patrick in the village which was completed two years later, in 1861. This coincided with a massive renovation program that also established Italian gardens Powers . Viscount Powers claimed the old church after the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland Act of the Irish church 1869th The consequences were that only those with the right to be buried next to the old church in Demesne could claim these rights thereafter. [3]

Powerscourt, consisting of a large house and gardens today occupies 47 acres (190,000 m 2 ), located near the city and is a popular tourist attraction. The extensive formal gardens form the basis of an 18th century Palladian house, designed by Richard Cassels, which was destroyed by fire in 1974, and was as a shell until extensive restoration was carried out in 1996. Powerscourt in the grounds of the estate at 121 meters, is the highest waterfall in Ireland. [ citation needed ]



  • The Powerscourt used for a place in the film The Count of Monte Cristo .
  • Ennis was also the setting for some of the scenes in Laurence Olivier’s film of Henry V by William Shakespeare in 1944, and like many of the extras in the film
  • Scenes of Into the West, a 1992 film starring Gabriel Byrne, was shot in the village.
  • In the 2007 film PS I Love You , Ennis is the home site of Gerry Kennedy (played by Gerard Butler).
  • The city also in the 2010 film Leap Year .


The village has been set for many TV commercials. [ Citation needed ] From 1996 to 2001, along with Avoca, County Wicklow, played the host of the TV seriesBallykissangel . [4] On 16 March 2009, Meredith Vieira and Al Roker broadcast live Ennis for NBC’s Today Show .


  • Rosanna Davison – former Miss World and the daughter of Chris de Burgh [5] [6] [7]


Bray and Ennis Railway was proposed in the 19th century to link the town of Bray. Some initial work was done, including building a bridge to carry the railway over the Dublin Corporation’s Vartry water main. Wicklow County Council recently removed a large part of the embankment of the road widening, but left the bridge, which is located opposite the ornate bridge carries the water main of Cooks River, a tributary of the River Dargle. The plan ran into financial difficulties, and the rails were lifted and sold off. [8]

Two Dublin Bus routes, 44 and 185, passes through the village.


There are two football clubs located in the village; Ennis School Boys / Girls Football Club has twenty teams playing in the minors levels, while Ennis Youth Club have several teams playing on adult and youth level. There is also a Gaelic football club in the village, as well as a boxing club. [ Citation needed ]


Strong ecumenical links have been forged over the years between the Roman Catholic parish of St. Mary and the Church of Ireland parish of St. Patrick Powers, both in the village Ennis and St Brigid’s Church of Ireland in nearby Kilbride. [ Citation needed ]

See also

  • Powerscourt
  • Powerscourt
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Legal Ennis Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  3. Jump up ^ Dooley, Terence (2001). The decline in the large house in Ireland. Wolfound Press Ltd. ISBN 0-86327-850-7.
  4. Jump up ^ “Ballykissangel”. Wicklow Film Commission.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ http: //
  7. Jump up ^ [ dead link ]
  8. Jump up ^ Clare, Liam (2007). The Bray and Ennis Railway. Nonsuch Publishing, 73 Lower Leeson St, Dublin 2. ISBN 978-1-84588-593-9.

Bray, County Wicklow

Bray (Irish: Bré , which means “hill”, former BRI Chualann ) is a town in northern County Wicklow, Ireland. It is a busy city and seaside resort, with a population of 31,872, making it the ninth largest urban area in Ireland on Census 2011. [1] It is located about 20 km (12 mi) south of Dublin on the east coast. The town straddles the border Dublin Wicklow, with a part of the northern suburbs in Dublin.

Bray scenic location and proximity to Dublin makes it a popular destination for tourists and day-trippers from the capital. Bray is home to Ardmore Studios, hosting Irish and international productions for film, TV and advertising. Some light industry, located in the city, with shops and retail parks concentrated largely on its southern periphery. Bray center has a variety of shops serving the needs of consumers of the surroundings.Commuters links between Bray and Dublin provided by the railway, Dublin Bus and the M11 and M50 motorways.


The name of the city means hill or rising ground , possibly referring to the gradual incline of the city from Dargle Bridge Vevay Hill.


In medieval times, Bray was on the southern border of Palestine, the coastal district is directly controlled by the English crown from Dublin Castle.Inland, the countryside was under the control of Gaelic Chieftains, as O’Toole and O’Byrne clans. Bray is the 1598 map “A Modern Display of Ireland, one of the British Isles” [2] by Abraham Ortelius ‘Brey’. (It is worth noting that the “O Byrne” name prominently displayed on the map.) The Earl of Meath bought Kilruddery property in Bray in 1627 with the establishment of the Earl title, is the heir of the current holder only son, Anthony Jacques Brabazon, Lord Ardee ( born 1977). [ citation needed ] in August or September 1649 Oliver Cromwell is believed to have stayed in Bray on the road to Wexford from Dublin. [ citation needed ] during the 17th and 18th centuries, remained Bray a typical small manor village, but in the latter part of 18’s began the Dublin middle class to move to Bray which although still relatively close to the city, offering stunning mountain scenery and beaches in the immediate vicinity.

The Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first in Ireland, opened in 1834, was as far as Bray was extended in 1854. Upon arrival of the railroad, the town grew to become Ireland’s largest seaside resort. Hotels and extensive residential terraces were built near the sea. Railway contractor, William Dargan developed the Turkish bath, styled in an extravagant Moorish style at a cost of £ 10,000; they met an end after a turbulent century of business when the demolition squad arrived in 1980. [3] The town continued to flourish after independence, but the outbreak of World War II put the industry on ice “for its duration. But in the 1950s, tourists from Britain returned to Bray in large numbers to escape the austerity of Britain’s post-war rationing. The city’s career as a resort declined from the 1960s onwards when foreign travel was an option for vacationers. [ Citation needed ] However, the time travelers continued to flock to Bray, especially during the summer months. Summer Festival, with carnival attractions, fireworks and an air show attracts thousands of visitors in July and August.

Thousands of people turned out to sea to see Olympic boxing champion Katie Taylor, the city’s most famous athletes, returning home from London in August 2012. [4]


The Dargle River which enters the sea at the northern end of Bray rising from a source close Djouce, in the Wicklow Mountains. Bray Head is located at the southern end of the famous Victorian promenade with trails leading to the top and along the sea cliffs. The stones in the Bray Head is a mixture of greywacke and quartzite .The large concrete cross at the summit provides a significant milestone on the east coast and is a major attraction for locals and visitors.

The city lies on the coast, Shankill, County Dublin is north, and Grey, Wicklow in the south. The picturesque village of Ennis is located west of the city, at the foot of the Wicklow Mountains.


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1991 26953
1996 27923 + 3.6%
2002 30951 + 10.8%
2006 31901 + 3.1%
2011 31872 -0.1%

local authorities

Bray’s 8 County Councillors are: Bray was ruled by a council until 2014. Part of the northern bray area is within the municipal area of Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, despite its seamless integration with the rest of the city. The border between Wicklowoch Dublin is located along Old Conna / Corke Abbey, making all areas north of the point Bray, County Dublin. The town is part of the Bray local electoral area for the elections to Wicklow County Council who choose eight councilors who also sits on the Bray city council.

  • Brendan Thornhill (Ind, Cathaoirleach Bray municipality)
  • Steven Matthews (GP, Leas-Cathaoirleach Bray municipality)
  • Joe Behan (Ind)
  • John Brady (SF)
  • Christopher Fox (Ind)
  • Oliver O’Brien (SF)
  • John Ryan (FG)
  • Pat Vance (FF)


A major public transport, both north to south Dublin and Wicklow and Wexford, earning the city. Bray is on the DART network that extends north to Malahide and Howth and south to cater. The city is also on the mainline Iarnród Éireann railway linking the north to Connolly Station in Dublin city center and on to Drogheda and Dundalk. In the south, the railway runs through the Arklow and Gorey before Rosslare Europort. Bray train station is named after Edward Daly, an executed leader of the 1916 Easter Rising. Bray Station opened 10 July 1854. [5] The station’s eastern platform has a mural that illustrates aspects of local and national history for each decade from the 1850s to the 2000s, which replaced the mosaic.

Five bus companies passing Bray: Dublin Bus, Bus Éireann, Finnegan Bray, Aircoach, St. Kevin’s bus to Glendalough. Dublin Bus is by far the largest operator with frequent services to and from Dublin city center and many services in North Wicklow and South Dublin area. Dublin Bus also provides services to Dun Laoghaire, Ennis, Greystones, Kilmacanogue, Kilcoole and Newtownmountkennedy. Finnegan Bray also offers a night link service from Dublin. [6] Aircoach driving an hour to and from Dublin Airport.

There are plans to extend the Luas tram to Fassaroe, an area in the northwest part of the city. However, the exact relationship between the center and the Luas station has not yet decided. Until 1958, the old Harcourt Street railway line ran from Harcourt Street in Dublin to Bray, along much of the road for the new Luas. From 2014, there is much doubt about the Luas will be extended to Bray.

Bray is located along the M11 motorway corridor; an exchange on its northern side links to the M50 Dublin bypass.


Bray is a long established resort with many hotels and guest houses, shops, restaurants and evening entertainment. The city also plays host to a number of high profile festival events.

Available in the city’s vicinity there are two 18-hole golf courses, a tennis club, fishing, a sailing club and horse riding. Other features of Bray’s gambling halls and the National Sealife Centre. Bray is known as theGateway to Wicklow and is the oldest seaside resort in the country. It has a beach of sand and shingle which is over 1.6 km (0.99 mi) long, fronted by a large esplanade. Bray Head, which rises steeply (241 m (791 ft)) from the coast, dominating the scene, providing panoramic views of the mountains and the sea. The concrete cross on top of the head was erected in 1950 for the Holy Year.

Bray is a popular base for hikers, walkers and strollers. It is remarkable for its mile-long promenade that stretches from the harbor, with its colony of humpback, to the base of Bray Head at the southern end – from a well worn trail leads to the top. Also very popular with hikers is 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) along the Cliff Walk Bray Head out to Greystones.

In January 2010, Bray got the name “cleanest city in Ireland” in the 2009 Irish Business against Litter (IBAL) survey of 60 cities. [7]


The annual Bray Summer is an established tourist event, which takes place during six weeks in July and August. The Summer has over 100 free entertainment events, including live music, markets, sports entertainment, carnivals, and family fun. The models headed includes Mundy, Brian Kennedy, undertones, Hothouse Flowers, and Mary Black. In 2006, over 60,000 visitors attended the main festival weekend in mid-July. [ Citation needed ]

Bray also hosts a large carnival and festival events to celebrate the annual Saint Patrick’s Day holiday. Bray Patrick Carnival & Parade presented by Bray & District Chamber and is a five-day festival of carnival fun, parades, and live entertainment.

Bray Jazz Festival takes place annually on the May bank holiday weekend.The festival includes performances by jazz and world music artists from Ireland and abroad.

It also hosts an annual silent film festival, The Killruddery Film Festival Killruddery Gardens, this goes 13 to 15 April 2012. It shows movies like La Roue and Camille. [8]

Pubs and restaurants

Bray is home to many pubs and restaurants, including the first Porter bar, which specializes in brewing its own ales, stouts and beers. [9] In 2010, ranked the Lonely Planet Guide Harbour Bar in Bray Best Bar in the World and Best Off the Beaten Track bar in the world. [10] the O’Toole family owned the bar for three generations, but it was bought by the Duggan family in 2013. [11] the Duggan also operates two ocean premises, Katie Gallagher and Martello, both include restaurants on site. Bray seafront bars characterized by extensive outdoor terraces, catering for large crowds during the summer.Most have bar food. There are eight two p.m. licensed premises in Bray, including six hotels.

There are twelve full-service restaurants offering a variety of cuisine, including Chinese, Indian, Nepalese and European. There are several unlicensed restaurants / cafes providing breakfast, lunch or snack during the day. A McDonald’s fast food outlet occupies the ground floor of the old Town Hall on Main Street. In 2015, The Irish Times published a study that analyzed the prevalence of fast food restaurants in Irland.Bray was found to have the lowest concentration of the 10 cities included per capita, with only 0.09 stores per 1000 people. [12]


Bray is home to Ireland’s oldest film studios, Ardmore Studios, established in 1958, where movies like Excalibur , Braveheart and Breakfast on Pluto has been shot.

Bray Head Inn, the obvious choice for Victorian circa 1860, has been used for a variety of films over the last 25 years. [ Citation needed ]

Custer’s Last Stand-up was filmed in Bray [13] and the city was also used for filming Neil Jordan’s film Byzantium , part of which was shot in the Bray Head Inn. [14]


Bray is home to the League of Ireland semi-professional football club Bray Wanderers play at Carlisle Grounds.

It is also home to a number of other sports clubs, including school football club Saint Joseph Boys AFC, cycling club Bray Wheelers CC, badminton, tennis, archery, bowling and yacht clubs. [15]


Elementary Schools:

  • St. Kieran NS Travelling Children
  • St. Fergal Junior and Senior School
  • Peters NS
  • St. Philomena’s NS [16]
  • St. Cronan’s Boys National School [17]
  • St Andrews NS [16]
  • Gaelscoil Uí Cheadaigh [16]
  • Scoil Chualann [16]
  • Bray School Project NS [16]
  • Patrick NS [16]

Newcourt Special School

Gerard St. NS

High schools:

  • St. Kilian CS [18]
  • Coláiste Ráithín [19]
  • St. Thomas’ CS [20]
  • St. Brendan college [21]
  • Presentation College Bray [22]
  • Loreto Secondary School [23]
  • St. Gerard School [24]

Further education:

  • Bray Institute of Further Education [25]

Elian’s Dublin, a Spanish international school, was located in Bray. [26] [27]

Notable people

See also: Category: People from Bray

The following are former or current residents of the city:

  • Mary Coughlan currently resides in the city
  • Fergal Devitt, professional wrestler in the WWE, where he was wrestling under the name Finn Balor, was born and educated in the city
  • Hozier, is a singer / songwriter from Bray
  • Eddie Jordan, former racing driver and Jordan Grand Prix founder
  • Ed Joyce, professional actor
  • James Joyce, author
  • Maria Doyle Kennedy, an Irish singer and actress who lived in the city as a child. [28]
  • Denzil Lacey, former RTÉ 2Fm presenter, currently working with Spin South West grew up and lived in the city
  • Dara Ó Briain, was comedian and British television host was born in the city
  • Sinéad O’Connor, currently live singers in the city
  • Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh, fifth President of Ireland was born in the city
  • Fionn Regan, Irish musician
  • Katie Taylor, the world and European Olympic boxing
  • Laura Whitmore, former MTV television presenter and Strictly Come Dancing contestant in 2016, was born in the city

International relations

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Bray has twinning agreements with:

  • Begles, France
  • Wurzburg, Germany
  • Dublin, CA


  • Bray Harbour, October 2014
  • Bray Daly Station
  • St. Patrick’s Day 2008
  • Bray Head Summit
  • Presentation College Bray
  • Bray Bray Head
  • Saint Cronan’s National School boys
  • The Methodist Church, Eglinton Rd.
  • Strand Hotel
  • old Town Hall
  • Kilruddery House and Gardens
  • Bray Air Show 2016

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • History of rail transport in Ireland
  • Christchurch, Bray
  • Bray Jazz Festival


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Legal Bray Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ “A Modern Display of Ireland, one of the British Isles”.Retrieved 4 August, 2016.
  3. Jump up ^ “Bray Turkish bath”.
  4. Jump up ^ “Bray Triumphant homecoming of Olympic hero Katie Taylor.” Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. August 13, 2012.Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  5. Jump up ^ “Bray Station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 8 September of 2007.
  6. Jump up ^ “Night bus to Bray / Greystones / Kilcoole”.
  7. Jump up ^ “Bray named as the cleanest city”. Irish Times. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  8. Jump up ^ “Lillruddery Film Festival”.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Porter brewery”.
  10. Jump up ^ “Largest little pub in the world”. Irish Independent. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  11. Jump up ^ “Harbour Bar ‘.
  12. Jump up^
  13. Jump up ^ Brendan Grehan (6 December 2001). “Bray-based television series win top Bafta award”. Bray people. Retrieved January eight in 2012.
  14. Jump up ^ “Neil Jordan movie will stop traffic.” Bray People.
  15. Jump up ^
  16. ^ Jump up to: abcdef “Bray Elementary Schools”
  17. Jump up ^ “St. Cronan’s Boys National School ‘.
  18. Jump up ^ “St. Kilian’s Community School (91376L) – are fighting. “
  19. Jump up ^ “Coláiste Ráithín”.
  20. Jump up ^ “St Thomas Community College Bray”.
  21. Jump up ^ “St. Brendan’s College – Bray, Co. Wicklow: Saint Brendan. “
  22. Jump up ^ “Pres Bray”. Pres Bray. 5 September 1921.
  23. Jump up ^ “Loreto Bray Secondary School”.
  24. Jump up ^ “St Gerards School Bray”.
  25. Jump up ^
  26. Jump up ^ “Home” (File), IALE Elian’s. On May 4, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Click on the link to get content related to Elian’s Dublin. The location information is in Elian’s Dublin> “Situación”
  27. Jump up ^ “Registro Estatal de Centros Docentes no universitarios (RCD).” The Ministry of Education (Spain). Retrieved September 30, 2015. “Bannon ROAD OLD COLLAUGHT AVENUE” Select “Centros en el Exterior” and search for the center code “60000992” and / or “Elian’s Dublin”
  28. Jump up ^ “Maria Doyle Kennedy Biography”. Pulled 11/21/2015.

Avoca, County Wicklow

Avoca (Irish: Abhóca, former Abhainn Mhor , meaning “the great river”) is a small town near Arklow in Wicklow, Ireland. It is located on the River Avoca.

Avoca area has been associated with its famous copper mines for many years, the valley has been celebrated by Thomas Moore in the famous song “Meeting of the Waters”. The name of the song emanating from the meeting with the Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers, about two miles from the village of Avoca. The song is said to have been written under a tree, stump remains that the meetings.

Avoca is also known for its hand weaving, with Avoca Hand Weavers based there.

Avoca was once known as Newbridge. It later became known as Ovoca, and then in Victorian times as Avoca. Ptolemy mentions the river Obhoca on his early map of Ireland. The official name of the village is now Avoca in English and Abhóca in Irish. None of the other names used today.

Avoca has been used as a filming location for several films and television series. The BBC series Ballykissangel was filmed there. 1967 Avoca was one of the locations used in the film Jules Verne’s Rocket to the Moon , and it was the setting for the comedy Zonad who had a general release in Ireland in 2010.

The Red Dragon, recently reintroduced to Ireland, is now widely seen in and around Avoca.


Copper mining is said to have begun in Avoca valley around 1720 and continued intermittently until 1982. Previously, mining, perhaps dating back to the Bronze Age, may have occurred. East Avoca website today, consists mainly of a number of rock waste piles lots, abandoned quarries (Crone Brisbane and East Avoca open pits) and discarded roads. The biggest change high, Mount Flat, built from the waste rock excavated from Crone Bane pits.There was a mineral tramway built from the mines West Avoca, through the village (on the opposite side of the river) and on to Arklow port. The route for most of this was contained in Dublin Ross railway, but a bow and a tunnel under the road from Rathdrum to Avoca remains.

Avoca River at Avoca village; note copper-colored stones on the riverbed


Avoca is located on the R752 regional road connecting Rathnew with Wooden. The village is served by Bus Éireann route 133 from Dublin (66 km) and Wicklow (21 km) Arklow (10 km), with two departures in each direction Monday to Saturday and a single trip on Sundays.

There are some local political pressure [2] to secure the resumption of Avoca railway station, from where passenger services were withdrawn March 3, 1964 nearly 101 years after its opening, the Dublin-Ross railway on 18 July 1863. [3]

International relations

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Avoca has twinning agreements with:

  • Bromham, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom.

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Legal Avoca Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  2. Jump up ^ “Dick asks the Council to” Get along with the CIE to open Avoca Station ”. Retrieved 2007-11-01. [ Dead link ]
  3. Jump up ^ “Avoca station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Archive (PDF) from the original September 26, 2007 is taken. 2007-09-09.

County Wicklow

County Wicklow (Irish: Contae Chill Mhantáin , [kɔnˠt̪ˠeː çɪl̪ʲ wantan]) is a municipality in Ireland. The last of the traditional 32 counties will be formed, as late as 1606, it is part avMid-East Region and is also located in the province of Leinster. It is named after the town of Wicklow, derived from the Old Norse name Víkingaló , which means “the Vikings ‘Meadow’. Wicklow County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 142,332 according to the 2016 Census.

Wicklow is colloquially known as the Garden of Ireland . [8] It is the 17th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties by area, is thirty-three miles in length with twenty miles in breadth, [9] and the 16th largest by population. [10] it is the fourth largest of Leinster’s 12 counties by size and the fifth largest in terms of population. Between 2011 and 2016 the population of the county grew by 4.2% [11]

The boundaries of the county was extended in 1957 by the Local Government Act [12] as “independent countries of the County of Dublin and the jurisdiction and powers of the Council of County Dublin” near Bray and added them to the County Wicklow. The neighboring counties are in south Wexford, Carlow to the southwest, west of Kildare and Dublin in the north.

Towns and Villages

See also: List of townlands in County Wicklow

  • Aghavannagh
  • Annacurra
  • Annamoe
  • Arklow
  • Ashford
  • Aughrim
  • Avoca
  • Ballinaclash
  • Ballinakil
  • Ballycoogue
  • Baltinglass
  • Blessington
  • Cry
  • Brittas Bay
  • Carnew
  • cool Fancy
  • coolboy
  • Coolkenno
  • Delgany
  • Donard
  • Dunlavin
  • Kerry
  • Glencree
  • Glendalough
  • Glenealy
  • Grangecon
  • Greenan
  • Greystones
  • Hollywood
  • kilbride
  • Kilcoole
  • Killincarrig
  • Kilmacanogue
  • Kilpedder
  • Kiltegan
  • Knockananna
  • The varnish
  • Laragh
  • Manor Kilbride
  • Meeting of the Waters
  • Newcastle
  • Newtownmountkennedy
  • Poulaphouca
  • Rathnew
  • Rathdrum
  • Red Cross
  • roundwood
  • Shillelagh
  • Stratford-on-Slaney
  • Tinahely
  • Valley
  • Wicklow
  • Wooden

physical geography

Geology and mountains

More information: Wicklow Mountains

The Wicklow Mountains range is the largest continuous mountain region in Ireland. The highest mountain in the area, Lugnaquilla, rises to 925 meters (3,035 ft), making Wicklow County, the second highest peak after Kerry. The Wicklow Way is the oldest waymarked long-distance hiking trail in Ireland, and the area is a popular attraction, as the region offers multiple choices of recreation including fishing before discharge into the Irish Sea at Arklow.The Slaneyär River in the western part of the county, bordering County Carlow. The Turlough Hill pumped-storage scheme, a significant civil engineering projects, carried out in the mountains in the 1960s and 1970s.The lakes are small but numerous, located mainly in the mountain valleys and glacial Corrie. They include Lough Dan Lough Tay, Lough Brae, lakes and Glendalough Poulaphouca reservoir (the largest volume).


Wicklow was the last of the traditional counties of Ireland to be shired in 1606 from land previously part of the counties of Dublin and Carlow.Established as a distinct county was aimed at controlling the local groups O’Byrnes. The Military Road , stretching from Rathfarnham to Aghavannagh crosses mountains, north to south, was built by the British Army to help them defeat the rebels still active in the Wicklow Mountains following the failed 1798 uprising. [13] it gave them access to an area that had been a hotbed of Irish rebellion for centuries. Several barracks to house the soldiers were built along the route and the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation was built along with the remnants of barracks där.Bataljoner of the Irish Army use firing ranges in County Wicklow for tactical exercises, especially the largest one in the Glen of Imaal which was previously used by British army before independence.

The ancient monastery of Glendalough is located in County Wicklow. During the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland, local authorities immediately surrendered without a fight. During the 1798 uprising, some of the rebels took refuge in the Wicklow Mountains, resulting in clashes between British troops and troops under the command of General Joseph Holt (1756-1826) near Aughrim and later in Arklow.

Local governments and politics

Main article: Wicklow County Council

The local authority is Wicklow County Council, which returned 32 councilors from five municipal districts (Arklow, Baltinglass, Bray, Greystones, Wicklow). All the previous council (Arklow, Bray, Grey, Wicklow) abolished under a new Local Government Act of 2014 local elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county included in the Wicklow constituency along with some eastern parts of the county Carlow. The constituency returned five TDs to Dáil.

Dáil deputies

TD Party
Andrew Doyle Fine Gael
Simon Harris Fine Gael
anne Ferris Labour
Stephen Donnelly Social Democrats

County Council councilors

Political party members
Fine Gael 8
Fianna Fáil 7
Sinn Féin 6
Green Party Party ~~ POS = HEAD COMP 1
Other 10


Surrounding area west of Bray.

Mermaid County Wicklow Arts Centre, based in Bray. Mermaid is the county’s hub of artistic activity and creation, which offers a program in many art forms :. Visual arts, theater, opera, dance, art house cinema, comedy and music software [14] Two of the county’s festivals take place in Arklow, Arklow Music Festival and Arklow Seabreeze Festival.

The county is a popular filmmaking location in Ireland. Bray is home to Ardmore Studios, where many of Ireland’s most famous films, including John Boorman’s Excalibur and Zardoz , Jim Sheridan’s Oscar -winning In the Name of the Father , and several Neil Jordan films have been shot. The BBC seriesBallykissangel was filmed also in County Wicklow. Scenes from the movie PS I Love You was shot in the Wicklow Mountains National Park, while several scenes from other films, from Barry Lyndon to Haywire , have been filmed in the county. [15]


  • is a popular news site in the county and was founded in 2010.
  • The local radio station in Wicklow is East Coast FM .In 2010, Radio Nova became the second local radio service is licensed for North Wicklow.The station broadcasts to Bray, Greystones, Kilmacanogue, Ennis and Blessington, besides Dublin, Kildare North and South Meath. It broadcasts to North Wicklow 95.7 from Bray Head and 100.3 FM. Beat 102-103 is also broadcast in parts of southern and western Wicklow towns and villages Arklow, Tinahely, Shiellagh, Baltinglass, Kiltegan and Carnew where borders Wexford and Carlow meet.
  • Local newspapers include Bray people , Wicklow Times , and Wicklow People .

See also

  • High Sheriff of County Wicklow
  • List of abbeys and priories in Wicklow.
  • Lord Lieutenant of County Wicklow


  1. Jump up ^ “Wicklow”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  3. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland census of the population | Census Website
  6. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  7. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  8. Jump up ^
  9. Jump up ^ Wright, GN (1822). A Guide to the county of Wicklow.London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy. en
  10. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  11. Jump up ^
  12. Jump up ^ Irish statute book, municipal Provisional Order Confirmation Act, 1957
  13. Jump up ^ See Philip Smith (writer), An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of County Wicklow. Dublin: Wordwell Press / Irish Government, the Ministry of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, National Inventory of Architectural Heritage, in 2004.
  14. Jump up ^ If the Mermaid Arts Centre – Official Site
  15. Jump up ^ “Wicklow Film Commission – Filming in Ireland”. Wicklow Film Commission. 2011. Retrieved March fourteen 2011.

Selskar Abbey

Selskar Abbey is a ruined twelfth-century abbey in the town of Wexford. It was August 1st House whose real name was the Priory of St. Peter and St. Paul. The survivors are the ruins of the abbey founded around 1190 by Alexander de la Roche, ancestor of the Roche family, who holds the title of Baron Fermoy. [1]

There was an earlier church on the site: it was there in 1169 that Dermot MacMurrough signed the first Anglo-Irish peace treaty. [2] The leading Norman commander Raymond FitzGerald, nicknamed Le Gros and his wife Basila de Clare, sister of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamedStrongbow , said to have been married there in 1174th

There is a long tradition that Henry II spent Lent of 1172 on Selskar Abbey, where he did penance for the murder of Thomas Becket. It is unclear how much truth there is in the story, although it is true that Henry was in Ireland at the time, and that Becket’s murder, some fifteen months earlier, was still the subject of great controversy.

We have a glimpse of the convent’s inner life through a letter that John Topcliffe, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland addressed to Henry VIII in about 1512. He complained that the monks as “time out of mind” had chosen their own Prior, had chosen a “good blessed religious man” who, Prior, but the abbot had turned him out. [3] it is unclear why the Chief Justice, an Englishman without local support, was so concerned about the deal, nor why he thought that the king would be interested. King’s response if someone is not registered.

The Abbey was suppressed in 1542 and given to John Parker, the Master of the Rolls in Ireland. [4] It passed later to the Stafford family. The Abbey was reportedly fired by Oliver Cromwell’s troops in 1649. [5]

Selskar Abbey is now a part of the Westgate Heritage Tower; it back to the public in July 2012. [6]


  1. Jump up ^ Illustrated Dublin Journal 1862 Vol. 1 No. 22
  2. Jump up ^ Illustrated Dublin Journal
  3. Jump up ^ Ball, F. Elrington judges in Ireland 1221-1921 John Murray London 1926 Vol.1 pp. 212-3
  4. Jump up ^ Ball, p.205
  5. Jump up ^ Illustrated Dublin Journal
  6. Jump up ^ Wexford People July 11, 2012

Wexford Town

Wexford (from Old Norse: Veisafjǫrðr Irish: Loch Garman ) [2] is the county town of Wexford, Ireland. It is near the southeast corner of the island of Ireland, close to Rosslare Europort. The city is linked to Dublin from the M11 / N11 National Primary Route and the national rail network. It has a population of 19,913 (20,072 with surroundings), according to the census of 2011. [1]


Wexford is located on the south side of Wexford Harbour, the mouth of the River Slaney. According to a local legend, the town got its Irish name, County Wexford , by a young man named Garman Garbh drowned on the mudflats at the estuary of the River Slaney flood waters were a troll. The resulting loch lough and was thus named Loch Garman. The city was founded avvikingarna in about 800 AD. They named it Veisafjǫrðr , which inlet mud flats, and the name has changed only slightly in its current form. For about three hundred years it was a Viking town, a city-state, largely independent and dependent only token contributions to the Irish kings of Leinster.

But in May 1169 Wexford besieged by Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, and his Norman ally, Robert Fitz-Stephen. Denordiska inhabitants resisted fiercely until the Bishop of Ferns persuaded them to accept a settlement with Dermot.

Wexford was an old English settlement in the Middle Ages. An old dialect of English, known as Yola, was spoken uniquely in Wexford until the 19th century.

As a result of the Crusades, the Knights Templar had a presence in Wexford.So far, their names immortalized in the old knight temp chapel yard Johannes cemetery, at Wexford Upper St. John Street.

County Wexford produced strong support for the League of Ireland during the 1640s. A fleet of the League hijackers were based in Wexford town, consisting of sailors from Flanders ochSpanien and local men. Their ships raided English Honourable shipping, provides some of the revenue to the federal government in Kilkenny. As a result, the city was sacked by English Parliamentarians during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Many of its inhabitants were killed and much of the city was burned. In 1659 Solomon Richardsutsågs governor, but he was dismissed and jailed after reset next year.

County Wexford was in the middle of the 1798 rebellion against British rule.Wexford town held by the rebels throughout the Wexford rebellion and was the scene of a notorious massacre of local loyalists of the United Irishmen, who executed them with taunts at Wexford bridge.


Redmond Square, near the train station, in memory of the older John Edward Redmond (1806-1865) who was the Liberal MP for the city Wexford.Inskriptionen reads: “.. My heart is with the city of Wexford Nothing can quench love, but the cold ground in the grave” His nephew William Archer Redmond (1825-1880) sat as an MP in Isaac Butt is Greenland’s Party from 1872 to 1880. the younger John Redmond, son of William Archer Redmond, was a devoted follower of Charles Stewart Parnell and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party until his death in April 1918. He is buried in Redmond family vault at the old knight temp chapel yard Johannes cemetery, Upper St.John Street. Redmond Park was formally opened in May 1931 as a memorial Willie Redmond, [3] younger brother John Redmond. He was also an Irish Parliamentary Party MP, was killed in 1917 while serving with 16 (Irish) Division on the Western Front underMessines offensive, where he was buried. Willie Redmond had sat as an MP Parnellite Wexford from 1883 until in 1885.

Wexford success as a port city declined during the first half of the 20th century because of the ever-changing sand Wexford Harbour. [4] By 1968 it had become unprofitable to keep dredging a channel from the harbor mouth to the wharves to accommodate larger ships of the era, so the gate closed.The port had been extremely important for the local economy, with coal is a major import and agricultural machinery and grain exported. The woodworks fronted quays, which was synonymous with Wexford were removed in the 1990s as part of an ambitious plan to claim the berth as an amenity for the city and keep it as a commercially viable water. Despite bankruptcy entrepreneur, the project was a success.

In the early 21st century, a new port was built about 20 kilometers (12 mi) south at Rosslare Harbour, now known as Rosslare Europort. This is a deep-water harbor, unaffected by tides and currents. All major shipping now uses this port and Wexford Port is only used by fishing boats and recreational boats.


Wexford is home to many young and older theater groups, including Bui Bolgstreet performance group, Oyster Lane Theatre Group, Wexford Pantomime Society, Wexford Light Opera Society with the Chairman Colin Murphy and Wexford Drama Group.

Wexford has a number of stage and music venues including Wexford Opera House, Dun Mhuire Theatre and Wexford Arts Centre. Wexford’s Theatre Royal Opera House has recently been replaced by Wexford Opera House, and it hosts the internationally renowned opera festival every October. Dr Tom Walsh started the festival in 1951, and has since grown to become the internationally recognized festival it is today. Dun Mhuire theater holds musical events and bingo as well as hosting shows by Oyster Lane Theatre Group and Wexford Pantomime Society. Wexford Arts Centre exhibitions, theater, music and dance events. Various concerts are held in St. Iberius’s Church (Church of Ireland).

Until the mid-nineteenth century the Yola languages could be heard in Wexford, and some words remain still in use. The food in Wexford is also different from the rest of Ireland, due to the local cultivation of fish and shellfish, smoked cod is a symbolic dish of the region.

The National Lottery Skyfest held in Wexford in March 2011, providing a formidable fireworks and pyrotechnic waterfall on the city’s main bridge over 300m. [5] Bui Bolg ( Yellow Belly ) also performed at night. [5]


Wexford has seen some major changes such as Key center in Quay West, the rebuilding of quayfront himself, Whites Hotel and the large new housing development of Clonard Village. The proposed development includes the development of a new large residential area on Carcur, a new river crossing at that point, the new city library, renovation of Selskar Abbey and the controversial redevelopment of the former site of Wexford Electronix.Although they moved the office environment ministry has been built close to Wexford General Hospital on Newtown Road.

Notable churches in the city include the “Twin Churches” St. Iberius Church, Bride Street and Rowe Street with their distinctive spiers, St. Peter’s College, with a chapel designed by Augustus Pugin; and Ann Street Presbyterian Church. A former Quaker meeting hall is now a band room in the High Street.The two churches can be seen from any part of Wexford and in 2008 celebrated its 150th anniversary.


From the employment point of important employers in and around the city are: Wexford Creamery, Celtic Linen, Wexford Viking Glass, Snap-Tite, Waters Technology, Kent Construction, Equifax and BNY Mellon. Coca-Cola operates a research facility that uses up to 160. [6] Eishtec operates a call center for British mobile operator EE, which employs 250. [7] Jack n Jones, Pamela Scott, A-wear and other retailers operating in the city.

In the public sector, employment is provided at Johnstown Castle from Teagasc, the Environmental Protection Agency headquarters in Johnstown, Department of Environment, Wexford County Council and Wexford General Hospital.

In May 2011, the official web portal for Wexford began involving municipalities, tourism Wexford and Wexford Means Business Website, aims to promote the value of Wexford as a business destination.

Tourist attractions

Curracloe Beach in Wexford was the site in 1997 for the opening scenes inSaving Private Ryan . [8]

The Irish National Heritage Park in Ferrycarrig contains various exhibits spanning over 9,000 years of Irish history, allowing the visitor to wander around re-creations of historic Irish home including Crannogs, Viking and Norman house soon. [9]

The Wexford Wildfowl Reserve is a Ramsar site based on the mudflats, (locally called slobland), just outside Wexford. [10] It is a migratory stop-off point for thousands of ducks, geese, swans and waders. Up to 12,000 (50% of world population) of the Greenland white-fronted geese spend the winter on the Wexford slobs. There is a visitor center with exhibits and an audiovisual show. [11]


Wexford railway station was opened 17 August 1874. [12] The railway line from Dublin to Rosslare Harbour runs along the quay on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In 2010 Ross Beach Waterford train service was canceled because of budget cuts at Irish Rail.

Wexford is also served by local and national bus network, mainly Bus Éireann, Wexford Bus and Ardcavan. There are also many local Taxi and Hackney suppliers.

Rosslare Europort is 19 km south of Wexford. Car ferries running between Fishguard and Pembroke in Wales and Cherbourg and Roscoff in France. The companies operating these routes Stena Line and Irish Ferries.

The nearest airport to Wexford is Waterford which is about an hour away (70 km). Dublin Airport and Cork Airport are both approximately two and a half hours away.

The city also has a shuttle bus that stops at the city’s main facilities.



Wexford Golf Club has a newly built clubhouse and course, which was completed in 2006 and 2007 respectively.


The Wexford Youths Football Club have access to the League of Ireland in 2007. Wexford Youths is the first Wexford-based club to participate in the competition. Wexford Youths is a creation of the previous building TD Mick Wallace, who financed the construction of a complex for the new team home in Newcastle, Ferrycarrig. In 2015 the team won promotion to the Irish Premier League. The club launched Wexford Youths WFC, a women’s National League team in 2011.

Gaelic game

Wexford is also home to several Gaelic Athletic Association clubs. Although the town was traditionally associated with Gaelic football, with six teams that provide plenty of outlets for their young people, it was not until 1960 that the hurling took his footing, with a lot because of local man Oliver “Hopper” McGrath’s contribution to county All- Ireland hurling Final victory over the then champions Tipperary. Having made an early second-half goals to effectively kill off the opposition, McGrath went on to become the first man from Wexford town to get an All-Ireland Hurling medal winners.

One of the city’s local hurling club, Faythe Harriers, holds a record fifteen county minor championship after dominating minor hurling scene in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. However, the high side had only briefly successful periods, after winning just five county senior championship.

Although the team has not reached the county senior football achievement since 1956, volunteers ( “Vols”) in Wexford Town to keep a record eleven county senior titles, as well as six smaller titles. Other notable Gaelic football clubs in the city’s SARS Fields, Mary of Maudlintown, Clonard and Saint Joseph’s.

Wexford had a brilliant hurling teams in the 1950s, which included the famous Rackard Brothers, Nicky, Bobby and Willie, art Foley who was the goalkeeper, Ned Wheeler, push in the right direction Kehoe, Tom Ryan, Tim Flood, Jim Morrissey, Nick O Donnell , to name a few.


Wexford has a rugby club called Wexford Wanderers.


Ireland’s former boxing head coach and Olympian Billy Walsh was born in Wexford town and has contributed greatly to the success of minors level boxers with local club St. Ibars / Josephs.


There are five high schools serving the population of the city:

St. Peter’s College, Wexford (for boys), Coláiste Eamon Rice, County Wexford – CBS, Wexford (for boys), Presentation Secondary School, Wexford (for girls), Loreto Secondary School, Wexford (for girls), and Selksar College SC ( mixed).


  • John Banville, writer
  • John Barry, father of the American Navy
  • Eoin Colfer, author
  • Brendan Corish, politicians
  • Anne Doyle, RTÉ Journalism
  • Jane Elgee “Speranza”, the mother of Oscar Wilde
  • Gerald Fleming, meteorologist [18]
  • Brendan Howlin, politicians
  • William Kenealy, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • John Kent, Newfoundland politician
  • Dave King, musician
  • Larry Kirwan, writers and musicians
  • Michael Londra, singer
  • Declan Lowney, chief
  • Thomas D’Arcy McGee, Canadian politicians
  • Dan O’Herlihy, actor
  • Bridget Regan, musicians
  • Billy Roche, playwright
  • Dick Roche, politicians
  • Kathleen Viscountess Simon champion. [19]
  • Declan Sinnott, musicians
  • John Sinnott, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Pierce Turner, singer-songwriter
  • John Welsh, author
  • Kevin Doyle, soccer player
  • William Lamport, Irish soldier on the Zorro said to be based
  • Cry Before Dawn, rock band who achieved success in the late 1980s, going from Wexford.
  • John W Carr Freelance Photographer


Main article: List of twin town in Ireland

Wexford is twinned with the following places:

  • Annapolis, MD, United States [20]
  • Couëron, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France [21]
  • Lugo, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy [22]
  • Staten Island, New York, NY
  • Yanga, Veracruz, Mexico [23]

See also

  • List of Market Houses in Ireland
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • yola site


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Legal Wexford Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland is the county town of Wexford, Ireland
  3. Jump up ^ Wexford Hub
  4. Jump up ^ “Wexford Quay”. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Kane, Conor (21 March 2011). “Pyrotechnic spectacle banish the darkness.” Irish Times. Retrieved April 13, 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^
  8. Jump up ^ “Saving Private Ryan”. Filmography. Irish Film and Television Network. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Park”. The Irish National Park. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  10. Jump up ^ “Wexford Wildfowl Reserve – About us”. National Parks & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  11. Jump up ^ “The Wexford Wildfowl Reserve.” Office of Public Works (OPW). Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Wexford station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved seven September of 2007.
  13. Jump up ^, census record 1821 figures.
  14. Jump up ^
  15. Jump up ^
  16. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  17. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  18. Jump up ^, the weather team at RTÉ website
  19. Jump up ^ Oldfield, Sybil (January 2008), “Simon, Dame Kathleen Rochard, Viscountess Simon”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, retrieved January 4, 2013 (subscription required)
  20. Jump up ^ “Our city and history.”
  21. Jump up ^ “Jumeblages” [Vänorts] (in French).
  22. Jump up ^ “Twinning pact between the towns of Wexford and Lugo” (PDF).
  23. Jump up ^ “Llegan funcionarios de Irlanda en Yanga” [Irish officials arrive in Yanga] (in Spanish).

Tintern Abbey (County Fexford)

Tintern Abbey was a Cistercian monastery located on the Hook Peninsula, County Wexford, Ireland.

The Abbey – which is now in ruins, some of which have been restored – was founded in 1203 by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, as a result of a promise he had made when his boat was caught in a storm nearby. Once established, the monastery was colonized by monks from the Cistercian abbey of Tintern in Monmouthshire, Wales, where the Marshal was also patron. To distinguish the two, was the mother house in Wales, which is sometimes called “Tintern Major” and its daughter abbey in Ireland as “Tintern de Voto (Tintern of the vow).

After the dissolution of the monasteries monastery and its grounds were first granted to Sir James Croft, and then in 1575 to Anthony Colclough Staffordshire, a soldier Henry VIII. His descendants became Colclough Baronets. The final member of the Colclough family to reside at Tintern was Lucey Marie Biddulph Colclough who donated the monastery to the nation.[1] Extensive research and restoration has taken place.

See also 

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Wexford)


  1. Jump up ^ “Tintern Abbey”. Wexford Web. Pulled 05/05/2011.

New Ross

New Ross (Irish: Ros Mhic Thriúin , former Ros Mhic Treoin ) is a city in southwest County Wexford, Ireland. It is located on the River Barrow, near the border with Kilkenny, and is about 20 km northeast of Waterford. In 2011 had a population of over 9316 people, making it the third largest town in the county after Wexford and Enniscorthy.


The harbor town of New Ross are from the pre – medieval. The earliest settlement in this area dates back to the 6th century when St. Abban of Magheranoidhe founded a monastery in what is now Irishtown. The original earth banked circular enclosure of his monastery were visible around the cemetery to about 10 years ago when it was solemnly removed by the Council. It has been replaced by a concrete and steel fence. Its name, Rose , was shortened from Ros Mhic Treoin or Wood’s Astley . Little is known about the city beforehand Norman times, with the exception of the writings of St.Abban, who lived in the late sixth century. He founded a monastery settlement, which is below today’s Stephen Cemetery in Irishtown.

New Ross was in the territory Dermot McMurrough and came to prominence when the Anglo-Normans conquered the region. Norman knight William Marshal and his bride Isabel De Clare came during the early part of the 13th century. A soil defensive structure called a counter rapidly built Old Ross to keep the newly captured territory. A medieval town grew up around it – populated by English and Welsh settlers. William later founded the port city at the river, leaving the native Irish living around the monastery up the hill.Isabella was the only child of Strongbow who was married to Aoife, daughter McMurrough Dermot, king of Leinster. The arrival of Isabella and William described in the Chronicles of Ross, who is in the British Museum. It records that in 1189, Isabella set about “building a beautiful city on the shore of Barrow.” The town’s fortunes grew further when King John, William Earl of Pembroke in his condemnation in 1199. A year later, the Earl Marshal brought Norman capital Leinster Kilkenny and New Ross became the main port.

The town grew around the bridge was built by William Marshal, son-in-law of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (Strongbow), and a leader of the Norman invasion of Ireland. New Ross (city of the new bridge) was granted a royal charter in 1207. New Ross has so far (2013), a total of seven bridges … the first is a pure pontoon … ferrying two persons, goods and possessions of the River Barrow. The port received concessions from King John in 1215 and again in 1227, but these later revoked by Henry III and Edward I to protect the port of Waterford. Even with these decelerations, New Ross, Ireland’s busiest port in the 13th century. These restrictions were lifted in the 14th century by Edward II and Edward III.

Citizens’ needs are not forgotten, and a large church, St Mary’s Abbey, erected that was to become one of the largest churches in Ireland. St. Mary’s Church, known as Maria Abbey (Church of Ireland) was built in 1811 on the site of the nave of the abbey. The friary was built Friary Lane in medieval times, but no trace of it survives above ground in these dagar.En religious run lepers’ hospital founded in Osprey on the late Middle Ages, but this has recently been removed. There are two Catholic churches, both built in the 9th century. These are the parish church of St. Michael and St. Mary’s Church and August.

The town was fought over in the Irish League war of the 1640s. In 1643, the city withstood the siege by James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, who fought enstrid around with an Irish army under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara.However, it was later taken by Oliver Cromwell during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 released three cannon shots at Aldgate and then it was known as the Three Bullet Gate. Three Bullet Gate referenced in several Irish ballads, somBearna bhaoil (gap of danger), such as Kelly boy from Guy Anne and above all in the Irish national anthem.

The city is a geographically important border crossing, located where it is on the river Barrow because it lies between the river estuary in the south and the point därfloden Nore adhere to Barrow in the north. It was the site of one of the bloodiest battles of the 1798 rebellion. During this uprising, a hard and decisive battle took place in New Ross 5 June between the Irish rebels and British forces. The poorly armed rebels captured most of the town of weight figures and drove out the defending soldiers. The soldiers returned later in the day and retook the town. Over 2,000 people died in the battle, and most of the thatched Margaret was burned.

On the 18th and 19th centuries was the pompous times for New Ross with the colonization of North America. Local merchants sailed their ships and returned to the colonies often carrying Irish emigrants. A copy of one of these ships, the Dunbrody , now moored on the quayside in New Ross and offers visitors to the ship an insight into life as a passenger in the late 19’s.Over the years, seven bridges across the River Barrow to connect the port of New Ross with its neighbors iRosbercon. But at various stages through the centuries, the bridges collapsed because of neglect or destroyed by the armies. [3] During the times when the city was without a bridge, a ferry line or passage is maintained between both sides and held military and economic ties with Waterford open .


  • Dunganstown, 6 km (4 mi) south of New Ross is the ancestral home of the Kennedy family that includes Joe Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, Robert Kennedy and Massachusetts Sen. Edward Kennedy, whose great grandfather Patrick Kennedy emigrated to America from there.
  • Other emigrants included grandparents in Eugene Gladstone O’Neill, American playwright and winner of the 1936 Nobel Prize in literature.Before emigrating, they lived in Rosbercon, across the River Barrow from New Ross.
  • Martin Doyle, Victoria Cross recipients
  • Father James Cullen, founder of the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association, was born in New Ross.
  • John Redmond, nationalist leader and politician, was MP for New Ross.
  • Michael O’Hanrahan, freedom fighter was executed in 1916, was born in New Ross. The current road bridge over the River Barrow is named after him.
  • Maverick Sabre contemporary singer / musician grew up in New Ross
  • Kevin Doyle Irish international soccer player who currently plays for Premier League side Crystal Palace on loan from Wolverhampton Wanderers
  • Greg Bolger Footballer based with League of Ireland side St Patrick’s Athletic
  • Gráinne Murphy Swedish International swimmer who won silver in the 1,500m freestyle at the European Long Course Championships in Budapest in 2010 and bronze in the 400m and 800m freestyle at the European Short Course Championships in Eindhoven in 2010.
  • Sean Connick Former Fianna Fáil TD from 2007 to 2011. The first TD in the history of the state to use a wheelchair.


There are four elementary schools in New Ross, two for boys, one for girls and one mixed-sex school. The two boys schools are Michael Street National School which caters for children from Junior Infants to 1st class. They then move up to High School, New Ross CBS, as children move from second grade until the time they leave primary school in the 6th klass.Flickornas primary school, St Joseph’s, caters to students from Junior Infants to 6th Class. There is also a mixed school in New Ross, St. Canice’s, which is across the bridge in Rosbercon.

There are five schools in New Ross, is an all-boys, two all-girls and two mixed.

  • St. Augustine and Good Counsel College, New Ross, is an all-boys school which caters for over 750 students make it by far the largest school in New Ross.
  • St Marys and Our Lady of Lourdes are two totally girl high schools.
  • The two mixed schools professional institutes and CBS Secondary.


There are many sports organizations in the town of New Ross, which Geraldine O’Hanrahans GAA Club, New Ross RFC, New Ross Celtic Football Club, [4] New Ross Town Soccer Club, New Ross Boat Club, New Ross Badminton Club, New Ross Swimming Club , Dunbrody Archers, and New Ross Golf Club. Sports Organizations in New Ross has made great strides to serve the people of New Ross even better in recent years with the GOH GAA Club has recently completed a massive development at the club grounds contain a brand new clubhouse with a meeting room, six new changing rooms, a shop and a ball alley to add to their already impressive grounds.New Ross Celtic Football Club has also recently completed a major development in its club grounds in Butler Country. They now have a clubhouse, two full size soccer pitches and two astro-turf sites. New Ross RFC recently added a second pitch to cope with the increasing popularity of his club. The future looks bright for the sport in New Ross especially with Merty Whelan leading defense.

Art and culture

Theatre has a long history in New Ross goes back to the Middle Ages, many performed on the site of the Church of St. Michael, which now houses the art center cities, St. Michael Theatre. The present building was built in 1806, eight years after the Insurrection of 1798 and served as the parish church until 1902 when the new parish church, Maria & Michael, was opened. St. Michael’s Theatre has a 300-seat theater, 50-seat studio venue, an art gallery, a cinema, a cafe and a bar. Now a full-fledged arts center, the St. Michael’s 12 employees who take a year-round arts program, theater, music, dance and visual art, unparalleled in the southeast. (

The city has one of the largest free festivals in Ireland, JFK Dunbrody Festival celebrates the Dunbrody famine ship. The festival is held the third weekend in July each year and attracts crowds of over 25,000. Centered on three outdoor concerts in the city park, the festival has also French and Irish markets, cultural and sporting events, and a lively pub tracks. NOTE In 2010, a fee was introduced for entry into the main concert in the city park,

New Ross has a wide range of music, including local rock bands, singers and groups of trees.

There are a number of choirs in New Ross and the town also hosts musical stage performances each year, as well as “AIMS” Choir Festival. In addition, New Ross Piano Festival is held every year at St. Mary’s Church of Ireland Church. New Ross is home to New Ross Musical Society, New Ross Pantomime Society and New Ross Drama Workshop, all produce very successful productions each year with local casts.

Ros Tapestry what can only be described as a monumental work that highlights the history and culture of craft and skill of all involved. Ros Tapestry is a true community initiative created in County Wexford and Kilkenny and displayed in New Ross. Conceived in 1998, created by over one hundred and fifty embroiderers and millions of stitches that depicts Anglo-Norman history southeastern Ireland. [5]



The road passes Barrow is the key N25 road that connects Cork, Waterford City 18 km (11 mi) away and Rosslare Harbour 40 km (25 mi) away.

The N30 links Enniscorthy and New Ross.

The main roads through the city, causing major traffic jams.

In 2015 it was announced that work would start on the New Ross Bypass.Bypass, which is expected to be completed in 2018, will be a 14 km long dual carriageway that will connect the N25 and N30. [6]

bus Services

The city is served by several bus lines and its main stop is at the dock (both sides of the road). There are a large number of services to and from Waterford each day. Bus Éireann is the main provider provides the Expressway services to Dublin and Dublin Airport (Route 4 ) and Rosslare Europort and Cork (Route 40 ), and local services to Campile, Wellingtonbridge and other places in South County Wexford. Wexford Bus operate a service between Wexford and Waterford while Kilbride Coaches operate a road that connects the city to Kilkenny. Wexford Local Link services perform Enniscorthy.


The city has an abandoned railway line from Waterford. When opened in 1887, ran the line through the Macmine Junction on the Dublin to Wexford line and later in 1904 the line was opened (with an intermediate station at Glenmore) to Waterford.

1963 line from Macmine John closed and the track was removed; remaining branch from Waterford stayed open planned “groceries” traffic, however, this ended in 1976.

The line officially remains open for implementing specific fertilizers traffic[7] Albatros fertilizer factory in the town. While the last fertilizer special ran in 1995 [8] and Irish Rail no longer carries fertilizer traffic remains New Ross station officially open, but the rail at level crossings on the main Waterford Road, and at the station gates are now over. The line is now effectively closed the connection to the main line at Abbey Junction in Waterford has been removed. The last train to run was a prayer weeds trains 1994.

Many residents work in surrounding towns such as Waterford, Wexford and Kilkenny. Resume railway would allow an easy commuter alternative to these areas and solve local traffic problems. New Ross railway station was opened September 19, 1887 closed to passenger traffic March 30, 1964 and closed for freight September 6, 1976. [9]


New Ross, Ireland’s only inland port, some 32 km (20 mi) from the sea by the river Barrow. A small port has recently been built just downstream from the city. The Tall Ship Asgard II gave sail training, often docked in New Ross on his travels and many locals have sailed the ship from its home port.


Until the creation of large vessels to reach the port in the 19th century, New Ross was a thriving seaport. However, the river is too shallow to allow the passage of large ships and port gradually began to fall. The city continued to be a thriving market town in the rich agricultural hinterland, but suffered a severe recession in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s. Now there is a small amount of industry in the area and most business center services and retail even the local retail industry is under pressure from a number of major stores like Tesco, Lidl and Aldi that attracts customers from the center to the outskirts. But the city is so small that many of these stores are within walking distance of each other.

Lately, have benefited from professional make their homes in the city working in Waterford, about 25 km (16 mi) away. There is also a strong international community, mainly Eastern European, New Ross, in connection with the transport and manufacturing. There are two Polish shops and a Lithuanian. A degree of tourism in the context of the Dunbrodyreplica famine ship, and the connection with the Kennedy family benefits even city.


Ros Tapestry Exhibition Centre is located on the quay in New Ross, is a series of 15 embroidered Tapestry panels. Showing Celtic Ireland watching Celtic rituals, Female warrior and the Brehon Law, to early Christian Ireland shows the collision of pagan and Christian worlds, the Vikings in Wexford and the ousting of Diarmait MacMurchada from his kingdom of Leinster and sailing to France to seek King Henry II . Leading to their main theme Norman arrival in Ireland in May 1169. depicted also the greatest knight who ever lived William Marshal who married Isabel de Clare heiress of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke and grandchildren to Diarmait MacMurchada. Together William and Isabel turned the wilderness on the banks of Deep River Barrow creates the city of New Ross, which became one of the most successful and rich ports in Ireland with over 400 ships moored at some point. Discover castles, forts and the lighthouse built by them, all beautifully painted in thread.

New Ross is home to the Dunbrody replica famine ship is moored at the dock, and allows visitors to experience the sights and smells of life on board an emigrant ship.

A statue of John F. Kennedy is on the quay. The statue was unveiled in July 2008 by his sister Jean Kennedy Smith.

JFK Dunbrody Festival is held every year in July in the city and centers mainly on live music on the festival stage.

In the picturesque village of Duncannon, 21 km (13 mi) south of New Ross historic Duncannon Fort is located along the beautiful Blue Flag beach.

The Browne Clayton Monument is located on New Ross – Wexford Road (N25), about 12 km (7.5 mi) east of New Ross.

The Hook Lighthouse is 39 km (24 mi) south of New Ross and is believed to be one of the oldest operational lighthouses in the world.

The family Kennedy Homestead, the ancestral home of US President John F. Kennedy is 8 km (5.0 mi) south of New Ross and JFK Arboretum which is dedicated to the memory of the late President is also the southern part of the city.


New Ross has twinning agreements [10] with the communities:

  • Hartford, Connecticut
  • Moncoutant, Poitou-Charentes, France
  • Newcastle, County Down


New Ross plays a role in a story from the soap opera Days of Our Lives in the January-February 2008 with Shirley Jones as an aged Colleen Brady, who reveals himself as the true mother of John Black. The scenes set in New Ross.

New Ross is home to the Ros Tapestry project, a large community initiatives implemented throughout the county Wexford by a group of volunteer embroiderers. The fifteen fabric panels is expected to be completed in 2010. The tapestries depict the events surrounding the arrival of the Anglo-Normans in the South East of Ireland, and especially the founding of New Ross William Marshall. [11]

The Tholsel (Town Hall) was built in 1749 by Charles Tottenham, a member of a Protestant Ascendancy family, then very prominent in the city. Its facade has three notable plaque. One is that Michael O’Hanrahan, freedom fighter. Another is that the Father Cullen, temperance Pioneer. The third is celebrating the centenary of “you glorious Battle of the Boyne.”

At the Church of Ireland church near Old Ross is a memorial to the victims of the 1798 massacre Scullabogue Children.

June 29, 2008 Jean Kennedy Smith, sister of the late President Kennedy presented a statue of his brother at the Quay in New Ross. [12]

National Ploughing Championships 2012 held in Heath Park just outside New Ross. They ran from Tuesday, September 25th to Thursday the 28th. Over 187,000 people participate in the World Cup during the three days.

June 22, 2013 thousands of people gathered on the quay in New Ross to witness a torch lit from the eternal flame at the grave of John F. Kennedy brought ashore. It burned for four days before it must be re-ignited. Emigrant flames next to the Dunbrody Famine Ship in New Ross was lit from the torch, in a ceremony and day-long celebration. Among those present were the Taoiseach Enda Kenny and many relatives of the family JFK.

See also

  • Moncoutant
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Census 2006 Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area (Dublin: Stationery Office on 27 April 2007) – p. 120. PDF (4.22 MB) – Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Downloaded the 19 May 2008.
  2. Jump up ^ and 1991 totals for the City of New Ross, New Ross surroundings, and New Ross Rosbercon cities. For a discussion of the accuracy of pre-svältfolkräknings return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish bills” in the Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54 and even “New developments in the Irish population history , 1700-1850 “by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in the Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473-488.
  3. Jump up ^ New Ross Bridge
  4. Jump up ^ New Ross Celtic Soccer Club website.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ New Ross Bypass
  7. Jump up ^ Johnson’s Atlas & Gazetteer of the railway in Ireland, (Stephen Johnson) Midland Publishing Limited
  8. Jump up ^
  9. Jump up ^ “New Ross station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad19 November 2007.
  10. Jump up ^ New Ross town council website
  11. Jump up ^
  12. Jump up ^ Irish Times 30 JUNI 2008


Enniscorthy (Irish: Enniscorthy ) is the second largest town in County Wexford, Ireland. At the 2011 census, the population of the city and surroundings 10,838. [1] The placenta Database of Ireland [2] shedding no light on the origin of the city name. It can refer either to “island Corthaidh” or “island Rocks”. With a history dating back to 465Enniscorthy is one of the longest continuously-occupied sites in Ireland. [ Citation needed ] Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns is located in the city.


Enniscorthy has a railway station on the Dublin Rosslare line. The line ends at Rosslare Europort. The station was opened on November 16, 1863. [3]There is a bus stop at Temple Shannon with connections to Waterford, Dublin and other cities.

In October 2015, started working in Enniscorthy Bypass. The new pass will consist of a 27km highway connecting the N11 with the M11 motorway. This highway will be located east of Enniscorthy; allowing motorists to stay away from the center. The project will also include a single carriageway linking the N30 with the M11. [4]


Enniscorthy Castle

Enniscorthy Castle is an impressive Norman stronghold, which dates from 1205 and was a private residence until 1951. The castle was built by DePrendergasts. In the early 1580s, the poet Edmund Spenser leased property that included the castle. [5]

The castle was once owned by Sir Henry Wallop. The castle was the site of many fierce battles during the Cromwellian years and also during the 1798 Rising. The castle houses the Wexford County Museum, which contains extensive 1798 uprising-related materials, as well as items of local and agricultural interest. It was closed for major renovation from 2007 until May 2011.

Vinegar Hill

Vinegar Hill – view from Enniscorthy.

Vinegar Hill ( Cnoc Fhiodh na gCaor in Irish which translates as “hill of carry-tree”), a pudding-shaped hill overlooking the city, was the largest camp and headquarters rebels of 1798 who controlled Wexford thirty days against the vastly superior forces, before their defeat on 21 June. But many managed to flee south through a gap in the British lines from General Needham (now called Needham Gap). During this time, Beauchamp Bagnell Harvey explained the president of the Wexford Republic.

1798 Visitor Centre (Áras 1798)

1798 Visitor Centre devoted to the history and the aftermath of the 1798 Rising, put it in its European context. It is housed in the old Assembly of Christian Brothers monastery. [6] The Visitor Centre offers people a chance to see what famous figures were involved in the 1798 Rising.

Saint Aidan’s Cathedral

Main article: St. Aidan’s Cathedral

After relaxation of the penal laws in the early 19th century, it became possible for the Roman Catholic community to consider building a cathedral to replace it in the Ferns had set aside for use by the Church of Ireland during the English Reformation. Built in 1843, St. Aidan’s Cathedral [7] was designed by Augustus Pugin, famous for having designed London’s Houses of Parliament. The cathedral is in the Gothic Revival style. Notable features include the striking facade, a reredos carved from Caen stone and a large northern windows with intricate stone traceryen.Domkyrkan then much renovated (in line with the reforms issued by the Second Vatican Council). It was restored to near its original design in 1994 when the authentic colors, materials and techniques were used. The restoration took a year, during which time the cathedral service was held at St Mary’s Church (Church of Ireland) nearby.

1916 Rising

In 1916, Enniscorthy patriots again took their place in history, when James Connolly requested Enniscorthy volunteers take and keep the railroad to prevent reinforcements from reaching Dublin. 600 volunteers took the town, led by Robert Brennan, Seamus Doyle and JR Etchingham, surrounded the police station, but did not try to take it. RIC barracks held by a police inspector and five constables while a RIC sergeant and a constable prevented the rebels from taking over a bank in the city. They established their headquarters at the Athenaeum and held control until asked attkapitulera of Padraig Pearse.

The volunteers have also established a strong position in Vinegar Hill, overlooking the city. The railroad was cut and sent men to Gorey and Ferns.The government responded by sending a force of more than 1,000 men to recapture Enniscorthy and the rebels withdrew to their positions at Vinegar Hill. Before the fighting could be developed, the news of the Dublin capitulation arrived, but the volunteers refused to believe it. To avoid bloodshed, the army commander Colonel FA French offered safe passage Wexford leaders, so they could go to Dublin and to hear about the transmission directly from Pearse. There were no deaths.

Enniscorthy today


Enniscorthy located on the river Slaney, and have short walks next to the north and south, in the West Bank. It is the cathedral town of the diocese of Ferns and has two Catholic churches scattered across two parishes – St.Aidan and St. Senan’s, in the shadow of Vinegar Hill. The city also hosts a Church of Ireland, a common Methodist / Presbyterian Church, a non-denominational Christian Church Alive, a Society of Friends meeting hall and a Masonic Lodge. There is a pool / recreation center several sports fields including a rugby club and a GAA club and several hotels including the four star Riverside Park Hotel. Around the city there is a golf course with 18 holes, several pitch and putt, lake fishing, and a five-star spa Monart is just next to “The Still Pond”. The city also has several historic sites and museums. Young people complain about the general lack of facilities for them to use. Plans for a skatepark presented but these were rejected by the City Council considered there was no funding available. festivals:

  • Strawberry Fair. This is an annual event that takes place in the last week of June. It consists of the pleasures of Bellfield, live bands and the crowning of the Strawberry Queen on the square.
  • Blackstairs Blues Festival. This is an annual event, now in its eighteenth year. Festival includes international and local artists, in an amount of late concerts and open verkstäder.Festivalen contains a free pub track and late night club festival.
  • Enniscorthy Street Rhythms and Dance Festival. This is an annual event that takes place in the two weekend of August. The festival includes dance exhibitions, a parade, fireworks, a concert and dance workshops for children, adults and dancers.


Enniscorthy has four second-level schools: Cola ice tea Bride, Mary CBS, Enniscorthy Vocational School and Meanscoil Gharman.


  • Wallis Bird, Irish musicians and singers.
  • Walter Bogan, born in the city, fought in the Civil War for the Union Army. He served in many major battles and fired the last cannon at Gettysburg.
  • Martin Cash, a transported prisoner who became a bush ranger in Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania, Australia) was born in Enniscorthy 1808th
  • Anthony Cronin, poet and survival of Flann O’Brien and Samuel Beckett was born in Enniscorthy.
  • Maria Doyle Kennedy, Irish singer and actress who lived in the city as a child.
  • William Henry Grattan Flood (1859-1928), a prolific writer, historian and musicologist, residing in Enniscorthy from 1895 until his death in 1928.
  • Eileen Gray was born in Browns and later became known as a furniture designer and architect.
  • Daryl Jacob, jockeys and riders of the winning horse in the 2012 Aintree Grand National is from Enniscorthy.
  • Bill Lacey, dual international footballer, who played for both Liverpool FC and Everton FC in the early 20th century.
  • Guglielmo Marconi’s mother was Annie Jameson, grand-daughter of the founder of the Jameson Distillery. The location of the distillery, is now known locally as “The Still” about two miles outside Enniscorthy.
  • Adam Nolan, a welterweight boxer who represented Ireland at the Olympics in 2012.
  • Racehorse trainer Paul Nolan is based on Toberona stables in David Town.
  • Colm Tóibín, born in the city, has written several novels in the area.
  • Gerard Whelan, author, born and living in Enniscorthy.
  • Padraig O Laoghaire, researchers, ultramarathoner, leader in November Project San Francisco


Enniscorthy mentioned in Ithaca chapter of James Joyce’s Ulysses (p. 812) as a flyleaf note in a book of Leopold Bloom, where it is described as “Ennifcorthy, Wicklow, the finest place in the world” (sic). Several poems by Thomas Kinsella was based in Enniscorthy. Colm Tóibín’s 2014 novel Nora Webster is in Enniscorthy and surrounding sites in County Wexford.


Enniscorthy is home to Eilis Lacey, the central character in the film Brooklyn. In the film, set in the early 1950s, Eilis traveling alone from Enniscorthy to Brooklyn because of the lack of opportunities for her hemma.Enniscorthy credited as one of the filming locations for the movie. [8]


Davies Distillery

As early as 1824 Francis Davies, a Miller operated a Spirit business from its mill in Enniscorthy. [9] Davies employed since John Mullaly distillers. Mullaly had previously worked as a distiller with John McKenzie & Co. in Mill Street, Belfast. When temperance reformer Theobald Mathew campaign against alcohol, many distilleries in Ireland closed. [10] After Davies distillery closed, Mullaly and his family cast their lots together and emigrated to Australia in Salsette 1840. [11]

George Killian Red

Enniscorthy was the site of a regional microbrewery opened in 1864 and is owned by descendants of George Killian Lett. During operation Killian’s ale was sold almost entirely in Wexford County. Latvian brewery still operates today, but no longer brews its own products. They are now focusing on wholesale to shops, bars and hotels. [12] Killian red still sold abroad, and the brand is currently held by Bras Pelforth, SA


Carley Bridge Pottery is one of Ireland’s oldest pottery, have made earthen pots for over three hundred years. Paddy Murphy was also a Enniscorthy potters and in 1980 founded the Hill View pottery next to his home and close to Carley Bridge ceramics. The dead end “Potters’ Way” is named after him – that he would go that route to his home. Since his passing, has Hillview pottery taken over by his relationship with Derek O’Rourke.

Enterprise Centre

Enniscorthy Enterprise & Technology Centre business support and training for small and medium-sized enterprises. The center specializes in the support of startup businesses and skills of people in employment in Co.Wexford. The difference between an Enterprise Centre and other business units are the services. The rent is not just a place, but it is part of the structure that promotes and supports a business. The environment and facilities are designed to help businesses and also promote a professional image to customers.

International relations

Main article: List of twin town in Ireland

Enniscorthy is twinned with:

  • Gimont, France. [13] [14]

Enniscorthy was the host city of Canada, for the 2003 Special Olympics.

See also

  • Battle of Vinegar Hill 1798
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland.
  • Market Houses in Ireland


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports . Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Retrieved May fourteen 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  3. Jump up ^ “Enniscorthy station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways .Retrieved seven September of 2007.
  4. Jump up ^ “Enniscorthy Bypass”. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Oxford DNB
  6. Jump up ^ Visitor Centre
  7. Jump up ^ St. Aidan’s Cathedral
  8. Jump up ^ “Brooklyn filming locations”.
  9. Jump up ^ [1] Piggots Directory 1824
  10. Jump up ^ Father Mathew a biography – John Francis MacGuire (Longman Green, Longman, Roberts and Green Lon 1863
  11. Jump up ^ [2] Passenger List Salsette
  12. Jump up ^, Latvia website
  13. Jump up ^ “Enniscorthy Twinning” (PDF). Wexford County Council report (page 108) . Retrieved 23 June 2008.
  14. Jump up ^ fr: Gimont

County Wexford

County Wexford (Irish: Contae Loch Garman ) is a municipality in Ireland.It is in the province of Leinster, and is part of the South East region. It is named after the town Wexfordoch was based on the historical Gaelic territory Hy Kinsella ( Uí Ceinnsealaigh ), whose capital was ferns. [3] [4]Wexford County Council is the local authority for länet.Befolkningen in the county is 145,273 according to the census of 2011.


Main article: History of County Wexford

Wexford town c. 1800.

The county is rich in evidence of early human habitation. [5] Portal tombs(sometimes called dolmens) appearing on Ballybrittas (on Bree Hill) [6] and påNewbawn [7] – and date from the Neolithic period or earlier. Remains from the Bronze Age period is considerably more widespread. [5] Early Irish tribes formed the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, an area slightly larger than the current County Wexford.

County Wexford was one of the earliest areas in Ireland that Christianized, in the early 5th century. Later, from 819 onwards, the Vikings plundered many Christian sites in the county. [8] Wexford town became a Viking settlement at the end of the 9th century. [8]

Wexford was the site of the invasion of Ireland by the Normans in 1169 on behalf of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster (Laigin), which led to the subsequent colonization of the country by the Anglo-Normans.

The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century, especially in the northern part of the county, especially in the context of Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. According to Henry VIII, the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536-1541; County Wexford this included Glascarrig Priory, Priory Clonmines, Tintern Abbey and Dunbrody Abbey.

On 23 October 1641, broke a major rebellion in Ireland and Wexford produced strong support for the League of Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Honourable army came in 1649 in the county and captured it. The countries of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell’s soldiers as payment for their services in the Honourable army.PåDuncannon, in the southwestern part of the county, James II, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, board Kinsale and then to exile in France.

County Wexford was the main area where the Irish rebellion in 1798 was fought over which significant battles occurred at Vinegar Hill (Enniscorthy) and New Ross. The famous ballad Boolavogue was written in memory of Wexford Rising. At Easter 1916, a small rebellion occurred at Enniscorthy town, in line with that of Dublin. [9] During World War II, German planes bombed Campile. [10] [11] In 1963, John F. Kennedy, then President of the United States, visited county and his ancestral home on Dunganstown, near New Ross.

Geography and political subdivisions

Wexford is the 13th largest of Ireland’s thirty-two counties in area and 14th largest in terms of population. [12] It is the largest of Leinster’s 12 counties in size, and the fourth largest in terms of population. The county is located in the southeast corner of the island of Ireland. It is bounded by the sea on two sides-on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by St. George Channel and the Irish Sea. The River Barrow forms its western border. The Blackstairs mountains are part of the border in the north, as well as the southern edge of the Wicklow Mountains. The neighboring counties Waterford, Kilkenny, Carlow and Wicklow.

Towns and Villages

  • County Town: Wexford
  • Koping: Gorey
  • Adams
  • Arthurs
  • Ballycanew
  • Ballycullane
  • Bally Edmond
  • Ballyfad
  • Ballygarrett
  • Ballyhack
  • Ballymitty
  • Bally William
  • Bannow
  • black water
  • Bree
  • Bridge
  • Broadway
  • Bunclody
  • Camolin
  • Campile
  • Castle
  • Castle
  • Cleariestown
  • Clohamon
  • Clonroche
  • Coolgreany
  • Courtown
  • Craanford
  • Crossabeg
  • Cullenstown
  • Curracloe
  • Duncannon
  • Duncormick
  • Enniscorthy
  • ferns
  • Fethard-on-Sea
  • Foulkesmill
  • gorey
  • Holly Fort
  • Inch
  • Killinierin
  • Kilmore
  • Kilmore Quay
  • Kilmuckridge
  • Kiltealy
  • Mona Molin
  • Monaseed
  • Murrintown
  • Mona Geer
  • Monbeg
  • Newbawn
  • New Ross
  • Oulart
  • Oylegate
  • Poulpeasty
  • Rathangan
  • Rosslare
  • Rosslare Harbour
  • Raheen
  • Rathnure
  • Saltmills
  • Taghmon
  • Watch House Village
  • Wellingtonbridge
  • Wexford

County Wexford is known as Ireland’s “sunny south east” because, in general, the amount of sunshine received daily higher than in the rest of the country.This has resulted in Wexford become one of the most popular places in Ireland where the bo.Länet has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. The North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, moderate winter temperatures. There is a meteorological station located at Rosslare Harbour. [19] January and February are usually the coldest months, with temperatures between 4-8 ° C on average. [20] July and August are usually the hottest months, with temperatures at 12-18 ° C on average. [20]the prevailing winds are from the southwest. [21] Precipitation falls throughout the year. Average annual rainfall is between 800-1200 mm. [22] In general, the county will have less snow than the more northern parts of Ireland. Serious snowfall is relatively rare, but can occur. The only exception is the Mount Leinster, visible from a large part of the county, which is often covered with snow during the winter months. Frost is often during the winter months, less in coastal areas.

Mountains and hills

Flack fertile soil characteristic landscape of the county. The highest point in the county is Mount Leinster (795 m, [23] 2610 ft) in the Blackstairs mountains in the northwest on the border with County Carlow.

Other highlights:

  • Black Rock Mountain, which is 599 m (1,965 ft) high. It is located near the border Wexford-Carlow, in County Wexford.
  • Croghan Mountain (or Croghan Kinsella ) on the border between Wexford Wicklow – 606 m (1,988 ft) high
  • Annagh Hill 454 m (1,490 ft), near the border Wicklow
  • Slieveboy of 420 m (1,378 ft) high

Notable Hills include: Carrigbyrne Hill, Camross (or Camaross) Hill (181 m),[24] Carrigmaistia (167 m), [24] Bree Hill (179 m), [24] Gibbet Hill, Vinegar Hill, Slievecoiltia and Forth Mountain (237 m), [24] and Tara Hill.

Rivers and Lakes

The major rivers are the Barrow and Slaney.

At 192 km (119 mi) in length, the River Barrow, the second longest river on the island of Ireland. [25]

Other smaller rivers noting Owenduff, Pollmounty, Corrock, Urrin, Boro, Owenavorragh, Sow and Bann rivers.

There are no major freshwater lakes in the county. Small sea lakes or lagoons are in two locations – one is called Lady’s Island Lake and other Tacumshin Lake.

The Wexford Cot is a flat-bottomed boat used for fishing on the tidal mudflats in Wexford, [26] is also a canoe-shaped Punt equipped with a gun, called Floatin Wexford traditionally used for shooting game birds in North Slob mud flats. [27 ]


The Saltee Islands located 5 km off the coast of Kilmore Quay, while the smaller islands Keeragh is 1.5km offshore from Bannow.


Most, but not all, of the county was covered by inland ice during the last ice age. As the ice retreated, County Wexford would have been one of the first areas to be covered with glacial operation (a mixture avstenblock, clay, sand and gravel), which covered the existing bedrock. This has resulted in high quality soils, suitable for a wide range of agriculture. A very detailed soil survey of the county were published in 1964 as part of the “National Soil Survey of Ireland”. It classifies each area of the county in accordance with its specific soil type. [28]

Most of the county is covered with soil called brown soils , described as well-drained and have a wide range of applications. After gleys (poorly to imperfectly drained with a limited range) is the next major soil type, mainly in the southeastern part of the county and east of Gorey (along the coast).Gleys are scattered elsewhere around the county in small areas, and where they exist they generally form marshland. The last major soil type is brown podzolics , located mainly near the edges of the Blackstairs mountains and around Bunclody and baronies Shelmalier East and South Ballaghkeen.Although there are areas covered by other types of land, these are limited in scope.


Common species of trees include oak, ash, maple, alder, blackthorn, hawthorn, beech and birch. Uncommon (but plentiful) are wild cherry and pine (also called red business). Elm is now much less common, because of the devastating effects avalmsjukan. Gorse (or furze) is very common. A priority habitat in Wexford is gray mud, which many indigenous wild plants grow, including the bee orchid and pyramidal orchid. Despite the appointment of a large part of this habitat somsärskilt conservation area, it remains threatened by the destruction of agricultural intensification [ citation needed ] . There is very little natural forest in the county. Most natural trees and vegetation growing on the hedges.


Southeastern Wexford is an important place for wild birds, the northern side of Wexford Harbour, the North Slob, is home to 10,000 Greenland white-fronted geese each winter (about a third of the world’s population), while in the summer Lady’s Island Lake is an important nesting site for terns, especially the roseate tern. The gray heron is also seen.

The entire county pheasant, pigeon and wild pigeons is widespread. Swans, wild ducks, kingfishers and owls (long-eared owl, the short-eared owl and barn owl) are less common -. But abundant Red Grouse, once common, are now extremely rare. The species has been in decline for decades. Threats are habitat degradation, disease, predation and excessive hunting. Red Grouse in Ireland are now considered endangered. [29] [30] The corncrake, also once very common, are now almost never seen. Less-birds such as crows, swallows, robins, wrens and so on-are very common. The first magpies in Ireland were recorded by Robert Leigh Rose Garland, County Wexford, have appeared in County Wexford around 1676. [31] [32] land mammals include badgers, rabbits, otters, hedgehogs, foxes, mink, raccoons, squirrels (red and gray), rats (brown and black – both introduced species), and mice (wood (or field) ochhus). Two types of hare -the Irish (or mountain) hare and less common brown (or European) Hare -is found. Hare is not nearly as common as rabbits. The stoats ( Mustela erminea hibernica ) is also quite vanligt.Lokalt ermine is so often incorrectly called a weasel.

Only two types of seal are available on Wexford’s coastal Atlantic gray seals are very plentiful in the coastal areas, but somewhat less common (or harbor) seal is less common, but plentiful. The small tortoiseshell butterfly(red-orange color, with black spots) are the most common species of butterfly in the county. Different types of catfish are also common. The common frog is abundant, and is the only type of frog found.

local authorities

Wexford County Council has twenty-one members. The Wexford constituency represented by five deputies in the Dáil: John Browne (FF), Paul Kehoe (FG), Brendan Howlin (Lab), Liam Twomey (FG) and Mick Wallace (Ind)


Since 1951, an opera festival, Wexford Festival Opera, takes place every year at the Theatre Royal in Wexford town and runs for several weeks. [33] A new opera house has recently replaced the old in the same place, it is now called Wexford Opera House. The new theater opened in 2008 and consists of two theaters, O’Reilly Theatre and Jerome Hynes Theatre.

It is a well-known song tradition in County Wexford. With an abundance of traditional songs, many of which relate to the uprising in 1798, the county has for years maintained a strong presence in the Irish traditional song scen.Noterade singers include All-Ireland Fleadh Champions Paddy Berry, Seamus Brogan and Niall Wall. Paddy Berry has also collected and published a number of songs from Wexford.

Beaches in Curracloe, was Wexford used for filming the opening scenes in the movie Saving Private Ryan which portrayed the D-Day assault on Omaha Beach. The Count of Monte Cristo , directed by Kevin Reynolds, partially filmed in the village of Duncannon 2000 – Duncannon Fort used for one of the most important scenes. [34] the film Brooklyn (film) was partly filmed in Enniscorthy and featured some of the locals as extras.


  • There are two radio stations based in the county, Southeast Radio [35]and beat FM . [36]
  • The county’s main newspapers include Wexford People , New Ross Standard , Gorey Guardian and Enniscorthy Echo .

Tourist attractions

The scenic Bannow Drive, popular with tourists, is a signposted path through four villages Wexford: Duncormick, Cullenstown, Bannow and Wellingtonbridge.

Ballyteigue Burrow, located near Duncormick, is one of the finest protected sand dune systems in Ireland. Rich in flowers, animals and butterflies, is 9 km long coastline a protected nature reserve of the golden sands of Ballyteigue Bay, with spectacular scenery.

The Hook Peninsula is known for its many beaches and spectacular scenery.It has the medieval Hook Head Lighthouse and the historic townland of Loftus Hall.

Popular beaches are in Courtown, Curracloe, Carnsore Point, Duncannon and Rosslare Strand.

Other points of interest include:

  • Ferns Castle and Abbey [37]
  • Enniscorthy Castle and Museum
  • Vinegar Hill
  • National 1798 Visitor Centre [38]
  • Boolavogue
  • The Browne-Clayton monuments
  • Oulart Hill
  • Castleboro House [39]
  • Seven “castle” of Clonmines
  • Johnstown Castle
  • Bay dollars
  • Loftus Hall – deserted haunted house (the first Hall was built at this place in 1350)
  • Ballyteigue Castle
  • Bannow Church (dates from the 13th century)
  • Selskar Abbey, Wexford town
  • Irish National Heritage Park (Ferrycarrig)
  • Tacumshin windmill (Southeastern Wexford)
  • St. Mary’s Church (New Ross)
  • Dunbrody Abbey
  • Tintern Abbey [40]
  • Slade Castle
  • Ballyhack Castle
  • JF Kennedy homestead park
  • Slieve Coilte
  • Wells House and Gardens
  • Duncannon Fort
  • Saltee Islands



The economy is mainly agricultural. Cattle, sheep, pigs and some horse-breeding are the main types of farming practiced. Poultry farming, once popular, have much reduced. Wheat, barley, rape and oats are grown, as well as potatoes. sugar is no longer grown because of the withdrawal of EU subsidies. The numbers involved in agriculture has declined over many years and many of the seasonal workers are now Eastern Europeans. Mushrooms are also grown indoors. Tomatoes cultivated under glass, for example at Campile.

Wexford strawberries are known and can be purchased in stores and roadside stalls throughout the summer. Every year, in late June, takes a “Strawberry Fair” Festival venue in the town of Enniscorthy, and a Strawberry Queen is crowned. Milk is an important part of the agricultural industry. Locally produced milk is sold in many supermarkets. Wexford Irish Cheddar is an award-winning brand and Carrigbyrne, a plump soft cheese, produced near New Ross.


Evergreen species widely cultivated, especially in recent years- fir and Sitka spruce are the most common varieties planted. These are generally sown in poorer quality soils (mainly in bogs and hills or mountainsides). A small amount of deciduous trees also planted, but these require better soils.


Silver was once mined at Clonmines-mainly in Tudor times. Lead broken at Caim, 1818 – c. 1850 this mine also contains zinc; the two are usually found together. Copper ore (malachite) is found at Kerloge, just south of the town of Wexford. Iron is found in small amounts in Courtown Harbour. The county is not known mineral reserves. No significant mining activity is currently practiced, except for quarrying stone. During 2007, a major oil discovery made 60 kilometers off the Hook Head in Co Wexford. [41]


Bally Water Wind Farm , near Kilmuckridge – the largest wind farm in County Wexford (consisting of 21 wind turbines).

Carnsore Point made national headlines in late 1970 after a proposal to build a nuclear plant there; plans were abandoned after protests from the public, due to environmental concerns and health. [42] A wind farm has now been built on the site, with 14 wind turbines produce electricity. It was completed in November 2002 and was the first wind farm on the east coast of Ireland.Wind turbines are now at a few other places in the county, such as Bally Water Wind Farm, at Cahore (near Kilmuckridge), the county’s east coast, and Rich Wind Farm, located in the southeastern part of the county.

Great Island Power Station was opened in 1967 and operated by the Electricity Supply Board (ESB) until it was sold to Endesa in January 2009. [43]There is an electricity generating station operated by heavy fuel oil and has an output of 240 MW. [44] it located at the confluence of the rivers Barrow and Suir, close to Campile. Before its sale, the station is scheduled to close by 2010. [45] [46] Endesa propose to build a 430 MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gas-fired plant in place. [44] The project would need a new 44.5 km of gas pipepline from existing transmission network in Baunlusk, 6 km south of Kilkenny City. [47]


  • Road: Recent years have seen a major upgrade of the county’s main roads.
  • Bus: Wexford and Dublin are also linked by the bus Éireann route 2, [48] .While Route 5 runs Waterford-New Ross Enniscorthy Dublin [49] There are many local bus routes radiating from Wexford town to places somKilmore Quay, Lady Island, Kilmuckridge, etc …
  • Rail: The Rosslare-Dublin railway runs through the county, earning Euro Ross, Rosslare Strand, Wexford, Enniscorthy and Gorey. Four trains run in each direction every day (three on weekends), with additional commuter traffic from Gorey. DenRoss-Limerick railway line that crosses the southern part of the county now mothballed but maintained (that served stations Bridgetown, Wellington Bridge, Ballycullane and Campile).
  • Ferry: Rosslare Europort, located at Rosslare Harbour, runs a busy ferry service. There are regular departures to Wales (Pembroke and Fishguard) and France (Cherbourg and during the summer months tillRoscoff) for passengers and vehicles. There are also ferry services operating between Ballyhack and Passage East (Waterford), cross the Barrow estuary.

Sports & Events

Gaelic game

Main article: Wexford GAA

GAA is very popular in the county, which is most noted for hurling. Wexford last won the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship in 1996, beat Limerick in the final. However, there has been a rapid decline since then in terms of framgång.Under recent years, the county’s football team has made rapid progress. Camogie, a women’s version of hurling, played well, and Wexford won the All Ireland in 2007 and 2010. Wexford Park is the county’s most important GAA pitch. Although handball played on a limited extent; There are a number handball alleys located throughout the county.


Wexford Youths FC was founded in 2007, is the biggest football club in the county, currently playing in the League of Ireland Premier Division.


There are many golf clubs in the county – including Rosslare (a links course),[50] and Enniscorthy. [51] Another two located near Gorey – Ballycastle Golf Club and Courtown Golf Club -. Is the 18-hole golf courses [52] Bunclody Golf and Fishing Club, which boasts Europe’s only golf elevator, located just inside the County Carlow. [53] There are also some others. New Ross Golf Club, but is actually located in County Kilkenny – about 1 km from New Ross town. [54]

There are also many par-3 courses in the county, such as Scarke Golf Course & Driving Range, [55] which is located about 2 km east of New Ross town, “Abbey Par 3” course at the Winning Town, Fethard-on-Sea Blackwater par 3 Golf course, [56] Kilnew, Blackwater, which is a few kilometers northeast of the town of Wexford, Garrylough golf course and driving range, Screen Rathaspeck Manor Golf course, Rathaspeck near Rosslare (there are also some par-4 holes on this course). There are also a number of other par-3 courses in the county.

Marina at Kilmore Quay.


Very maritime activity takes place – especially at Kilmore Quay and Slade, but also on a smaller scale in many other places. Common fish species include herring, mackerel, cod, monkfish, whiting, bass, perch, gurnard, haddock, mullet, Pollock, John Dory, sole, conger eel, shad, salmon, trout, pike, carp and tench. Shellfish including mussels, cockles, mussels, snails, mussels and oysters.


Wexford racecourse (horse race) is located at Wexford town [57] and there is a greyhound tracks in Enniscorthy. [58]


  • John Barry – Commander United States Navy.
  • John Banville – journalist and writer (winner of the Booker Prize in 2005).
  • Paddy Berry – singer, song collector and folklorist.
  • Wallis Bird – musicians.
  • Jim Bolger ONZ – former Prime Minister of New Zealand. [59]
  • Jim Bolger -. Horse Trainer [60]
  • Myles Byrne – participants in the Irish rebellion 1798th
  • Thomas cloney – participants in the Irish rebellion 1798th
  • John Henry Colclough – participants in the Irish rebellion in 1798
  • Eoin Colfer – best-selling children’s author.
  • Brendan Corish – Irish Labour Party leader and Tánaiste.
  • Gordon D’Arcy – Rugby Player, Leinster and Ireland.
  • Francis Danby – 19-century painters.
  • Padraic Delaney – actor.
  • John Doran (British Army officer)
  • Anne Doyle – RTÉ newsreader.
  • Kevin Doyle – football player.
  • Shane Dunphy – author, journalist, sociologist, broadcasters and musicians.
  • John French – grandfather of George Harrison
  • Nicholas French – former RC Bishop of Ferns.
  • Nicholas Furlong – author, journalist and historian.
  • John Harrison – recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey – participants in the Irish rebellion in 1798
  • Edward Hay – author of a history of the Irish uprising in 1798
  • Herbert Hore – historian.
  • Patrick Kennedy – great grandfather of John F. Kennedy (former US president).
  • Father John Murphy – participants in the Irish uprising 1798th
  • Aidan O’Brien – horse trainer
  • Joseph O’Brien (jockey) – son of Aidan O’Brien and horse trainer, former jockey
  • Michael O’Hanrahan – Irish rebels were executed for fighting in the 1916 Easter Rising.
  • Nicky Rackard – hurling player.
  • John Redmond – 19th-20th century nationalist politicians.
  • Billy Roche – playwright.
  • Dick Roche – politicians.
  • Patrick Roche – politicians
  • James Ryan – politician and Irish revolutionary.
  • Martin Storey – hurling player.
  • Colm Tóibín – Booker Prize-nominated writer.
  • Michael Balfe – 19th century composer, grew up in Wexford.
  • Major GEH Barrett-Hamilton – zoologist, grew up in Kilmanock
  • Des Bishop – New York-born comedian, went to school in County Wexford.
  • Chris de Burgh – Argentine-born singer-songwriter, based in County Wexford.
  • Anna Maria Hall (Mrs. SC Hall) – 19 century author, grew up in Bannow.[61]
  • Eileen Gray – 20th century Irish furniture designer and architect and a pioneer of the modern movement in architecture, raised in Enniscorthy.[62]


In 2011, the county had a total population of 145.320 people. Of these, 62.1% lived (89.709 people) in rural areas and 37.9% (55.611 people) lived in urban areas. [63] 34.3% of the county’s population (49.889 people) were aged under 25 and 12.6 % of the population (18.367 people) were older than 65 years.87.9% of the county’s population stated their religion as Roman Catholic, and 4.2% said they had no religion. Other religions made up the rest. [64]Between 2002 and 2006, the population of the County Wexford increased by 13% (15.153 people). [65] and between 2006 and 2011 the population increased by a further 10% (13.524 people). [66]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Wexford)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Wexford
  • High Sheriff of Wexford


  1. Jump up ^ “Wexford County”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area (Dublin: Stationery Office, April 27, 2007) PDF (4.22 MB) – Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Downloaded the 16 May 2008.
  3. Jump up ^ Furlong , p. 18.
  4. Jump up ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings , pp 130-164.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Stout, Geraldine. “Essay 1: Wexford in Prehistory 5000 BC to 300 AD “in Wexford: History and Society , pp 1-39.
  6. Jump up ^ “Ballybrittas Portal Tomb (with photo) – well preserved” Retrieved sixteen May 2008.
  7. Jump up ^ “Newbawn Portal Tomb (with photo) – badly dilapidated.” Retrieved sixteen May 2008.
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab Annals of the Four Masters (AFM)
  9. Jump up ^ Furlong and Hayes , pages 46-70.
  10. Jump up ^ Furlong , p. 143rd
  11. Jump up ^ “bombing of Campile remember.” Wexford People. 1 September 2000. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  12. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  13. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  14. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  15. Jump up ^
  16. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2015”. 2010-09-27. Pulled 12/24/2015.
  17. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  18. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  19. Jump up ^ Ross MET Station.
  20. ^ Jump up to: ab “Climate – 30 years Mean – Ross MET Station – monthly and annual mean and extreme values (1961-1990)”. MET Eireann website. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
  21. Jump up ^ “Climate – Wind”. MET Eireann website. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  22. Jump up ^ “Climate – Rain – and map (average annual precipitation (mm) 1961-1990)”. MET Eireann website. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  23. Jump up ^ The Times Atlas of the World , p. 107 (Map – Ireland).
  24. ^ Jump up to: abcd OSI, Discovery Series 77 .
  25. Jump up ^ “FAQ – longest river in Ireland.” Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSI) website. Archived from the original November 19, 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
  26. Jump up ^ Wexford Cot Rowing for pleasure
  27. Jump up ^ Wexford Killiney Coast, Series 4, Episode 6,
  28. Jump up ^ Gardiner, MJ & Pierce Ryan. The land in County Wexford .Dublin: An Foras Talúntais, in 1964.
  29. Jump up ^ [1] archives June 7, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. Jump up ^ “Teagasc – Environment”. Pulled 12/24/2015.
  31. Jump up ^ Herbert F. Hore (ed.), “A Chorographic Account of the southern part of the county of Wexford, written Anno 1684, by Robert Leigh. Esq., Of the Rose Garland, as the County “ in ” The Journal of Kilkenny and the South East of Ireland Achaeological Society ” (Dublin,1859), p. 467th
  32. Jump up ^ See William Thompson, “The Natural History of Ireland” , Vol. 1 – (London, 1849), p. 328, for additional information – other historical accounts mentioned here confirms Leigh statement.
  33. Jump up ^ “Wexford Festival Opera.”
  34. Jump up ^ “The Count of Monte Cristo will Duncannon”. Wexford People. 28 August, 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  35. Jump up ^ “South East Radio – Wexford”.
  36. Jump up ^ Beat 102-103 Official website
  37. Jump up ^ “Ferns Castle”. Heritage Ireland website. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  38. Jump up ^ “National 1798 Visitor Centre”. National 1798 Visitor Centre website. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  39. Jump up ^ “Castleboro House, burned in 1923”. Abandoned Ireland.
  40. Jump up ^ “Dunbrody Abbey”. Dunbrody Abbey Visitors Centre website.Retrieved sixteen May 2008.
  41. Jump up ^ “Irish firm reports significant oil find off the Hook Head.”Irish Independent. 10 October 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
  42. Jump up ^ “Remembering Carnsore crusade”. Wexford People. 12 September 2001. Retrieved nineteen May 2008.
  43. Jump up ^ Slattery, Laura (26 February 2011). “Spanish energy company Endesa putting Irish unit for sale”. Irish Times. Fetched 1 November 2011.
  44. ^ Jump up to: ab “Endesa Ireland – Great Island Power Project – Project Description”. Endesa. Fetched 1 November 2011.
  45. Jump up ^ “Great Island power station”. ESB website. Archived from the original The 18 April 2008. Retrieved ten May 2008.
  46. Jump up ^ “No more smoke from the chimneys.” New Ross Standard. 30 April 2008. Retrieved ten May 2008.
  47. Jump up ^ “Great Island pipeline plan.” New Ross Standard. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  48. Jump up ^ [2] archives October 7, 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  49. Jump up ^ [3] Filed 13 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. Jump up ^ Rosslare Golf Club (18 holes).
  51. Jump up ^ Enniscorthy Golf Club (18 holes).
  52. Jump up ^ Courtown Golf Club website.
  53. Jump up ^ “Wexford Bunclody Golf Club”.
  54. Jump up ^ Map of New Ross Golf Club website.
  55. Jump up ^ Scarke Golf Course & Driving Range website.
  56. Jump up ^ Blackwater Par 3 Golf Course website.
  57. Jump up ^ “Wexford Racecourse”. Retrieved ten May 2008.
  58. Jump up ^ “Enniscorthy Greyhound Track.” Irish Greyhound Board website. Retrieved ten May 2008.
  59. Jump up ^ Jim Bolger
  60. Jump up ^ Jim Bolger (racehorse trainer)
  61. Jump up ^ Anna Maria Hall biography on ricorso
  62. Jump up ^ [4] On Eileen Gray
  63. Jump up ^ “Census 2011 Results”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  64. Jump up ^ “Wexford”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  65. Jump up ^ 2006 Census , Volume 1, p. 13.
  66. Jump up ^ “Census 2011 preliminary results”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.

Lough Ennell

Lough Ennell (Irish: Loch Ainninn ) is a lake near the town of Mullingar, County Westmeath, Ireland. It is located next to the N52 road, outside Mullingar / Kilbeggan way. [1] It is approximately 4.5 mi (7.2 km) long and 2 mi (3.2 km) wide, with an area of approximately 3540 acres (14, 3 km 2 ). It has a large area of shallow water with nearly two-thirds of its area (8 m) less than 25 feet, and almost half of it is below 10 feet (3.0 m) deep. Lough Ennell produced Ireland’s largest ever lake trout of 26 pounds (11.8 kg). [2] Lough Ennell is dotted with islands, many of which have now been linked to the shoreline as the levels of the lake have changed. [3] The main ~ ~ POS = TRUNC river that flows into Lough Ennell is the river Brosna, entering the earth side of the lake, leaving on the opposite side of Lilliput. Lilliput and Lilliput House was often used by Jonathan Swift as a holiday and place to write, local tradition says that Jonathan Swift was in a boat on the lake when he looked back at Lilliput and noticed how small people looked at that distance, that is the inspiration for its most famous book Gulliver’s travels .Lilliput at the time called “Nure” but after the publication of Gulliver’s Travels locals began to refer to the lake as Lilliput, firm name, and today the area is known as Lilliput.


O’Donovan’s Ordnance Survey Letters trace the beginning of the name Lough Ennell, or as it is known in Irish Loch Ainninn . According to tradition, contemporary Lough Ennell and Lough Owel derive their names from the two brothers, Ainninn and Vair who lived in the lakes. They were the sons of the kings of the Fir Bolg, and it was at their respective lakes Ainninn and Uair died lakes provide their names. Over the years the name was anglicised toLough Inill . The maps were named Lough Ennell, Lough enyne or Lough enyl .When Rochforts took the title as the Lords of Belvedere they tried to change the name Lough Ennell to Lake Belvedere . [3]


The Loughside has a caravan and camping park, boat hire facilities, hotels and restaurants and fishing. Belvedere House is also an attraction and managed by the County Council, is hosting a number of sporting and cultural events each year, such as concerts and triathlon.


Lough Ennell fishing is part of the Shannon Regional Fisheries Board Fisheries Midland Group handled the water. Trout and pike are the main catches. [2] More recently, it seems that the stocks of both games and of course fish in the lake has decreased, there is speculation locally that the reason for this.


  • Westmeath County Council has banned the use of jet skis on the lake.The ban came into force in October 2006 and currently in force does not speed boats.
  • The shores of Lough Ennell host Mullingar Golf Club, the local golf club in the north east of the lake.
  • Sea host Triathlons at Lilliput and Belve.


  • October 2004
  • north east coast
  • Early morning summer sunrise
  • March 2007

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Lough Ennell”. Discover Ireland. Retrieved 8, 2009.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Fishing: Lough Ennell”. Shannon Regional Fisheries Board. Retrieved 8, 2009.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “Lough Ennell – name”. Ask about Ireland. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved 8, 2009.

Lough Owel

Lough Owel (Irish: Loch ULL ) is a mesotrophic lough in the Midlands of Ireland, situated north of Mullingar, the county town of Westmeath. It has a maximum depth of 22m. [1] Water from Lough Owel feeds Djurgården, a canal crossing Ireland from Dublin to the River Shannon. Access to the lake can be gained from a parking lot and pier to the south of the N4 Mullingar to Longford route.

Lough Owel and Lough Ennell are two of the many lakes that form the River Brosna River basin. The Brosna is a tributary of the Shannon flowing through Mullingar and Kilbeggan both Westmeath, and from there through the city Clara (Offaly) in Shannon.

The Viking chieftain Turgesius drowned in Lough Owel of Máel Sechnaill Mac Mail Ruanaid in 845th

Since 1996 the lough has received international protection as a Ramsar site.[2] It is known for its bird life and is also well known among anglers and have some char together medöring.


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab Lough Owel SPA. NPWS
  2. Jump up ^ [ “archived copy”. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007 is taken. July 10, 2007. /datazone/sitefactsheet.php?id=626 Important Bird Areas factsheet. Lough Owel] BirdLife International (2013).Retrieved from “File copy”. Archived from the original 10 christmas in 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2007. On 28.07.2013


Athlone (/ æ θ l oʊ n /; Irish: Athlone , which means “city of Luan’s Ford”) [1]is a city on the river Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree in Ireland. It is the largest city in the Midlands region. Most of the city lies on the eastern side of the river; However, the terms of the Local Government Act of 1898, six townlands location on the western shore of the Shannon considered a part of the city and thus a part of County Westmeath. [2]

The 2011 Census of Ireland recorded the population of the town of 20,153, an increase of 14.8% from 2006. [3] Recent growth has also occurred outside the city limits.

Athlone near the geographical center of Ireland, which is 8.85 km (5.50 mi) north-northwest of the city, in the area Carnagh East in County Roscommon.[4]


Main article: History of Athlone
A bridge was built across the river in the 12th century, about 100 meters (330 ft) south of the current structure. To protect the bridge, was a fortress built on the river’s western shore, in Athlone, through Turloch Mór Ó Conor. On a number of occasions both the fort and the bridge was subject to attacks, and by the end of the 12th century the Anglo-Normans constructed a motte-and-bailey fortification there. This earthen fort was followed by a stone structure was built in 1210 by Justiciar John de Gray. 12-sided towers, or towers, date from this time; But the rest of the original castle was largely destroyed during the Siege of Athlone and subsequently rebuilt and utökats.Athlone Castle is the geographical and historical center of Athlone. Throughout its early history, ford Athlone was strategically important, as south of Athlone the Shannon is impassable until Clonmacnoise, where Esker Riada meets the Shannon, while in the north it flows into Lough Ree. In 1001 Brian Boru sailed his army up river from Kincora and by Lough Derg to attend a meeting in Athlone.

Throughout the wars that plagued Ireland in the seventeenth century, Athlone contained essential, the main bridge over the River Shannon in Connacht. During the Irish League of war (1641-1653), the city was held by the Irish League of soldiers until it was taken by Charles Coote at the end of 1650, which attacked the city from the west, after having crossed into Connacht at Sligo.

Forty years later, during the pan-European War of the Grand Alliance (1688-1697), the city was again of great strategic importance. This time, Athlone was one of the Jacobitefästen who defended river crossings in league entirely Province of Connacht after the Battle of the Boyne on July 1st 1690. The same year Colonel Richard Grace’s Jacobite forces in Athlone repelled an attack of 10,000 men led by Commander Douglas. In the following year’s campaign, the siege of Athlone saw a further attack by a major power ally, during which the invading troops King William and Queen Mary progressed gradually throughout the city. The defenders were forced to flee to the west, the River Suck, at a rate such that the eyewitness accounts record that they “threw their guns in the swamp” as they fled. The most recently discovered account of the Siege of Athlone, written after the attack, July 5, 1691 was found in 2004 in an archive in the Netherlands. The account was written by the victorious commander of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, general lieutenant Godard van Reede, in letters written to his family in mainland Europe. [10] In the account, the commanding Allied officer reported that half of the city’s defenders headed west, toward the rest of his army, which nearly 2,000 dead within the city walls and more than 100 captured, including dozens of officers.

It was in the 1970s, proposed in the Republican Éire Nua program to make Athlone the capital of a federal United Ireland. [11] This proposal is still maintained by Republican Sinn Féin.

The part of the city, located east of Shannon is in the province of Leinster, County Westmeath, the barony of Brawny and civil parish of St Mary. [12]Unusually’s barony coincides with a single parish. Regarding ecclesiastical boundaries, the eastern past of the city in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise and the parish of St Mary. [13]

But seven townlands, or parts of the city, located west of the Shannon: Athlone and Big Meadow, Bellaugh, Bogganfin, Canal and banks, Doovoge, part of Monksland, and Ranelagh. Although surrounded by Roscommon in the province of Connacht, they are designated as part of the County Westmeath to preserve the integrity of the city. These townlands situated in St Peter’s parish in Barony avAthlone South. [14] As for the ecclesiastical boundaries, the townlands west of Shannon is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Elphin and the parish of Ss Peter and Paul. [15]


Athlone is a popular stop for yachts along the River Shannon. Lough Ree, the largest lake on the Shannon, is a short distance upstream from Athlone, and many boat companies based in the city. For craft to pass Athlone, it is necessary to use a lock in the river, which is next to the dam and downstream of the existing bridge. The lock, weir and bridge were all built by the Shannon Navigation Commissioners in the 1840s. Prior boats used the canal, about one and a half long mil and west of the river. The canal was built by Thomas Omer for the Commissioners of Inland Navigation. [16] The work began in 1757 and involved the work of 300 men. Omer built a single lock, 120 “X 19” with an increase of 4.5 “, but there was also a guard locks, further upstream, with a single set of gates to protect the canal from flooding. There were also two rest stops, or goes above lock and another at the upstream end. The old canal is no longer navigable.


Athlone railway station began October 3, 1859 [17] with Irish Rail services traveling east to Portarlington, Kildare and Dublin Heuston and west to Westport / Ballina lines and tillAthenry, Oranmore, Galway.

Connections from Athlone via a train transfers at Athenry station include Ennis and Limerick, while a transfer port connects Limerick Junction Limerick. There are trains from Port Mallow, and from Mallow to Cork, Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee. Travel between Athlone and Guy Dare enables connections to Carlow, Kilkenny and Waterford.


In Athlone, Bus Eireann, the national bus operator working next to railway station, and provides an hourly service to Dublin and Galway. Other services provide transportation to Limerick, Dundalk, Waterford, Cavan, Belfast, Longford and Roscommon. The city is also home to a number of privately-run services, including Flag Line bus company, which operates local bus routes and service to Tullamore.

Bus Eireann also operates a local Athlone bus. Local services include: Route 459: Bus Station, Willow Park (Norwood Court) through the Golden Island Shopping Centre, Dublin Road, Athlone Institute of Technology; and Route 459A: Monks Land (River Village); Garry Castle (Moydrum Road) via Galway Road, Peters Avenue, Saint Anne Terrace, batteries, Connaught Street, Northgate Street, Bus Station, Golden Island Shopping Centre, Dublin Road, Athlone Institute of Technology.


The city is located on the N6 road connecting Galway to Dublin. The route follows a dual carriageway bypass of Athlone around the northern part of the city, crossing the River Shannon in County Roscommon. A number of national secondary roads connecting Athlone to other cities and regions.The N55 road linking the town of Ballymahon Cavan and the N61 road connects it with Roscommon ochN62 road connects it with Birr, Roscrea and southern Ireland. The M6 motorway connects the city directly with Dublin and Galway, cutting travel and commuting time considerably. Taxis are widely available throughout the area.


There are three theaters in Athlone, the Dean Crowe Theatre & Arts Centre, the Little Theatre, and passion theater.

The RTÉ All-Ireland Drama Festival takes place annually in Athlone, which gathers nine amateur theater groups from all over Ireland. The festival is supported by an active fringe which involves street theater, art exhibitions, workshops and events for young people.

Athlone Literary Festival is an annual event that began in 1999, originally as a weekend celebration of the life and work of John Broderick, but which now has a wide range of speakers and debaters.

Count John McCormack was born in Athlone, and for many years, has an annual festival held in the city celebrated the world-famous tenor.

Athlone Academy of Music opened in 2005, is a grant aided project aims to develop music education and services in the Midlands.

Abbey Road artist studios launched in 2011 in a unique building in 1841. The Studios offer a dedicated place in Athlone for local and visiting artists. The artists ‘studios consists of four individual artists’ studios and a large multi-purpose floor space suitable for a variety of socio-cultural events, including exhibitions, performances, workshops and seminars. [18] The Abbey Road artist studios working closely with Luan Art Gallery.

In 1954 Athlone became the first part of the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland and the city had a large part in the organization’s creation. [19]


American crime writer James M. Cain refers Athlone in his 1937 book,Serenade , in a passage where two characters discuss the tenor John McCormack: “That’s the language he was born to John McCormack comes from Dublin.”. “He does not. He comes from Athlone “. “Had he not living in Dublin?”. “Regardless. They speak a fine brogue in Athlone, almost as good as in Belfast. ” “It’s a fine brogue, but it is not a brogue. It is the English language that was spoken by any other country in the world has forgotten how to speak it. There are two things a singer can not buy, beg or steal, and that no teachers, coaches or managers can give him. One is his voice, the other is the language that was born in the mouth. When McCormack sang Handel he sang in English, and he sings it that no American and no Englishman will ever sing in English. ”

Tourism and facilities

Promenade on the River Shannon is popular with anglers, bird watchers, and swimmers. The lake shore is accessed from Coosan Point, and Hodson Bay.The city is also home to the Lough Ree Yacht Club.

Because of its easy access and great variety of shops, Athlone is the main retail destination for residents in the Midlands region of Ireland. The lively center stretches from Church Street in the west to Sean Costello Street in the east. The center is flanked by Athlone Town Centre, a modern shopping center, built in 2007, containing 54 shops, cafes and four-star Sheraton Athlone Hotel. [20] South of the center is the second shopping mall, Golden Island Shopping Centre, [21] , which opened in 1997.

Athlone Regional Sports Centre is a sports complex in the city, which was founded in May 2002 and has been developed by the City Council. The complex includes a swimming pool, gym, and Astroturfplatser.

Sean’s Bar, located on the western shore of the river, is listed by Guinness World Records as the oldest pub in Europe. [22]

Athlone Castle reopened in 2012 after a renovation several million euros to turn the castle into a state-of-the-art, multi-sensory visitor experience. It has eight newly designed exhibition spaces that contain both a chronological and thematic sequence, including 3D maps, audiovisual installations and illustrations by renowned illustrator Victor Ambrus .Ambrus is best known for his work with Channel 4 TV series Time Team . [23] [24]

In 2012, Luan Gallery, a new multi-million euro contemporary art gallery opened in the city. The gallery is the first purpose-built, contemporary visual art gallery situated in the Midlands. It was designed by Keith Williams, who also designed the Athlone Town Civic. The gallery was opened by Jimmy Deenihan, Minister for Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. The Luan opened with a prestigious exhibition from the Irish Museum of Modern Art, featuring the work of completed national and international artists. [25] [26]

Other popular attractions for visitors are Glendeer Open Farm and the Viking Cruise in Shannon. The city’s tourist office is located on Church Street.


Main article: Dublin-Galway Greenway

The Dublin-Galway Greenway will go through Athlone. Accrued Athlone Mull Railway will be used for Greenway in the east, and a new bridge is planned to be built for cycling and walking beside Luan Gallery. [27]

Education and Industry

Athlone largest employers include Élan, a pharmaceutical company which has its origin in Athlone; Bioclin Laboratories, a pharmaceutical company, Ericsson, a telecommunications business, Tyco Healthcare, a medical equipment supplier; Utah Medical, another medical equipment supplier;Pharmaplaz, another pharmaceutical company, Alienware, a hardware company; ICT Eurotel, a contact center; and Athlone Extrusions, a polymer supplier.

Athlone is the regional center for a large number of state and semi-state-owned organizations. The Department of Education, State Examinations Commission, the Revenue Commissioners, FÁSMidlands region, Bus Éireann, Iarnród Éireann, IDA Ireland and Enterprise Ireland have all the bases in the city. Athlone is also a great Irish military center, which custume Barracks, located on the western shore of the Shannon in the city, is the seat of the Western Command of the Irish Army.

Athlone Institute of Technology (AIT) is the regional third level college.Athlone is part of the Midlands Gateway, an initiative ongoing infrastructure, along with Mullingar ochTullamore. Alongside Waterford Institute of Technology, AIT harbors ambitions to achieve university status, because there is no institution providing university education in the Irish Midlands.AIT has a campus the size of 44 acres and plans advertising Development to expand further. The Institute’s new and suitable facilities include Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Studies, built in 2003; nursing and health sciences, built in 2005; Midlands Innovation and Research Centre, also built in 2005;Engineering and Informatics, built in 2010; and graduate Hub, also built in 2010. [28] RTÉ’s Midlands studio and offices are located at AIT. [29]

The Athlone Institute of Technology has memorandum of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, one of the largest universities in the Brazilian city. [30] The AIT also has agreements medPontificia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, one of the largest and most prestigious Brazilian private universities. [ 31] the Institute was founded also contracts with two leading Beijing University, Capital University of Economics and Business and Beijing Union University. [32] [33] the agreement was signed by Chinese Ambassador to Ireland and representatives of the University. [33] Other agreements exist between the AIT and TVTC in Saudi Arabia and a letter of intent is with the Georgia Institute of Technology. [34] [35] Further agreements are with the Bharati Vidyapeeth, one of the largest universities in India. [36]

There are five major high schools in the Athlone area, Athlone Community College, a coeducational school; Our Lady’s Bower School, a girls ‘school, Marist College, a boys’ school, St. Aloysius College, a boys’ school; and Summer College, a girls’ school.

In June 2010, Prime Minister Brian Cowen announced his support for the proposed European and Chinese education hub in Athlone. [37] In May 2012, the project got the go-ahead by An Bord Pleanála. When completed, it will comprise a total of nine exhibition halls, nine smaller independent exhibition buildings, a temporary exhibition space, multiple offices, administrative services, some homes, hotels, shops, restaurants, pubs, a school, and the railway station. [38]


Between 1931 and 1975, the main broadcasting center for Irish radio was located at Moydrum, Athlone (53 ° 25’14 “N 7 ° 52’52” W). The original call sign was 2RN, a pun on the song “Come back to Erin.” The station later became known as “Radio Athlone” and could clearly be heard throughout Europe and as far away as Moscow. This changed as bandwidth allocations have been granted on the Helsinki Declaration.

The station originally operated with a power of 60 kW, during the 1950s, was increased to 100 kW. For antenna, a T antenna was and is still used, which spins between two 100 meter high guyed masts with square cross-sections and which are insulated from earth. Many old radios in Europe had “Athlone” dial position marked the end of their trimming scales.

In the late 1970s the station reopened for a new dial position of 612 kHz for “Radio 2”, later known as RTÉ 2Fm. Moydrum was also the venue for Ireland’s short lived Shortwave international radio service, which was closed in 1948 because of lack of money. Today, RTÉ’s Midlands studios are located in Athlone, Mariatorget. The local radio station in the Midlands 103rd Many have also set the Shannon Station. [39]

A new radio station i102-104fm has recently been launched, [ when? ] Focused on the age group 18-34 in the Midlands and north-east. Moreover, the confirmation of Athlone Broadcasting roots, is a Christian-oriented station about to be launched throughout the country, using the 612 kHz band.

Athlone Community Taskforce and several members of Roscommon community radio station, RosFM has started broadcasting from Athlone area under the banner Athlone community radio. Their first broadcast was 15 March 2008 and broadcasts were originally set to run every Saturday and Sunday for the next 15 weeks until their temporary license expired. They got a 10-year license January 14, 2011 From the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland, and they currently broadcast on the frequency 88.4 FM. [40] [41]


Besides being home to Athlone Regional Sports Centre, the city has a variety of sports organizations. Namely, there are Athlone Town Football Club, who play their home games at the Athlone Town Stadium in Lissywollen, a stadium with a capacity of 5,000 people. Athlone Town Football Club won the League of Ireland Championship in 1981 and 1983 samtFAI Cup in 1924. The team also qualified for the 1975-1976 UEFA Cup, where they drew 0-0 against AC Milan.

The newly opened, ten million euros, Athlone IT International Arena, is now Ireland’s first world-class indoor athletics arena, boasting a floor area of nearly 10,000 square meters. [42] [43] The stadium was opened by Prime Minister Enda Kenny, and has been admired by sports legends Sonia O’Sullivan. It has also been hailed by Senator Eamonn Coghlan as “the best news in Irish athletics history.” [44]

Athlone host European Triathlon Championships in 2010, when about 5,000 athletes participated in the event. Alistair Brownlee, Britain won the event.Two years later he won a gold medal itriathlon at the Summer Olympics 2012 in London.

Athlone is home to several Gaelic football teams, including Tubberclair GAA, GAA Garry Castle and Athlone GAA, with St. Brigid (Roscommon) GAA and GAA Clann na nGael is outside Athlone itself. Garry Castle GAA qualified for the 2012 All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship for the first time in club history by beating Connacht Champions, St. Brigid GAA, in a completely Athlone semis. Garry Castle finally lost the final to Crossmaglen Rangers in a replay of the final, the first match has ended in a draw with a scoreline of 1-12 to 0-15.

Athlone is also home to the Buccaneers RFC, whose club’s grounds are in Dubarry Park. Dubarry Park, with a 10 thousand people capacity, is also home to Connacht Eagles, [45] the team that represents Connacht in the British and Irish Cup [46] and in all of Ireland inter-provincial championship.

The European sporting Athlone awarded the title of European City of Sport 2013. [47]


  • Earl of Athlone
  • Pat Barlow (1915-?) Professional soccer player.
  • Paul Brock (1989-) accordionist.
  • John Broderick (1924-1989) Irish writer.
  • James J. Browne, the current president of the National University of Ireland, Galway.
  • Michael Joseph Curley, (1879-1947) Catholic Archbishop and educator.
  • Stephen Donohoe, (1984-) jockey and sailors.
  • Thomas Duffy (1806-1868) recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Lisa Dwan, (1977-), actor.
  • Jimmy Elliott (1838-1883) Irish-American boxing world heavyweight champion from 1865 to 1868.
  • Thomas Flynn (1842-1892) an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross.
  • John Ellard Gore (1845-1910) astronomer, one of the founding members of the British Astronomical Association.
  • Rob Henshaw, (1993-) Irish rugby union player.
  • Declan Lynch, (1961-), novelist and playwright.
  • John McCormack (1884-1945) tenor.
  • Nicky McFadden (1962-2014) Teachta Dála.
  • Seán William McLoughlin, (1990) YouTube popular game commentator known as Jacksepticeye.
  • Stefan Molyneux, (1966-), the host of free radio.
  • TP O’Connor (1848-1929) journalist and member of parliament.
  • Caroline O’Donnell, (1974-), architect and writer.
  • Mary O’Rourke, (1937-), a politician of various ministries roles and a writer.
  • Richard Rothwell, (1800-1868) a nineteenth-century Irish portrait and genre painter.
  • Brendan Shine, (1947-) folk / country singer.
  • George Thomas Stokes (1843-1898) church historians.

Social matters

More information: Illicit drug use in Ireland

Athlone has long been the major center for heroin use outside of Dublin. [48] [49] A report by the Health Research Board described the areas “Athlone had an identifiable substance problematic.” The study showed many residents (in some areas of the city) had used heroin by their 18th birthday. [50] Athlone has serious problems with heroin and cocaine addiction. [51]

A report by the Midlands Regional Drug Task Force in 2005 reported that “Athlone town had become a ??” heroin black spot ?? “”. It then expanded to say that heroin is more accessible in Athlone than either Limerick or Cork.The report also discussed children as young as thirteen smoking heroin. The report suggests that heroin is “the easiest drug of all to get in town ??”. [52]Senior Midland Health Board official at the time, Bill Ebbitt, says that there are significant ecstasy use in the city, while it is ” no shortage of cannabis in any part of the midlands. ” [53] november 2, 2011 reported a Athlone judges that heroin was” causing carnage “and severe damage to the area. [54] as late as 23 August 2012, Athlone had the highest drug crime rate in the region. [citation needed ]

Athlone is often involved in high-profile drug seizures. [55] [56] [57] [58] [59]

Athlone has had several bomb threats in recent years, including an October 10, 2008, when a viable explosive device was found in the Athlone area. Any links to a feud between factions in the Midlands have been investigated by the Garda Síochána. [60] [61] On March 10, 2010 two viable pipe bombs were found outside two separate main shops in the city. The attacks later traced to disgruntled drug dealers in the area. [62] [63] [64] On 24 April 2012, the improvised explosive device found outside a private residence in the city. [65]All devices were made safe by Army bomb disposal teams.


Athlone is twinned with Chateaubriant, Pays de la Loire region of France.

See also

  • History Athlone
  • Athlone Pursuivant
  • Sean’s Bar
  • Mullingar
  • Tullamore
  • Corlea Trackway
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Midlands Gateway
  • Midland Railway Action Group
  • RTE Radio

Notes and references

  1. Jump up ^ PW Joyce. “Local historians describe it as the Ford of the Moon”. Archived from the original The 9 May 2005.
  2. Jump up ^ Athlone West Unban – LED
  3. Jump up ^ CSO – Census 2011 – Population small area.
  4. Jump up ^ FAQs Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  5. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures. .
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. (27 September 2010).
  8. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  9. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  10. Jump up ^ “July 5, 1691, from the army camp at Athloon (sic) letter from Godard van Reede, general Lieutenant their majesties in England combined forces on land and at sea in Ireland from 1690 to 1691, to his father, a multimedia webcast of a live broadcast of Ballinasloe Community Radio 102.8 FM “. July 10, 2004. Archived from the original March 12, 2012.
  11. Jump up ^ Fagan Jack “Sinn Fein (Kevin Street) Plan for new Ireland,” Irish Times June 29, 1972 (p. 1, 7).
  12. Jump up ^ placental Database for Ireland – the Barony of Brawny
  13. Jump up ^ official website of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise – St. Mary Parish
  14. Jump up ^ placental Database for Ireland – the Barony of Athlone South
  15. Jump up ^ Roman Catholic Diocese of Elphin – the parish of Ss Peter and Paul
  16. Jump up ^ Ruth Delany, the Shannon Navigation , Lilliput Press, Dublin in 2008.
  17. Jump up ^ “” (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ Abbey Road Studios Artist showroom | Athlone art and history Ltd.
  19. Jump up ^ Iwai – chronology.
  20. Jump up ^ “Athlone Town Centre – Stylish shopping in the heart of Ireland”. Athlone Town Centre shopping center. Hämtadsyv May 2015.
  21. Jump up ^
  22. Jump up ^ Sean’s Bar, Athlone – oldest pub in (4 August 2007).
  23. Jump up ^ [1] [ dead link ]
  24. Jump up ^ Athlone Castle now open | news | Athlone art and history Ltd. (6 November 2012).
  25. Jump up ^ Athlone new € 3.4 art gallery to open in the morning.Westmeath Independent . (28 November 2012).
  26. Jump up ^ Luan Art Gallery | Visual Arts | Athlone art and history (30 November 2012).
  27. Jump up ^ Daly, Mary (9 October 2014). “The Council confirm plans for the new city center bridge as part of the cycleway”. Athlone Advertiser.Pulled nine October 2014.
  28. Jump up ^ Campus Development. Athlone Institute of Technology ..
  29. Jump up ^ 2012 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (21 September 2012).
  30. Jump up ^ 2012 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (16 October 2012).
  31. Jump up ^ 2011 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (20 November 2011).
  32. Jump up ^ 2010 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (30 March 2010).
  33. ^ Jump up to: ab 2010 press releases. Athlone Institute of Technology.(12 May 2010).
  34. Jump up ^ 2010 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (1 March 2010).
  35. Jump up ^ 2009 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (21 January 2009).
  36. Jump up ^ 2009 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (25 August 2009).
  37. Jump up ^ “Euro-China trade hub in Athlone proposed”. Inside Ireland.Archived from the original November 26, 2010.
  38. Jump up ^ “€ 175 Asian trade hub in Athlone would create up to 1,500 jobs.” RTE News. May 1, 2012.
  39. Jump up ^ “Shannon – Home.” Shannon FM.
  40. Jump up ^ “BCI: Licensing: Radio: Applicants for temporary services.”Broadcasting Commission of Ireland.
  41. Jump up ^ “about us”. Athlone Community Radio. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  42. Jump up ^ Athletics: Athlone IT disclose € 10m indoor field of dreams “ (25 January 2013).
  43. Jump up ^ 2013 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (15 February 2013).
  44. Jump up ^ 2013 news releases. Athlone Institute of Technology. (23 January 2013).
  45. Jump up ^ Dubarry Park announced as the home of Connacht Eagles |Connacht Rugby website. (11 October 2012).
  46. Jump up ^ B & I Cup set to arrive in Connacht | Connacht Rugby website. (11 May 2012).
  47. Jump up ^ Athlone chosen as a European City of Sport. Westmeath Independent . (11 September 2012).
  48. Jump up ^ “Merchants Quay report confirms Athlone major heroin Center.” October 1, 2010. Taken 29 juni2015.
  49. Jump up ^ “Heroin” causing carnage, “said Athlone magistrate”.Westmeath Independent. 2 November 2011. Hämtad29 June 2015.
  50. Jump up ^ Irish drugs and alcohol research – heroin addiction in Athlone and Portlaoise. – Drugs and alcohol
  51. Jump up ^ “Dublin heroin use is still growing – report”. Raidió Teilifís Éireann.
  52. Jump up ^ McElwee, Niall; Monaghan, Gráinne (2005). “Darkness on the Edge of Town: Heroin use in Athlone and Portlaoise” (PDF). Midlands Regional Drug Task Force and Athlone Institute of Technology. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  53. Jump up ^ “problem pints – not the pot”. 24 April 2004.
  54. Jump up ^ “Heroin” causing carnage, “said Athlone magistrate”.Westmeath Independent.
  55. Jump up ^ “Man arrested over cocaine seizures.” Raidió Teilifís Éireann.25 January 2007.
  56. Jump up ^ “File to be sent to the DPP over € 52,000 Glasson drugs bust”.Westmeath Independent.
  57. Jump up ^ “Keena praises Garda drug seizures”. 4 December 2009.
  58. Jump up ^ “Two held over € 1.5 million drug seizure”. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 28 November 2009.
  59. Jump up ^ “Additional drug seizures in Athlone”. Raidió Teilifís Éireann.29 April 2007.
  60. Jump up ^ “Athlone” bomb “can be linked to the groups” feud “. Irish Times. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  61. Jump up ^ “Suspicious device found in Athlone”. Irish Times. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  62. Jump up ^ “Bombs found at Athlone head shops”. Irish Times. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  63. Jump up ^ ” ‘head shops goal of pipe bomb attack”. 11, 2010.
  64. Jump up ^ “Garda superintendent slams” reckless “pipe bomb action”.Westmeath Independent. 18 March 2010.
  65. Jump up ^ “explosive device found in Athlone”. Irish Times. Retrieved May 7, 2015.

Belvedere House and Gardens

Belvedere House and Gardens is a country house located near Mullingar, in County Westmeath, Ireland on the northeastern shore of Lough Ennell. It was built in 1740 as a hunting lodge for Robert Rochfort, 1st Earl of Belvedere by architect Richard Cassels, one of Ireland’s premier Palladian architects. Belvedere House, although not very large, architecturally significant because of its Diocletian windows and dramatic nineteenth century terracing. When Robert Rochfort decided to use the Belvedere as their main residence, he worked Barthelemij Cramillion the French Stuccadore, performing Rococo plasterwork ceilings which are among the finest in the country.

The landscaped demesne has the largest and most spectacular folly in the country, the jealous Wall , built to block the view of his estranged brother’s house nearby. There is also the Victorian walled garden and many hectares of forest. The house has been completely renovated and the grounds are well maintained, attracting some 160,000 visitors annually.


The house was originally built by Robert Rochfort as a retreat, after being imprisoned his wife in their former home on Gaulstown, for an alleged affair with his brother Arthur. Arthur later was tried and fined £ 20,000 as he could not pay. Arthur spent 18 years in prison creditors Board in Dublin but was released on Robert’s death. Robert built the Jealous Wall after falling out with his brother George, who lived on the adjacent farm at Tudenham. His wife was just released on his death 1774th

The estate went to his son, George Augustus Rochfort, 2nd Earl. He was MP for Westmeath 1761-1776 and High Sheriff of Westmeath in 1762. He left for England in 1798 and died in 1814. When his widow died in 1828, passed the Belvedere to her grandson Brinsley Butler, 4th Earl of Lanesborough. He rarely visited the Belvedere and it was then inherited on his death by his cousin Charles Brinsley Marlay 1847th

Charles moved into the house, and during his time there was responsible for the change of Diocletian window on the upper facade and addition of terracing. He commissioned Ninian Niven, curator of the Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin, to draw up plans for the Victorian walled garden.

In the period after World War II, Charles Howard-Bury, who was a soldier and mountaineer, restored houses and gardens. He never married and on his death in 1963, the estate was inherited by Rex Beaumont. Rex was Howard-Bury friend and companion for 30 years and sold the farm to Westmeath County Council in 1982 for £ 250,000.

After a long-pound restoration, the house and the garden opened to visitors.Belvedere also hosts weekend music festivals and intimate garden theater.


  • “Belvedere House, County Westmeath.” Ask about Ireland. Pulled 12/13/2012.
  • “Belvedere House Gardens & Park”. Pulled 12/13/2012.

County Westmeath

County Westmeath (/ w ɛ STM I D / West- meedh Irish: Contae na hIarmhíor simply a Iarmhí ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is part avMidlands region. It originally formed part of the historical Kingdom Meath ( Midhe ). Westmeath County Council is the government of the county, is the capital Mullingar.Befolkningen in the county is 88,396


After the Norman invasion of Ireland, was the territory of the Kingdom of Meath subsumed in the dominion of Meath and granted by King Henry II of England, in his capacity as Lord of Ireland, to Hugh de Lacy in 1172. After the failure of the male heirs, was dominion shared between Lacy large -grandchild. The western part was awarded Margery and her husband, John de Verdun, the son of Walter de Lacy, while the eastern part, centered on the Trim, was awarded Maud.

Geography and political subdivisions

Westmeath is the 20th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties by area and the 22nd largest in terms of population. [1] It is the sixth largest of Leinster’s 12 counties in size and the eighth largest in terms of population. It was named after the historic kingdom and the province of Meath, the county was the most western part. Westmeath was shired according Counties Meath and Westmeath Act of 1543. The Hill of Uisneach in the Barony of Moycashel is sometimes regarded as the fictitious geographical center of Ireland, even though the actual geographical center of Ireland Located in the neighboring County Roscommon. The top of Mullaghmeen is the highest point in County Westmeath. At only 258 meters making it the lowest county peak in Ireland.[2]

Local governments and politics

The headquarters of Westmeath County Council is located in Mullingar.There are currently 20 councilors. The three electoral areas of Westmeath’s Athlone (7 seats), Mullingar-Coole (7 seats) and Mullingar Kilbeggan (6 seats). [3] The Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, provided the framework for establishing Landstings throughout Ireland. The first meeting of Westmeath County Council was held April 22, 1899. [4]


Westmeath population growth has been stronger than the national average.[5] After the great famine, the population of Westmeath dramatically. It stabilized in the mid-20th century, and has continued to grow. Westmeath proximity to Dublin with good motorway facilities and frequent rail service has made commuting popular.
The largest city in the county is Athlone, followed by county town of Mullingar. Westmeath is the largest county by population of the Irish Midlands. Important commercial and trade centers include Moate, Kilbeggan, Kinnegad, Ballinahown, Delvin, rochfortbridge, Killucan and Rathwire and Castlepollard. According to the 2011 census, 51.9% of Westmeath households have at least one Irish speaker. [6]

Westmeath is one of the oldest counties in Ireland to have census in 1841.Some of data on the census has been digitized and maintained by the National Archives of Ireland. [7]

According to the last census of April 2011 Westmeath had a population of 86,164, consisting of 42.783 men and 43.381 women. The population of preschool age (0-4) was 6882, of primary school going age (5-12) was 10,111, and the high school will age (13-18) was the 7141st There were 9.796 people aged 65 years and older. The number of people aged 18 years or older was 63,112. [8]


Westmeath has a strong agricultural economy. Initially, there were development around the major market centers earth, Moate, and Kinnegad.Athlone developed because of its military importance and its strategic location on the main Dublin-Galway road over the River Shannon. Mullingar received great benefit from the development of Djurgarden. Canal facilitated cheap transport of products to Dublin, the UK and Europe. Athlone and Mullingar expanded further with the coming of the Midland Great Western Railway network in the nineteenth century.

Tourism in Westmeath is generally based on its many water amenities. The County lakes include Lough Derravaragh, Lough Ennell, Lough Owel, Lough Lene and Lough Ree .Both the Grand Canal and Djurgården flow through Westmeath, and River Shannon (Ireland main tourism waterway) has a modern inland port in Athlone.

Two large “greenway” project aims to improve cycle facilities. The Westmeath Section Dublin – Galway greenway is under construction and expected to be as far as Athlone to be completed in summer 2015. This part of the greenway travels along the old railway corridor between Athlone and Mullingar. [15] The Royal Canal Greenway takes tourists from the county border to Mullingar and then on to Longford. Those who want to use the Dublin-Galway Greenway will be able to transfer from Djurgarden route of the old railway corridor towards Athlone.

Industry development in Westmeath was based mainly on food and consumer products. Whisky is distilled in Kilbeggan and tobacco treated in Mullingar. The county has an extensive beef and dairy trade. More recently, the manufacturer Alkermes has located in Athlone. The eastern part of the county is home to commuters, many of them working on technology parks on the west side of Dublin.

Mullingar is known for the high quality of its beef. Weaned animals from the western part of the Shannon fattened for market on the lush grasslands of Meath and Westmeath.Boskapen also used to maintain the grasslands to sustain wildlife in the areas fringing the Bog of Allen.

Westmeath is home to many stud farms. Westmeath plains, covered by calcium-rich marl, contributes greatly to the calcification of foals bones during childhood and adolescence. Westmeath mares usually put in foal in the spring to facilitate summer growth. Pregnancy lasts about 335-340 days and usually results in one foal. Horses mature when they are about four years old.


Westmeath also has rail infrastructure with a number of trains passing through towns in the county. The Dublin-Westport / Galway railway line is also the county, with services from Dublin Heuston to Galway / Westport / Ballina between the commuter train stops at Athlone, while the Dublin-Sligo railway line stops at Mullingar. The line from Athlone via Moate railway station Mullingar can be opened for train from Galway to Dublin Connolly. Other major infrastructure projects and plans for the county include transportation 21st

Road transport

Roads are of good quality in the county. As part of Transport 21 infrastructure introduced by the government, both N4 and N6 roads have been upgraded to motorway or dual carriageway standard. All cities that these roads passed now past, such as Mullingar, Athlone, Moate and Kinnegad. Both Dublin and Galway are within commuting distance from Westmeath after the completion of the M6 motorway in December 2009.

  • Midlands (ATM) Gateway
  • National Development Plan
  • transport 21


Westmeath is an active athletic county. Westmeath GAA senior football team won the Leinster Senior Football Championship, Delaney Cup in 2004. They also won the National Football League competition Division 2 in 2001, 2003 and 2008. Westmeath senior hurling team has had much recent success winning the Christy Ring Cup in 2005, 2007 and 2010.

Athlone Town FC have won the League of Ireland Championship in 1980 and 1982, and the FAI Cup 1924th

Westmeath Ladies team has won the 2011 All-Ireland Intermediate Football.

Athlone Institute of Technology has a € 10 million international athletics arena, which opened in early 2013. The international arena has a footprint of 6,818m2 and a total floor area of 9,715m2. Some 850 tons of structural steel and 50,000 concrete blocks went into the construction of the facility that can accommodate 2,000 spectators. [16]

Westmeath Snooker Ranking tournaments officially recognized by the Republic of Ireland Billiards & Snooker Association is organized and run by St Marys Snooker Club Bishopsgate Street Mullingar.Rangordningen events in the Junior, Intermediate and Senior events are:

  1. Mull Open Snooker Championship
  2. Westmeath Open Snooker Championship
  3. St.Mary Classic Open Snooker Championship
  4. Midland Open Snooker Championship


Notes Westmeath native include:

  • Tony Allen, one half of the music duo Foster & Allen
  • The Blizzard, band
  • Arthur Booth-Clibborn,
  • Emmet Cahill, lead singer of the Irish group Celtic Thunder
  • Dr. Michael Joseph Curley, Archbishop of Washington
  • Joe Dolan, singer
  • Domnall Midi, King of Mide
  • Thomas Duffy, was awarded the Victoria Cross
  • Gormflaith No Flann Sinna, queen of Tara
  • Nuala Holloway, artist and former Miss Ireland
  • Niall Horan, a member of the boy band One Direction
  • James Lennon, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
  • Máel Sechnaill II, king of Mide and King of Ireland
  • John Count McCormack, tenor
  • John Joe Nevin, boxer
  • Niall mac Aed Ó hUiginn, poet
  • Michael O’Leary, CEO of Ryanair, businessman
  • Peg Plunkett, was a Dublin brothel keepers born here in about 1727
  • Walter Raleigh spent time at Killua Castle
  • Brendan Shine, Singer
  • Tuathal Techtmar, högkung
  • Field Marshal George Wade


  • Map
  • roundabout Castlepollard
  • Mullingar
  • Christ the King Cathedral, Mullingar
  • Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Athlone
  • Austin Friars, Mullingar
  • Mull Centre
  • The Royal Canal, Mullingar
  • Celtic cross to Columb
  • military facility, Mullingar
  • Lough Derravaragh & Knockeyon
  • Lough Ennell
  • Hill of Ben Forester
  • Columb Barack, Mullingar
  • 19th century concrete stile
  • 19th century concrete stile, (v1) Mass Path, Ranaghan Collins
  • Alternative 19th century concrete stile (v-2) the mass way, Ranaghan
  • Bell Lough Lene
  • Turgesius Island, Lough Lene
  • Sunset on Lough Lene
  • Cut, Lough Lene
  • Dublin Mullingar Train
  • Kiloutou, Mullingar
  • Church of St. Peter and Paul, Athlone
  • Delvin Castle

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Westmeath)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Westmeath
  • High Sheriff of Westmeath

Towns / Villages

  • Athlone
  • Ballinahown
  • Ballinalack
  • Ballykeeran
  • Bally
  • Ballynacargy
  • Bealnamulla
  • Castlepollard
  • Castle-Geoghegan
  • Clonmellon
  • Collins
  • Coole
  • Crookedwood
  • Delvin
  • Drumcree
  • Drumraney
  • Finnea
  • Front
  • Glassan
  • Horseleap
  • Kilbeggan
  • Killucan and Rathwire
  • Kinnegad
  • Milltownpass
  • Moate
  • Mount Temple
  • Moyvoughly
  • Mull county town
  • Multyfarnham
  • Raharney
  • Rathconrath
  • Rathowen
  • rochfortbridge
  • Rosemount
  • Stream
  • pliers
  • Tubberclare
  • Tyrrellspass


  1. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  2. Jump up ^ “Mullaghmeen Hill”. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Westmeath County Council. Archived from the original on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  5. Jump up ^ “demography” (PDF). Offaly County Council Development Plan 2009-2015. Archived from the original (PDF) October 30, 2008 is taken. 2008-06-28.
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^ “Westmeath Archives”.
  8. Jump up ^ “Westmeath Census 2011”.
  9. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  10. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  11. Jump up ^
  12. Jump up ^ from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved twelve August of 2010. Missing or empty (help) | title =
  13. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  14. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  15. Jump up ^ Westmeath County Council – Westmeath Royal Canal Greenway
  16. Jump up ^ “AIT International Arena.”

Christ Church Cathedral, Waterford

Christ Church Cathedral, Waterford  , or more formally, the  Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Christchurch  , is a cathedral of the Church of Ireland in Waterford City, Ireland. It is in the ecclesiastical province of Dublin.Former Cathedral of  the Diocese of Waterford  , it is now one of six cathedrals in the United Dioceses of Cashel and Ossory.

Ecclesiastical History

The first church on the site was built in the 11th century. This was replaced in 1210 by a Gothic cathedral. After the Irish Reformation, a new body established by the decree of the Irish Parliament to become the State Church of the Kingdom of Ireland. Church of Ireland, as it was called, is believed to hold the majority of church property (and so retained a large repository of religious architecture and other items, although some later destroyed). The significant majority of the population remained faithful to the Latin liturgy of Roman Catholicism, despite the political and economic benefits of membership in the state church. Christ Church Cathedral was then taken over in this way, Catholic followers were therefore forced to worship elsewhere.

In the 18th century, the city corporation recommended that the bishop build a new building. The architect was John Roberts, who was responsible for a large part of Georgian Waterford.  [2]

During the demolition of the old cathedral, a series of medieval investment was discovered in 1773. They were presented by the then Anglican Bishop, the Rt Revd Richard Chenevix to his Catholic counterpart, the most Revd Peter Creagh, and now kept in the Museum of Treasures Waterford and the National Museum of Dublin.  [3]

The current building has been described by architectural historian Mark Girouard as the finest 18th century church building in Ireland.  [2]


  • Michael Boyle (the elder), bishop of Waterford and Lismore (1619-1635)

See also

  • Bishop of Waterford
  • Bishop of Waterford and Lismore
  • Bishop of Cashel and Waterford
  • Bishop of Cashel and Ossory
  • Dean Waterford


  1. Jump up ^ Waterford News & Star – Waterford welcomes new Dean
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Christchurch Waterford”. Christchurch Waterford.Retrieved 21 February 2009.
  3. Jump up ^  Treasures of Britain and the Treasures of Ireland (1st ed.).London: Drive Publications for the Automobile Association. 1968. p. 631st

Waterford City

Waterford (from the Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr , which means “ram (weather) fjord”, Irish: Port Láirge , which means “LARAG port”) [2] is a city in Ireland. It is in the south east of Ireland and is part of the province of Munster. The city is located in the top of Waterford Harbour. It is the oldest [3] [4] and the fifth most populous city in Ireland. It is the eighth most populous city on the island of Ireland. Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for the city. Waterford is famous for Waterford Crystal, a legacy of its former glass industry.

According to the 2011 Irish census, there are 65,928 in Waterford Metropolitan District, but it does not include its suburbs in County Kilkenny and County Wexford. There are over 80,000 within a radius of the center 15 km away.

Geography and local authorities

With a population of 46,732, Waterford is the fifth most populous city in the state and the 32nd most populated area in the municipalities. [5]

After Municipal Reform Act 2014, Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for the city. The Agency came into force on 1 June 2014. Prior to this, the city had its own municipality, Waterford City Council. The new Council is the result of a merger of Waterford City Council and Waterford County Council. The Council has 32 representatives (councilors) elected from five electoral areas. The city itself constitute three of the voting areas – that when combined form the Metropolitan District of Waterford – and returns a total of 18 Council Waterford City and County Council. Residents in these areas are limited to voting for candidates who are in their ward for the local elections. The office of the Mayor of Waterford was founded in 1377. A mayor elected by the delegates from the two electoral areas in the Metropolitan District of Waterford each year, and there is no limit to the number of terms an individual can serve. Mary O’Halloran who was mayor in 2007-2008 was the first woman to hold the post. The current mayor John Cummins.

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of the Waterford constituency, which includes the county Waterford with the exception of the parts of the county near Clonmel located iTipperary South.[6] The constituency elects four deputies to the Dáil. There are no such limitations Assembly for this election and voters may vote for any candidate in the city and county.


Main article: History of Waterford

Viking raiders first established a settlement near Waterford in 853. This and all other longphorts was vacated in 902, after the Vikings pushed out of the native Irish. The Vikings re-established themselves in Ireland at Waterford in 914 led first by Ottir Iarla (Jarl Ottar) up to 917, and after that by Ragnall ua Ímair and UI Ímair dynasty and built what would be Ireland’s first city. Among the most prominent leaders of Waterford was Ivar of Waterford.

In 1167, Dermot MacMurrough, the deposed king of Leinster, failed in an attempt to take Waterford. He returned in 1170 with Cambro Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (known as Strongbow); together besieged and took the city after a desperate defense. In order to promote the Norman invasion of Ireland, King Henry II of England landed at Waterford in 1171. Waterford and then Dublin were declared royal cities, Dublin also declared capital of Ireland.

annalistic references

See Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI926.2 Fleet Port Láirge [came] over the country, and they settled on Loch Gair.
  • AI927.2 a slaughter of foreigners in Port Láirge [added] Cell Mo Chellóc by men of Mumu and foreigners in Luimnech.
  • AI984.2 A large naval expedition (?) Of the sons Aralt Port Láirge, and they and son Cennétig exchanged hostages there as a guarantee of both together allows a host to attack Áth Cliath. The men of Mumu mounted and proceeded to Mairg Laigen and foreigner won Uí Cheinnselaig and went to sea; and men of Mumu additionally devastated Osraige same year, and its churches and churches Laigin and fortifications were both waste and Like Pátraic, son of Donnchadh, was released.
  • AI1018.5 death Ragnall son Imar, King of Port Láirge.
  • AI1031.9 Cell Dara and Port Láirge burned.
[View] Historical population

Throughout the Middle Ages, Waterford was Ireland’s second largest city after Dublin. In the 15th century Waterford repelled two pretenders to the English throne: Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. As a result, King Henry VII gave the city its motto: Urbs Intacta Manet Waterfordia (Waterford remains untapped city) .

After the Protestant Reformation, Waterford remained a Catholic city and participated in the Confederation of Kilkenny – an independent Catholic government from 1642 to 1649. This was ended abruptly by Oliver Cromwell, who brought the country back under English rule; his nephew Henry Ireton finally took Waterford in 1650 after a major siege. [13]

The 18th century was a time of great success for Waterford. Most of the city’s best architecture appeared during this time. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of the Cavalry Barracks in the late 18th century. [14]

In the early 19th century, Waterford City is considered vulnerable and the British government built three Martello towers on the Hook Peninsula in order to strengthen the existing Fort in Duncannon. During the 19th century, great industries such as glass making and ship building thrived in the city.

The city was represented in Parliament in Britain 1891-1918 by John Redmond MP, leader (January 1900) of the Irish parliamentary party.Redmond, then leader of the pro-Parnell faction of the party, defeated David Sheehy 1891. In 1911, Br. Jerome Foley, Br. Dunstan Drumm and Br. Leopold Loughran left the Waterford Malvern, Australia. Here they founded a Catholic college that still exists today. [15] In July 1922 Waterford was the scene of fighting between the Irish government and the Irish Republican troops during the Irish Civil War.

Notable features

The city lies at the head of Waterford Harbour (Irish: Loch DA Chaoch orCuan Phort Láirge ). [4] The city’s motto Urbs Intacta Manet Waterfordia ( “Waterford remains the untaken city”) was granted by King Henry VII of England in 1497 by Waterford refused to recognize the claims of pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck to the English throne. [4] Waterford subjected to two sieges in 1649 and 1650, during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland .There withstood the first siege but capitulated in the second beleaguered Henry Ireton 6 August 1650. [13] [16]

Reginald’s Tower is the oldest urban civic building in Ireland, and the oldest monument to retain its Viking name. To this day, it still is Waterford’s most famous landmark. It is believed to be the first building in Ireland to use mortar. The Suir which flows through Waterford City, is the starting point for the city’s long maritime history. The location downstream from Waterford, where Barrow Nore and Suir join is known in Irish as Cumar na dTrí Uisce ( “the confluence of three waters”). Waterford Port has been one of Ireland’s major ports for over a millennium. In the 19th century shipbuilding was a major industry. The owners of the Neptune Shipyard, denMalcomson family, built and operated the largest fleet of iron steamers in the world between the mid 1850s and the late 1860s, including five trans-Atlantic passenger ships. [2]

Today, Waterford is famous for Waterford Crystal, a legacy of its former glass industry. Glass or crystal, manufactured in the city from 1783 until early 2009, when the factory was there shut down after the bankruptcy of Waterford Wedgwood plc. [17] The Waterford Crystal visitor center in the Viking Quarterback opened in June 2010 [18] after the intervention of Waterford City Council and Waterford Chamber of Commerce.

Waterford is also known to be the “starting point” of one of the largest European airlines (as of 2013) – Ryanair’s first flight was a 14-seater Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft flying between Waterford and Gatwick. [19]


The climate in Waterford, like the rest of Ireland, which is classified as a maritime temperate climate ( Cfb ) according to the Köppen climate classification system. It is mild and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of extreme temperaturer.Länen in Waterford area often called the “Sunny South East ‘. The hottest months of the year is June, July and August with temperatures of about 17-22 degrees. Waterford is rain throughout the year, and the wettest months are October, November, December and January.


Public buildings

  • Waterford Museum of Treasures, form the hub of Viking Triangle, previously housed in the Granary at Merchant Quay, now housed in two museums on the mall. The first is located in the 19th-century Bishop’s Palace, the Mall, which houses items from 1700 to 1970. This was opened in June 2011. The second museum is located next to the Bishop’s Palace shows the medieval history of the town and Chorister Hall. [21]
  • As above, includes The Mall Now Reginald Tower, The House of Waterford Crystal, Christ Church Cathedral and the Theatre Royal, among many other historical landmarks.
  • Reginald tower, the oldest urban civic building in the country, located on the Quays / The Mall, Waterford. It has performed many functions over the years and today is a civic museum.
  • A museum on Mount Zion (Barrack Street) is dedicated to the story of Brother Edmund Ignatius Rice and the history of the Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers. Along with the museum is a cafe and a new chapel. The new museum was designed by Janvs Design [22]
  • Waterford Municipal Art Gallery has been housed in Greyfriars since 2001. It is the permanent home to the municipal art collection, “A gem among municipal collections”, over 200 paintings by Irish and international artists, including pieces from renowned artists such as Jack B Yeats Paul Henry, Charles Lamb and Louis Le Brocquy. Garter Lane Arts Centre is located in two separate restored buildings on O’Connell Street. A new contemporary gallery called Soma opened in 2009 at the mall.
  • Theatre Royal [23] at The Mall, built in 1876, as part of a renovated part of the City Hall. It is a U-shaped Victorian theater, seating about 600 people.
  • Garter Lane Arts Centre [24] is housed in two preserved 18th century buildings on O’Connell Street. Garter Lane Gallery, the 18th-century building by Samuel Barker includes gallery and Bausch & Lomb Dance Studio and Garter Lane Theatre is based in the beautiful Quaker Meeting House, built in 1792. The theater was renovated and refurbished in 2006 and now includes a 164-auditorium.
  • St John’s College, Waterford was a Catholic seminary was established in 1807 for the diocese, in the 1830s, the university established a mission to Newfoundland in Canada. It closed as a seminary in 1999 and 2007, much of its land and buildings were sold to Reply condominium association. [25]


  • Theater company . There are three theater companies, the Red Kettle, Spraoi and Waterford Youth Arts. Red Kettle is a professional theater company based in Waterford who regularly performs in Garter Lane Theatre. Spraoi [26] is a street theater company based in Waterford. It produces Spraoi festival, and has participated regularly in Waterford and Dublin St. Patrick’s Day parades, often win the best float. In January 2005, the company staged its biggest and most prestigious production to date, “awakening”, Opening Show for Cork 2005 European Capital of Culture. Waterford Youth Arts (WYA), [27] formerly known as Waterford Youth Drama, founded in August 1985. The WYA has grown from voluntary efforts of two people and 25 young people, a fully structured youth arts organization with a paid staff and 400 young people participate Every week. Notes playwrights include Jim Nolan, who founded the Red Kettle Theatre Company. [28]
  • Libraries There are three public libraries in the city, all operated by Waterford City Council: Central Library, Lady Lane; Ardkeen Library, in Ardkeen shopping center on the Dunmore Road; and Browns Road Library, Paddy Brown’s Road. Central Library, or Waterford Public Library, opened in 1905. It was the first of many Irish libraries funded by business Andrew Carnegie (Carnegie funded 2,509 libraries worldwide).It was renovated in 2004 for its centenary.
  • The Barrack Street Concert Band A band was founded in 1870 and is one of the only bands in Ireland to have uninterrupted service through a civil war and two world wars. They have a long and rich history. In 1982 changed its name to The Barrack Street Concert Band. The new name reflected a change in instrumentation with flutes, saxophones, oboes and a full percussion section, which led to more members joining, and a wider variety of music played. In 1994 the band won the All Ireland Senior Military Band Championships in Wesley collage Dublin led by Niall O’Connor and 10 years later, in 2004, the band won the South of Ireland senior military band Championships in Clonakilty Co. Cork under the leadership of the band’s current musical director Mark Fitzgerald.
  • Waterford Film For All (WFFA) [29] is a non-profit film society whose purpose is to offer an alternative to the cineplex experience in Waterford. WFFA conducts much of its business påWaterford Institute of Technology (WIT) campus.
  • BioOdeon cinema . In the Central Railway Station complex [30]Omniplex Cinema Patrick Street


  • The Waterford Film Festival was founded in 2007 by local filmmaker Stephen Byrne. His goal was to bring something new Water’s arts and cultural life, promote local, national filmmakers and writers, but in particular independent
  • Waterford Music Fest , which was launched in 2011, is an outdoor, one day music event held in the heart of Waterford City in the summer. In 2011 Waterford Music Fest, organized by Music Events Ireland was headined by 50 Cent, Flo Rida and G-Unit. Over 10,000 people attended the event in 2011. [31]
  • Spraoi festival (pronounced “Spree”) [26] organized by Spraoi Theatre Company, is a professional festival and street art organization that takes over the center of Waterford on the August Bank Holiday weekend. It attracts crowds of over 80,000 people to the city.
  • Waterford International Festival of Light Opera [32] is an annual event held in the Theatre Royal since 1959. It has recently been rebranded as the Waterford International Festival of Music and now takes place in November. [33]
  • Tall Ships Festival , held in Waterford in 2005, marked the start of the Tall Ships Race in the same year. The Suir river gave mooring site of the Tall Ships (up to 90) edged the north and south quays for almost a week.The festival attracted in the region of 450,000 people to the city.Waterford hosted the start of the Tall Ships Race back in 2011, [34]
  • Waterford Harvest Food Festival takes place annually in September along the quays. The festival offers visitors demonstrations, workshops and excursions to local producers, many markets, wine tastings and dinners.
  • Patrick’s parade takes place annually on 17 March.
  • There are two art festivals of note in the city: Imagine Arts Festival [35]in October and The Fringe Arts Festival in September.
  • Waterford Winterval an annual Christmas will be held at the center. [36]



RTÉ’s southeastern studio is in town.

Waterford Local Radio (WLR FM) are available on 94.8FM on the coast, 95.1FM in the county and on 97.5FM in Waterford City WLR FM is Waterford’s local radio station. Beat 102 103 is a regional youth radio station broadcast over southeastern Ireland, it is based on Ardkeen, along with sister station, WLR FM.


The Waterford News & Star based on Gladstone Street in Waterford City. It covers Waterford city and county. It is now published in tabloid format.

Munster Express has its offices on the quay in Waterford City and covering stories from all over the city and county. It switched to tabloid format in 2011.

Waterford Mail is a free newspaper that comes out on Thursdays, has an office on O’Connell Street. Its circulation is currently 20,000 and it delivers to homes and businesses across the city and county.

Waterford Today is an advertising supported free newspaper. It is delivered to most homes in the Waterford area and is also available in many stores throughout the eastern part of the county. Its newly renovated offices on the mayor Walk in the city.

Waterford News and Star are in the stores on Tuesdays, the Munster Express , and Waterford today is in stores on Wednesdays.

Tourist attractions

The city of Waterford consists of various cultural quarters, the oldest of which is known as the Viking Triangle. This is the part of town surrounded by the original 10th century fortifications, which is triangular in shape with its apex at Reginald towers. Although this was once the site of a thriving Viking town, the center has shifted to the west, over the years, and it is now a quiet and peaceful area, dominated by narrow streets, medieval architecture, and civic spaces. During the past decade, a number of restaurants open in the High Street and Henrietta Street, taking advantage of the charming character of the area. A large part of the Water impressive architecture found in the “Viking Triangle”.

In the 15th century, the city was enlarged with the construction of an exterior wall on the western side. Today Waterford retains more of its city walls than any other city in Ireland, with the exception of Derry, whose walls were built much later. Tours of Waterford city wall daily.

The quay, once called by historian Mark Girouard “the noblest quay in Europe,” is a mil long from Grattan Quay to Adelphi Quay, but the Adelphi Quay is now a residential area. It is still a major focal point for Waterford, commercially and socially, and the face that Waterford presents to those traveling into the city from the north. Near Reginald’s Tower William Vincent Wallace Plaza, a monument and amenity built around the time of the millennium as the memory of the Waterford born composer.

John Roberts Square is a pedestrianized area that is one of the main focal points of Waterford’s modern commercial center. It was named after the city’s most famous architect, John Roberts and was formed from the intersection of Barronstrand Street, Broad Street and George Street.Det is often referred to locally as Red Square, because of the red paving that was used when the area was first pedestrianized. A short distance east of John Roberts Square is Arundel Square, another square with a fine commercial tradition, the City Square shopping center opens onto.

The old Waterford Crystal Visitor Center which was completed in late 2009. A new center opened in June 2010.

Ballybricken, in the west, just outside the city walls, believed to have been Waterford’s Irishtown, a type of settlement that often formed outside Irish cities to house the Vikings and Irish that had been expelled during the Norman invasion of Ireland. Ballybricken is an inner city area with a long tradition, centered around Ballybricken hill, which was a large, open market square. Today has been transformed into a green, civic space, but the Bull Post, where livestock was once bought and sold, standing still as a relic of the hill past.

The Mall is a fine Georgian street built by the Wide Streets Commission to extend the city southwards. It contains some of the city’s finest Georgian architecture. The People’s Park, Waterford’s largest and finest park, is located nearby.

Ferry Bank in County Waterford Waterford single suburb north of the river. It contains a village center of its own. Waterford City Council has granted permission to a number of major retail development in Ferry. It has been completed and the second is currently under construction and expected to be completed in January 2009.

In April 2003, an important site combining a 5th century Iron Age and 9th century Viking settlement was discovered in woods near the town, which seems to have been a Viking town that precedes all such settlements in Ireland. [37]

Waterford Crystal is manufactured in Waterford but in early 2009 the company moved the operations to the European continent. A new Waterford Crystal visitor center was opened on 22 June 2010.

Waterford’s oldest pub (pub) is just outside the old “Viking Triangle”. T & H Doolan of 31/32 George Street has been officially active and open to the public for over three hundred years. The official register of licenses dates back to the 18th century, but the premises are believed to be nearly five hundred years in age. An important part of the structure includes one of the original city wall, nearly 1,000 years old, which can be seen in the lounge of the building.


Waterford is the main city in Ireland’s south-eastern region. Historically Waterford was an important trading port which brought much prosperity to the town throughout the city’s eventful history. Waterford Port is Ireland’s closest deep water harbor to mainland Europe, handling about 12% of Ireland’s foreign trade value. [38] Water’s most famous export, Waterford Crystalär an internationally known and highly sought after product produced in the city from 1783 to 2009 and again from 2010 to the present. Some of the places where Waterford Crystal can be seen include New York, where Waterford Crystal made 2,668 crystals for the famous New Year’s Eve ball is released every year in Times Square, Westminster Abbey, Windsor Castle and the Kennedy Center, Washington, [39] [40] throughout its history, Waterford Crystal employed thousands in the city and surrounding areas.

Agriculture also played an important part in Waterford economic history.Kilmeadan about 5 km from the city was also home to a highly successful cooperative. The farmers in the area benefited greatly from the sales of their products (mostly butter and milk) to the co-op. In 1964, all cooperatives in Waterford amal game, and registered as Waterford Co-op. This led to the construction of a cheese factory on a green field site opposite the village shop, and Kilmeadan cheese was to become one of the most recognized and successful brands cheddar in the world. This is obvious because the brand won the gold and bronze medals at the World Cheese Awards in London in 2005.

Today, [ when? ] , Is Waterford location of a number of multinational companies, including GlaxoSmithKline, Bausch & Lomb, Nypro Healthcare, Genzyme, Hasbro, Teva Pharmaceuticals and Honeywell International.

The Irish economic downturn from 2008 onwards has had a major negative impact on the economy Water. A number of multinational companies have been closed from the recession, including Waterford Crystal and TalkTalk, which has led to high unemployment.


Main article: Transport in Waterford


The M9 motorway, which ended on 9 September 2010, connecting the town to Dublin. [41] The N24 road linking the city to Limerick city. The N25 road linking the city to the city of Cork. The route crosses the River Suir Bridge over the River Suir. This cable-stayed bridge is the longest single span bridge in Ireland at 230m. The route continues east to Rosslare Harbour.


  • Waterford Railway Station is the only station in the county Waterford. It is run by Iarnród Éireann and provides 8 daily round trip to Dublin and a Monday-Saturday commuter services to Limerick Junction via Clonmelmed onward connections to Limerick, Ennis, Athenry, Galway, Cork and Killarney, Tralee. [42] [43] line between Waterford and Rosslare Harbour ceased passenger service in 2010 and replaced by bus Éireann route 370 station is directly adjacent to Waterford Port (Belview). A freight yard is located on the Dublin / Limerick end of the station, which is served by freight traffic such as cargo shipping and hours traveling to and from Dublin hamnoch Ballina


Bus services operate throughout the city center and across the region.

  • Bus Eireann route number 4 provides a regular service to Dublin.
  • Route 40 provides an hourly service to Cork continues to Killarney and Tralee. This road also serves Rosslare Harbour and Wexford.
  • Route 55 connects to Limerick, Clonmel, Cahir and Tipperary.Connections can be made on the Limerick Galway, Ennis and Shannon Airport

Waterford City routes provided by Bus Éireann and local operator Kenneally’s 601 berth Ballybeg [44] 602 Patrick Street Saint John Park [45] 603 berth Waterford Institute of Technology [46] 604 berth Carrickpherish roundabout[47] 605 Oakwood- Waterford Regional Hospital via center [48]

607 Ardkeen (Tesco) -Slieverue through the center (bell tower) [49] 617 Bally Gunner-Slieverue through the center (bell tower)

JJ Kavanagh offers daily services to Dublin Airport via Carlow, while Dublin Coach serves Cork, Kilkenny and Dublin on its way M9.


Daily bus service operated by Eurolines (National Express and Bus Eireann) to the United Kingdom as a service 890 to Pembroke Dock, Kilgetty, Carmarthen, Pont Abraham, Cardiff, Bristol, Reading and London Victoria [50]


Waterford is 9 km outside the city center.

Car rental

Car hire in Waterford offered by Europcar, Hertz and Enterprise.


The city is served by 21 primary schools [51] and 9 high schools. [52]

There is a third institution level in Waterford: Waterford Institute of Technology., Who applied for university status [53] Waterford College of Further Education previously called the Central Technical Institute (CTI), is a Post Leaving Certificate Institute is located on Parnell Street, Waterford. It was founded in 1906 and thus celebrated its centenary in 2005. [54]

Mount Zion Secondary and elementary school at Barrack Street was founded by Edmund Ignatius Rice and schools have seen many prestigious students pass through its doors. [55]

The Quaker co-educational boarding school, Newtown School is located in Waterford, east of the city center.

Water College is a secondary school in Waterford. The school was founded in 1892 on the banks of the River Suir to Waterford’s “first classical school, and still provide a high school education to boys from Waterford City, County and the surrounding area.

De La Salle College is a secondary school in Waterford. With more than 1,000 students and over 70 employees, is the largest in the county. It ranks as a highly sought after college in the city. Founded by the brothers of De La Salle in 1892, now serves as a Catholic school for boys. [56]



There are three athletics clubs in Waterford; Westwater AC Waterford Athletic Club and Ferry Bank Athletic Club. In June, Waterford Viking Marathon held. [57]


Waterford is home to several association football clubs, including Waterford United, Benfica and WSC Johnsville FC. Waterford United are members of the League of Ireland, Benfica is one of the oldest women’s football clubs in Ireland, while Johnsville FC is a remarkable academic club. Notes Waterford footballers include Davy Walsh, Paddy Coad, Jim Beglin, Alfie Hale, Eddie Nolan, John O’Shea and Daryl Murphy. John Delaney, chief executive of the Football Association of Ireland, is originally from Waterford.


Local Gaelic Athletic Association clubs include: Mount Sion GAA, GAA Erin own, De La Salle GAA, Roanmore GAA, GAA Ferry and Bally Gunner GAA.


Waterford Boat Club, c.1915

Waterford Boat Club is the oldest active sports club in Waterford was founded in 1878. [58] is on Scotch Quay Club competes in the Irish Rowing Championships. [59] In 2009, several Waterford rowers have been selected to row for Ireland.


There are two rugby clubs in Waterford City: Waterford City RFC [60] and the Water RFC [61]

inline hockey

Waterford is home to two inline hockey clubs: HC Shadows Waterford and Waterford Vikings. Both clubs are playing in the Irish Inline Hockey League.

American Football

Waterford Wolves are the only American football club in Waterford. They play their home games at Waterford Regional Sports Centre.


Electoral Division Population
County Waterford
Waterford City East 22340
Waterford City South 20681
Tramore and Waterford City West 22907
TOTAL 65928
Aglish 871
Kilculliheen 4811
Dunkitt 1058
Rathpatrick 1149
Kiltenanlea 1811
Portnaskully 1128
Poll Rone 1406
Ullid 1014
Ross Inan 776
Ballincrea 316
Kilcolumb 579
TOTAL 14919
County Wexford
Ballyhack 1302
Kilmokea 814
TOTAL 2116


Notable people

  • Luke Wadding (1588-1657), Franciscan friar, author and historian
  • Charles Clagget (1740-ca.1795), composer and inventor
  • Thomas Wyse (1791-1862), politician and diplomat
  • William Hobson (1792-1842), Irish-born New Zealand politician and writer
  • William Vincent Wallace (1812-1865), composer
  • Thomas Francis Meagher (1823-1867), politician and soldier
  • Patrick Mahoney (1827-1857), soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Laetitia Marie Wyse Bonaparte (1831-1902), French poet
  • Edmund Fowler (1861-1926), soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Richard Mulcahy (1886-1971), soldier and politician
  • Richard Harry Graves (1897-1971), Irish-born Australian poet and novelist
  • John Condon (British Army soldier) (c1896-1915), soldier
  • John Keane (1917-1975), hurler
  • Val Doonican (1927-2015), singer and TV presenter
  • Brendan Bowyer (born 1938), Showband singer
  • Louis Stewart (guitarist) (born 1944), jazz guitarist
  • Gilbert O’Sullivan (born 1946), singer and songwriter
  • Seán Dunne (1956-1995), poet
  • Sean Kelly (born 1956), former professional cyclist
  • Angela Kerins (born 1958), business
  • Jim Beglin (born 1963), association football player
  • Mario Rosenstock (born 1971), comedian and musician
  • John O’Shea (born 1981), football player
  • Fiona O’Brien (born 1988), rugby player

See also

  • Blaa – A doughy, white bread roll particular Waterford City
  • Johns River – A river running through Waterford City.
  • List of Waterford people
  • Little Island – An island in Waterford City.
  • People’s Park – Water’s largest park and green space.
  • The Three Sisters: The River Barrow, the River Nore and Suir
  • Waterford Crystal – world famous glass factory
  • Woods – Early Viking Settlement discovered near Waterford in 2003 on the banks of the River Suir
  • List of twinning in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Statistics – Population in each Province, County and City, 2011
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab Discover Waterford , of Eamon McEneaney (2001).(ISBN 0-86278-656-8)
  3. Jump up ^ “About Waterford City.”
  4. ^ Jump up to: abc in 23 July 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Irland.pp. 186-191.
  6. Jump up ^ “Electoral (Amendment) Act 2009: Schedule”. Irish Statute Book database. Retrieved 29 September of 2010.
  7. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  8. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  9. Jump up ^ “”.
  10. Jump up ^
  11. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  12. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab a new history of Cromwell’s Irish campaign , Philip McKeiver (2007). (ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4)
  14. Jump up ^ “Heritage Walk Map” (PDF). Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  15. Jump up ^ Steve Stefanopolous, St. Joseph Malvern , 2003 held by the De La Salle College Malvern Archive
  16. Jump up ^ Discover Waterford, of Eamon McEneaney (2001). (ISBN 0-86278-656-8)
  17. Jump up ^
  18. Jump up ^ “Waterford Crystal visitor center opened”. Irish Times. June 6, 2010.
  19. Jump up ^ “Tony Ryan Obituary”. 4 October 2007.
  20. Jump up ^ “Temperature (Tycor, Waterford).” ECA & D. September 2012.
  21. Jump up ^ “Waterford Museum of Treasures in the oldest town in Ireland – Waterford Treasures”.
  22. Jump up ^ “Janvs – Award winning designers of museums, galleries and heritage centers.”
  23. Jump up ^ “Theatre Royal – Entertainment in Waterford, Ireland”
  24. Jump up ^ “Entertainment in Waterford, theater, movies, music, Garter Lane Arts Centre.”
  25. Jump up ^ St. John’s College sold respond with Jamie O’Keeffe Munster Express, Published Friday, April 20, 2007 at 12:00
  26. ^ Jump up to: ab “Home – Spraoi”. Spraoi.
  27. Jump up ^ “Waterford Youth Arts in Waterford, Ireland”
  28. Jump up ^ Jim Nolan – Current Member |ämtat July 23, 2013.
  29. Jump up ^ WFFA – Waterford Film for all
  30. Jump up ^ “ODEON – Waterford”. United Cinemas International (Ireland) Limited. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  31. Jump up ^ 10,000 tickets sold for Waterford Music Fest 2011. Munster Express Online (29 July 2011). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  32. Jump up ^ “Waterford Festival”.
  33. Jump up ^ Waterford International Music Festival | 1 to 13 May .. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  34. Jump up ^ Tall Ships Race 2011, Waterford Tall Ships Festival Ireland (3 July 2011). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  35. Jump up ^ Imagine Arts Festival, Waterford,ämtat July 23, 2013.
  36. Jump up ^ “Water Winterval – Ireland Christmas”.
  37. Jump up ^ 9th century Settlement are available on Woods –
  38. Jump up ^
  39. Jump up ^ Beeson, Trevor (2002). Priests and prelates: The Daily Telegraph Office Work death. London: Continuum Books. pp. 4-5. ISBN 0-8264-6337-1.
  40. Jump up ^ Morris, Shirley (April 2007). Interior – A full course. Global Media. pp. 105. ISBN 81-89940-65-1.
  41. Jump up ^ Irish motorway Info. “M9 motorway”
  42. Jump up ^
  43. Jump up ^
  44. Jump up ^
  45. Jump up ^
  46. Jump up ^
  47. Jump up ^
  48. Jump up ^
  49. Jump up ^
  50. Jump up ^ “Kerry Airport”.
  51. Jump up ^ Primary school in Waterford City – Education Ireland
  52. Jump up ^ secondary schools in Waterford City – Education Ireland
  53. Jump up ^ WIT must prove it is worth at university level
  54. Jump up ^ “Welcome to Waterford College of Further Education”
  55. Jump up ^ “Mount Zion School Waterford Ireland”.
  56. Jump up ^ “De La Salle College Waterford”.
  57. Jump up ^ Super User. “Waterford Viking Marathon 2015 Saturday, June 27”
  58. Jump up ^ “”.
  59. Jump up ^ “Irish Rowing Championships”.
  60. Jump up ^ “Waterford City Rugby Club”.
  61. Jump up ^ “Water Rugby Football Club.”
  62. Jump up ^

Irish Round Towers

Irish round towers (Irish: Cloigtheach (singular), Cloigthithe (plural) – literally “watch house”) are early medieval stone tower of a type found mainly in Ireland, two in Scotland and one påIsle of Man. Although there is no specific agreement on their purpose, it is thought that they may have been bell tower, refuges, or both.

In general, there is near a church or monastery, the door to the tower facing the west entrance of the church. In this way it has been possible to determine without excavation the approximate location of the lost churches, where the tower still exists.

Construction and distribution

Survivors towers ranging in height from 18 meters (59 feet) to 40 meters (130 feet) and 12 meters (39 feet) to 18 meters (59 feet) in circumference; that at Kilmacduagh is the highest surviving in Ireland (and inclined 1.7 meters (5 ft 7 in) of the perpendicular). [1] The masonry will vary depending on dates, the earliest examples are uncut rubble, while the latter is neatly assembled stone work. The lower portion is solid masonry with a single door raised two to three meters above, often accessible only by a ladder. In some, two or more storeys (or signs of where such floors were), usually of wood, and it is believed that there were ladders in between. The windows, high up, the slits in stenen.Locket (roof), is made of stone, usually conical in shape, although some of the towers are crowned by a later circle of pinnacles.

The main reason for the entrance-way, built above ground level was to maintain the structural integrity of the building rather than for defense. The towers were generally built with very little foundation. Tower påMonasterboice have an underground of only sixty centimeters. To build the door at ground level would weaken the tower. The buildings still stand today because of its round shape is resistant gale and the part of the tower over the entrance is packed with earth and stones.

The distance from the ground to the raised door opening is somewhat larger than that from the first floor to the other; Thus, large, stiff step would be too large for the door. Excavations in the 1990’s, discloses pole holes, confirms that the wooden staircase built. However, the use of ladders before the construction of such steps are not excluded.

The towers were probably built between the 9th and 12th centuries. In Ireland, some 120 examples are believed to have once been; most are in ruins, while 18-20 is almost perfect. There are three examples outside of Ireland. Two are in the North East of Scotland: the Brechin Round Tower and Abernethy Round Tower, and the other is in Peel Castle on St Patrick’s Isle, is now tied to the Isle of Man.

Known examples can be found on Devenish Island, and Glendalough, while in Clondalkin is the only Round Tower in Ireland still retaining its original cover. With five towers each, County Mayo, Kilkenny and Kildare has the most. Mayo round tower is the Aughagower, Balla, Killala, Meelick and Turlough, while Kildare’s located on Kildare Cathedral (which is 32 meters (105 feet) high), and also on Castledermot, Oughter Ard, Taghadoe (near Maynooth) and Old Kilcullen . The only known round tower with a hexagonal base is Kinneigh in County Cork, built in 1014.The Round Iower Ardmore, Co.Waterford, believed to be the last built in Ireland (12 C) has the unique feature of the three-string courses around the outside. [2]


The purpose of the towers has been somewhat unclear until recently. A popular hypothesis in the past was that the towers were originally a fort against the Raiders Vikings. If a lookout posted in the tower saw a Viking force, the locals (or at least the priests) would come in, with the help of a ladder that can be raised from within. The towers would be used to store religious relics and other plunderables. [3] However, there are many problems with this hypothesis. Many towers are being built in places that are not ideal for mapping the surrounding countryside and would not function effectively as a watchtower for incoming attacks.

Moreover, the doors of these towers were wooden and therefore easily burned down. Moreover, because of the almost chimney-like design of the towers, the smoke from the burning door would have been made up in the tower causing some passengers to choke. In fact, the round tower at Dysert O’Dea and Aghagower signs of fire damage around the door. There are also reports that people were burned to death in the round tower.

Therefore, it is more likely that the main reason for the round tower was to serve as a belfry, imitating the continental European style of the clock tower that was popular at the time. [ Citation needed ] The Irish word [4] [5] for the round tower , cloigtheach , literally means the chart indicates, as noted by George Petrie in 1845.

However, the Irish language greatly developed over the last millennium.Dinneen [4] notes alternate pronunciations, cluiceach and cuilceach forcloigtheach . The close pronounced cloichtheach means stone or stone building. [4] The round tower seems to be the only significant stone in Ireland before the advent of the Normans in 1167 AD. Even the physical evidence pointing towards a clock tower is strong, we have to wait for confirmation from the original sources as signs of medieval manuscripts.

Modern towers symbolic

In Ireland

Daniel O’Connell’s grave in Glasnevin Cemetery had a round tower built above it after his funeral 1847th

At what is now the Irish National Heritage Park at Ferrycarrig in Wexford, is a 19th century copy of a circular tower. It was erected in memory of Wexford men, who fell in the Crimean war.

At St Ita’s Hospital in Portrane Co. Dublin is a replica round tower was built in 1844 as a memorial to George Hampden Evans of his wife.

In Knockmealdown mountains in County Waterford is another memorial in the form of a 18 meters high round tower. It was erected in 1935 on the site where Liam Lynch, the military leader of the anti-treaty Irish Republican Army during the Irish Civil War are believed to have fallen 1923rd

Ulster History Park in County Tyrone has a copy of a circular tower. The Chaine Memorial Tower in Larne Co. Antrim is a lighthouse made in the style of a round tower. It was built to celebrate James Chaine, a former MP for Antrim.

outside Ireland

Another “revival” round tower built in 1997 in the island of Ireland Peace Park in Belgium, as the war memorial to the soldiers on the island of Ireland who died, were injured or missing from the First World War. The 110-foot (34 m) tower [6] is in the traditional design of an Irish round tower and partly built with stone from a former military barracks in Tipperary. [7]

At Saint Mary’s Cemetery in Milford, Massachusetts is a round tower built of Milford granite in the late 19th century as a memorial to central Massachusetts “Irish immigrants, of which thousands are buried there. In 2002, Tony Ryan, born in Tipperary, built a round tower on the Castleton Lyons Stud in Kentucky. [ Citation needed ]

The second church to be built on the site of St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church in East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, was completed in December 1900, has a 13-meter Irish round tower on the east side. The tower is based on the entrance to King Cormac’s Chapel at Rock of Cashel in Tipperary, built in 1137. [8] The structure is now part of the Catholic Leadership Centre, which is run by the Catholic Education Office Melbourne.

List of Irish round towers

The following is a list of survivors Irish round towers, excluding modern reconstructions.

Picture Place County Province Condition Height Remarks
Aghadoe Kerry Munster Incomplete 5.4 meters (18 feet)
Aghagower Mayo Connacht Incomplete 16 meters (52 feet) Other doorway introduced later at ground level
Aghaviller Kilkenny Leinster Incomplete 9.6 meters (31 feet) Other doorway introduced later at ground level
Ardmore Waterford Munster Complete 30 meters (98 feet) Has three string courses and a noticeable lean
Ardpatrick Limerick Munster Incomplete 3 meters (9.8 feet) Barrow [9]indicated that Down 1655 survey marks the site of a tower of three stories with a broken topp.Fitzgerald and McGreggor writing in 1826 states that it was a nice tower “fell a few years ago”A stump 3m high at its highest point, surrounded by the rubble of its collapse, is all that remains.Barrow speculate that some of the stones from the tower used to build the adjacent wall surrounding the cemetery, including one on top of the entrance 1.07m long with a raised strip which may have threshold stone from the tower door.
Ardrahan Galway Connacht Incomplete 3 meters (9.8 feet)
Armoy Antrim Ulster Incomplete 10.8 meters (35 feet)
Balla Mayo Connacht Incomplete 10 meters (33 feet) Other door probably introduced later at ground level
Castledermot Kildare Leinster Complete the cornice 20 meters (66 feet) The conical cap was replaced with towers and tower is attached to a church (which was built later)
Clondalkin Dublin Leinster Complete 27.5 meters (90 feet) Strengthened by a stone buttresses, the stone steps to the door. It is the smallest of the known tower with a base diameter of only 4.04 m
clones Monaghan Ulster Complete the cornice 22.9 meters (75 feet)
O’Rourke tower
McCarthy tower
Offaly Leinster incomplete
19.3 meters (63 feet)
17.7 meters (58 feet)
Two towers a short distance from each
O’Rourke: full-height capless;has 8 windows at the top
McCarthy connected to a church
Cloyne Cork Munster Complete the cornice 30.5 meters (100 feet) The conical cap has been replaced with battlements
In Devenish Fermanagh Ulster Complete 25 meters (82 ft) Climbable.Romanesque console heads below cap
Devenish II Fermanagh Ulster Incomplete 0.5 meters (1 foot 8 inches) Foundation tower directly adjacent to Devenish In
Donaghmore Meath Leinster Complete the cornice 26.6 meters (87 feet) Full height without cover
Dromiskin Louth Leinster Incomplete 15.2 meters (50 feet) A conical cap was added to the remainder of the tower
Drumbo Down Ulster Incomplete 10.25 meters (33.6 feet)
Drumcliffe (near Ennis) Clare Munster Incomplete 11 meters (36 feet)
Cliff (näraSligo) Sligo Connacht Incomplete 9 meters (30 feet)
Drum Lane Cavan Ulster Incomplete 12 meters (39 feet) Two indistinct carvings of birds can be identified 2m up on the north side of the tower
Faughart Louth Connacht Incomplete 0.05 meters (2.0 inches) Only a single circular course of large stones remain
Glendalough Wicklow Leinster Complete 30.5 meters (100 feet) Nearby Saint Kevin’s Church contains a miniature round tower
Grangefertagh Kilkenny Leinster Complete the cornice[10] 30 meters (98 feet) Full height without cover, located in the parish of Johnstown
Inish Cealtra (iLough Derg) Clare Munster Incomplete 22.3 meters (73 feet)
Inishkeen Monaghan Ulster Incomplete 12.6 meters (41 feet) The top has been sealed with bricks and cement
Kells Meath Leinster Complete the cornice 26 meters (85 feet) Full height without cover
Kilbennan Galway Connacht Incomplete 16.5 meters (54 feet)
Kilcoona Galway Connacht Incomplete 3 meters (9.8 feet)
Kildare Kildare Leinster Complete the cornice 32 meters (105 feet) climbable; the conical cover has been replaced with battlements, romanesque decoration around the door opening
Kilkenny Kilkenny Leinster Complete the cornice 30 meters (98 feet) climbable; the conical cap has been replaced with battlements
Killala Mayo Connacht Complete 25.5 meters (84 feet) There is a noticeable bump about halfway up the tower
Killeany / Aran Islands Galway Connacht Incomplete 3:02 meters (9.9 feet)
Kilmallock Limerick Munster Incomplete 3 meters (9.8 feet) Only the lower 3 m of the tower is original, what is above (the tower of the Collegiate Church) is a late medieval additions / remodeling
Killinaboy Clare Munster Incomplete 3.5 meters (11 feet)
Kilmacduagh Galway Connacht Complete 34.5 meters (113 feet) The highest position of the old round tower. It has 11 windows (more than any other tower) and the door is 8m from the ground (higher than any other tower).Leaning 1.02m from the vertical.
Kilree Kilkenny Leinster Complete the cornice 27 meters (89 feet) The conical cap has been replaced with battlements
Kinneigh Cork Munster Complete the cornice 24.5 meters (80 feet) Have a hexagonal base and a sealed top
Liathmore / Leigh Tipperary Munster Incomplete 0.01 meters (0.39 inches) Discovered in 1969; only 2.6 m foundations remain (unusually deep for an Irish round tower)
Lusk Dublin Leinster Complete the cornice 26.6 meters (87 feet) Full height without lid; is attached to a church (which was built later)
Maghera Down Ulster Incomplete 5.4 meters (18 feet) Stump with a large hole in the side
Meelick Mayo Connacht Incomplete 21 meters (69 ft)
Mollaneen (Dysert O’Dea Monastery) Clare Munster Incomplete 15 meters (49 feet)
Nendrum Down Ulster Incomplete 4.4 meters (14 feet)
Carrigeen (Dysert monastery) Limerick Munster Incomplete 21 meters (69 ft) Romanesque decoration around the door opening
Monasterboice Louth Leinster Incomplete 28 meters (92 feet)
old Kilcullen Kildare Leinster Incomplete 11 meters (36 feet)
oran Roscommon Connacht Incomplete 3.9 meters (13 feet) Largest base diameter of any known original Irish round tower of 6 m
Oughter Ard Kildare Leinster Incomplete 9.5 meters (31 feet)
Ram Island Antrim Ulster Incomplete 12.8 meters (42 feet)
Rathmichael Dublin Leinster Incomplete 1.9 m (6 ft 3 in)
Rattoo Kerry Munster Complete 27.4 m Includes a Sheela na Gig
Roscam Galway Connacht Incomplete 10.98 meters (36.0 feet) 7 levels of putlog holes clearly visible
Roscrea Tipperary Munster Incomplete 20 meters (66 feet)
Scattery Island Clare Munster Complete with cornice, with a partially truncated cap 26 meters (85 feet) Doorway is at ground level
Seir Kieran Offaly Leinster Incomplete 2.6 meters (8 feet 6 inches)
St Mullin’s Carlow Leinster Incomplete 1 meter (3 feet 3 inches)
St. Patrick’s Rock (näraCashel) Tipperary Munster Complete 28 meters (92 feet) Attached to a church (which was built later)
Steeple (näraAntrim) Antrim Ulster Complete 28 meters (92 feet)
sword Dublin Leinster Complete 26 meters (85 feet) Have a deformed top floor, which is topped by a stone cross
Taghadoe Kildare Leinster Incomplete 19.8 meters (65 feet)
Timahoe Laois Leinster Complete 29 meters (95 feet) Romanesque decoration around the door opening
Tory Island Donegal Ulster Incomplete 12.8 meters (42 feet)
Tulla Herin Kilkenny Leinster Incomplete 22.5 meters (74 feet)
Turlough Mayo Connacht Complete 22.9 meters (75 feet)




See also

  • Broch
  • Chaine Memorial, a relatively modern tower lighthouse at Larne in style with a round tower.
  • pele tower
  • Rock of Cashel


  1. Jump up ^ Alan Van Dine, Unconventional Builders , Ferguson Doubleday, 1977, p. 29, 34
  2. Jump up ^ as obseerved
  3. Jump up ^ Peter F. Stevens, “One of a kind: America’s Irish Round Tower”, World of Hibernia , June 22, 1998
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b c Patrick S. Dinneen, an Irish Swedish Dictionary , Educational Company of Ireland, Dublin, 1927
  5. Jump up ^ Tomás de Bhaldraithe, English-Irish Dictionary , a GUM, Dublin, 1959
  6. Jump up ^ “The Tower of Peace” World of Hibernia , December 1998, quoted in the Find Items
  7. Jump up ^ British Military Garrison – Tipperary Co. Tipperary Ireland (retrieved January 31, 2010)
  8. Jump up ^ [1]
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b The round towers of Ireland George Lennox Barrow 1979
  10. Jump up ^
  11. Jump up ^ The Irish round tower-Origins and Architecture explored – Brain Lalor 1999
  12. Jump up ^ Ordnance survey in County Londonderry of Britain.Ordnance Survey, Thomas Colby, Sir Thomas Aiskew Larcom (Gart).
  13. Jump up ^ Observations on a journey through the kingdom of Ireland – Thomas Dineley (1681)
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b c d The Annals of the Kingdom of Sweden – John O’Donovan (1856)
  15. Jump up ^ a topographical Dictionary of Ireland: Consists of several counties; cities, neighborhoods; Company, Market and town; Parishes and most important villages with historical and statistical descriptions: Embellished with engravings of weapons in towns, bishoprics, Corporate Cities and Towns; and seals Several municipal companies, Volume 2 (1849)
  16. Jump up ^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 5-1867
  17. Jump up ^ The entire works Sir James Ware of Ireland, Volume 1 – by Sir James Ware (1739)
  18. Jump up ^ The towers and temples of ancient Ireland – Marcus Keane (1867)
  19. Jump up ^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland LXXVII- O. Davies (1948)


  • Brian Lalor (1999), The Irish Round Tower: Origins and architecture are explored , ISBN 1-898256-64-0
  • Roger Stalley (2000), the Irish round towers , ISBN 1-86059-114-0
  • T. O’Keeffe (2004), Ireland Round Towers. Building, rituals and landscapes of the early Irish Church , ISBN 0-7524-2571-4
  • Barrow, George L. (1979). The Round Towers of Ireland: A study and Gazette. University Press of Ireland. ISSN 0906187443rd
  • George Petrie (1845), the ecclesiastical architecture Ireland: An Essay on the Origins of the round towers in Ireland
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). ” Article name needed “. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Ardmore, County Waterford

Ardmore (Irish: Aird Mhor , meaning “great height”) is a seaside resort and fishing village in County Waterford, Ireland, not far from Youghal on the south coast of Ireland, with a population of about 330, although this varies with the tourist season. It is believed to be the oldest Christian settlement in Ireland. Saint Declan lived in the region at some time in the period 350-450 AD and Christianised the area before the arrival Saint Patrick.

In September 2014, Ardmore on a list of Ireland’s top tourist cities consists of Fáilte Ireland. [1]


Ecclesiastical History

At the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111, was a recognition given to the Diocese of Ardmore, is said founded by Saint Declan, one of the Munster saint is said to have preceded Saint Patrick bringing Christianity to Ireland. He was regarded as a patron saint of Deisi East Munster. [2] The Bishop of Ardmore swore allegiance to Henry II of England at Cashel, as a suffragan of the Archbishop in 1171. The last reference to an independent bishop in Ardmore dates to 1210, when Innocent III, it appears as one of Cashel eleven suffragan dioceses. [3]

No longer a residential bishop, Árd Mór is currently specified by the Catholic Church as an ordinary look. [4]

The church, which is now called for Ardmore and the Grange , is the Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore. St Paul’s, an old Church of Ireland church in the village, is part of the parish Youghal.

church ruins

On a hill above the village is a well-preserved 30-m-high, 12-century round tower and the ruins of a cathedral dating from the 12th and 13th centuries [5] [6] with an adjacent 8th century oratory. One of the outer walls of the cathedral are some stone sculptures collected from a previous building 9th century. The carvings include a very early picture of a harp, images of Adam and Eve in the garden and a representation of “Solomon’s judgment”. The cathedral also contains two Ogham stones, resting in small alcoves. Some parts of the original structure can still be seen in the building. The present church Ireland church located near this complex.

Round tower and the ruins of St Declan’s church, Ardmore.

  • Ardmore Village
  • Ardmore Peninsula
  • Ardmore Peninsula
  • Ardmore Peninsula
  • Ardmore Peninsula
  • Ardmore Declan Place
  • Ardmore Church
  • Ardmore Church
  • Ardmore Church
  • Ardmore Bay
  • Round Tower of Ardmore (schematic)
  • Ardmore round tower on the crest of the County Waterford

maritime history

In recent decades, Ardmore lost its status as a fishing village fishing laws became more restrictive, and the traditional way of life received little consideration of EU and national legislators. Vital port development remains unpaid and larger vessels can not use the existing berths because of a lack of depth. But a small number of fishermen retain some of the old fishing practices as they continue to fish from Ardmore.

The Samson , a crane ship was wrecked on Ram Head, near the village, during December 1st storm in 1987 as it was being towed from Liverpool to Malta.Its wreck is now a popular diving spot. There are many other older wrecks in the bay area, including Marechal de Noailles , Bandon , Peri , Scotland ,Sextusa and Peg Tranton , and more recently, Anne Sophie , and Fee des Ondes. The remaining keel later wreck can still be seen at low tide on the beach.


The village has two hotels, a number of pubs and restaurants, a seasonal gas station, a jetty and slipway and a shop. There are also one or two sports and a primary school. Here is a mil-long beach, usually referred to as Main Beach and several other beaches, such as Goat Island, Ballyquin, Curragh, and Whiting Bay. Ardmore is a popular seaside resort, but has had difficulty maintaining its Blue Flag beach status because of an outdated sewer systems (early work on updating the system began in 2006) and modern agricultural practices that result in runoff from fields and then into the Gulf, especially in the village at the end of the beach. Paradoxically, the lack of a suitable modern sewage system slower pace of residential development in Ardmore compared to some other seaside villages in southeastern thus preserving much of its charm. Recently, a new hotel was completed, replacing the older Cliff Hotel. [ Citation needed ] In 1992, this village was the overall winner of the Irish Tidy Towns Competition.

There is a cliff path begins near Cliff House Hotel and ends back in the main street. The walk, which has the marker posts erected along the road passes an old converted Coast Guard Station, St Declan Cell and Holywell, a ruined church, the wreckage of Samson , an abandoned sjöbevaknings lookout from 1939-1945 and another, much older, utsiktstorn.Längre away there is another good thing about stone chapel, called Fr. O’Donnell’s Well. The Round Tower Complex is top of the mountain above the village.


  • The writer Molly Keane lived in Ardmore for many years and was buried there after her death in 1996. [7] She is buried next to the Church of Ireland church.
  • The American writer Nora Roberts has founded three of her books in Ardmore, making it a popular destination for American tourists.
  • The author and journalist Fergal Keane spent many family summer holiday in Ardmore, which he describes as “heaven on earth”. [8]
  • The British writer and radical journalist Claud Cockburn moved to Ardmore in 1947. [9]

Thurston family writer was once the owner of the house “Maycroft” and a plaque to this effect is mounted on the wall. Some of their novels were in places very similar to Ardmore.


The local Gaelic Athletic Association club is Ardmore GAA. Seamus Prendergast, a member of the club is also a member of Waterford hurling team and Wayne & Niall Hennessy members of the county football panel. A number of other players also play on the inter-county level U21. Seamus Keating has represented Ireland at U18 level in Rugby Union.


Ardmore is served daily by Bus Éireann route 260 linking it to, among other things, Youghal, Midleton and Cork. Until 2010, it was also served by route 362 which linked it to Waterford via Dungarvan. [10]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Ireland’s Top 10 tourist cities announced” 8 September 2014.
  2. Jump up ^ Johnston, Eleven (2004). “Munster, saints (act. C .450- c0,700).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press, September 2004. Accessed: July 2014.
  3. Jump up ^ Aubrey Gwynn and RN Hadcock, medieval monasteries: Ireland: with an addition to the early sites (Longmans, 1970), p. 62.
  4. Jump up ^ annuario pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838
  5. Jump ^ JT Smith, “Ardmore Cathedral” in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries in Ireland (vol. 102, no. 1, 1972) p. 10th
  6. Jump up ^ Peter Harbison, “architectural sculpture from the twelfth century in Ardmore” Irish Arts Review Yearbook (Vol. 11, 1995), pp. 100-101.
  7. Jump up ^ Thomas Jr., Robert McG. (24 April 1996). “Molly Keane, 91, a novelist, described the Anglo-Irish Gentry” .The New York Times.Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  8. Jump up ^ Irish Times August 20, 2008, page 13, an Irishman diary, Hugh Oram
  9. Jump up ^ Ann Morrow, picnic in a foreign country, Grafton Books, 1990
  10. Jump up ^

County Waterford

Waterford (Irish: Contae Phort Láirge , the English name comes from the Old Norse Vedrafjörður ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is part of the South East region and is also of the province of Munster. It is named after the city of Waterford, which derives from the Old Norse name Veðrafjǫrðr orVedrarfjord . There is an Irish-speaking area, Gaeltacht na nDéise in the southwestern part of the county. Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county at large, including the city, is 113,795 according to the census of 2011.

Geography and political subdivisions

County Waterford has two mountain ranges, the Knockmealdown mountains and the Comeragh Mountains. The highest point in the county Knockmealdown, at 794. It also has many rivers, including Ireland’s third longest river Suir (184 km); and Ireland’s fourth longest river, the Blackwater River (168 km). There are over 30 [ citation needed ] beaches along Water volcanic [citation needed ] coastline. A large stretch of the coast, known as the Copper Coast has been designated UNESCO Geopark, a place of great geological importance. The area around the Ring (An Rinn) is a Gaeltacht, an Irish-speaking area.

Waterford City is the county seat, before the merger of the two Waterford authorities in June 2014 Dungarvan was the county seat [1] of Waterford County Council.


There are eight historic baronies in the county: Coshmore and Coshbride, Decies-in-Drum, Decies-without-Drum, Gaultiere, Glenahiry, middle third, Upper Third and Waterford City.

Towns and Villages

  • Abbey Side Affane, Aglish, Anne Town, a Rinn, Ardmore
  • Ballinacourty, Ballinameela, Ballinamult, Ballinroad, Ballybeg, Ballybricken, Bally Lower, Upper Bally, Ballydurn, Bally Gunner, Ballylaneen, Ballymacarbry, Ballymacart, Ballynaneashagh, Ballysaggart, Ballytruckle, Bilberry, Bunmahon, Butlerstown
  • Cappoquin, Carrickbeg, Carriglea, Cheekpoint, Clash More, Clonea-Power, Clonea Strand, Colligan, Coolnasmear, Crooke
  • Dungarvan, Dunhill, Dunmore East
  • dunhill
  • Faha, Faithlegg, Fins, Ferry Bank, Fews, Four Mile Water
  • Glencairn, Grange
  • Helvick Head
  • Kilbrien, Kilgobinet, Guy, Killea, Kilmacthomas, Kilmanahan, Kilmeaden, Kilrossanty, Kilwatermoy, Kinsalebeg, Knockanore
  • Lemybrien, Lisduggan, Lismore
  • Mahon Bridge, Minehead, Modeligo, Mothel, Mount Congreve, Mount Mellaray
  • New city
  • Old Parish
  • Passage East, Portlaw
  • Rathgormack
  • Sliabh gCua, Stradbally
  • Tallow, Tramore, Touraneena, Tourin, Tycor
  • Waterford, Whitechurch, Whiting Bay, Woods
  • Villiers Town


Waterford is colloquially called “The Deise” pronounced “day-sha” (Irish: An Deise ). Sometime between the 4th and 8th centuries, a tribe of native Gaelic people called Deisi have run from the southern county Meath / Kildare North, conquer and settled there. The ancient principality on the Deise today is roughly coincides with the current Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore.

The westernmost of baronies are “Decies Drum” and “Decies without Drum”, separated by drum Fineen hills. [8]

There are many megalithic tombs and ogham stones [9] in the county. The Viking influence can still be seen by Reginald Tower, one of the first buildings to use a brick-and-mortar construction method in Ireland. Woods was a settlement dating back to the 9th century discovered 5.5 kilometers west of Waterford city. It was the largest settlement outside of Scandinavia and the only large-scale 9th century Viking settlement discovered so far in Western Europe. Other architectural features are the product of the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland and its effects.

Local governments and politics

1 June 2014 Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for Waterford. The authority was formed after the merger of Waterford City Council and Waterford County Council. The merger occurred as a result of municipal Reform Act 2014. Each municipality is ranked as the first level local administrative units NUTS 3 southeastern region of Eurostat purposes.There are 31 LAU 1 units in Ireland. The local authority is responsible for some local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing.

The county is part of the South constituency for the application of the EU elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the two constituencies: Waterford and Tipperary South. Together back seven deputies (TDs) to the Dáil. The Electoral (Amendment) Act 2009 defines Waterford constituency as “county of Waterford, except the part thereof, incorporated in constituency Tipperary South ,. And the city of Waterford “[10]


Gaeltacht na nDéise is a Gaeltacht area of Co. Waterford consists of the parish of An Rinn and a Sean Phobal . Gaeltacht na nDéise is 10 km from the town of Dungarvan, has a population of 1,784 people (2011 census) and covers a geographical area of 62 km 2 . According to the comprehensive linguistic study of the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht (revised), the proportion of daily Irish speakers in Gaeltacht na nDéise was 46.04% (2014). [11]

See also

  • High Sheriff of County Waterford
  • Lord Lieutenant of Waterford
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Waterford)
  • Saint Declan


  1. Jump up ^ “Waterford County Council website.”
  2. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  3. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.”. Pulled 08/08/2014.
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘. 2010-09-27. Pulled 08/08/2014.
  6. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  7. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  8. Jump up ^ Egan, PM (20 November 2004) [1893]. “Early Waterford History 2. Decies”. History of Waterford. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
  9. Jump up ^ “Prehistoric Waterford graves, dolmens and standing stones”.
  10. Jump up ^ “Electoral (Amendment) Act 2009: Schedule”. Irish Statute Book database. Retrieved 29 September of 2010.
  11. Jump up ^

The Ulster American Folk Park

The Ulster American Folk Park is an outdoor museum just outside Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. The museum tells the story of three centuries of Irish emigration. With over 30 exhibit buildings to explore, visitors embark on a journey that takes them from the thatched cottages Ulster, on board a full scale emigrant sailing ship, to the log cabins of the American Frontier. With costumed guides to chat and traditional crafts to see, focusing their historical story of those who left Ulster for America in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The museum is part of National Museums Northern Ireland. [2] [3] [4] [5]

In the museum there are many carefully restored original exhibits buildings relating to local families. The park has been developed around the Mellon House, the birthplace of Irish-American bank and attorney Thomas Mellon, founder of the Mellon banking dynasty. This house and its outbuildings remain in its original location. Visitors can taste samples of traditional Irish and Pioneer American foods as they stroll around the museum including freshly baked soda bread and pumpkin pie all made of fireplaces and grills of the exhibition buildings. The museum also includes agricultural displays and a variety of pets.

The park is open all year, except for some holidays.


The demonstrations taking place show up day-to-day tasks and expertise of those who lived in a time like blacksmithing, candle-dipping, embroidery, spinning, printing, fireplace cooking and so on. The museum runs a lively program of events and exhibitions that connect to their collections. The museum’s current temporary exhibition “Titanic: Window on Emigration” looks at the stories of some of the Irish emigrants who traveled on the Titanic and includes a recreation of a third-class cabin. The museum also hosts many international exhibitions in recent years, including Fighting Irish from the Irish Arts Center in New York that showcased the influence of Irish emigrants in the sport of boxing, and Warriors of the Plains from the British Museum, which explored the fascinating world of Native North ~~ POS = TRUNC US ~~ POS = HEAD COMP Inidians. Special events highlight the culture of both new world and old world, such as the US Independence Day, Halloween, Easter and of course Saint Patrick’s Day. Crucible of emigrant music is celebrated with a three-day Bluegrass Music Festival every September.

Museum Visitor Centre houses a café and shop as well as the permanent exhibition “The Emigrants” which introduces the history of emigration from Sweden to America before visitors aboard their trip around the open-air museum and along the Emigrant. There is free parking on site.


Research and education

The input section provides accommodation for up to forty-six people, a restaurant, frequented Information Center and the Center for Migration Studies (CMS). CMS has an attached library and offers, together medUniversity of Ulster and Queen’s University of Belfast, graduate and undergraduate courses, as well as customized and shorter courses; all courses the study of Irish migration from 1600 to the present. The specialist research library contains about 10,000 volumes, over 50 magazines, maps, audiovisual materials, and a collection of primary source documents (the Irish Emigration Database) that is searchable on the computer. The center is open to visitors during basic office, and closed during the holidays.

Old World

The old world region includes the entire streets original houses, an original printing press, a bank, an old police barracks, ancient Castle National School, and two kyrkor.Centralt for this region is the childhood home of Thomas Mellon, judge and founder of the Pittsburgh banking dynasty.

Some of the two-up, two-down house in one of the reconstructed streets in the park were transported in their entirety from Sandy Row, off the Donegall Road in Belfast, and other buildings have been transported from elsewhere in the province.

New World

Combining parts of the park Old and New World is Ship and dock gallery, which includes Brig Union , a full-size replica of the sailing ship immigrant.

The historic atmosphere continues in the new world area, which has a recreated old American street with a tinsmith display and the original interior of the Virginia General Store. Beyond the street starts to limit the trip with a stop at the 1720s Fulton stone house, painstakingly settled in Lancaster County and rebuild here.Other original boundary house that you encounter in a journey through the “American” part of the museum is an Appalachian log from Washington County Western Pennsylvania, 1830 West Virginia Richard McCallister home away from Cabell county, and soon opened a brick plantation house built by Francis Rogan in the early 19th century near Nashville in Tennessee.

See also

  • Public Record Office of Northern Ireland
  • Ulster Folk and Transport Museum
  • Ulster Museum
  • Ulster Scots
  • National Museums Northern Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Ulster American Folk Park draws greatest speech ever.”Northern Ireland Executive. 04.30.2008. Pulled 07/09/2008.
  2. Jump up ^ [1]
  3. Jump up ^ [2]
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^

County Tyrone

County Tyrone (from Irish: Tír Eoghain , meaning “land of Eoghan”) is one of the six historic counties of Northern Ireland. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, and is located within the historical province of Ulster. It is no longer used as an administrative division of the municipalities, but retains a strong identity in popular culture.

Bordering on the southwest shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3155 km ² (1218 sq mi) and has a population of about 177,986, with its county seat is Omagh.


The name Tyrone derived from the Irish Tír Eoghain , meaning “land of Eoghan” the name of the conquests made by Cenél nEógain from the provinces Airgíalla and Ulaid. [5] Historically, it was anglicised as Tirowen orTyrowen , which is closer to the Irish pronunciation .


Main article: List of Kings of Tír Eógain
1608 during the revolt O’Doherty areas of the country was looted and burned by the forces of Sir Cahir O’Doherty after his destruction of Derry. But O’Doherty’s men avoided the estates of the recently fled the Earl of Tyrone runtDungannon, fear Tyrone anger on his return from exile. [13] Historically Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, and comprised part of the day County Londonderry east river Foyle. The majority of County Londonderry was carved by Tyrone between 1610-1620 when the land went to the Guilds of London to set the profit system based on natural resources available there. Tyrone was the traditional stronghold of the various O’Neill clans and families, the strongest of the Gaelic Irish families in Ulster, surviving in the seventeenth century. The ancient principality of Tír Eoghain, the legacy of O’Neill covered the whole of the current counties Tyrone and Londonderry, and the four baronies Inishowen West, East Inishowen, Raphoe North and South Raphoe in County Donegal. [12]


With an area of 3,155 square kilometers (1,218 sq mi), is the largest County Tyrone in Northern Ireland. The flat peatlands in eastern Tyrone bordering the banks of the largest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, rising gradually to more mountainous terrain in the western part of the county, the area around the Sperrin Mountains, the highest point is Sawel Mountain at an altitude of 678 m (2,224 ft). The length of the county, from the mouth of the River Blackwater in Lough Neagh to the western point near Carrickaduff hill is 55 miles (89 km). The width, from the south, southeast of Fivemiletown, to the northeastern corner near Meenard Mountain is 37.5 miles (60.4 km); provides an area of 1260 square miles (in 1900). [12]Annaghone claims to be the geographical center of Northern Ireland.

Tyrone is connected by land to the county of Fermanagh in the south, the south Monaghan, Armagh in the southeast, Londonderry in the north; and Donegal in the west. Lough Neagh in the east it borders the County Antrim.It is the eighth largest of Ireland’s thirty-two counties by area and the tenth largest by population. [14] It is the second largest of nine traditional Ulster counties by area and the fourth largest by population. [15]


It is one of four counties in Northern Ireland currently has a majority of the population from a Catholic community background, according to the census of 2011. In 1900, County Tyrone had a population of 197,719, [12] , while in 2011 was 177,986.


Main article: List of places in County Tyrone

big Cities

(population of 18,000 or more and 75,000 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Omagh

Medium cities

(population of 10,000 or more and 18,000 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Cooks
  • Dungannon
  • Strabane

Small towns

(population of 4,500 or more and 10,000 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Coalisland

Between settlements

(population of 2250 or more and in 4500 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Castlederg


(population of 1,000 or more and for 2250 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Ardboe
  • Carrickmore
  • Dromore
  • Fintona
  • Five
  • moy
  • Newtownstewart
  • Zion Mills

small villages

(population of less than 1,000 at the 2001 census) [16]

  • Altamuskin
  • Altmore
  • Ardstraw
  • Artigarvan
  • Augher
  • Aughnacloy
  • Ballygawley
  • Ballymagorry
  • Benburb
  • Beragh
  • Brockagh
  • Caledon
  • Clady
  • Clogher
  • Clonoe
  • Derryloughan
  • Derrytresk
  • Donaghmore
  • Donemana
  • Drumquin
  • Edenderry
  • Eglish
  • Erganagh
  • Eskra
  • Evish
  • Glenmornan
  • Gortin
  • Greencastle
  • Killyclogher
  • Loughmacrory
  • Kildress
  • Plumbridge
  • Pomeroy
  • Stone
  • Stewart
  • Tamnamore
  • Trillick
  • Tullyhogue
  • Victoria Bridge



Main article: Barony (Ireland)

  • Clogher
  • Lower Dungannon
  • Dungannon Middle
  • Upper Dungannon
  • omagh East
  • omagh West
  • Strabane Lower
  • Strabane Upper


Main article: List of civil parishes in County Tyrone


Main article: List of townlands in County Tyrone

Future rail Revival

There is the future possibility of the line to resume Dungannon station from Portadown. [17]


Major sports in Tyrone’s Gaelic games, association football and rugby union.[ Citation needed ]

  • Gaelic football is the most popular sport in the county with Gaelic football is more widely played than hurling. The Tyrone GAA football page has had great success since 2000, won three All Ireland titles (2003, 2005 and 2008), they have also won fourteen Ulster titles (1956, 1957, 1973, 1984, 1986, 1989, 1995, 1996, 2001 , 2003, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2016) [18]and two National League titles (2002 and 2003). [ citation needed ]
    • Underage Gaelic football team has also had great success on the field, both provincial and national level – to win the All-Ireland Minor Football Championship seven times (the past, even in 2010) and All-Ireland Under-21 football team four times. [ Citation needed ]
  • Football Association also has a large following. Omagh Town FC were members of the Irish football league until they folded in 2005 because of financial problems. Dungannon Swifts FC competes in NIFL Premiership – elitserien.Andra teams include NIFL Championship sides Coagh United FC and FC Dergview.
  • Rugby union is very popular in the county. Dungannon RFC is one of only three Ulster teams that played in the All Ireland League One. Other teams include Omagh RFC, Clogher Valley RFC, RFC Cook and Strabane RFC.

Notable people

  • Ryan Dolan – Before Ireland at the Eurovision Song Contest in 2013.
  • Philomena Begley, Irish country singer
  • James E. Boyd, seventh governor of Nebraska [19]
  • Paul Brady, musicians.
  • William Burke, 1792-1829, grave robbers and murderers
  • Peter Canavan, former All Ireland winning Tyrone captain and top scorer in the Ulster Senior Football Championship.
  • William Carleton (1794-1869), author
  • Darren Clarke, a professional golfer.
  • Tom Clarke, the Irish Republican and leader of the 1916 Easter Rising
  • Janet Devlin, soul and pop performer and contestant on The X Factor (UK)
  • Brian Dooher, former captain of the Tyrone senior football team.
  • Hugo Duncan, singer and presenter on BBC Radio.
  • John Dunlap (1747-1812), publisher of the first American newspaper, the Pennsylvania Packet in 1784, although the printer of the US Declaration of Independence.
  • Brian Friel, playwright and director
  • Aaron Hughes, the current captain of Northern Ireland football team and also plays for Fulham.
  • John Hughes (1797-1864), born in Annaloghan, first Archbishop of the Catholic Diocese of New York. [20]
  • Martin Hurson, Irish Republican died on hunger strike in Long Kesh prison in in 1981.
  • Ryan Kelly, the singer with Celtic Thunder “Ryan Kelly”. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
  • Professor Dr. Patrick Gerald “Gerry” McKenna (born 1953), professor of human biology and genetics, (New) University of Ulster (1979-1984);Director, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre (1985-1988); Dean, Faculty of Science (1994-1997); Rector and President (1999-2005);Chairman Emeritus and honorary executive secretary, heads the University Centres of Biomedical Science (2011-present); Chair, University Centres of Biomedical Science (1995-1997) [21] [22]
  • Benedict Kiely (1919-2007), writer and programs
  • William McMaster (1811-1887), founder of the Canadian Bank of Commerce and namesake of McMaster University
  • Typhoid Mary (1869-1938), better known as Typhoid Mary
  • WF Marshall (1888-1954), “The Bard of Tyrone,” Presbyterian minister, author and poet, creator of one of Northern Ireland’s most popular dialect poems “Me an ‘Me Da’, and many others in the same spirit, a lecturer at Magee College Derry and leading authority on the Mid Ulster English.
  • Thomas Mellon, founder of Mellon Bank, now Bank of New York Mellon
  • Flann O’Brien, 1911-1966, writer
  • Dominic Ó Mongain (1715-1800?), Poet and harpist. [23] Cláirseach
  • Thomas Porter, a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.
  • Victor Sloan MBE, visual artist
  • Ivan Sproule, football player for Bristol City FC
  • Dennis Taylor, former World Snooker champion.
  • Sylvia Hermon, MP for North Down, born in Galbally, County Tyrone
  • Jimmy Cricket, Comedian
  • Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone (c 1550 -. July 20, 1616)

See also

  • References Abbey and priories in Northern Ireland (County Tyrone)
  • High Sheriff of Tyrone
  • List of civil parishes in County Tyrone
  • List of places in County Tyrone
  • List of townlands in County Tyrone
  • Lord Lieutenant of Tyrone
  • Ulster American Folk Park
  • The Shore Moorlough
  1. Jump up ^ Archive 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Jump up ^ “North-South Ministerial Council 2010 Annual Report Ulster Scots” (PDF) .Hämtad 18 January 2013.
  3. Jump up ^ “North-South Ministerial Council: Annual Report 2006 in Ulster Scots” (PDF) .Hämtad 18 January 2013.
  4. Jump up ^ “Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council” Hämtad18 January 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ Art Cosgrove (2008); “A New History of Ireland, Volume II: Medieval Ireland 1169-1534”. Oxford University Press.
  6. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy, March 14, 1865.
  7. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.”. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ “”. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  9. Jump up ^ “”. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  11. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  12. ^ Jump up to: abc “Description of the County Tyrone Atlas and Cyclopedia Ireland (1900).” Library of Ireland. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ Mccavitt, John. The Flight of the Earls . Gill & MacMillan, 2002. p.143-44
  14. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Irland.pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  15. Jump up ^ Marie Veronica Tarpey Joseph McGarrity role in the fight for Irish independence
  16. ^ Jump up to: abcdef “Statistical Classification of settlements”. NI Neighbourhood Information Service. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  17. Jump up ^ “All aboard! Dungannon railway hopes revived. “ Newline in at position 36 (help) | title =
  18. Jump up ^ Tyrone GAA team has won the Ulster Senior Championship on eight occasions during the 20th century
  19. Jump up ^ “Kansas Governor Walter Roscoe Stubbs.” National Governors Association. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  20. Jump up ^ who was who in America historical volume, 1607-1896.Chicago, IL: Marquis Who’s Who. In 1963.
  21. Jump up ^
  22. Jump up ^
  23. Jump up ^
    • Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone (Aodh Mór O Neill), c.1550-1616, Irish leaders during nine years of war
    • Arthur O’Neill (c.1737-1816) was a traveling blind Irish harpist, a virtuoso player of the Irish harp or

The Rock of Cashel

The Rock of Cashel (Irish: Carraig Phádraig ), also known as Cashel of the Kings and St. Patrick’s Rock, is a historic site located at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland.


According to local mythology, the Rock of Cashel originated in the Devil’s Bit, a mountain 20 miles (30 km) north of Cashel when Patrick banished Satan from a cave, resulting in Rock landing in Cashel. [1] Cashel is known to be the site of the conversion of the king of Munster by St. Patrick in the 5th century.

Rock of Cashel was the traditional seat of the kings of Munster for several hundred years before the Norman invasion. In 1101, King of Munster, Muirchertach Ua Briain, donated his fortress on the Rock Church. The picturesque complex has a character of its own and is one of the most remarkable collections of Celtic art and medieval architecture to be found anywhere in Europe. [2] Some remnants of the early structures survive; the majority of buildings on the current site are from the 12th and 13th centuries.

Building on the Rock

The oldest and longest of the buildings are well-preserved round tower (28 meters or 90 feet), dating from c.1100. Its entrance is (3.7 m) 12 feet from the ground, is needed because of a slab (about 3 feet) typical of round towers.The tower was built using stone approach. Modern conservationists have filled in a part of the tower with the use of safety.

Cormac’s Chapel, the Chapel of King Cormac Mac Carthaigh, started in 1127 and opened in 1134. [2] It is a very sophisticated structure, unlike most Irish Romanesque churches, which are usually simple in plan with isolated decorated features. The Irish Abbot of Regensburg, Regensburg Dirmicius, sent two of his carpenters to assist in the work and the twin towers on either side of the intersection of the nave and chancel are strongly suggestive of their Germanic influence, because this function is otherwise unknown in Ireland. Other notable features of the building include interior and exterior arcading, entunn vaulted ceilings, a carved tympanum over two doorways, the magnificent northern door and the chancel arch. It contains one of the best preserved Irish frescos from that period. The chapel was built mainly of sandstone which have become waterlogged over the centuries, significantly damage the inner fresker.Restaurering and conservation required chapel be completely enclosed in a rain-proof structure with dehumifiers to wipe out the stone.

Cathedral, built between 1235 and 1270, is an aisleless construction of cross plan, having a central tower and terminating west in a massive residential palace. The Hall of the Vicars Choral was built in the 15th century. The vicars choral were laymen (sometimes minor Canon) have been appointed to assist in chanting the cathedral services. At Cashel there were originally eight vicars choral works with his own seal. This later reduced to five honorary vicars choral singing that appointed men as deputies, a practice that continued until 1836. The restoration of the Hall were made by the Office of Public Works as a project in the context of the European architectural heritage year 1975. Through the visitors now come enter the site. [1]

1647, during the Irish League of war, was sacked by the English Cashel Honourable troops under Murrough O’Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin. The Irish League of troops which massacred, who was Roman Catholic priests, including Theobald Stapleton. Inchiquin’s troops looted or destroyed many important religious artifacts. [2]

1749 Main cathedral ceiling removed by Arthur Price, the Anglican Archbishop of Cashel. [1] Today, what remains of the Rock of Cashel has become a turistattraktion.Pris decision to remove the roof of what had been the jewel among the Irish church buildings was criticized before, and for. [3]

Queen Elizabeth II visited the Rock of Cashel during his 2011 visit to Ireland.[4]

other features

The entire plateau buildings and graveyard lie walls. The grounds surrounding the buildings an extensive cemetery contains a number of high crosses. Scully Cross, one of the largest and most famous high crosses here, originally built in 1867 to celebrate the Scully family, was destroyed in 1976 when lightning struck a metal rod that ran the length of the cross. The remains of the upper part of the cross is now at the base of the cross next to the rock wall.


  • Malcolm Hamilton (archbishop)

See also

  • Eóganachta
  • Kings of Munster
  • Kings of Desmond
  • The synod in Cashel
  • Hore Abbey


  1. ^ Jump up to: abc . Seymour, John (1907) Minutes of the past. 6 . Records of the Past Exploration Society. pp. 259-263.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abc Howitt, William. (1864) ruined abbeys and castles in the UK. 2 . AW Bennett. pp. 159-161.
  3. Jump up ^ Rev. John Healy, LL.D (Anglican rector of Kells and The Canon of St. Patrick’s, Dublin) history of the Diocese of Meath: Vol. II.(Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1908), p. ’93.
  4. Jump up ^ “The Queen in Ireland: day four as it happened,” The Telegraph

Mitchelstown Cave

Mitchelstown Cave is a limestone cave near Burn Court, County Tipperary, Ireland. Situated 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from Mitchelstown, County Cork, became the first cave in Ireland attutvecklas to the public in 1972. [1]

The cave is situated in the townland of Coolagarranroe, [2] the R639 between Mitchelstown and Cahir. It is a privately owned local landmark and tourist destination, with a number of caves are open to the public through a guided tour. Remarkable speleothems include Tower of Babel column. The largest cave, known as Concert Hall, has hosted music events, including a performance by the Celtic Tenors. [1]


While the presence of a cave has been known in the area for at least as far back as 1777, [3] Mitchelstown Cave was discovered accidentally by Michael Condon, a farm laborer May 3, 1833. [4] It was first explored and mapped in 1834 by James Apjohn , [5] and then visited by a large number of prominent naturalists and speleologists including Édouard-Alfred Martel in 1895 and H. Luster Jameson, who first described the fauna in the cave. [3] in 1908, the cave thoroughly researched and resurveyed of Dr. CA Hill Dr. . A. The rule, Harold Brodrick of the Yorkshire Ramblers’ Club and Robert Lloyd Praeger. [3]


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab Hayes Curtin, Brian (2011-01-26). “Going underground”.Cork Independent. Pulled 04/30/2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Coleman, JC (1965). The caves in Ireland. Tralee, Co. Kerry: Anvil Press. pp. 18-22.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abc Hill, CA (1908). “Mitchelstown.` Cave (abstract).” Irish Natura. Dublin: Eason & Son. 25 : 239th Taken 2011-04-30.
  4. Jump up ^ Foot, Arthur Wynne (1878). “An account of a visit to the cave Dunmore, Co. Kilkenny, with some comments on human remains found there. ” Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 4. Dublin. In67. Hämtad2010-11-06.
  5. Jump up ^ Apjohn, Dr. (1834-1835). “On Mitchelstown Cave.” Dublin Penny Journal. 3-4 : 203-208. Pulled 04/30/2011.

Lough Derg (Shannon)

Lough Derg , historic Lough Dergart (Irish: Loch Deirgeirt ), [1] is a lake in the Shannon River Basin, Ireland. It is the second largest lake in Ireland, and the third largest on the island of Ireland (after Lough Neagh and Lough Corrib).

It is a long, narrow lake, with beaches in counties Clare (south-west), Galway (north-west) and Tipperary (to the east). It is the southernmost of the three major lakes on the River Shannon; the other ärLough Ree and Lough Allen.Towns and villages on Lough Derg include Portumna, Kill & Ballina, Dromineer, Terryglass, Mount and Garry Kennedy.

Sea’s name evolved from the Irish Loch Deirgdheirc . [1] It was one of the names of the Dagda, an Irish god, and literally means “red eye”. [2]


At its deepest, the lake is 36 meters [3] deep and covers an area of 130 square kilometers (50.2 sq miles). Close downstream of where Lough Derg empties into the Shannon are the falls of Doonass, the biggest decline on the otherwise gently sloping river. Nearby is the site of hydroelectric plant in Ardnacrusha, which when built in 1927 was the world’s largest.


In the nineteenth century, Lough Derg was an important artery from the port of Limerick to Dublin through the canals in the midlands of Ireland.Navigable over its entire 40 km long, is Lough Derg today popular with cruisers and other pleasure boats, as well as sailing and fishing. The University of Limerick have an activity center by the lake, just north of Kill, where there are canoes, kayaks, windsurfing, sailing dingies and other leisure activities.

Lough Derg is home to an RNLI lifeboat based at Dromineer, the first inland station in Ireland. [4] In June 2013, 35 people were taken to safety when a major rescue operation was carried out by an international rowing event was hit by severe weather. [5 ]


A breeding pair of eagles first nested on an island in Lough Derg in 2012. This marked a major success for the Irish reintroduction program began in the summer of 2007. [6] [7] [8]

The northeastern shore is listed as a special area of conservation. [9]

Towns / Villages

  • Ballina
  • Dromineer
  • Garrykennedy
  • Kilgarvan
  • Kill
  • Mount
  • Portroe
  • Portumna
  • Scarriff (location of regional Waterways Ireland office) [10]
  • Terryglass
  • Whitegate

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Lough Derg (Donegal), another Irish lake with the same name


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b placental Database for Ireland
  2. Jump up ^ MacKillop, James. Myths and Legends of the Celts . Penguin, 2006. p.137
  3. Jump up ^ International Lake Environment Committee Foundation
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ Hilliard, Mark. “Lough Derg rescue operation gives 35 ashore by rowing event”. The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ “Sea eagles return to the Irish nest”. The Irish Times.04.30.2012. Pulled 04/30/2012.
  7. Jump up ^ RTÉ: Rare eagle was reintroduced to Ireland
  8. Jump up ^ Havsörn
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^ Waterways Ireland ePortal

The Glen of Aherlow

The Glen of Aherlow (Irish: Gleann Eatharlaí ) is a picturesque valley nestled between Slievenamuck and Galtee Mountains in the western part of the county Tipperary in Ireland. The main village is Lisvarrinane or more often spelled Lisvernane with a village on Rossadrehid where Aherlow dairy existed before its closure at the end of the 20th century. Other nearby population centers are the villages of Galbally on the western outskirts, Kilross (on the northwestern front) and Bansha who commands the eastern entrance. Over the northern flank of Slievenamuck is Tipperary Town.

The tradition of Geoffrey Keating lives on in folklore of the Glen of Aherlow.Keating preached sermons there, take refuge and, according to tradition, lived in a cave for a large part of the time while on the run and compiling his magnum opus, Foras Feasa Ar Éirinn ( c. 1634). [1]

The image below is a picture of “Christ the King” statue overlooking the valley of Glen of Aherlow is located in. “Christ the King” is on Slievenamuck at the entrance to Tipperary Town. As Aherlow is quite scenic, the parking lot at the “Christ the King” is often full during the summer and offers a beautiful view on a clear day. Tourism in the area is strong year-round, but especially in the summer. Those who want to balance a retreat in rural areas with access to historically important towns and villages could find its way to Glen.

Panoramic views of the Glen of Aherlow.


  1. Jump up ^ Breandán Ó Buachalla ‘ “Annala Ríoghachta Éireann” Is “Foras Feasa s Éirinn”: A Comhthéacs Comhaimseartha “in Studia Hibernica , No. 22/23 (1982/1983), pp. 90th


Carrick-on-Suir (Irish: Carraig on-Suir , which means “rock of the Suir”) is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It lies on both banks of the River Suir.The CSO 2006 Census provides population 5906 (including suburbs or surrounding areas) and shows that it has increased by 5.7% since 2002. It is in the historical barony of Iffa and Offa East.


  • 1Plats
  • 2Historia
    • 2,1Inverkan Butler family
    • 2,220th century
  • 3Egenskaper and equipment
    • 3,1Suir
    • 3.2Landmärken
    • 3.3kyrkor
  • 4Sport
  • 5klubbar and compounds
  • 6Noterbart people
  • 7Hänvisar to
  • 8Externa links


Carrick-on-Suir is located in the southeast corner of South Tipperary, 21 kilometers (13 miles) east of Clonmel, 27 kilometers (17 miles) northwest of Waterford. Most of the city lies north of the river in the townland of Carrig Mor ( Big Rock ), with the rest of the city on the opposite shore in the townland of Carrig Beg (Small Rock). The city is connected to Limerick ochWaterford the N24 road and a railway line. Carrick-on-Suir train station opened April 15, 1853. [7] The two trains one day work to Waterford and two trains a day seems to Limerick Junction via Clonmel, Cahir and Tipperary.There is no train service on Sundays. Several buses also run on this route.There is a recently renovated riverside walk Clonmel along a former canal towpath. This has recently been upgraded and replanted.

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of Tipperary South constituency.


The influence of the Butler family

Carrick-on-Suir (originally called Carrig Mac Griffin) was established on an island upstream settlement Waterford. The city remained an island until the 18th century, when small rivers were diverted to form dry land north and west of the city. The earliest known record of a settlement dated to 1247, when a charter for 3 fairs per year was awarded to Matthew Fitzgriffin, Lord of the Manor of Carrick who was a member of the Cambro-Norman nobility.

In the early 14’s, had Carrick Mac Griffin has become home to a thriving Hiberno-Norman family – Butler. The first important leader of Butler clan, Edmond Butler (aka Edmund le Bottilier ) was created Earl of Carrick in 1315.But his son James did not inherit the title. Instead, seven years after his father’s death, he was created Earl of Ormond in its own right. In 1447, Edmund MacRichard Butler founded the first bridge over the estuary of Carrick-on-Suir. Other notable members of the clan Butler Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormond (aka Black Tom ) who built the Tudor Manor House extension Ormonde Castle and James the 12th Earl and 1st Duke of Ormond, who founded the city’s wool industry in 1670th

Edmond le Bottiler erected two large, heavily garrisoned the castle is the name Plantagenet castle on the north bank of the River Suir, just east of what is now Main St. In the 15th century, was a four-towered castle was built on the same site, two of which are now incorporated into the Elizabethan Manor House was built by Black Tom Butler, c. 1560th Manor House still stands today, after undergoing an extensive renovation of the state in the 1990s and is open to the public. The city was also the inspiration for the 16th-century song, Cailín ó Choi on-Suir mé , as certified in 1595 and mentioned in Shakespeare’s Henry V AS Caleño custure me.

In 1649, the city was taken by the English Parliamentarians during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The Carrick caught the sly after discovering an undefended gate as part of the activities during the siege of Waterford. Irish soldiers from Ulster under Major Geoghegan tried to take Carrick but eventually beaten by a loss of over 500 dead.

In 1670 Butler set up a wool industry in the city. By 1799, the city had a certain prosperity from the wool industry, fishing, basket weaving and other river-related businesses – the population was about 11,000 at this point. Over the next 120 years, however, the city hit by high taxes and levies imposed by the British on the wool industry, leading to high unemployment, poverty and emigration. The Great Famine also contributed significantly to the depopulation of the city.

20th century

With the coming of independence and civil war, Carrick was initially occupied by anti-Treaty IRA until the city fell to the Free State Army in 1922. By now had industrialization reached Carrick establishment of cotton mills and a local dairy. Most significant, but for the economic development of the city was the arrival of the tanning industry in the 1930s, providing regular, reliable work in the city for the first time. The local council also started to build social housing projects in an attempt to deal with the terrible living conditions in the city for the economically disadvantaged. Despite this development, economic opportunities were limited and widespread poverty – the city saw widespread emigration to Dublin, the UK and further afield especially during the long recession of the 1940s and 1950s.

The closure of Pollack & Plunder tannery in 1985 caused enormous problems in the city, since a significant proportion of the population (Carrick’s population was about 4,000 in this paragraph) was employed there or were dependent on someone who was. Carrick suffered a prolonged recession in the 1980s and early 1990s, again leading to population decline due to emigration – a fate suffered by other small, rural Irish towns during the period. In the late 1990s, the economy of the city was on the rise – the unemployment rate had dropped, the SRAM bicycle component factory had opened that had many small businesses, and the population began to increase again for the first time in two centuries.

Carrick local infrastructure (especially health and transport) are still relatively undeveloped, due to its location on the border of three counties (and subsequent lack of political muscle both county and national level), and the nearby larger towns of Clonmel and Waterford. From 2006, is still no major manufacturing operation in the city – SRAM facility was closed in 2006, but Carrick continues to flourish economically. The population continues to increase, and the city is expanding with major projects in progress Building Construction. The future of Carrick is likely to be a commuter town, service people working in Waterford and Clonmel – a role which it has done for decades.

Features and amenities

There are two theaters in Carrick-on-Suir, Brewery Lane Theatre and Opera Association. While the opera society tends to focus on musicals, operas and pantomimes, Brewery Lane usually dramas that can be serious, and often black comedy. Many of these are Irish.


The river is tidal through the city and turning the tide of Glanbia upstream of Carrick-on-Suir. Flood waters spill on the ground above Glanbia in County Waterford side of the river. Carrick has a 1-in-50-year flood defense system of quay walls vary in height from 1.2 to 1.5. Currently, the walls provide protection against flooding caused by high tides. Carrick is less than 10 meters above sea level and can be affected by global warming in the future.Floods still occur along / Mill River Glen and Markievicz Tce.


In 1447 a stone bridge was built, now known as “Old Bridge”. A new, more modern bridge (later named after John Dillon) was built in the early 20th century. The central part of the old bridge (and likewise Dillon Bridge) was destroyed by the retreating forces of the IRA in 1922 in an attempt to slow down before the Free State army, but both were built by 1927. [ citation needed ]

Carrick City clock was erected in 1784. A public park was created in the fair green in the 1860s. The town fair continues today, having moved from the real green in the 1920s to a new location just west of the Fair Green. [ Citation needed ]


There are three Catholic churches. The largest church in Carrick Mór is St. Nicholas Church Which was built in 1879 and replaced an earlier church of the same name was built in 1804. In Carrick Beg is the small St. Moll era parish church (parts of which date back to the 13th century) and the larger Franciscan friary. The Franciscan order’s presence in Carrick goes back to 1336 with the granting of land for a friary of the 1st Earl of Ormond. But the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII led to the closure of the friary.Shortly before the invasion of Ireland by Cromwell had the monks returned for an 11-year period before it was closed again and the brothers to go underground to avoid persecution. It was not until 1820 and the onset of Catholic Emancipation that the monks could return completely and a new chapel was built. The monks served the local community until the shortage of vocations to the decision led to finally leave Carrick-Beg in 2006.

The Church of Ireland community was relatively significant until independence Community Church on Main Street was given until the end of the 1980s, when the church building and grounds were renovated and now serves as a heritage center.


  • There are three Gaelic Athletic Association clubs.
    • Carrick Davin (named after the first GAA President Maurice Davin) playing in Tipperary GAA area
    • Carrick Swans playing in Tipperary GAA area
    • St. Moll Eran’s playing in Waterford GAA field.

1904 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship finals played in Carrick-on-Suir. The match was held on Maurice Davin land on June 24, 1906 between Cork and Kilkenny. Kilkenny won by a single point, 1-9 to 1-8.

  • Football
    • Carrick United AFC, is a junior (non-league, amateur) football team that plays in Waterford & District League. The club has had great success in Waterford & District League, Munster Senior and Junior Cups and also in the FAI Junior Cup. [ Citation needed ] the club moved to new grounds in the last 10 years, known as Tom Drohan Park.
  • Rugby
    • Amateur rugby team, Carrick-on-Suir RFC play in Munster Junior League Division II. Club grounds located east of the city in Tybroughney, County Kilkenny.
  • Golf – 18 hole golf course
  • Humphreys driving range
  • Sean Kelly pool and gym.
  • Tennis
    • Castle Lawn Tennis Club, with four artificial turf fields.
  • Handball and badminton
    • Carrick-on Suir handball and badminton Club, Davin Park indoor courts, Clonmel Road.
  • Boxing
    • Carrick-on-Suir Boxing Club
    • St. Nicholas Boxing Club
  • Cycling
    • Iverk Produce Carrick Wheelers
    • Carrick Wheeler Road Club
  • triathlon
    • Carrick-on-Suir Triathlon Club

Clubs and societies

  • Carrick-on-Suir Musical Society (formed in 1943) is a renowned and national award-winning musical and amateur operatic society. The Musical Society recently bought and renovated Strand Theatre on Main Street for the use of the compound. Brewery Lane Drama Society (formed in 1955) performs several major productions a year at its 75 person capacity theater, which was formerly a malt house owned by Smithwicks.
  • The Irish Traction Group is based in Carrick-on-Suir, where restoration work is performed on vintage diesel locomotives. [8]
  • Carrick-on-Suir also a Republican Flute Band playing at many Irish Republican Sinn Féin events. [9]

Notable people

Notable people from the town include:

  • Dorothea Herbert (1770-1829), author
  • Clancy Brothers, the influential folk group
    • Paddy Clancy, singers, harmonicist
    • Tom Clancy, singer, actor
    • Bobby Clancy, singer and banjo, guitar, harmonica, and bodhran player
    • Liam Clancy, singer, guitarist, concertina player
  • Finbarr Clancy, singer, guitar, banjo, flute and bass with folk group The High Kings.
  • Maurice Davin, first President of the Gaelic Athletic Association, 1884-1887
  • Michael Anthony Fleming, the Roman Catholic bishop in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
  • Daryl Kavanagh, football player for the St. Patricks Athletic
  • Sean Kelly, cyclist
  • Sam Bennett, cyclist
  • Tom Kiely, Olympic decathlon gold medalist at the 1904 Summer Olympics, from Ballyneal, just outside the city.
  • John Lonergan, recipient of United States government has Medal of Honor
  • Fiona Glascott, actor
  • Mick Roche, former Tipperary hurler


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-05-21.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ “Carrick on Suir station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Retrieved 2007-09-07.
  8. Jump up ^ “Operating Base”. Irish Traction Group. Pulled 01/14/2009.
  9. Jump up ^

County Tipperary

County Tipperary (Irish: Contae Thiobraid Arann ) is a municipality in Ireland. Tipperary County Council is the local government authority for the county. Between 1838 and 2014 the County Tipperary was divided into two counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, who were under the law municipal reform in 2014, which took effect after the 2014 local elections, June 3, 2014. [1] It is located in the province of Munster. The county is named after the town of Tipperary, which was founded in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland .Befolkningen throughout the county was 160,441 at the 2016 census. [2] The largest cities are Clonmel, Nenagh and Thurles.

Geography and political subdivisions 

Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 32 counties by area and the 12th largest by population. [3] It is the third largest of Munster’s 6 counties by size and the third largest by population. It is also the largest inland county in Ireland. The region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but diverse terrain includes several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee the ARRA Hills and the Silvermine mountains .The southern part of the county is drained by the River Suir; the north of the tributaries of the Shannon widens into Lough Derg. No part of the county touches the coast. The center is known as the “Golden Vale”, a rich pastoral stretch of land in the River Suir basin stretching into the counties of Limerick and Cork.


There are 12 historic baronies in County Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Eliogarty, IFFA and Offa East, IFFA and Offa West, Ikerrin, Kilnamanagh Lower, Kilnamanagh Upper, middle third, Ormond Lower, Upper Ormond, Owney and ARRA and Slievardagh.

Civil parishes and townlands

Main article: Civil parishes in Ireland

Townships bounded by Down Survey as a staging area, with several townlands per parish and several parishes per barony. The civil parishes had no use of local taxes and included in the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. [4] For the poor law purposes, the District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century.There are 199 civil parishes in the county. [5] townlands are the smallest officially defined geographic divisions in Sweden; There are 3,159 townlands in the county. [6]

Towns and Villages

[View] Historical population
  • Ahenny – Áth Eine
  • Ardfinnan – Ard Fhíonáin
  • Ballina – Béal a Átha
  • Ballingarry – Baile a Gharraí
  • Ballyclerahan – Baile Uí Chléireacháin
  • Ballylooby – Béal Átha Lúbaigh
  • Ballyporeen – Béal Átha Póirín
  • Bansha – A Bháinseach
  • Bird Hill – Cnocán an EIN Fhinn
  • Borrisokane – Buiríos Uí Chein
  • Borrisoleigh – Buiríos Ó Luigheach
  • Cahir – A Chat Hair / Cathair Dun Iascaigh
  • Cappawhite – A Cheapach na Bhfaoiteach
  • Carrick-on-Suir – Carraig on-Suir
  • Cashel – Caiseal
  • Castleiney – Caislean Aoibhne
  • Clogheen – Chloichín a Mhargaid
  • Clonmel – Clonmel
  • Clonmore – A Cluain Mhor
  • Clonoulty – Cluain Ultaigh
  • Clough – Cloch Shiurdáin
  • Coalbrook – Glaise na Ghuail
  • Cullen – Cuilleann
  • Donohill – Dun Eochaille
  • Drom – Drom
  • Dromineer – Drom Inbhir
  • Dualla – Dubhaille
  • Dundrum – Dun Droma
  • Emly – Imleach Iubhair
  • Fethard – Fiodh Ard
  • Golden – A Gabhailín
  • Gortnahoe – Gort na hUamha
  • Hollyford – Áth an Chuillinn
  • Holy Cross – Mainistir na Croiche
  • Horse and Jockey – A Marcach
  • Killenaule – Cill Naile
  • Kilmoyler – Cill Mhaoileachair
  • Kilsheelan – Cill Siolain
  • Knockgraffon – Cnoc Rafann
  • Lisronagh – Lios Ruanach
  • Littleton – An Baile Beag
  • Lorrha – Lothra
  • Loughmore – Luach Magh
  • Milestone – Cloch a Mhíle
  • Nenagh – A tAonach
  • New Birmingham – Gleann a Ghuail
  • New Inn – Loch Cheann
  • Newport – An Tulach Sheasta
  • Nine Mile House – Tigh na Naoi Míle
  • Rear Cross – Crois na Rae
  • Roscrea – Roscrea
  • Rose Green – Faiche Red
  • Rathcabbin – An Rath Cabban
  • Temple – A Team Mór
  • Thurles – Durlas
  • Tipperary – Tiobraid Arann
  • Toomevara – Tuaim Uí Mheára
  • Two Mile Borris – Buiríos Leith
  • Upper Church – A Team Uachtarach


After the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster invoked as a dominion. By 1210, the sheriff of Munster shired the Shires in Tipperary and Limerick. [13] In 1328, Tipperary granted Earl of Ormond as a county palatine or freedom. [13] The contribution excluded church lands such as the archiepiscopal see of Cashel, which constituted separate counties Cross Tipperary. [13] Even if Earl had jurisdiction over church lands in 1662, “Tipperary and Cross Tipperary” not finally united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormondades attainted for supporting the Jacobite uprising of 1715. [14] [15]

The county was divided again in 1838. [16] The county town of Clonmel, where the jury held its semiannual court at the south border of the county, and roads leading north were poor, which makes the trip uncomfortable for.Jury members residing there [16] a petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by MP Clonmel, so instead the county was divided into two “ridings”; grand jury in South Riding continued to meet in Clonmel, while the North Riding met in Nenagh. [16] When the municipal (Ireland) Act 1898 established the county councils to replace the jury for civil functions, was ridings separate “administrative counties” with separate governments. [16] Their names have been changed from “Tipperary North / South Riding” to “North / south Tipperary” avkommunallagen, 2001, which was redesignated all “administrative counties” as simply “County”. [17] the municipal Reform Act 2014, the two counties and restored a single county Tipperary. [18]

Local governments and politics

After Municipal Reform Act 2014 Tipperary County Council is the local authority for the county. The Agency is a merger of two separate authorities, North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council which operated until June 2014. The municipality is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the application of the EU elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the two constituencies: Tipperary North and Tipperary South. Together back six deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.


Tipperary called it “the Premier County”, a description is written [ citation needed ]to Thomas Davis, editor of The Nation magazine in the 1840s as a tribute to nationalist sentiment in Tipperary and said [ citation needed ] that “if Tipperary joints, Ireland follows “. Tipperary were the subject of the famous song “It’s a long way to Tipperary” written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with the regiments of the British Army during the First World War. The song “Slievenamon”, traditionally associated with the county, written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, and usually sung at sporting events involving the county. [19]


There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary participated in five Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary school) and two Gaelcholáistí (Irish language secondary schools). [20]


The area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: east of the town of manufacturers Bulmers (Brewers) and Merck & Co. (drug). There is much fertile land, especially in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Milk production and cattle raising are the main occupations. [ Citation needed ] Other industries are slate mineral and manufacturing of flour and flour.

Tipperary is known for its horse breeding industry and is home to Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred breeding operation in the world. [ Citation needed ]

Tourism plays an important role in County Tipperary – Lough Derg, Thurles, Rock of Cashel, Ormonde Castle, Ahenny High Cross, Cahir Castle, Bru Boru Heritage Centre and Tipperary Crystal are some of the top tourist destinations in the county.


Road transport dominates in County Tipperary. The M7 motorway crosses the northern part of the county through Roscrea and Nenagh, and the M8 motorway bisects the county from north of Two Mile Borris County Limerick border. Both roads are among some of the busiest roads on the island. Limerick to Waterford N24 crosses the southern half of Tipperary, traveling through Tipperary Town, Bansha, north of Cahir and around Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir.


Tipperary also has a number of railway stations situated on the Dublin-Cork line, Dublin to Limerick and Limerick-Waterford line. The railway lines connecting places in Tipperary to Cork, Dublin Heuston, Waterford, Limerick, Mallow and Galway.


County Tipperary has a strong association with the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in Thurles in 1884. The Gaelic Games of Hurling, Gaelic Football, Camogie and Handball organized by Tipperary GAA county board of GAA.Organisationen compete in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship and All-Ireland Senior in football. Tipperary, with 26 victories, is the only county that has won an All-Ireland title in evey decade since the 1880s.

Horse racing takes place in Tipperary Racecourse, Racecourse Thurles and Clonmel Racecourse.

Tourist attractions

  • Athassel Priory
  • Cahir Castle
  • Coolmore Stud
  • Devil’s Bit – a mountain near Temple
  • Dromineer
  • Galtymore – a munro, and the highest mountain in County Tipperary (919).
  • Glen of Aherlow
  • Wood Glengarra
  • Holy Cross Abbey
  • Kilcash Castle
  • Lorrha
  • Lough Derg
  • Mitchelstown Cave
  • Ormonde Castle, Carrick-on-Suir
  • Redwood Castle (Castle Egan)
  • Rock of Cashel
  • Slievenamon – mountain in connection with many Irish legends (721)

Notable people

  • Anne Anderson, Ambassador to the US
  • John Desmond Bernal, controversial twentieth century scholars
  • Dan Breen, Irish Republican during the Irish War of Independence, later a TD for the county.
  • William Butler, nineteenth century officer, writer and adventurer
  • Peter Campbell, founder of the Uruguayan Navy
  • The Clancy Brothers, the folk group
    • Paddy Clancy, singers, harmonicist
    • Tom Clancy, singer, actor
    • Bobby Clancy, singer, banjoist
    • Liam Clancy, singer, guitarist
  • Kerry Condon, actress
  • Frank Corcoran, composer
  • Dayl Cronin, lead singer, member of boy band Hometown
  • John N. Dempsey, governor of Connecticut (1961-1971)
  • Dennis Dewane, American politician
  • John M. Feehan, Authors and Publishers
  • Frank Fitzgerald, American politician
  • Una Healy, a singer, a member of girl group The Saturdays
  • Patrick Hobbins, American politician
  • Tom Kiely, Olympic gold medalist
  • Martin O’Meara, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Frank Patterson, tenor
  • Ramsay Weston Phipps, military historian
  • Rozanna Purcell, model, winner of the Miss Universe Ireland in 2010.
  • Adi Roche, advocate for peace, humanitarian assistance and training, founder and president of the Chernobyl Children International
  • Richard Lalor Sheil, politicians, writers and speakers
  • Pat Shortt, actor, comedian and entertainer
  • Laurence Sterne, writer and priest, best known for Tristram Shandy
  • Denis Lynch, showjumper
  • Lena Rice, the Wimbledon Tennis Championships
  • Seán Treacy, Irish Republican during the Irish War of Independence

See also

  • Annals of Inisfallen
  • High Sheriff of Tipperary
  • List of civil parishes in County Tipperary
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Tipperary)
  • List of national monuments in South Tipperary
  • Lord Lieutenant of Tipperary
  • Tipperary Hill, a neighborhood in Syracuse, New York, USA, which is inhabited by many descendants in County Tipperary.
  • Vehicle registration plates in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Tipperary County Council”. Tipperary County Council. May 29, 2014. Tipperary County Council will be an official unified authority on Tuesday, June 3, 2014. The new agency combines the existing management of North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council.
  2. Jump up ^ [1] Census in 2016.
  3. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  4. Jump up ^ “Map (parish boundaries visible in the historical stock)”.MapViewer. Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
  5. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland – Tipperary civil communities.” 13.12.2010. Pulled 09/14/2012.
  6. Jump up ^ “placental Database of Ireland – Tipperary townlands.” 13.12.2010. Pulled 09/14/2012.
  7. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  8. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.”. Pulled 09/14/2012.
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency” Pulled 09/14/2012.
  11. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  12. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  13. ^ Jump up to: abc Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). “The Counties of Ireland”. Illustrations of Irish history and topography: mainly of the seventeenth century. Longmans, Green. pp. 108-142. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  14. Jump up ^ Deputy Keeper of the Public Records of Ireland (04/26/1873).”Annex 3: Excerpts from the report of the Assistant Deputy Keeper of the Records of the audit record of the County Palatine of Tipperary”. Fifth Report. Command paper. C.760. HMSO. pp. 32-37. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  15. Jump up ^ Ireland (1794). “2 George I C.8”. Statutes adopted in parliament held in Ireland. III: 1715-1733. Printed by George Grierson, printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 5-11. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  16. ^ Jump up to: abcd Murphy, Donal A. (1994). The two Tipperarys: national and local policies, decentralization and self-determination, the unique 1838 split into two ridings, and the aftermath. Relay. ISSN 9,780,946,327,133th
  17. Jump up ^ “Local Government Act 2001 sec.10 (4) (a).” Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 22 October, 2013.
  18. Jump up ^ minister of environment, community and local government (15 October 2013). “Sec.10 (2) Limits for the merged communal areas”.Local Government Bill 2013 (initiated) (PDF). Dublin. Stationery Office ISBN 978-1-4468-0502-2. Hämtad17 October, 2013.
  19. Jump up ^ “Sliabh na mBan – Slievenamon”. Pulled 09/14/2012.
  20. Jump up ^ “Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn said Ghalltacht 2010-2011” (PDF) (in Irish). 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.


Sligo (Irish: Sligeach , which means “rich in shell” – / sl aɪ ɡ oʊ / sly -goh ; Irish pronunciation: [ɕlʲɪɟəx]) is a seaport and the county town of County Sligo in the west provinsenConnacht. With a population of about 20,000 in 2014, the largest urban center in the North West of Ireland. Sligo Borough District represents 61% (38,581) of the county’s population (63,000). [3]

Sligo is a historical, cultural, commercial, industrial, retail and service center of regional importance in the North West of Ireland. Served with railways, ports and road connections, Sligo has a significant influence on its hinterland. Sligo is also a popular tourist destination, located in an area of outstanding natural beauty, with many literary and cultural associations.


Main article: History of Sligo


Sligo is an English corruption of the Irish name Sligeach , which means “rich in shell” or “Shelly Place”. It refers to the abundance of seafood available in the river and its estuary, and from the extensive shell middens around. [4] [5]The river now called Garavogue (Irish: An Gharbhóg) means “little rough” was originally called the Sligeach. [6 ] it is listed as one of the seven “royal river” in Ireland in the 9th century saga destruction of Da Dergas Hostel.

The Ordnance Survey letters of 1836 state that “the customer lots of shells were found underground in many places in town where houses now stand.”The entire area, from the estuary at Sligo, around the coast to the river at BallysadareBay, is rich in marine resources exploited as far back as the Mesolithic period.

The early history

The importance of Sligo location in prehistory demonstrated by the abundance of ancient monuments nearby and also within the city. For example, Sligo city’s first roundabout built around a megalithic passage tomb at Abbey Quarter North of Garavogue villas. [7] This is an outlier of the large group of monuments at Carrowmore on Cuil wander peninsula on the western outskirts of the city. The area around Sligo Town has one of the highest densities of prehistoric archaeological sites in Ireland. It is the only place where all classes of Irish megalithic monuments are found together.Knocknarea mountains, covered by large heap of Miosgan Maeve, dominates the skyline to the west of the city. Cairns Hill on the southern outskirts of the city also has two very large heaps.

Excavations for the NRA for N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road 2002 revealed a Bronze Age henge on Tonafortes (next Carraroe roundabout) on the southern outskirts of the city, and an early Neolithic causewayed casing (c. 4000 BC) at Magheraboy on high ground overlooking the the city from the south. This is the oldest causewayed containment so far discovered in the United Kingdom or Ireland. [8] It consists of a large area bounded by a segmented ditch and palisade, and was perhaps an area of commerce and ritual. These monuments are associated with the coming of agriculture and thus the first farmers in Ireland. According to archaeologist Edward Danagher, who excavated the site “Magheraboy indicates a stable and successful population during the last centuries of the fifth millennium and the first centuries of the fourth millennium before Christ.” [9]

Sligo bay is an old natural harbor, known for Greek, Phoenician and Roman merchants as the area is believed to be the site indicated that the city Nagnata of Claudius Ptolemy’s 2nd century coordinate map of the world. [10]During the early medieval site of Sligo eclipsed by weight of the large Columban monastery 5 miles north of Drumcliff. By the 12th century there was a bridge and small settlement exists at the site of the present city.

medieval history

The Norman Knight Maurice Fitzgerald, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, is generally credited with the establishment of the medieval European style town and port of Sligo, build Sligo Castle in 1245. The annalists mentioning this Sligo sraidbhaile ( “street settlement”) as seems to have consisted of the castle and an attached defensive Bawn. A Dominican Friary (Blackfriars) was also founded by Maurice Fitzgerald and King of Connacht, Felim mac Cathal Ua Crobderg Conchobair in 1253. This mistake was destroyed by fire in 1414, then rebuilt in its present form. Norman hegemony was not intended to be long in Sligo.

The city is unique in Ireland because it is the only Norman founded the Irish town to have been under almost continuous native Irish control in the Middle Ages. The Normans were stopped in northwestern Connacht after the battle vidCredran Cille in 1257 at the Rose Ceite (Rosses Point) between Godfrey O’Donnell, Lord Tirconnell, and Maurice Fitzgerald. Both commander was mortally wounded in single combat. This battle effectively stopped Norman expansion in the North West of Ireland.

Despite many Anglo Norman tries to recapture it, it became the administrative center of O ‘Conor Sligo (O’Conchobar Sligigh) Association of Iochtar Connacht (Lower Connacht). Also called Clan Aindrias, O ‘Conor was a branch of O’ Conchobar dynasty of Kings of Connacht. It continued to develop within Tuath (Irish territory) of Cairbre Drom Cliabh. The other Irish areas covered by this was Tireragh (Tir Fhiacrach), Leyney (Lúighne), Tirerill (Tir Olliol) and Corran. Throughout this time Sligo were under a regime Fénechus (Brehon) law and ruled by the Irish aristocratic warrior class.

The competition between these warrior clans of the lucrative port charges in Sligo town was burned, sacked or laid siege to about 49 times during the Middle Ages, according to the Annals of Ireland, but these raids seem to have had little effect on the development of the city in the middle of the 15th century the city and harbor had increased in importance. It was in Galway, Bristol, France and Spain. Among the earliest surviving copies of written English in Connacht is proof of 20 points, from August 1430, by Saunder Lynch and Davy Botyller paid Henry Blake and Walter Blake, customers’ ye King and John Rede, controller ye porte of Galvy and Slego ” .

Sligo continued under native Irish control until the end of the 16th century, when during the Elizabethan conquest, Sligo was chosen as the county town of the newly shired County Sligo. An order was sent by the Elizabethan government, Sir Nicholas Malby, Knight, willing him to establish “apt and safe” places for storing COURT & Sessions, with walls of stone and lime, in each county Connacht “Judging that the aptest place to be in Sligo , County Sligo … ” [11] the walls were never built.

Later medieval history and early modern period

Sligo Abbey, the Dominican Friary, is the only medieval building standing in the city. A large part of the structure, including the choir, carved altar (the only one on location in Ireland) and cloisters remain.

When Sir Frederick Hamilton Honourable soldiers partially looted Sligo 1642, the friary was burned and many monks were killed.

In 1798 a mixed force Limerick militia, Essex Fencibles and local yeomanry under Colonel Vereker [12] defeated at the Battle of Carricknagat in Collooney of the combined Irish and French forces under General Humbert. A street in the city is named after the hero of this battle Bartholomew Teeling. The Lady Erin Monument at Market Cross erected in 1899 to mark the centenary of the 1798 Rebellion. [13]

19th century

The city was hit hard by a cholera epidemic in 1832. Researchers speculate that Bram Stoker, whose mother Charlotte Blake Thornley was probably (there are no records, and the family lived in both Sligo and Bally) [14] was born in Sligo in 1818 [15] and experienced the epidemic in the first hand, was influenced by her stories when he wrote his famous novel, Dracula . The family lived on the correction Street in the city. After relocating to Bally, wrote Charlotte

“At the end of that time, we could live in peace until the plague had subsided and we could return to Sligo. There we found the streets grew grass and five-eighths of the population dead. We had great reason to thank God who saved us. ” [14]

The Great Famine between 1847 and 1851 caused over 30,000 people to emigrate through the port of Sligo. [16] On the Quays, overlooking Garavogue River, is a cast bronze memorial emigrants. This is one of a suite of three sculptures commissioned by the Sligo Famine brandsorted committee to honor the victims of the Great Famine.

A plaque in the background, entitled “Letter to America, January 2, 1850″ tells a sad family history: ” I am now, I can say, alone in the world All my brothers and sisters are dead and children but himself …. we are all thrown out of Mr. Enright ground … The times were so bad and all of Ireland in such a state of poverty that no person could pay the rent. My only hope now rests with you, I have no one shilling and as I said before, I either have to beg or go to the poorhouse … I remain your affectionate father, Owen Larkin. See answer this by return mail. ”

20th century

1961 St. John the Baptist church became a cathedral of the Diocese of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh after St. Mary’s Cathedral in Elphin was given, which was destroyed by a storm four years earlier.

The war

Sligo town was heavily garrisoned by the British Army during the Revolutionary War. For this reason IRA activity limited to measures such as harassment, sabotage and jailbreaks. At various times during the war, prominent Republicans held in Sligo Gaol. The commander of the IRA forces in Sligo, Liam Pilkington.

Civil war

Arthur Griffith spoke in April 1922 at the corner of O’Connell St and Grattan St. To this day it is known as Griffiths corner.

Sligo railway station was blown up by anti-Treaty forces on January 10, 1923.


Located on a coastal plain on the Atlantic Ocean, Sligo is on the low gravel hills on the banks of Garavogue River between Lough Gill and the estuary leading to Sligo Bay. The city is surrounded by many mountains, with ridges of Slieve Daeane and Killery Mountain to the southeast, Cope and Keelogyboy mountains of the Northeast and distinct rock Knocknarea Benbulben in the west and the north.

Sligo is an important bridging point on the main north / south road between Ulster and Connacht. It is the county town of Sligo and is in the Barony of Carbury (formerly Gaelic Tuath of Cairbre Drom Cliabh). Sligo is the pin seat of the Catholic Diocese of Elphin. It is in the Church of Ireland diocese Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh.

Sligo is one of the counties in the province of Connacht. It’s part of the border area, an area of over 500,000 people that also includes the counties of Cavan, Donegal, Leitrim, Louth ochMonaghan. [17]


Medieval center with mostly 19th century buildings, many of which are of architectural value.

In the nineteenth century Sligo experienced rapid economic growth and hence architectural change was fast. This was characterized by the construction of many fine public buildings. These include Sligo Town Hall (City Hall), Courthouse, the Gilooly Memorial Hall and the Model School (now the Model Arts & Niland Gallery).


See also: Climate of Ireland

Sligo climate is classified, as well as the whole of Ireland, as temperate oceanic. It is characterized by high levels of precipitation and a narrow annual temperature ranges. The average annual temperature is 9.4 degrees Celsius (49 degrees Fahrenheit). January, average temperature 5.2 ° C (41 ° F), while the average temperature of July is 15.3 ° C (60 ° F). On average, the driest months are April to June, while the wettest months is okay chain.

Rainfall averages 1131 mm (44.5 inches) per year. The high rainfall means Sligo are in temperate rainforest biome, examples of which are around Lough Gill. [18] The lowest temperature ever recorded in Ireland was -19.1 ° C (-2.4 ° F) on Markree Castle, County Sligo January 16, 1881.


In April 2011, Sligo had a population of 19,452.

There were 15.890 Catholics in the area at census time. Additional 1708 were followers of other religions specified (eg Church of Ireland, Islam, Presbyterian, Orthodox), while 1,119 people said they had no religion. Non-Irish nationals accounted for 15.8 percent of the population in Sligo, compared with a national average figure of 12.0 percent. Polish (1035 people) were the largest group, followed by British citizens (390 people).

6.830 people could speak Irish and of these 1763 spoken language daily. 2,947 people spoke a language other than Irish or English at home, and of these 535 could not speak English well or at all. Polish was the most common foreign language spoken at home with 1,021 speakers.


The service sector is the main sector of employment in the city. Ireland tool manufacturing industry is centered in Sligo, a manufacturing center of great betydelse.Läkemedelsindustrin is significant with several companies that produce goods for this sector, notably Abbott (Ireland) Ltd. Abbott is the largest corporate employer in Sligo.

Like many towns in the west of Ireland, Sligo suffered for many years from a lack of development, mainly [ citation needed ] because of its proximity to the border, and poor infrastructure and communications. But these have improved significantly over the past decade.

The development has taken place along the river Garavogue the regeneration of JFK Parade (2000), Rockwood Parade (1993-1997), and The Riverside (1997-2006), and two new pedestrian bridges over the river, one of Rockwood Parade (1996) and The Riverside (1999).

Sligo have a variety of independent stores, and shopping malls. The main shopping streets is the Wine Street, O’Connell Street, Grattan Street, Stephen Street, High Street, Market Street and Castle Street. Just on the outskirts of Sligo in Carraroe is a retail park which has stores such as Homebase, Smyth Toystore and PC World.

Sligo is a designated Gateway under the National Spatial Strategy 2002-2020.

The creative sector is important in Sligo 4.2% of the population engaged in the creative industries, the highest percentage in Connacht, with the exception of Leitrim.


See also: Media in Ireland

Music is very important in Sligo, with many musicians from both Sligo and from all over the world come to Sligo to play and improve their craft.

Sligo culture was a significant inspiration both poet and Nobel laureate WB Yeats and his brother artist, illustrator and comics pioneer Jack Butler Yeats.An extensive collection of Jack B Yeats art held in Model Niland Gallery at the mall.

Yeats Summer School takes place every year in the city and attract researchers from all over the world, especially Japan.

Sligo town recently marked its relations with Goon Show star and writer Spike Milligan, whose father was from Sligo, by presenting a plaque at the former Milligan family home at number 5 Holborn Street.

The boy band Westlife was formed in 1998 in Sligo.

Traditional Irish music

Sligo has a long history and an international reputation for Irish music and sessions are held regularly in several venues. Sligo County has its own unique style and is known worldwide for the quality of its traditional musiker.Många people come from all over the world to learn Irish music in Sligo.

In the early 13th century poet and crusader Muireadhach Albannach Ó’Dálaigh held a school of poetry in Lissadell north of Sligo town. He was Ollamh Fileadh (High Poet) to O ‘Domhnaill kings of Tir Chonaill. The school seems to have been resolved after the Norman invasion. In the 16th century, the poet Tadhg Dall Ó hUigínn wrote many poems in praise strict Dán Direach meter for local chieftains and patrons O’Conor Sligo.He killed for a satire he wrote on the O’Hara. The annals record the death in 1561 of Naisse Mac Cithruadh the “most outstanding musicians who were in Éireann” by drowning in Lough Gill.

In the 17th century, two brothers from County Sligo, Thomas and William Connellan from Cloonamahon, was among the last of the great Irish bards and harpists. Thomas is the author of the song Molly MacAlpin, now known as Carolans dream and William may have written Love is a torment pain and Killiecrankie.

Sligo traditional musicians were important in the revival and transmission of this tradition when they emigrated to New York. Michael Coleman, James Morrison and Paddy Killoran were all recorded at this time. Musicians Joe O ‘Dowd Sligo kept the tradition alive in the area in the mid-20s.


Sligo hosts many festivals throughout the year including Sligo Live happens every October, Sligo Summer Festival which celebrated the 400th anniversary of Sligo town and The Fleadh Cheoil as the city hosted three consecutive years (1989, 1990 and 1991) and was the host back in 2014 2015.

Sligo Jazz Project happens every July is also very popular.

Sligo hosted Fleadh Cheoil in both 2014 and 2015, some 400,000 people took part in the largest Irish music and dance festival in Ireland. Visitors from all over Europe, North America and Asia met with a true Irish welcome to the sounds of Irish music, much of it played by a musician on the streets of Sligo


Sligo has a vibrant nightlife, and is a popular destination for locals and a large student population. Sligo has several nightclubs and late bars, especially along the river, an area successfully rebuilt in the 1990s. The city has also become a popular destination for stag and hen parties from across the country. There are also many pubs and music venues with traditional and modern music throughout the year.

Sligo is home to Sligo Baroque Orchestra string and wind ensemble specializing in baroque and early classical era music.

The Garavogue River and Rockwood Parade (right)


Sligo has a strong tradition of theater, both professional and amateur. Sligo has had a theater at least as far back as 1750, according to Wood-Martin’s history Sligo, and often “Her Majesty’s servants from the Theatre Royal, Crow Street …. visited Sligo, Dublin during the season, show that these days the citizens appreciated drama, in some instances the company persisted for several months. ”

There are now two full-time theaters in the city. The Blue Raincoat Theatre Company, Ireland’s only full-time location-based professional theater ensemble founded in 1990 based on Quay Street.

Sligo is also home to Hawks Well Theatre, a 340-seat theater that was founded in 1982. Hawkwell has hosted innovative work of companies like Red Kettle, gallowglass, Rough Magic, Project Theatre Company, LAW, Barabbas, storytellers, The Blue Raincoat Theatre Company, The Passion Machine, Corcadorca, Kabosh, and many other fine companies from Ireland and abroad.

There is a small professional film industry in Sligo. The studio Sligeach films has produced several features and shorts in Sligo.

In the media

Sligo is the gritty environment of the writer Declan Burke’s series of hard-boiled detective novel, the detective Harry Rigby. [20]

Sebastian Barry’s novel The Secret Scripture and the whereabouts of Eneas McNulty is also located in Sligo town.


See also: Sports in Ireland


The city is home to the 2012 League of Ireland Premier Division champions Sligo Rovers, who have played home games at The Showgrounds since they were founded in 1928. Football is the dominant and most popular sport in Sligo town. The club belongs to the people of Sligo town and is the only cooperative kept the club in the League of Ireland.

There are also a significant number of junior football clubs playing in Sligo / Leitrim & District league from the city, the list contains Calry Bohemians, Cartron United, City, United and St Johns FC who play in the Super League and Glenview Stars, MCR FC, Merville United & Swagman Wanderers who play in the Premier League. Both Sligo Rovers and St Johns FC has recently been invited to play in the new Connacht Senior League which was due to start in the winter of 2013 but has been postponed to a later date. It was originally held 1981-2000, Sligo Rovers played in this league before.

Gaelic Games

There are three GAA clubs in and around the city, they are Calry / St Joseph Hazelwood, St. Johns of Cuilbeg & St. Mary of Ballydoogan with Coolera / Beach of Ransboro and Drumcliffe / Rosses Point GAA also be in närheten.St John & Mary compete in the Senior Football Championship while Calry / St Joseph competing in the Intermediate Football Championship and Senior Hurling Championship. These clubs also field junior, ladies, Mines and minors law. Many of the great Gaelic football and hurling matches, such as an inter-county games or a club championship final takes place at Markievicz Park.


Sligo RFC is located at Hamilton Park, Beach, 8 km west of the city. They participate in the Ulster Bank All-Ireland League Division 2B.

Other sports

Sligo (especially the beach) has a strong surf tradition with many locals and visitors to learn to surf in the area.

There are two nearby golf courses, Co. Sligo (Rosses Point) Golf Club and Strand Golf Club. Also, just north of the city border at Lisnalurg, there are Pitch and Putt called Bertie. Rosses Point is known for hosting the West of Ireland Championship where future golf superstar Rory McIlroy won consecutive years, 2005 and 2006.

Two basketball clubs cater to the city, they are Sligo All-Stars, based on Mercy College Gymnasium and Sligo Giant Warriors, whose place is Sligo Grammar School.

Sligo Racecourse on race days Cleveragh host at least eight times a year.

Other popular sports in Sligo and the surrounding areas are Athletics, boxing, martial arts, rowing, swimming and tennis.

Parks and recreation


The government

Sligo administered by its own local Oireachtas and kings Cairbre Drom Cliab until the English conquest in the early 17th century. This area corresponds closely to the newly Sligo Borough District.

Sligo town became an integrated municipal city with a Royal Charter issued by the British King James I in 1613-1614. See High Sherriff Sligo. It had the right to choose 12 citizens to the company.

1 June 2014 Old Borough Council was dissolved and administration of the city was amalgamated with the County Council. Sligo is now part of an expanded municipal borough district that stretches from Collooney to the border with County Donegal in Tullaghan and contains a population of about 40,000. It selects 10 of the Council of 18 total Sligo County Council.

Sligo has had a mayor since mixed in 1613. With the reorganization in 2014 the title of mayor was maintained and the selected ten city district councilors.

Law Enforcement

From its inception in the 13th century Sligo administered under local Fénechus (Brehon Law) until the establishment of English common law in the early 17th century after the Battle of Kinsale. Courts held regularly throughout Tuath in different buildings and on hilltops reserved for the purpose. Law enforcement was a function of the nobility and commoners in the area because no police force existed. No records survive from these early tribunals, but a case registered by a Dublin merchant reimbursed by the local courts after he fraudulently sold an obsolete poem in the 1540s. [21] Sligo then came under English martial law and eventually customary law administered from Dublin and sloping the current system.

The modern Sligo Courthouse was built in 1878. It hosts regular District and Circuit Court sittings throughout the year, and sometimes the High Court.

After the 1922 establishment of the Garda Síochána.

Sligo-Leitrim divisional headquarters in An Garda Síochána is on Teeling Street in the town on the site of the old RIC barracks.


Sligo providing hospital for much of the northwestern region. The two largest hospitals are Sligo Regional Hospital (formerly General) and St. John’s Hospital. There is also a private hospital in Garden Hill.


See also: Education in Ireland

From 2011, 16.9 percent of adults were trained to only the most primary level; another 52.0 percent reached the advanced level, while 31.2 percent were educated to third level.

Sligo benefit from the presence of a third-level institution in the form of Institute of Technology, Sligo, offering a variety of courses in the disciplines of economics, technology, the humanities and science.

St. Angela College, a constituent college of the National University of Ireland, Galway, offers courses in nursing and health studies, home economics and education. In total there were 5.206 students in third level institutions in Sligo in 2011.

* Located outside the Borough Boundary

third level

  • Institute of Technology, Sligo
  • St. Angela College *


  • Ballinode Community College, Ballinode (Non Demominational)
  • Mercy College, Chapel Hill (All the girls – Catholic)
  • Sligo Grammar School, The Mall (Church of Ireland)
  • St. Joseph Special School, Ballytivnan (Roman Catholic)
  • Summer College, Circular Road (All Boys – Catholic)
  • Ursuline College, Finisklin (All the girls – Catholic)


  • Carbury NS, The Mall (Church of Ireland)
  • Gaelscoil Na Chnoc Ré, Ballydoogan (Irish language – catholic)
  • Our Lady of Mercy NS, Pearse Road (Roman Catholic)
  • Scoil Ursula NS, Knappagh Road (Roman Catholic)
  • Sligo school project, St Annes Terrace (Non Denominational)
  • St. Brendan’s NS, Cartron (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Edwards NS, Ballytivnan (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Enda’s NS, Carraroe * (Roman Catholic)
  • St. John’s NS, Temple Street (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Joseph Special School, Ballytivnan (Roman Catholic)


  • VEC Sligo
  • National Learning Network
  • Ballytivnan Training Centre



The main road to Sligo is N4 to Dublin, the N17 to Galway, the N15 Lifford, County Donegal; and N16 Black, County Cavan. The part of the way between the N4 Sligo and Collooney is a dual carriageway. The first phase of this road was completed in January 1998, past the towns of Collooney and Ballysadare.An extension of this road was completed in September 2005, and is known as Sligo Inner Relief Road.

O’Connell Street – the main street of the city – was pedestrian on 15 August 2006. Plans for the proposed redevelopment and paving of this street was publicly unveiled July 23, 2008 in Sligo Champion . The newspaper later revealed that people were not in favor of the pedestrian on the street. The street was opened to traffic in December 2009.

Sligo has a certain bike paths around the city and various traffic calming measures installed will help to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists.


Sligo acquired a rail link to Dublin December 3, 1862 with the opening of Sligo railway station. [22] Connections to Enniskillen and the north followed in 1881, Limerick and south in 1895. The line to Enniskillen closed in 1957 and passenger Galway-Ennis-Limerick was closed in 1963 during many years Coras Iompair Éireann (CIE) held the latter line open for freight traffic, before its full closing. The proposed Western rail corridor redevelopment project aims to open it again. 1966 Sligo railway station was renamed Sligo Mac Diarmada Station after Irish rebel Seán Mac Diarmada from County Leitrim. [23] Irish Rail, Ireland’s national railway operator, körintercityjärnvägstjänster on the Dublin-Sligo railway. There are currently up to eight trains daily in each direction between Sligo and Dublin Connolly, with a frequency of every two hours. [24]

Map of Western Irland.Föreslagen Western rail corridor defined between Collooney and Athenry. Ex-GSWR line south of Limerick in green, other ex-MGWR lines are in red.


Sligo and County Sligo are served by Sligo Airport, 8 km (5.0 mi) from Sligo town and near the beach, if no scheduled flights currently operating out of the airport. The nearest airport with scheduled flights are Ireland West Airport Knock near Charlestown, County Mayo, 55 km (34 mi) away.

The Irish Coast Guard Search & Rescue helicopter has been based on Sligo airport since 2004, call sign Rescue 118 CHC Ireland currently offer 24-hour search and rescue with the help of a Sikorsky S-92 helicopter.

The helicopter is operated by a crew of four, maintained and supported year round. The northernmost base in Ireland, is the stern challenges of the Atlantic and the rock environment along the northwest coast. [25]


Bus Eireann operates four bus lines in the city: a work center and another to the west of the city. The other two lines going from the city to the beach and Rosses Point, respectively. [26] Bus Eireann also provides intercity services to Enniskillen via Manorhamilton, Derry, Galway via Knock Airport and Dublin via Dublin Airport, and the towns along the N4 road. [27 ]

Feda O’Donnell offers routes to and from Gweedore to the west of Ireland, including Sligo and Galway, via Bally.

Sligo Port

Sligo is one of only two operational ports on Ireland’s northwest coast between Galway and Derry, the other is Killybegs. Currently, the port can accommodate ships with a maximum draft of 5.2 meters and length of 100 meters, Harbour Sligo ranging from Timber Jetty at Hyde Road Bridge for a distance of 1.3 km. Sligo County Council took over responsibility for Sligo Harbour from Sligo Harbour Commissioners in June 2006.

The port currently handles cargo of coal, timber, fish and scrap metal and about 25 ships per year dock in the port. In 2012 a feasibility study was carried out in the dredging of the fairway.

No fishing boats operate from Sligo Port.


Sligo port was the busiest in the 19th century, and has since decreased, but it has a long history. Records show first its development as a port in consequence of agricultural goods to the UK and Europe in the 13th century with the arrival of the Normans. As a port in Gaelic men, a large part of the combat of Sligo was for controlling ‘cocket “Sligo port. Merchant families establish trade under this system O’Creans wine importers is the most famous. They had connections in France, Spain and Portugal.

Official English records in the fifteenth century mention “Fish Quay” during the reign of Henry VI. Customs duties under the Harbour Commissioners can be traced back to George II. At the time, and for two hundred years thereafter, Sligo was the most important port in the North West (Sligo County Council, 2008).

During the 17th and 18th centuries, established Sligo Port as a major focus for trade as part of the British Empire, with great amounts of cattle, hides, butter, barley, oats and oatmeal exported and with the city’s linen exports well established . The imports include wood, iron, corn and coal. The city flourished because of trade with the rich merchants set up homes along the then fashionable Castle Street and Radcliffe Street (later renamed Grattan Street) .This wealth seen in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, which was completed as early as 1730. It was designed by Richard Cassels, architect many important buildings at the time, such as the Leinster House in Dublin and Russborough House in County Wicklow.

During the time of the great famine, around 1847-1850, it is estimated that more than 30,000 people emigrated through Sligo Port, primarily Canada and the United States.

The most notable ship companies run by Sligo include Sligo Steam Navigation Company, which introduced the first steamer in 1857, gentlemen Middleton & Pollexfen, Harper Cambell Ltd. and the former Sligo Harbour Commissioners who owned a number of dredgers used for maintenance of the channel (McTernan, 1992) . [28]

The 1913 Sligo However, the strike lasted for 56 days and was an important precursor to the Dublin lockout that occurred 6 months later. Unlike Lockout Sligo However, the strike led to victory for the workers.

The harbor pilots traditionally based on Rosses Point Sligo Harbour decreased during the 20’s with the change from sail to steamships. [29] [ better source needed ]


There are three local newspapers in Sligo The Sligo Weeke – each Thursday (before Tuesday), the free Northwest Express – out on the first Thursday of each month and Sligo Champion . – Out every Tuesday (before Wednesday)Sligo Now is a monthly entertainment guide for the city – this is the first Friday of every month, while Sligo Sport’s urban sport-specific monthly.

The city has two local / regional radio stations: Ocean FM, broadcasting to County Leitrim and Sligo and parts of County Fermanagh and South County Donegal and West youth radio station i102-104FM, which merged with its sister station i105-107FM in 2011 to create iRadio .

Notable people

See List of Sligo people


See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Sligo is twinned with the following places:

  • Everett, Washington, United States
  • Crozon, Brittany, France
  • Illapel, Choapa Province, Chile
  • Kempten, Bavaria, Germany
  • Tallahassee, Florida, United States [30]


  • Pictures of Sligo
  • Statue of WB Yeats outside Ulster Bank
  • The choir of Sligo Abbey
  • Sligo Famine Memorial on the Quays
  • The clock tower in the Roman Catholic Cathedral
  • The Roman Catholic cathedral
  • Sligo Borough Council
  • court House
  • Sligo Post Office 1996
  • John the Baptist Cathedral, Sligo, Church of Ireland

See also

  • Development of Sligo
  • List of Sligo people
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • sligo GAA
  • Sligo Gaol
  • Sligo Rovers FC
  • Kilmore, Elphin Ardagh
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • County Sligo


  1. Jump up ^ “Table 6 – Population and area in each province, county, city, urban, rural and Electoral Division, 2002 and 2006” (PDF). Census 2006 Volume 1 – Population Classified by area. Central Statistics Office. April 26, 2007. pp. 111-112 .Hämtad ten October of 2007.
  2. Jump up ^ “Table 7 – People in each town of 1500 inhabitants and over …” (PDF). Census 2006 Volume 1 – Population Classified by area. Central Statistics Office. 26 April 2007. p. 119th Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^ Wood-Martin’s history Sligo, 1882
  5. Jump up ^ “History of Sligo.” Sligo Borough Council – About Us. Retrieved 13 May 2008. The scallop shell […] was once abundant in the estuary at the mouth of Garavogue – a river once known as “Sligeach”, or “shelly place ‘, which gives its name to Sligo
  6. Jump up ^ Sligo Heritage site, article first published in Sligo Champion Dr Nollaig O’Muraille MRIA, NUI Galway [1]
  7. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan (1995). Landscape of monuments. A study of the passage tombs in Cúil wander region, Co. Sligo, Ireland. Stockholm :.National Heritage Archaeological Investigations ISBN 91-7192-945-2.
  8. Jump up ^
  9. Jump up ^ Danaher, Edward (2007). Monumental beginning: Archaeology of the N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road. Wordwell books. ISBN 978-1-905569-15-1.
  10. Jump up ^
  11. Jump up ^ Wood-Martin, WG (1892). History Sligo, County and City.From accession 1. James to revolution 1688th Vol. 2. Dublin: Hodge & Figgis.
  12. Jump up ^
  13. Jump up ^ “Lady Erin statue”. Sligo town website.
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b
  15. Jump up ^
  16. Jump up ^ Norton, Desmond (2003). “Lord Palmerston Irish Famine and Emigration: a replica.” Cambridge University Press, Historical Journal (46): 155-165.
  17. Jump up ^ “County Profiles – Sligo”. Western Development Commission.Archived from the original 18 November 2007. Retrieved thirteen May 2008.
  18. Jump up ^ [2]
  19. Jump up ^ “Climate – monthly data – Markree”. Met Éireann.
  20. Jump up ^
  21. Jump up ^
  22. Jump up ^ “Sligo station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved seven September of 2007.
  23. Jump up ^ Gilligan, James (19 December 2006). “Restore name to Sligo railway station”. Sligo Weeke. Sligo Weeke Ltd. Retrieved July 3, 2007.
  24. Jump up ^ “Timetables and service updates – Iarnród Éireann – Irish Rail”. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  25. Jump up ^ Irish Coastguard – Search & Rescue.
  26. Jump up ^ “Sligo city services – Bus Éireann”. Bus Eireann timetable.Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  27. Jump up ^ “Intercity Services – Bus Éireann”. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  28. Jump up^,32814,en.pdf
  29. Jump up ^ “Search Results – Sligo quays”. Pulled 29/02/2016.
  30. Jump up ^ “Tallahassee Irish Society”. Retrieved November 18, 2012.

Sligo Abbey

Sligo Abbey (Irish: Mainistir Shligigh ), a ruined abbey in Sligo, Ireland, (officially called the Dominican Friary Sligo) was originally built in 1253 by order of Maurice Fitzgerald, Baron of Offaly. It was destroyed in 1414 by a fire, ravaged during the nine years of war in 1595 and once in 1641 during the Ulster rebellion. [ Citation needed ] The monks moved into the 18th century, menLord Palmerston restored the Abbey in the 1850s. Currently, it is open to the public.

It operates in two short stories by William Butler Yeats: The Crucifixion of Outcast , as in the Middle Ages, and The Curse of the fires and the shadowsthat describes its destruction in 1641. [1]

See also 

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Sligo)


  1. Jump up ^ Steven Putzel (1986). Reconstruct Yeats: The Secret Rose and the wind in the reeds. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 12. ISBN 978-0-389-20600-2.


Knocknarea (/ n ɒ kn ə r eɪ /; Irish: Cnoc na Riabh ) [2] is a great hill west of Sligo town in County Sligo, Ireland.

327 meters (1073 feet) high limestone hill is visually striking, because it is monolithic in appearance and stands in a prominent place on the Cúil wandering the peninsula between the bays of Sligo ochBallysadare. At the summit is a large hill (or heap) of the loose stones. Although it has not been excavated, believed to hide a Neolithic passage grave. [1]


Knocknarea is a anglisering of an Irish name. “Knock” means hill, but the etymology of the rest of the name is disputed. The placenta Database of Ireland gives the Irish name Cnoc na Riabh (meaning “hill of stripes”). [1] But PW Joyce preferred the interpretation Cnoc na Riaghadh ( “hill of executions”). Cnoc na Riogha ( “hill of the kings “) have also been proposed [1]that has Cnoc na Ré (” hill of the moon “).

Medb’s Cairn

On top of Knocknarea is a huge mound about 55 meters (180 feet) wide and 10 meters (33 feet) high, making it the largest such cairn in Ireland outside the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath. Although it is still unexcavated, and is one of the largest of these monuments still unexplored, it has many of the features of a classic passage grave. [3] It is known in Irish asMeascán Méabha [1] or Miosgan Meadhbha [4 ] importance Medb’s rags (Miosgán means a lump or tap, esp. butter). In English it is known variously as Medb’s Cairn Medb’s grave, Medb nipple or Medb’s tomb (sometimes called Medb’s anglicised as Maeve). It is believed to date to about 3000 f.Kr ..[4] Méabh is a figure in Irish mythology which has in stories that go to the early first millennium CE. Archaeologist Stefan Bergh, in his book Landscape of monuments (Stockholm, 1995), suggests that a great depression some distance west of the mound was the quarry from which the limestone monument was taken.

Listoghil (part of Carrowmore) with Knockarea and Méabh s Cairn in the background

other monuments

Méabh’s Cairn, but by far the largest, is just one of a number of monuments on the top of Knocknarea. In general, the graves are aligned north-south, and they may have been built to meet Carrowmore lowland. Many of the smaller tombs seem to have been small passage tombs; the severely damaged by excavations of antiquarians in the 19th century. [5]

Knocknarea seems to have been a great place of ritual and the meeting of the Neolithic era. The entire top of the mountain on the east side surrounded by a one kilometer (0.6 mi) -Long dike, 2 meters (2 yd) wide and 0.8 meters (3 feet) long. Hut sites have been located on the inside of this area. A large amount of debris from making stone tools have been collected. [5]

The area around Sligo Bay is rich in prehistoric remains, and shares similar monuments and natural forms. From Knocknarea can be seen elsewhere, such as CroaghaunMountain, Carrowkeel Megalithic Cemetery, and Cairns Hill. Carrowmore passage tomb cemetery is located at the eastern foot of Knocknarea.

Beach, coastal resort, located on the western foot of Knocknarea.Cullenamore an extensive beach area, is further south, and the southern aspect of Knocknarea utsiktBallysadare Bay.


Conservation issues of Knocknarea and Méabh’s Cairn has been discussed in the local press. [6] A large number of visitors causes damage to the heap.Visitors are asked not to climb on the cairn, and not to take the stones from the cairn.


  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdef
  2. Jump up ^ “Cnoc na Riabh / Knocknarea”. (in Irish). Pulled 02/12/2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan (1995) Landscape of monuments. A study of the passage tombs in Cúil wander region, Co. Sligo, Ireland . Stockholm: National Heritage Archaeological UndersökningarISBN 9171929452
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab Scarre, Christopher (2002). Monuments and landscapes of the Atlantic Ocean Europe: Perception and society during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 978-0415273145.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Bergh, Stefan. (1995) Landscape of monuments. A study of the passage tombs in Cúil wander region, Co. Sligo, Ireland .Stockholm: National Heritage Archaeological Investigations
  6. Jump up ^ “Sligo Weeke: Thousands of feet of destroying our heritage.”09.29.2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Taken 12/02/2015.


Benbulbin , [1] [2] sometimes spelled Ben bulb or Benbulben (from the Irish: Binn Ghulbain ), is a large rock formation in County Sligo, Ireland. It is part of Dartry mountains, in an area which is sometimes called “Yeats country”. [3] [4] [5]

Benbulbin is a protected area, designated as a County Geological Site Sligo County Council. [6] [7]


“Legs bulb”, “Benbulben”, and “Benbulbin” are all anglicisations of Irish name “Binn Ghulbain”. “Binn” means “top” or “mountain”, while “Ghulbain” means beak or jaw in Irish. The literal translation is “beak” or “jaw” peak. [3]

The name is also reflected in the name of the king Conall Gulban, a son of Niall of the nine hostages that were associated with the mountain, but he was named after the mountain or mountain after him is not clear. [3] [8]



A snowy view of Benbulbin, seen from Streedagh Beach, near Grange.

Benbulbin was formed during the Ice Age, when Ireland was under glaciers.Originally it was a great plateau. Glaciers move from northeast to southwest shaped it to its current distinctive formation. [4] [9]

Rock composition

Benbulbin, and the Dartry Mountains as a whole, is composed of limestone on top mudstones. These stones are formed in the area some 320 million years ago in a shallow sea. At the top of the limestone layer is a thicker, harder limestone called Dartry Limestone Formation. Below this is a thinner transition limestone formation – Glencar Limestone Formation. Further down, the lower slopes consists of shaly mudstone called Benbulben Shale Formation. Scree deposits are found near the base. [4] [6]

Fossils found throughout the layers of mountains. All layers have many fossil seashells. Slate stock also has certain corals. [6]

Barytes broken at Glencarbury close Benbulbin in Dartry range between 1894 and 1979. [6]


Benbulbin is an established walking destination. [10] [11] [12] If the stage with The North Face, it is a dangerous pitch. The side bears the brunt of the high winds and storms coming in from the Atlantic. But if approached by the south side, it is an easy walk, as the side slopes very gently. On arrival at the top, the climber is rewarded with a magnificent view of the coastal strip north Co. Sligo and the Atlantic Ocean. [4] The land adjacent to the impressive western edge of the ridge is privately owned agricultural land and not available for allmänheten.Men there is a paved road up the south side of the east near Glencar Waterfall Leitrim County just over the border.

Flora and fauna

Benbulbin host a unique combination of plants, including some organisms are anywhere else in Ireland. Many Arctic-alpine plants, because of the mountain height, which allows for cooler temperatures than normal. These plants were deposited when the glaciers that created Benbulbin melted. Wild hares and foxes inhabit Benbulbin. [4]

In 2012, research showed that fringed sandwort had survived the Ice Age and are perhaps 100,000 years old. In Ireland, the plant is unique to Benbulbin.The discovery questioning earlier agreed that Ireland’s flora and fauna date or after the end of the Ice Age. [13]

In Irish history

Irish legends

Benbulbin is the determination of several Irish legends. It is said to be one of the bases for hunting Fianna, a band of warriors who are said to have lived in the 3rd century. An example is a story where the warrior Diarmuid Ua Duibhne (Diarmuid) fooled by the giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn McCool) into fighting an enchanted boar, which later kills the warrior by piercing his heart with its tusk. The mountain is said to be Diarmuid and Gráinne’s resting place. Even in the 6th century, St. Columba fought a battle on the plains below Benbulbin at CUL Dreimhne (Cooladrumman) for the right to copy a Psalter he had borrowed from St. Finnian. [14]

Irish civil War

On 20 September 1922 under the Irish Civil War, an Irish Republican Army each column, including an armored car corners in Sligo. The car was destroyed by another armored car belonging to the Irish Free State’s National Army, and six of the IRA soldiers fled up Benbulbin slopes. In the end, all were killed, reportedly after they had surrendered. They are known as “Noble Six”. [ Citation needed ]

Brig Seamus Devin TD, Div. Adj. Brian MacNeill, Captain. Harry Benson, Lieut. Paddy Carroll, Vols. Tommy Langan and Joe Banks were killed on the mountain. [15] The six anti-Treaty fighters hunted on the slopes of Benbulbin and killed by Free State forces who were out to avenge the murder of Brigadier Joseph ring eight days earlier. Two of those killed and Ring were the ancestors of today and the new politicians: Call is the great uncle Michael Ring, is McNeill’s uncle by the Tánaiste and Minister for Equality and Law Reform, Michael McDowell and Devin’s grandfather Jimmy Devins. [16] Mary O’Rourke narrated once a radio documentary tells how her grandmother home was used as a hiding place. [16]

  • Benbulbin northern side.
  • Another photograph of the north side.
  • As seen from the south.
  • Benbulbin, with Sligo Bay in the foreground.
  • An eastern view.
  • Part of the northern side of Benbulbin.
  • The top of Benbulbin.
  • A snowy Benbulbin, seen from Streedagh Strand.
  • Taken on the N15, north of Sligo town, near the townland of Shannoneighter.

plane crashes

During World War II there were two plane crashes in mountains near Dartry Benbulbin.

On 9 December 1943 the USAAF Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress plane (road from Goose Bay, Labrador to Prestwick, Scotland) crashed on Truskmore just east of Benbulbin. 10 airmen were on board, of whom three died, two on the spot and one from injuries in the crash. [17] Local residents carried out a rescue, taking the wounded from the mountain where they were then transferred to Sligo County Hospital. Significant wreckage of the plane stayed on the mountain for many years after the crash, and today limited quantities of aircraft fragments still remain on the site. [18]

Near the site of the Flying Fortress crash was a previous crash also includes a military aircraft. On March 21, 1941 an RAF Catalina flying boat (AM265) using the Donegal Corridor crashed into the mountain at Glenade, Co.Leitrim on the east side of Truskmore. All nine airmen on board died in the crash. [18] [19]

recent history

In the 1970s and 1980s, Sinn Féin engaged in a slogan campaign around the theme of “Brits of Ireland”. Roads and walls throughout Ireland had been marked with these slogans that were Benbulbin 1977. It marked the first ‘Brits Out’ (180 feet wide and 25 feet high) and later with the slogan “H-Block”. [Citation needed ]

Benbulbin overlooking the village of Mullaghmore, the site of the assassination of Lord Mountbatten in 1979. [20] [21]

Notable people

The athlete Mary Cullen is from nearby Drumcliffe. [22] Andy “The Bull” MacSharry, involved in a famous 17-year conflict to allow access rights over their land, lives near Benbulbin. [23]

In literature

Benbulbin has a prominent place in the poetry of WB Yeats, after which Yeats Country units. County Sligo considered integral poet’s work. [24] The mountain is one of the destinations in the Passport traces of the poet’s life.[24]

Yeats wrote in The Celtic Twilight :

But for Ben bulb and Knocknarea,
the Many poor sailor’d throw away
. [25]

Yeats famous poem, in Ben bulb , is basically a description of Yeats Country.It describes the sights he saw in Yeats country. The following is an excerpt from Under Ben Bulben :

In the bare-bones bulb head
in the room churchyard Yeats is laid.
An ancestor was rector there
Long years ago, a church stands near,
the road an ancient cross.
No marble, no conventional phrase,
the limestone quarried near the spot
of his command these words are cut:
Cast a cold eye
on life, on death.
Horseman, pass!
– During Ben bulb, WB Yeats

This was Yeats last poem, published in The Irish Times . [26] He is buried in the nearby Drumcliffe churchyard. [26] [27]

Benbulbin seen multiple times in locating the film used in the 2014 film, Calvary.

See also

  • List of mountains in Ireland
  • Wiktionary definition of a bone


  1. Jump up ^ Benbulbin placental Database of Ireland. Retrieved: 2003-03-19.
  2. Jump up ^ Benbulbin Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved: 2003-03-19.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abc “mountains: Benbulbin in the area Dartry Mountains”.Retrieved 2007-04-04.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abcde Reader’s Digest natural wonders of the world. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
  5. Jump up ^ “Yeats Country Drive Sligo”. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  6. ^ Jump up to: abcd . Williams, Mary Anne (2008) Landscape, rocks and fossils: geological heritage of County Sligo: A measure of the County Sligo Heritage Plan. Sligo Regional Technical College. pp. 21, 22. ISBN 0955565316th
  7. Jump up ^ Marese McDonagh (14 March 2009). “Yeats-link 19th century house demolition can get.” The Irish Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010. Sligo Borough Council has confirmed that it is a recommendation in the recently published draft Sligo Environs Development Plan Markievicz House removed from the list of protected structures. If the elected members vote to delist the building, which in the late 1800s was home to Yeats grandparents, William and Elizabeth Pollexfen, clearing the way for its demolition. […] Stella Mew, CEO of the Yeats Society, which is preparing for the 50th International Yeats Summer School in the summer, says Sligo Yeatsian heritage was “dropped away bit by bit.””Fortunately, Ben bulb and Knocknarea are sacred – they can not delist the mountains or they may be at risk,” she said.
  8. Jump up ^ McGarry, James (1976). Place names in the writings of William Butler Yeats. Smythe. p. 21. ISBN 0901072397th
  9. Jump up ^ “Rootsweb: IRL-Sligo L Climbing Benbulben”. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  10. Jump up ^ Marese McDonagh (7 January 2010). “10-fold increase in AE patients Sligo”. The Irish Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010. These are not people climbing Ben bulb, “he stressed.” This is beyond people’s front doors when they go on trails or crossing the road.
  11. Jump up ^ Lorna Siggins (24 March 2009). “Arrival of the fittest”. The Irish Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010. She is said to be looking forward to climb Ben bulb again, has already done it several times as a student.
  12. Jump up ^ “Léargas”. Rte. Retrieved February 7, 2010. When he rises Ben bulb, emergency, he feels the lack of certainty about their right to have access to the highlands.
  13. Jump up ^ Edel O’Connell (August 18, 2012). “Researchers find first Irish hardy plant that hit Ice Age.” Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  14. Jump up ^ Bright, Michael (2005). 1001 Natural Wonders You Must See Before You Die. Quintet Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7641-5817-1.
  15. Jump up ^ Sligo Benbulbin “The Noble Six Cross” © Copyright Michael Murtagh and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  16. ^ Jump up to: ab “Another link in Ben Bulben story”. Mayo News. 4 May 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  17. Jump up ^
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab Dennis P. Burke. “B-17 Flying Fortress 42-31420” (PDF).Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  19. Jump up ^ Joe McGowan (2003). “The Donegal corridor and the Battle of the Atlantic”. History of Ireland. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  20. Jump up ^ Kim Bielenberg (11 July 2009). “The day’s death came from a clear blue sky.” Irish Independent. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  21. Jump up ^ Valerie Shanley (23 August 2009). “The shadow of Mullaghmore”. Sunday Tribune. Archived from the original September 9, 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  22. Jump up ^ “Athletics: Cullen back on track after years of hell”. Irish Independent. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010. She is from quaint Drumcliffe, in the heart of Yeats country, surrounded by idyllic sea, sand and Benbulbin but ironically the weather has been unseasonably foul and her preparation makes loneliness long-distance runners.
  23. Jump up ^ Anita Guidera (22 September 2009). “Hill’s life 17 years walker series of loose.” Irish Independent. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  24. ^ Jump up to: ab . Anita Guidera (29 January 2009) “Poetry fans treading softly on the trail of Yeats’s favorite haunt.” Irish Independent. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  25. Jump up ^ Christopher Somerville (7 November 2009). “Walk of the week: The Rosses Co. Sligo”. Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  26. ^ Jump up to: ab . Joe Joyce (18 September 1948) “WB Yeats laid to rest in Drumcliffe.” The Irish Times. Retrieved February 7, 2010. The scene at Drumcliffe was Yeats himself. In his last poem, published in The Irish Times, he wrote: Under bare Ben Bulben head / in Drumcliffe Church Yeats is laid. . .
  27. Jump up ^ Orla Tinsley (18 July 1948). “Irish roll”. The Irish Times.Retrieved February 7, 2010. After a quick leg-stretch in Mullaghmore we travel past the looming presence of Ben bulb on the way to Yeats grave in Drumcliff.


Drumcliff [1] or Drumcliffe (Irish: Droim Chliabh , which means “ridge baskets”) is a village in County Sligo, Ireland. It is 8 km (5 miles) north of Sligo town on the N15 road on a low ridge between Mount Ben bulb and Drum bay. It is the Drumcliff River, was originally called “Codnach”, which drains Glencar Lake. [2] The name means Codnach chief or prince river. The old name of Drumcliff was Cnoc na Teagh (trans. Hill of). The village is one of several possible locations in Co. Sligo to solve Nagnata as marked on Claudius Ptolemy’s early map of Ireland.


An old poem in Dinnsenchus (Lore places) tells how the baskets in the name refers to the basket frames a fleet of boats that once were here.

Drumcliff formed the western extremity of the kingdom Breifne (the east end was Kells), and the northern end of Tir Fhiacrach Múaidhe (Tireragh).

An ancient battle fought here in the AM 3656 (1538 BC) by legendary Milesian monarch Tigearnmas. Tigernmas. Cath Codnaige in Tuath Eba in Cairpre Moir Droma Cliab, fought with Tigernmas AFM


St. Colmcille founded a monastery in Drumcliff in around 575. [ citation needed ] .The monastery was of such importance that it gave its name to the territory of Cairbre Drom Cliabh where it is. The first abbot was St. Mothorian.

Lord of Cairbre “Dunadhach, a noble protector, a famous man who was held hostage, a devout soldier of the race of Conn (buried) in hazelnut cross Drumcliff”

Annals says that in 1225, Amlaib O Beollain, erenach Drumcliff, a man distinguished for generosity and for her guest-house, died this year . The O’Beollain (Boland) were hereditary keepers of Drumcliff monastery.

1187 – Drum plundered by the son Melaghlin O’Rourke, Lord of Hy-Briuin and Conmaicne, and the son of Cathal O’Rourke, along with English Meath. But God and St. Columbkille forged a remarkable miracle in this case; son Melaghlin O’Rourke was killed in Conmaicne two weeks after surgery, and the eyes of the son of Cathal O’Rourke was exhibited by O’Muldory (Flaherty) in revenge Columbkille. One hundred and twenty of the son Melaghlin’s retainers were also killed throughout Conmaicne and Carbury of Drumcliff, through the miracles of God and St. Columbkille.

1355.1 – Conor Mac Consnava, Bishop of Kilmore Breifne from Drumcliff Kells, died.

All that remains now is an Irish High Cross dating to the 9th century, [ citation needed ] and destroyed 10 or 11 century round tower, the only one known in County Sligo, was the round tower struck by lightning in 1396. ” Celtic high crosses Drumcliff. “ Furthermore, the cross-decorated tiles are built into the walls of the current church.

William Butler Yeats

Drumcliff is the final resting place of poet WB Yeats (1865-1939), who is buried in the cemetery of St. Columba’s Church of Ireland Church. Even Yeats died in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France in January 1939, his remains were brought home to Ireland with the Irish Naval Service and re-buried at Drumcliff in 1948 in the presence of a large number of locals and dignitaries including Minister of Foreign Affairs, Seán MacBride, who represented government. [3] His reads epitafium

“Cast a cold eye

In the life of death

Horseman, pass ”

Yeats grandfather was the headmaster of Drumcliff as John Butler Yeats remarked in a letter to his son William in 1913: “My father, tho ‘a low Churchman, hated Presbyterianism and Presbyterians Why Because he knew that members of his own family, the Catholic.? farmers in Drumcliff. in his time there were forty houses between the rectory gate and the round tower, now there is just one. in my grandfather’s time, he and the parish priest friends. Maynooth did not exist, and the priest educated in the liberal atmosphere of a French college, and possibly both read Voltaire and of the farmers said that he remembered the priest get up a bonfire to celebrate my grandfather’s return to the congregation from a lengthy stay in Dublin. ”

  • Grave of WB Yeats in Drum Cemetery
  • The round tower in Drumcliff
  • Celtic High Cross in Drum Cemetery
  • Drumcliffe graveyard

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Chliabh Droim / Drum | placental Database of Ireland “ Pulled 02/07/2016.
  2. Jump up ^ “DOI: Onomasticon Goedelicum (C)”. Pulled 02/07/2016.
  3. Jump up ^ Foster, Roy (2003). WB Yeats: A Life, Vol. II: The Arch-Poet 1915-1939. New York:. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-818465-4.

Carrowmore, County Sligo

Carrowmore, County Sligo (Irish: An Cheathrú Mhor , meaning large district) is one of the four great passage tomb complex in Ireland. It is located in the geographical center of Cúil wander Peninsula in County Sligo and 3 km west of Sligo town.

This is one of the largest (in terms of number of monuments) complex of megalithic tombs in Ireland and is also among the oldest use of the passage tombs, the earliest fallout around 3700 BC.


Finding Carrowmore: From the south (N4) for Collooney roundabout, exit Beach / Airport. Follow road Beach (R292). Take the right exit at the roundabout Ransboro, the center 1 km further on, on the right side. From the North (N15), cross Hughes Bridge in Sligo town, and at the 5th set of traffic lights after the bridge turn right into Church Hill. After 2 km take the left fork, signed Carrowmore. The center is located 1 km from here, to the left.

Placed on a small plateau at an altitude of between 36.5 and 59 meters above sea Carrowmore is the focus of a prehistoric ritual landscape dominated by Mount Knocknarea to the west with the big heap of Miosgán Médhbh on top.To the east is Carns Hill with two large mounds overlooking Lough Gill, and along the eastern border of the peninsula Ballygawley mountain has four passage tombs at their tops. [1]


30 monuments survive in Carrowmore today. There may have been more complex monuments in the beginning, but some fell victim to the quarrying and field clearance below 18, 19 and early 20’s. The complex is about one kilometer north-south and 600 meters east-west. Most of the sites are “satellite tombs” that surrounds the main monument, located at the height of the plateau, the cairn (now restored) called Listoghil.

Due to the grouping of monuments, some morphological characteristics presented by the graves, and the assemblage of materials in some of the monuments Carrowmore – somNewgrange, Loughcrew and Carrowkeel – classified by archaeologists as part of the Irish Passage Tomb Tradition. But in some respects Carrowmore places are atypical passage tombs. For example, none of the graves have lintel-covered tunnel-like passages that are a feature of most Irish passage graves, and only one place (Tomb 51, Listoghil) possesses a cairn.

Satellite Tombs

The tombs (in original condition) consisted of a central dolmen-like megalith with five upright orthostats carries a roughly conical capstone on top, enclosing a litenfemsidig tomb. These were each enclosed by a stone circle of 12 to 15 m in diameter. The stone circle containing 30 to 40 blocks, usually of gneiss, the material of choice for the tombs. Sometimes a second, inner circle stone blocks are also present. Entrance stones (or passage of stones, uncooked double rows of standing stones) extending from the central feature, showing the intended orientation of dolmens. They are not oriented to the directions but generally face towards the central area of the heap. In four such monuments are located in pairs.

Each monument was built on a small level platform of earth and stone that is one of the secrets of dolmens’ life as a well-executed stone seal surrounded the base of the upright stones, locking them in place. A satellite of graves, Tomb 27, has a cross-shaped passage grave plane, a feature seen in the chambers in the latter passage tombs or somNewgrange Carrowkeel. The roof – now gone – might have been of stone slabs or Corbelled.

Listoghil or Tomb 51

Listoghil built c. 3500 BC, is 34 meters in diameter and has a unique box-like chamber with the only megalithic technique so far available on Carrowmore.Three large boulders were found next to the central chamber and the heap;these might be the remains of a ruined megalithic construction preceded the heap. Since many of the satellite tombs face the central area, the site of the Tomb 51 seems to have been the focus around which the cemetery developed. This is the only grave to contain inhumationssnarare than crema (although crema is also present).

research History

Gabriel Beranger visited the site in 1779 and illustrated some of the monuments. [2] [3] These drawings are a valuable record of the state of Carrowmore at the time, shows some monuments now destroyed or damaged.

Early unregistered antiquarian excavation disturbed Carrowmore tombs, such as carried out by the local landlord Rodger Walker in the 19th century.Walker kept poor records of their activities, and it has been said that his excavations were more in line with the treasure hunt. Some of the material is recycled is now at Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, England [4]

The sites were originally surveyed and numbered by George Petrie in 1837, while William Gregory Wood-Martin made the first recorded excavations in the 1880s.

Recent excavations

Excavations led by the Swedish archaeologist Göran Burenhult conducted during two seasonal promotions, 1977-1982 and 1994-1998. Ten graves were completely or partially excavated. Listoghil (Central Tomb, aka. Tomb 51) was excavated in 1996-8.

Recent excavations at the National Roads Authority for the route Inner Relief Road in Magheraboy near Sligo – three kilometers from Carrowmore – have shown that a causewayed höljeexisterade while Carrowmore.Causewayed enclosures are diagnostic of Neolithic activity in Europe. [5]

Excavation Results

The Carrowmore assemblage is typical for the Irish passage tomb tradition.It includes horn and bone pins with mushroom-shaped heads and stone or clay balls. The excavations also revealed large amounts of unopened clams and oysters, echoing the findings of shell middens along Cúil wander. Quartz fragments accompanied most funerals; quartz and quartzite clearly had ritual significance in the passage tomb tradition. Antler pin, seafood and ornaments from sperm whale teeth that are in the graves, may indicate that the earliest monuments built by people who followed the hunter-gatherer way of life; but the presence of small amounts of Carrowkeel ware Neolithic pottery at these sites are also indicative of the agricultural influence .

The chambers contain the remains of several people. Almost all the Neolithic burials at Carrowmore seems to have been cremations with inhumations only available on Listoghil. The graves were reused periodically funeral and disposal of artifacts of the people of the Bronze Age and Iron Age, a long time after the original construction.

The small Carrowmore dolmens seem to have been covered by heaps: even if such ideas were once popular among the antiquarians, the discovery of the “Settings” of stone and finds near the chambers of the Norsemen, Roman ochbronsåldern artifacts makes it unlikely – according Burenhult – such cairns ever existed.

Radiocarbon dates

Radiocarbon dates from the survey and excavation project in the 1970s, 80s and 90s by Professor Göran Burenhult generated some controversy among archaeologists. Burenhult interpreted the date to indicate that most of the monuments were erected and used between 4300 and 3500 BC, a hunter-gatherer community. [6] For example, a sample taken from the chamber of Carrowmore 3 (called Tomb 4 of Burenhult) was claimed to set a date of 5400 BC. This conclusion is not accepted by the wider international archaeological community. [7] But Croaghaun, a small mound in the Ox mountains a few kilometers south of Carrowmore, has also produced a date to go back as far as 5600 BC from samples of coal available in the central chamber, but what this really means is contested by digging [8] the earlier use of the sites, or the incorporation of older material preceded stone tombs can not be excluded.

Perhaps the primary outcome of Burenhult work is that it showed that Carrowmore passage tombs preceded weight passage tombs in the Boyne Valley, County Meath, such as Knowth and Newgrange. But his Mesolithic graves Hunters interpretation of the early Carrowmore date, first presented in 1982, received critical review of the quarter-century that followed. A source critical review of earlier work [9] and 25 new radiocarbon dates [10]have shown that Carrowmore monuments are more likely to have been built in the second quarter of the fourth millennium before Christ.

Although some of the samples from Burenhult excavations produced before the Neolithic date, the sample material was coal, which is sensitive to a number of methodological problems. But the last 25 AMS dates on bone and horn buttons by monuments [11] has contributed to the history of activities on Carrowmore and counterbalance earlier demand Mesolithic megalith construction of the complex. The use of satellite Carrowmore tombs have been found to have reached the era around 3750 BC to about 3000 BC. This data set is supported by palaeo environmental studies in neighboring lakes conducted by Stolze, O’Connell, Ghilardi and others, shows agricultural activities in conjunction with or prior to use monuments. [12]


Research on Carrowmore has changed the history of the development of the passage tomb tradition in Ireland. Data from this location overturned the theory once widespread in Irish archeology of tomb building spread from east to west across the country, and that the large complex tombs of Newgrange represented the beginning of the tradition, and the small simple tombs at Carrowmore final degenerate end of the tradition. Although we do not have reliable dates from many important Irish passage grave sites, it is possible to Carrowmore may represent the beginning of the passage tomb construction in Ireland.

It should be noted, however, that the construction of megalithic tombs is a widespread phenomenon, which extends from the Mediterranean Sea along the west coast of Europe to Scandinavia. If this is the spread of an ideology or humans has been debated. Perhaps both now seems likely, because the picture is now emerging from archeology is one of greater complexity than previous models had assumed. There are indications that in Ireland many of the main centers were in use at the same time. [13] The role of megaliths as monuments and cures of ceremony and celebration, as well as markers on the landscape is emphasized by archaeologists such as Richard Bradley.

The construction of large cairns Listoghil or Miosgán Médhbh on Knocknarea or Newgrange may represent a later phase of the megalith building larger scale and ambition than before the passage tombs. The area of Cúil wander peninsula and its hinterland is dotted with such graves, often on hilltops, which inspired Stefan Bergh to style it “Landscape of monuments”.

There has long been debate about how different types Neolithic monument – passage tombs, court tombs and portal dolmens – all of which occur in County Sligo – should be interpreted. Once thought to be an indication of different cultures or people, they are now known to have coexisted with each other, and therefore can represent different functions in a single community.Perhaps research into DNA or other techniques in the future will help to resolve these issues.

The Dump Crisis

Carrowmore was the subject of an extended legal battle in the 1980s when the Sligo County Council in 1983 tried to place a municipal landfill dumped at a quarry site about 100 yards from one part of the complex. Council’s decision was contested by five residents of the High Court in Dublin at the end of 1983 and the High Court ruled that the County Council could go ahead with their plans under certain conditions. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court which sentenced Council, 1989.

A notable feature of the judgment was that it was the first explicit legal recognition of the idea of an architectural landscape, extending the legal protection of a national monument to include the surrounding area. [14]

There was further controversy in 2001 with the reconstruction of the tomb 51st

Visitor Centre

1989-90 state bought about 25 acres, which stood a number of monuments and a small cottage. The cottage has been developed to be used as a basic visitor interpretive facility run by the Office of Public Works, this development was the first step in the development of Carrowmore archaeological complex of public access. Later, land acquisition means that most of the site is now under public ownership.

The small farm is close to the R292, about 2 km east of Ransboro crossroads.There is an exhibition, and from March to October provide both assistance and multilingual self-control options for Carrowmore megaliths. Admission is € 4.00 for adults, and there are discounts for seniors, groups, students, and families. Most of the graves may be reached from there. The center is open daily from 10:00 to 17:00 during the summer.


  1. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan (1995) Landscape of monuments. A study of the passage tombs in Cúil wander region, Co. Sligo, Ireland . Stockholm: National Heritage Archaeological Investigations ISBN 9171929452
  2. Jump up ^ Herity, Michael (1974) Irish passage graves Dublin. Irish University Press. pps 14-18. ISBN 0-7165-2167-9
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^ Ireland, Aideen M. (2002) Roger Chambers Walker: A Sligo Antiquarian The Journal of Irish Archaeology Vol 11. pp. 147-187.
  5. Jump up ^ Danagher, Ed (2007) Monumental beginning: Archaeology of the N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road (NRA schedule Monograph 1) ISBN 978-1-905569-15-1
  6. Jump up ^ Burenhult Goran, (2005) Carrowmore: Tombs HuntersBritish Archaeology Issue 82.
  7. Jump ^ Cooney, G., Bayliss, A., Healy, F., Whittle, A., Danaher, E., Cagney, L, Mallory, J., Smyth, J., Kador, T. and O ‘ Sullivan, M., and T. O’Sullivan, M. (2011) “Chapter 12: Ireland. A. Whittle, F. Healy and A. Bayliss (ed) Collect time: dating to the early Neolithic enclosures in southern Britain and Ireland . Oxford: Oxbow Books
  8. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan (1995) Landscape of monuments. A study of the passage tombs in Cúil wander region, Co. Sligo, Ireland . Stockholm: National Heritage Archaeological Investigations ISBN 9171929452
  9. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan and Hensey, Robert (2013), the Neolithic dates from Carrowmore 1978-1998; A source critical
  10. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan and Hensey, Robert (2013) demolish the Chrolonogy of Carrowmore in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 32 (4) pp 343-366 / abstract
  11. Jump up ^ Bergh, Stefan and Hensey, Robert (2013) demolish the Chrolology of Carrowmore Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Volume 32, Issue 4, pages 343-366, / abstract
  12. Jump up ^ O’Connell, M. Ghilardi, B. and Morrison, L. (2014). A 7000-year record of environmental change, including förtidspensione agricultural impact, based on lake sediments geochemistry and pollen data from County Sligo, western Ireland . in Quaternary Research, 81, 35-49
  13. Jump up ^ Hensey, Robert; Meehan, Mr; Dowd, Marion Moore, Sam. A century of archeology historic excavations and modern research at Carrowkeel Passage Tombs, County Sligo . Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 2014, p. 1-30
  14. Jump up ^

Carrowkeel Megalithic Cemetery

Carrowkeel is a Neolithic passage tomb cemetery in south County Sligo, close to Boyle, County Roscommon. A Cheathrú Chaol in Irish means “the narrow Quarter”. Circumstantial carbon 14 dating places the graves between 5400 and 5100 years old (3400-3100 BC), so that they are older than the pyramids in Egypt’s Giza plateau 500-800 years. Carrowkeel is one of the “big four” passage tomb cemeteries in Ireland (the other three are Brú na Bóinne, Lough Crew and Carrowmore). Carrowkeel located at an elevation above the Lough Arrow, and the graves seem to be focused on the area Cuil wandering, Knocknarea and Carrowmore. There are fourteen passage tombs at Carrowkeel. Some can be entered by crawling through a narrow passage.Twelve more passage graves are nearby, most of which are included in the Keshcorran complex. [1] A special type of crude pottery found in passage graves are entitled Carrowkeel Ware, after having noted in Carrowkeel monument.

Lough Arrow and just north of Carrowkeel is another, seemingly related, giant passage grave, Heapstown Cairn. This is part of the legendary Moytura, the site of battles between the Tuatha Dé Danann, the ancient gods in Ireland, and the demonic Fomorians.

The mountain range contains Carrowkeel called the Bricklieve mountains, that is, the speckled mountains in Ireland, a possible reference to its appearance when more quartz stone survived on the outside of Cairns, making them glisten in the sun. The tombs were opened by RAS Macalister in 1911, together with Robert Lloyd Praeger and Edmund Clarence Richard Armstrong. Even Macalister was familiar with contemporary archaeological methods, he acted hastily on Carrowkeel and his removal and disturbance of the chamber floor has hampered investigators who followed him. In “The way I went,” in 1937, Praeger gives an eerie account of the first entry in one of the Carrowkeel monument.

“I lit three candles and stood for a moment, to let my eyes get accustomed to the dim light. That’s all, just like the last Bronze Age man (sic) had left it, three to four thousand years earlier. A light brownish dust covered all … the beads of stone, bone implements made from Red Deer Horn, and many fragments of pottery much decayed. on small raised indentations in the wall was flat stones, which rested the calcined bones of small children. ”

A 2004 excavation of Professor Stefan Bergh, NUIG of hut sites on the slopes of Mullaghafarna – near the Cairn O and P, Carrowkeel – promises to illuminate the builders of these monuments. Visitors to the site are asked not to climb on the cairn, or damage monuments in any way, and do not take anything in or out of these ancient tombs. Some parts of the website contain deep cracks, holes and rocks.

1911 Excavation

Monuments on Carrowkeel originally excavated by a team of scientists in 1911. [2] These excavations led to a series of conclusions, including animal bones, cremated human remains, human bones and tools and pottery from both the Neolithic Age when the monument is thought to have originally designed and Bronze Age, which began c2,000 years after that.

The original excavation suffer any unscientific uncharacteristically documentation that later led to many of the artifacts found at the site is lost.It is also incorrectly dated monument bronze age structures, which later proved to be inaccurate after further research in the 20th century.


  1. Jump up ^ Hensey, Robert, Mr Meehan, Marion Dowd, and Sam Moore.”A century of archeology historic excavations and modern research at Carrowkeel Passage Tombs, County Sligo.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature 114 (2014): 1-31.
  2. Jump up ^ Hensey, Robert, Mr Meehan, Marion Dowd, and Sam Moore.”A century of archeology historic excavations and modern research at Carrowkeel Passage Tombs, County Sligo.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature 114 (2014): 1-31.

County Sligo

County Sligo (pronounced sly -Go Irish: Contae Shligigh ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is located in the border area are also part of the province of Connacht. It is named after the town of Sligo. Sligo County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 65,393 according to the 2011 census, making it the third most populous county in the province.


The county was formed in 1585 theoretically, but was not made reality until after the chaos of the nine-year war ended in 1603. Its boundaries reflect Ó Conchobhair Sligigh overlord Lower Connacht (Irish: Íochtar Connacht ) as it was at the time of the Elizabethan conquest.

This overlordship consisted of Tuatha or territories of Cairbre Drumcliabh, Tír Fhíacrach Múaidhe, Tír Ollíol, Luíghne, Corann and CUL ó bhFionn. Each of these have subsequently been made in an English style barony: Carbury, Tireragh, Leyny, Tirerril, Corran and Cool Uninstall. The capital of the new shired county was placed on Sligo.


Megalithic Cemetery Carrowmore is located in County Sligo. It is part of a huge complex of stone age still connect Carrowkeel in South Sligo to Ox Mountains, to Cuil wander peninsula, where Queen Maeve’s grave, Miosgán Médhbh, dominates the western skyline from the summit of Knocknarea Mountain.


Known medieval manuscripts written in County Sligo Ballymote include book, the great book of Lecan and Yellow Book in Lecan. Patron of the Annals of the Four Masters varFerghal O Gadhra Cool Vine in south County Sligo.

The coat of arms

This weapon was adopted by Sligo County Council in 1980. The design on the black shield, showing an open book on which there is a Celtic and a red rose, representing the collective literary and cultural history of Sligo. These relate to such early works as the Book of Ballymote and Lecan, while Rose was a major theme in the poetry WBYeats. The escallop shells splashed on the screen refers to the origin of the word Sligeach – “a place rich in shell”. The boar head refers to the “wild boar of the Benbulben” of Diarmuid and Gráinne myth. The color scheme of the crest incorporates Sligo GAA colors black and white. [1]

Local governments and politics

Main article: Sligo County Council

Sligo County Council is the governing body for the county. It is divided into five Local Electoral Areas (LEAs) Ballymote, Dromore, Sligo- Drumcliff, Sligo- Beach and Tubbercurry. There are 25 members of Sligo County Council.

Sligo is part of Sligo North Leitrim constituency and has three representatives (TD ‘s) in Dáil, Tony McLoughlin (FG), John Perry (FG) and Michael Colreavy (SF). It also has a representative to Seanad Éireann, Marc MacSharry


The poet and Nobel laureate William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) spent much of his childhood in northern Sligo and the county’s landscape (particularly the Isle of Innisfree, in Lough Gill) was the inspiration for much of his poetry. Yeats said, “the place that has really influenced my life most is Sligo.” He is buried in North County Sligo, “Under Ben Bulben”, Drumcliff.


County Sligo has a long history of traditional music. The southern part of the county is particularly noted with such musical luminaries as James Morrison, Michael Coleman, Paddy Killoran, Fred Finn, Peter Horan, Joe O’Dowd, Jim Donoghue, Martin Wynne, Oisin Mac Diarmada (of Téada), tin-whistle Carmel Gunning player and band Dervish .Länet has many traditional music festivals and one of the most famous is the queen Maeve International Summer School, a traditional Irish music summer school of music and dance that is held annually in August in Sligo Town. On the more contemporary music scene is Westlife, Tabby Callaghan and Conway Sisters who come from Sligo. Beach, about 9 km west of Sligo, host of the Beach Guitar Festival [1] every year, with a wide variety of guitar music and musicians.


Unlike its neighboring county, Sligo has had more success on the football rather than Gaelic games. The county is home to the League of Ireland Premier Division club Sligo Rovers, who have played home games at The Showgrounds since they were founded in 1928. Brother Walfrid founder of Celtic Football Club was born in Ballymote.

The county is represented in Gaelic Games from Sligo GAA.

Geography and political subdivisions

Sligo is the 22th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties in area and 26th largest in terms of population. [2] It is the fourth largest of Connacht’s five counties in size and the third largest in terms of population. The county borders County Mayo in the west, Roscommon to the south and southeast and Leitrim to the northeast.

Largest Towns County Sligo (2011 Census)

Beach near Beach

  1. Sligo, 19452
  2. Tubbercurry, 1747
  3. Strand, 1596
  4. Ballymote, 1539
  5. Collooney, 1369

Towns and Villages

  • Achonry
  • Aclare
  • Ballaghnatrillick
  • Ballinafad
  • Ballygawley
  • Ballintogher
  • Ballymote
  • Ballysadare
  • Beltra
  • Bunninadden
  • Carney
  • Castle
  • Cliffoney
  • Cloonacool
  • Collooney
  • Coolaney
  • Curry
  • Dromore West
  • Cliff
  • Easky
  • Crone
  • Geevagh
  • grange
  • Gorteen
  • Kilglass
  • Monasteraden
  • Mullaghmore
  • Rivers
  • Rosses Point
  • Skreen
  • Strandhill
  • Toorlestraun
  • Tubbercurry


See also: Category: People from County Sligo.

  • Ambrosio O’Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno – Spanish colonial administrator
  • William Butler Yeats – poet
  • Jack Butler Yeats – Artist
  • Brother Walfrid – founder of Celtic FC
  • Constance Markiewicz – revolutionary Irish nationalist
  • James Morrison (musician) – traditional music
  • Michael Coleman (musician) – traditional music
  • George Stokes – mathematicians, physicists
  • Martin Moffat, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Lola Montez – dancers, actors
  • Marian Harkin – MEP
  • Martin Savage – Irish Republican
  • Mary O’Hara – Singer
  • Michael Corcoran – Union Army general in the American Civil War
  • Neil Jordan – film director
  • Ray MacSharry – former Tánaiste
  • Tommy Fleming – Singer
  • Westlife – pop band
  • Pauline McLynn – Actor

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Sligo)
  • List of Sligo people
  • sligo GAA
  • Sligo Rovers FC
  • High Sheriff of Sligo
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Sligo (city)


  1. Jump up ^
  2. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  3. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  4. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. (27 September 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  7. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  8. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.

Lough Key

Lough Key (Irish: Loch Cé ) is a lake in Ireland. It is in northwest County Roscommon, northeast of the town of Boyle. The Lough’s believed to be named after a mythical figure called Ce. [1]


The name Lough Key comes from the Irish Loch Cé . In Irish mythology, CE was the Druids of the god Nuada. He was wounded in the second battle of Mag Tuired and fled south until he came to Carn Corrslebe, where he rested.He envisioned a beautiful plains full of flowers. He tried to reach it, and when he did, he died. When his grave was dug there a lake burst out of it, and flooded the entire plain. It was thus named Loch Cé after him. [2]


The lake is located in the north of the River Shannon catchment area, and is fed by the Boyle River which flows from Lough Gara, through the town of Boyle, Lough Key. From there, flowing east until it reaches just above the River Shannon Carrick-on-Shannon. Its area is 843.7 hectares (2,085 acres) and its average depth is 5.1 meters (17 feet). [3] One can see a view of the lake frånN4 way it increases the Curlew mountains after passing Boyle. The view is reinforced by a modern steel sculpture of an Irish chieftain mounted on horseback (see picture).


The area around Lough Key and the nearby town of Boyle, County Roscommon, has been inhabited for thousands of years.

The lake is several kilometers across and contains over thirty wooded islands including Castle Island, Trinity Island, Orchard Island, Stag Island, Bullock Island and Drumman Island. Castle Island has had a number of structures built on it for centuries. The earliest records dating to 1184, in the Annals of Loch Ce, where a light strike is reported to have started a fire in “The Rock of Loch-CE,” a “very magnificent, royal residence.” Currently the folly castle built in the early 19th century by the king family stands on the island. Trinity Church and the Islands each has the ruins of medieval priories stands on them. [Archaeology digs from c.2005-2012 found that “folly” seems in fact to be a relic of the past several historic structures. ]

Cairrig Loch -C

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2011)

17-20th centuries

The King family acquired the land around Lough Key in the 17th century Cromwellian Settlement, [4] to rename the area of Moylurg Rockingham. In 1809, Rockingham House – a mansion designed by the English architect John Nash [5] – was built. The house remained the seat of Stafford-King-Harman family until it was badly damaged by fire in 1957. [6] The latter was demolished in 1970.

Lough Key Forest Park

Immediately south of the lough is Lough Key Forest Park, a popular destination for recreational walkers. The park opened in 1972, [7] covers 865 acres (350 ha) formerly part of the Rockingham estate. The Moylurg Tower, stands on the site of the old Rockingham house, now stands overlooking the lake in the north and lawns in the south. There are many amenities in the park including boat trips, boats for rent, water sports, camping and caravan park, an outdoor playground and shop. A development in 2007 [8] added a number of new attractions including a canopy walkway and children’s play areas, to meet the “visitor 21st century.” [9]

Sir Cecil Stafford-King-Harman (1895-1987), second (and last) Baronet of Rockingham [ citation needed ] , make sure that the country went back to the people of Ireland through the Irish Land Commission, which is shared by pastures in several farms about 50 acre (20 ha) and granted them to the locals. An extensive area around the then derelict Rockingham house became Forest Park and this was taken care of by the Department of Forestry. It is currently in the care of Coillte, a semi-governmental body. The park contains the remains of the five ring fast, giving evidence of the long dwelling in this region.

The area around the lake is significant in medieval Irish literature and legend.Starting around 1000 AD, the Annals of Boyle were compiled on Trinity Island, and from 1253 to 1590 in the Annals of Lough Key continued from where Boyle annals slut.Lough Key was also the site of the legend of Una Bháin. Famous harpist Turlough O’Carolan buried at Kilronan, three miles (5 km) to the north of the lake.

annalistic references

From the Annals of the Four Masters:

  • M955.11 – The fleet of Fearghal, son of Art, at Loch-Ce.

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Gods and fight for Men: Part III In the book: the great battle of Magh Tuireadh”. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  2. Jump up ^ Lady Gregory Gods and fight for Men [1]
  3. Jump up ^ NS Share [2] Depth Information for Lakes
  4. Jump up ^ “Lough Key Forest Park | Recreation sites | Coillte Outdoors “ Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  5. Jump up ^ “History | Park and Estate | Lough Key Forest and Activity Park “. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  6. Jump up ^ “Lough Key”. 09.12.2004. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  7. Jump up ^ “Speech by Minister O’Donoghue at the” turning of the sod “ceremony at Lough Key Forest Park, Co. Roscommon “. 23.02.2006. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  8. Jump up ^ “Minister Coughlan opens Lough Key Forest and Activity Park”. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food – Retrieved 2011-04-09.
  9. Jump up ^ “Home | Lough Key Forest and Activity Park “. 2011-04-09.

Strokes Park

Strokes Park House is a Palladian villa Strokes, County Roscommon is located on approximately 300 acres (120 hectares). The entrance leads directly from the city Strokes are said to be one of the widest streets in Ireland (along with O’Connell Street, Dublin and Main Street, Temple). The house is open to the public throughout the year, which is the Famine Museum due. [1]


The house was the family home of the Cromwellian “adventurers” family – the Pakenham Mahon – from the 1600s until the 1979th

In the early 18th century, the estate comprised over 11,000 acres (4,500 ha), scattered throughout the Northeast Roscommon, put together from the late seventeenth century as a result of land acquisition by Captain Nicholas Mahon around 1660. Later, his grandson, Maurice Mahon, bought several additional countries, after the elevation to the peerage of Ireland as the first Baron Hartland 1800.

Many evictions of poor sharecroppers occurred during the Great Famine.Mahon family alone in 1847 evicted 3,000 people. [2] After the killing of Major Denis Mahon in November 1847, as a direct response to the large-scale deaths of those Stoke Town Estate sent on famine ships to Canada [3] at the height of the famine, his only daughter, Grace Catherine, vowing never to return to his family seat. She was on honeymoon at the time, has been married just weeks earlier, Henry Sandford Pakenham, son Dean Henry Pakenham of Tullynally, and heir to the great Pakenham and Sandford Estates in counties Longford, Westmeath and Roscommon. Grace Catherine never returned to the Strokes, but her marriage undoubtedly saved the estate from bankruptcy. On the threshold of starvation, the farm was in debt of over £ 30,000 have arisen as a result of family dispute heritage [4] , and expensive purchases of land that had been collected from the second half of the eighteenth century. [5] The marriage alliance (of which Henry Sandford Pakenham adopted the additional surname Mahon), joined the estates of both families to encompass over 26,000 acres and Strokes property remained one of the largest in Roscommon until his death in 1893. Pakenham wealth also enabled large-scale investments in various property improvements in the Strokes property, including drainage, peat cutting and farming systems, the development of the urban market in the city Strokes. Despite the family’s fortunes improve Stoke Town continued a policy of forced emigration to the United States and land approvals for tenant families. Today Stoke Town property is synonymous with the great famine and include National Irish Famine Museum. The Famine Museum in Strokes Park twinned with, Grosse Ile, Quebec, Canada. [6] Over 5,500 Irish people who emigrated during the famine Ireland are buried in mass graves on Grosse Ile. [7] Since 1979, Strokes Park has been owned by a Roscommon- based company, west Group, which has restored the house and garden with the help of largely original furnishings. 4-acre (1.6 hectare) walled Eden was opened in 1997 by the President of Ireland, Mary Robinson, having been faithfully restored to its original glory with the help of support from the ERDF through the large gardens Ireland Restoration Programme and the FAS systems.

Strokes Park House was the setting for TV3’s 2013 documentary, The Big House .


Strokes park contains some of the best records from the time of famine. [8]The museum was built to the west of the group and all the documents on display in the museum are from the farm. The museum aims to explain the great Irish famine and to draw parallels with the prevalence of hunger in the world today.


  1. Jump up ^ Official website
  2. Jump up ^ History of Ireland (2008), History of Ireland, Volume 16 (No. 6 (November-December 2008))
  3. Jump up ^!rii=9%3A10423868%3A0%3A%3A
  4. Jump up ^!rii=9%3A10423868%3A0%3A%3A
  5. Jump up ^ History of Ireland , Volume 3, Issue 4th
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^
  8. Jump up ^ S. Hood, “The gates of power and profit in the Strokes, County Roscommon,” the Finn-Einar Elissen and Geir Atle Ersland (ed.), Power, profit and urban land.

County Roscommon

Roscommon (Irish: Contae Ros Comain ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is located in the province of Connacht, and even the West region. It is named after the town of Roscommon .Roscommon comes from the Irish Ros means a wooded, gentle height and Coman , the name of the founder, first abbot and bishop Roscommon. Roscommon County Council ärkommunen county. The population of the county is 64,065 according to the census of 2011. [1]

Geography and political subdivisions

Roscommon is the eleventh largest of the 32 counties of Ireland by area and the fifth most sparsely populated county in Ireland. It has an area of 984 square miles. [2] It is the second least population density for Leitrim. [3] It is the third largest of Connacht five counties by size and the fourth largest in terms of population. The county borders every Connacht counties – Galway, Mayo, Sligo and Leitrim, as well as three Leinster County -Longford, Westmeath and Offaly. In 2008, said a news report statistically Roscommon has the longest life expectancy of any county in the island of Ireland. [4]Lough Key in north Roscommon is known to have thirty-two islands. The geographical center of Ireland lies in the county. [5]


There are nine historic baronies in County Roscommon.

North Roscommon

  • Boyle (North Roscommon, including Boyle and Arigna).
  • French Park (North West, including Ballaghaderreen and Frenchpark).
  • Roscommon (center northeast, including Tulsk).
  • Castlereagh (West, including Castlerea and Ballinlough).
  • Ballintober North (East including Rooskey and Tarmonbarry).

south Roscommon

  • Ballymoe shared with County Galway include Ballymoe, Creggs and Glenamaddy.
  • Ballintober South (south middle East, including Roscommon).
  • Athlone (Mid-South, including Knockcroghery and part Athlone).
  • Moycarn (far south, including some of Ballinasloe).


Rathcroghan (Rath Cruachan) near Tulsk, a complex of archaeological sites, the home of Queen Medb (Méadhbh, Maeve), was the seat of the Kings of Connacht and then högkung.Detta was the starting point for Táin Bó Cúailnge or Cattle Raid of Cooley, a epic tale in Irish mythology.

Roscommon as an administrative division originated in the Middle Ages.With the conquest and division of the Kingdom of Connacht these districts in the east retained by King John as “The King Cantreds” covered the County Roscommon, and parts of East Galway. These areas have been leased to the native kings of Connacht and eventually became the county. 1585 during the Tudor re-establishment of the counties in the composition of Connacht, Roscommon was established with the Southwest border now along the River Suck.

Ordnance Survey

John O’Donovan (1806-1861), historian and researcher, visited Roscommon 1837. He compile information on the Ordnance Survey. Enter Peter’s parish in Athlone in June 1837, he wrote: “I have now written in an area completely different from Longford, and are very pleased with the intelligence of the people. But he had big problems with the place names. He later wrote: “I am sick to death lochawns door, and it pains me to the very soul having to make these remarks, but what can I do when I can not do the usual progress? Here I am stuck in the mud in the middle of the Loughs, Turlaghs, Lahaghs and Curraghs, the names of many of which are only known to a few old men in their immediate vicinity, and I can not give many of them to speak of the way in which they spelled ” . [6] [7]

Government and politics

Main article: Roscommon County Council

Roscommon local control of the 26 member Roscommon County Council.

For the general election, Roscommon is part of the three-seat Roscommon-South Leitrim constituency.


Gaelic Football is the dominant sport in Roscommon. Roscommon GAA has won two All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in 1943 and 1944 and a National Football League Division 1 1979 ochdivision 2 in 2015. Roscommon GAA playing home games at Dr. Hyde Park and are close competitors with neighboring counties page, Mayo.

Roscommon has been less success in hurling, hurling their main title is the 2007 Nicky Rackard Cup.


  • Luke O’Connor, the first soldier to receive the Victoria Cross, born in Elphin 1831st
  • Chris O’Dowd, Irish actor and comedian, born in Boyle.
  • John Fitzgibbon (1845-1919) – Member of Parliament.
  • Baron de Freyne, landlords and residents in Frenchpark House.
  • Douglas Hyde (1860-1949) – an Irish researchers Irish who served as the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945. He founded the Gaelic League, one of the most influential cultural organizations in Ireland.Hyde was born in Castlerea January 17, 1860 and is buried in Hyde Museum, Frenchpark, Roscommon.
  • Percy French (1854-1920) – one of Ireland’s top songwriters and entertainers. He has also become known for his watercolors.
  • Henry Gore-Browne, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • William Griffiths, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Sir Owen Lloyd, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Brian O’Doherty, an Irish writer, artist and art critic in New York City, born in Ballaghaderreen
  • Maureen O’Sullivan, Ireland’s first international movie star, was born in Boyle, County Roscommon.
  • Brian Leyden, Irish writer, novelist, screenwriter and documentary
  • Thomas Heazle Parke Irish explorer, born in Clogher House.
  • Sir William Wilde, a prominent surgeon and innovator and father of Oscar Wilde. Born in Castlerea.
  • Michael Dockry, a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly


See also: List of twin town in Ireland

County Roscommon is twinned with Tucson, Arizona, and Castle Point, Essex, England. [8]

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (Roscommon)
  • Counties of Ireland
  • Lord Lieutenant of Roscommon
  • High Sheriff Roscommon
  • Earl Roscommon


  1. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – Roscommon Overview
  2. Jump up ^ or empty (help) | title =
  3. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  4. Jump up ^ “Roscommon tops longevity study.” RTE News. Dublin: RTÉ commercial enterprises. August 12, 2008. Retrieved August nineteen in 2009.
  5. Jump up ^
  6. Jump up ^ Hunt, Roy, “Painful progress: the slow development of County Roscommon society, 1850-1914”. Unpublished Thesis, 2010, NUIG p. 8
  7. Jump up ^ John O ‘Donovan, letters containing information about the antiques in the county of Roscommon, collected during the development of the Ordnance Survey, 1837. p. 5. Special collections section of the National University of Ireland, Galway, 2009 rendered by the Rev. Michael O’Flanagan, Bray 1927
  8. Jump up ^ Twin

The River Shannon

The River Shannon (Irish: Abha na Sionainne / a tSionainn / a tSionna ) is the longest river in Ireland on 360.5 kilometers (224 miles). [1] It empties the Shannon River Basin has an area of 16,865 km 2 (6,512 ml 2 ), [2] one-fifth of the area of Ireland.

Shannon parts west of Ireland (principally the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). County Clare, which is west of the Shannon, but part of the province of Munster, is the major exception. The river represents a major physical barrier between East and West, with fewer than thirty-points between Limerick city in the south and the village Dowrai north.

The river is named for Sionna , a Celtic goddess. [3]

Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having been identified by the Greek-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows generally south from the Shannon Pot in Cava Before turning west and empties into the Atlantic Ocean, 102.1 kilometers (63.4 miles) long Shannon Estuary. [4] Limerick city stands at the point where river water meets the sea water of mynningen.Shannon is tidal east Limerick as far as the base of the pond Ardnacrusha. [5]


By tradition, Shannon said the rise in the Shannon Pot, a small pool on the slopes of Mountain Cuilcagh in Cavan, where the young river appears as a small trout stream. Research has defined a 12.8 km 2 immediate pot catchment covers the slopes of Cuilcagh. This area includes Garvah Lough, County Cavan, 2.2 km to the northeast, drained of Pollnaowen . [N 1] Further sinks source pot includes Pollboy and through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in Cavan and Poll Customs Yard and Tullynakeeragh in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The highest point in the catchment is a feather in Tiltinbane on the western end of Cuilcagh mountain ridge. [6]

From Shannon Pot, subsumes the river a number of tributaries before filling Lough Allen in the lead. [7] The river runs through or between 11 of Ireland’s counties, subsuming tributary rivers Boyle, Inny, Suck, Mulkear and Brosna, among others, before reaching the Shannon Estuary at Limerick.

Many different values are given for the length of the Shannon. A traditional value is 390 km (240 mi). [8] An official Irish source gives a total length of 360.5 km (224.0 mi) (= 258.1 km fresh + 102.1 kilometers tides). [4 ] most Irish guides offer now 344 km (214 mi). [9] [10] [11] some academic sources provide 280 km (170 mi), [12] but most will refuse to give a speech. The reason is that there is no particular end to a river that flows into an estuary. The 344 km length refers to the distance between the Shannon Pot and a line between Kerry Head and Loop Head, the furthest reaches of the ground. (It also assumes the delivery road via Ardnacrusha. [13] ) The 280 km distant finish which joins the Shannon estuary mouth of the River Fergus near Shannon Airport. Longer distances occurred prior to the use of modern instruments.

At a total length of 360.5 kilometers (224 miles), it means that it is the longest river in Ireland. [11] The Shannon is the longest river in the wider British Isles was apparently known in the 12th century, although a map of time showed that river that flows into the south of Ireland. [14]

The River Shannon is a traditional freshwater river for about 45% of its total length. Excluding the 63.5 mil tidal estuary from its total length of 224 miles, if one also excludes lakes (L. Derg 24 miles, 18 miles L. Ree, L. Allen 7 miles[15] plus L. Boderg, L. Bofin, L. Forbes, L. Corry) from Shannon freshwater flow of 160.5 miles, Shannon, as a freshwater river, is only about 100 miles long.

There are some tributaries within the Shannon River Basin has been spilling which is longer in length (from source to mouth) than Shannon Pot source such as Owenmore river in Cavan [16] and the Boyle river with its source in Mayo. [17]

In addition to being Ireland’s longest river, Shannon is also superior, Ireland’s largest river flow. It has a long-term average flow rate of 208.1 m 3 / s (at Limerick city). This is double the flow of Ireland’s second largest river, the River Corrib (104.8 m 3 / s). [18] If the emissions of all rivers and streams in the Shannon Estuary (including rivers Feale 34.6 m 3 / s, Maigue 15 6 m 3 / s, Fergus 25.7 m 3 / s, and Deel 7.4 m 3 / s) [19] [20] added to discharge at Limerick, the total discharge of the river Shannon in his mouth on Loop Head reaches 300m 3 / s. In fact, the Shannon a great river by the time it leaves the Lough Ree with an average flow rate (at Athlone weir) of 98m 3 / s, [21] which is larger than any of the other Irish river’s total flow (apart from the river Corrib in Galway).

The Shannon Callows areas of the lowlands along the river, is classified as a special area of conservation.

Settlements along the river (go up the river) include Kilrush, Tarbert, Shannon village and dowra.

History and Folklore

The river began flowing along its present course after the end of the last ice age.

According to Irish mythology, the river was named after a woman named Sionann (older spelling: Sínann or Sínand), grandson of Lir. She went tillConnla Well to find wisdom, although warned not to approach it. In some sources she who Fionn mac Cumhaill, caught and ate salmon of wisdom who swam there, will be the wisest creature on earth. But well then burst, drowning Sionann and carry her out to sea. [22] A similar story is told by Boann and the River Boyne. It is believed that Sionann was the goddess of floden.Patricia Monaghan notes that “the drowning of a goddess in a river is common in Irish mythology and typically represents the dissolution of her divine power in the water, which then gives life to the earth.” [23]

Shannon said to host a river monster named Cata, first appears in the medieval book Lismore. In this manuscript, we hear that the tendon, the patron saint of County Clare, defeated the monster on Inis Cathaigh. [24] Cata described as a huge monster with a horse’s mane, shining eyes, thick feet, nails, iron and a whale tail. [25 ]

Vikings settled in the region in the 10th century and used the river to raid the rich monasteries deep inland. In 937 Limerick Vikings clashed with Dublin on Lough Ree and were defeated.

In the 17th century, Shannon was of great strategic importance for military operations in Ireland, because it formed a natural boundary between the east and west of the country. The Irish League of Wars of 1641-1653, the Irish retreated behind the Shannon in 1650, and held out for another two years against the English Parliamentarian forces. In the production of a rural population, or planting after his conquest of Ireland Oliver Cromwell is said said the remaining Irish landowners would go to “Hell or Connaught”, referring to their choice of forced migration to the west of the River Shannon, or death, thus freeing the eastern holdings for incoming English settlers.

In Williamite war in Ireland (1689-1691), the Jacobites also pulled behind Shannon after their defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. Athlone and Limerick, cities commanding bridges over the river, saw bloody sieges. (See sieges of Limerick and the Siege of Athlone).

As late as 1916, the leaders of the Easter Rising planned to have their forces in the West “hold the line in Shannon.” But in case the rebels were not well enough armed or equipped to attempt such an ambitious policy.

Shannon river is closely related to Ireland, social, cultural, military, economic and political history.


Although Shannon has always been important for navigation in Ireland, there is a reduction of only 18 m (60 ft) in the first 250 km (140 miles).Consequently, it has always been shallow with 0.5m (2 feet) deep at various locations. The first serious attempt to improve things came in 1755 when the Commissioners of Inland Navigation ordered Thomas Omer, a new, possibly Dutch immigrants from England, to begin the work. [26] He treated the four sites between Lough Derg and Lough Ree where natural navigation was prevented by installing side channels and either pound lock or flash locks. He then proceeded north of Lough Ree and made a number of similar improvements, mainly by creating the first Jamestown Canal that cuts out a loop of the River between Jamestown and Drumsna and side channels in Roosky and Lanesborough.

The lower Shannon between Kill and Limerick was a different story. Here the river falls 30 m (100 ft) at just 20 km (12 mi). William Ockenden, also from England, was placed in charge of this in 1757 and spent £ 12,000 during the next four years without fully completing the task. 1771 parliament handed responsibility to Limerick Navigation Company with a contribution of £ 6,000 to add to their subscriptions of £ 10,000. A lateral channel five miles long with six locks began but the company needed more to complete it. In 1791, William Chapman was sent in to provide advice and discovered a sorry state. All locks were built to different dimensions and he spent the next three years to rebuild most of them. Navigation finally opened in 1799, when over 1,000 tons of corn came down to Limerick, as well as shale and peat. But even then, there were no tow vägari river sections and there were still schools during the summer months, no port facilities at Limerick and boats limited to 15-20 tons of cargo, often less.

With the approaching opening of the Grand Canal, the Grand Canal Company received permission from the directors-general and asked John Brownrigg to do a survey that found that a large part of Omer work had deteriorated badly, so they started repairs. After protracted negotiations on the costs and conditions, it was the work of 1810, so that the boats pull 5’9 “could pass from Athlone to Kill. Improvements at the lower levels were also made, which ends with in 1814.

When Djurgarden ended in 1817, there was pressure to improve navigation of Lough Ree. The Jamestown canal was repaired, ports are being built and John Killaly designed a canal at the side of the river from Battle to Lough Allen opened 1820th

In the late 1820s, increased trade dramatically with the arrival of the paddle-wheel steamers on the river through passengers and cargo. By 1831 14.600 passengers and 36,000 tons of cargo transported. This put new pressure on navigation and a commission was set up, resulting in the Shannon Navigation Act of 1835 concerning the appointment of five commissioners to improve navigation and drainage that took possession of the entire navigation. During the next 15 years, many improvements have been made, but in 1849 a railway was opened from Dublin to Limerick and the number of passengers declined drastically. Freightliner, which had risen to over 100,000 tons per year, has also been halved.

But the work of the Commission carried out failed to solve the problems of flooding and there was disastrous flooding in the early 1860s. Given the flat nature of most of the river bank, this was not easily addressed and nothing much was done until the twentieth century.

One of the first projects in the Irish Free State in the 1920s was the Shannon hydroelectric scheme established Ardnacrusha power station on the lower Shannon above Limerick. The old Guy Limerick canal with five locks were constructed and the head race of Lough Derg are also served for navigation.A double lock was released at the dam.

In the 1950s, began to fall traffic and low fixed bridges would have replaced opening bridges, but for the actions of inland waterways Association of Ireland who persuaded Tánaiste to encourage passenger launches, held bridges high enough for navigation. Since that time trade has increased steadily, to become a great success.


There are also many canals that connects with the River Shannon. The Royal Canal and Canal connects Shannon to Dublin and the Irish Sea. It is linked to the river Erne ochLough Erne Shannon-Erne waterway. Ballinasloe is connected to Shannon via the River Suck and the canal, while Boyle is connected via Boyle canal, river Boyle and Lough Key .There is also the Ardnacrusha channel connected to Ardnacrusha dam south of Lough Derg.Near Limerick, a short channel connecting Plassey with the Abbey River, allowing ships to bypass Curraghower Falls, a major obstacle to navigation.Lecarrow village in County Roscommon is connected to Lough Ree through Lecarrow channel. Jamestown Canal and Albert Lock forms a link between the Shannon River, from south of Jamestown, Lough Nanoge south of Drumsna.


Despite the 360.5 km (224.0 mi) long, rising only 76 m (256 ft) above sea level, so the river is easily navigable, with only a few locks along its length.There are envattenvärmeanläggning at Ardnacrusha belongs to ESB.

Shipping in Shannon estuary has developed a lot in the 1980s, with over IR £ 2 billion (€ 2.5 billion) investment. A tanker terminal at Foynes and an oil jetty vidShannon Airport was built. In 1982, a large-scale aluminum recovery plant was built at Aughinish. 60,000 tons of cargo ships carrying crude now bauxite from West African mines to the plant, where it is refined into alumina. This is then exported to Canada where it is further refined to aluminum. 1985 inaugurated a 915 MW coal-fired electricity plant in Money Point, fed by regular visits by 150,000 tonne bulk carriers.

Shannon eel management software

A trap and transport system in force Shannon as part of an eel management software following the discovery of a reduction in the eel population. This system ensures safe passage for young eels from Lough Derg and the Shannon Estuary. [27] [28]


Although Shannon estuary fishing industry is now over, at one time employed hundreds of men along its length. At Limerick, fishermen based on Clancy Strand used Gandelowatt catch salmon. [29] In the 1920s, the construction of a dam at Ardnacrusha seriously affected the salmon farming and that, and the introduction of quotas, had in the 1950s caused the salmon to an end. [30] but go recreational fishing is still on. Further down the Shannon estuary at Kilrush the Currach used to catch herring and operating networks for salmon.

See also

  • Shannon River Basin
  • Shannon Airport
  • Shannon Town
  • Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
  • Shannon Callows
  • Rivers of Ireland
  • List of Loughs in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ Note Poll NM1: hole, pit, sink, leak, aperture ( Pocket Oxford Dictionary Irish – Irish-English )


  1. Jump up ^ “Primary Seniors – Mountains, rivers and lakes.” Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  2. Jump up ^ Biology and Management of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland [1]
  3. Jump up ^ Micheal O Súilleabháin. “Listen to the difference: Ireland in the world of music.” In Harry Bohan and Gerard Kennedy. Global ambitions and the reality of change.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “Facts”. Ordnance Survey Ireland. Pulled 09/09/2014.
  5. Jump up ^ “go through Ardnacrusha” (PDF). Inland News. Iwai (Summer 2001 – Volume 28, Number 2).
  6. Jump up ^ Philip Elmer et al. Springs and bottled water in the worldSpringer ISBN 3-540-61841-4
  7. Jump up ^ Shannon Guide
  8. Jump up ^ Shannon. Encyclopedia Britannica. In 1911.
  9. Jump up ^ Delaney, Ruth (1996). Shell Guide to the River Shannon.
  10. Jump up ^ “Cruising on the Shannon.” Fodor.
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab “Nature, Landscapes”. Discovering Ireland. Archived from the original on 20/05/2013.
  12. Jump up ^ “Source of the River Shannon, Ireland.” Environmental Geology. Springer. 27 (2): 110-112. January 31, 2005. doi: 10.1007 / BF01061681.
  13. Jump up ^ which takes 7 km outside the distance
  14. Jump up ^ Studia Hibernica. No.4 . 1964 (Subscription required (help)).Missing or empty (help) | title =
  15. Jump up ^ Question of Ireland
  16. Jump up ^ PW Joyce (1900). “Cavan”. Atlas and Cyclopedia Ireland.Murphy & McCarthy.
  17. Jump up ^ Notes on watersheds Page 64
  18. Jump up ^ South Eastern River Basin Management: Page 38
  19. Jump up ^ Long-term effects of hydropower plants and associated river regulation on the River Shannon eel: mitigation and management [2]
  20. Jump up ^ SFPC maintenance dredging Application: Table 3-7
  21. Jump up ^ Shannon Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM) Study P. 6 [3]
  22. Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore . Infobase Publishing, 2004, p.420
  23. Jump up ^ Monaghan, p.27
  24. Jump up ^ A Folklore Survey of County Clare Supernatural Retrieved on 23/07/2013.
  25. Jump up ^ Cata Monster Shannon Waves: A true story of Shane Mac Olon
  26. Jump up ^ Ruth Delaney (2004). Ireland inland waterway. Apple Press.
  27. Jump up ^
  28. Jump up ^
  29. Jump up ^ McInerney, Jim (2005) “The Gandelow: a Shannon Estuary fishing boat” AK Ilen Company Ltd., ISBN 0-9547915-1-7
  30. Jump up ^ Clare traditional boat and Currach Project 2008

Birr Castle

Birr Castle (Irish: Caislean Bhiorra ) [1] is a large castle in the town of Birr in County Offaly, Ireland. It is the home of the seventh Earl of Rosse, and as such residential areas of the castle is not open to the public, [2] although the grounds and gardens of the royal estate is available to the public.

Ireland’s Historic Science Center

The castle grounds are also home to Ireland’s historic Science Center , a museum of Ireland’s historical researchers and their contributions to astronomy and botany. [3]


See also: Earl of Rosse

There has been a castle on the site since 1170, and from the 14th to the 17th century O’Carroll family ruled from here over an area called “Ely O’Carroll.” [4]

After the death of Sir Charles O’Carroll, Sir Laurence Parsons (died 1628) was granted Birr Castle and 1,277 acres (5.2 km 2 ) of land in 1620. [5] [6] Parsons dedicated English masons in the construction of a new castle on location.This construction was taking place, not in place of O’Carroll Black Tower (then disappeared) but at Gatehouse. “Flankers” was added to the gatehouse wrong on both sides, giving the castle plan retains today. [5]

After the death of Sir Laurence Parsons and his older son, Richard Castle passed to his younger son William. [7] During the Irish uprising in 1641 William besieged in Birr for fifteen months by Catholic forces. After the Civil War, William son of Laurence (baronet from 1677) restored the castle.

A later descendant, Laurence Parsons, 2nd Earl of Rosse, also engaged in some rebuilding and elevated and “Gothicised” castle in the early 19th century. In turn, his son, William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, was responsible for the construction of the large telescope at Birr. When complete in 1845, it was the largest telescope on Earth, which can capture more light and look further into space than any telescope had done before. Birr therefore became a focus for astronomical observations, and visitors came to visit the observatory from around the world – including Charles Babbage and Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial. [5]

When the 3rd Earl died, his sons carried on the scientific tradition, and the 4th Earl (Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse) is known to measure the heat of the moon. After his death in 1908, but fell into disrepair telescope; the mirror was taken to the Science Museum in London, and around 1914 the telescope’s metallic support structure were melted down to be used in the First World War. 1925 wooden structures around the walls torn down for safety reasons. After several attempts intermediate restoration, was the telescope restored more fully in the late 1990s. [8]

“The big telescope” and other functions

See also: Leviathan of Parsonstown

An important function because of the castle is “the big telescope” orLeviathan (aka The Rosse telescope ) of the third Earl of Rosse, an astronomical telescope with a 183 cm (72 inch) reflector. It was completed in 1845 and used for decades before the last observations were made during the first years of the 20th century. Its record size not surpassed until the completion of the 100-inch (2.5-meter) Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1917. It was demolished in 1914, but the structure was restored and reconstructed telescope in the 1990s and is open to the public.

Laurence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse and his mother was a prominent photographers and her darkroom, which is also on show, are believed to be the oldest surviving example in the world.

The grounds of the palace contains the oldest wrought iron bridge in Ireland, dating from the 1820th [9]

The walled gardens in the grounds of the boxwood hedges that are over 300 years old. They are also, according to The Guinness Book of Records , the tallest hedge in the world. [10]

The Irish entry to the 2014 European Tree of the Year contest was Birr Castle Grey Poplar (poplus x canescens). Unfortunately, February 12, 2014 while voting was still open, it was blown down in a storm.


  1. Jump up ^
  2. Jump up ^ The Birr scientific and Heritage Foundation. “Birr Castle” Archived from the original September 21, 2008.
  3. Jump up ^ The Birr scientific and Heritage Foundation. “Ireland’s Historic Science Center”. Archived from the original September 18, 2008.
  4. Jump up ^ The Birr scientific and Heritage Foundation. “Birr Castle Grounds”. Archived from the original January 21, 2008.
  5. ^ Jump up to: abc The Birr scientific and Heritage Foundation. “Birr Castle, Co. Offaly. “. Archived from the original August 7, 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ Lundy in 2011, citing i15200: Mosley 2003, p. 1327
  7. Jump up ^ The Birr scientific and Heritage Foundation. “Birr Castle Demesne, discovery: genealogy”. Retrieved March 2012. Check date values in: (help) | Access-date =
  8. Jump up ^ Detail of telescopic Reconstruction
  9. Jump up ^ The Rough Guide to Ireland, 9th Edition; p 219 ISBN 978-1-85828-056-1
  10. Jump up ^ The Box Hedge


  • Lundy, Darryl (27 August 2011). “Sir Laurence Parsons”.
  • Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke’s Peerage, Barone & Knightage (3 volumes). 1 (107th ed.). Wilmington, Delaware, USA: Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd. p. 1327th

County Offaly

Offaly (Irish: Contae Uibh Fhaili ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is part of the Midlands Region and is also located in the province of Leinster. It is named after the ancient Kingdom UI Failghe and was formerly known as King’s County . Offaly County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 76,687 according to the census of 2011.

Geography and political subdivisions

Offaly is the 18th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties by area and the 24th largest in terms of population. [2] It is the fifth largest of Leinster’s 12 counties by size and the 10th largest by population. It is the largest county by area and the second largest population in the Midlands.

Towns and Villages

  • Physical geografiBallinagar
  • Ballyboy
  • Ballycumber
  • Banagher
  • Belmont
  • Birr
  • Cadamstown
  • Clara
  • Clareen
  • Cloghan
  • Clonygowan
  • Clonbullogue
  • Clonmacnoise
  • cool Derry
  • Crinkill
  • Croghan
  • Daingean
  • Dunkerrin
  • Edenderry
  • Ferbane
  • Geashill
  • High Street [9]
  • Horseleap
  • kilcormac
  • Killeigh
  • Killoughey
  • Kinnitty
  • Moneygall
  • Mountbolus
  • Mucklagh
  • Portarlington
  • Rahan
  • Rath
  • Rhode
  • Shannon
  • Shannon Harbour
  • Shin Rone
  • Tullamore
  • Tubber
  • Walsh Island

Tullamore is the county seat and largest city of Offaly and is the 30th largest in Ireland. Offaly borders seven counties: Galway, Roscommon, Tipperary, Laois, Westmeath, Kildare and Meath. The Slieve Bloom Mountains are in the southern part of the county on the border of County Laois. Offaly has 24 highest county peak in Ireland. The highest point is Arderin (Irish: Ard Éireann ) in the Slieve Blooms at 527 meters (1,729 feet). Slieve Bloom Mountains contains the county’s highest points, including Stillwater Brook Hill and Wolf Trap mountain which is the county’s second and third highest peaks. Croghan Hill rises from the Bog of Allen and is located in the north Offaly. Although only 234 meters high, it is known for its views of the surrounding area and it stands out by itself.

Floodplain of the River Shannon is in the northwestern part of the county.The river runs through the city Camcor Birr and is a Wild Trout Conservation Area. The Brosna River runs across the county from Lough Owel Westmeath to Shannon Harbour. Silver River runs through several towns in the southern part of the county before he Brosna around Ferbane. The Grand Canal also runs across the county from Edenderry on the northeastern Shannon Harbour before joining påShannon. The county contains many small lakes from Lake Boora Pallas lake and it also includes 42 hectares of swamps.There are a number of ridges in the counties of the province, including Esker Riada.

Offaly consists mostly flat landscape and is known for its extensive peat bog and peat lands. There are many large bogs in Offaly including the Bog of Allen, Clara bog, bog and Raheenmore Boora Bog that are scattered throughout the county with the Bog of Allen extends into four other counties. The county consists of approximately 42,000 hectares of peatlands, which is 21% of Offaly’s total land area.

Offaly contains approximately 9,000 hectares (22,000 acres) of forest and woodland, which amounts to only 4.5% of the county’s land area. This includes forests in the Slieve Blooms and Lough Boora Parklands.Approximately 75% of Offaly’s forest area is high Conifer forest.


Baronies of Offaly

The following are the historic baronies located in County Offaly:

  • Ballyboy
  • Ballybrit
  • Ballycowen
  • Clonlisk
  • Coolestown
  • Eglish
  • Garry Castle
  • Geashill
  • Kilcoursey
  • lower Philipstown
  • upper Philipstown
  • Warren Town


One of the earliest known settlements in Offaly are Boora bog dating back to the Mesolithic era. Excavations have provided evidence of a temporary settlement since no structures were found at the site. Stone axes, arrowheads and blades were discovered which date between 6800 -. 6000 BC[10]

The Dowris stores dating from the late Bronze Age was found in a bog at Dowris, Whigsborough near Birr. It is the largest collection of Bronze Age objects ever found in Ireland. [11] It contains more than 200 articles of which about 190 are preserved, 111 in the National Museum of Ireland and 79 in the British Museum. [12] Forty four spearheads were found, forty-three shoulders, twenty-four and forty-four trumpets crotals (a type of watch or clock instruments, unique to Ireland). A bronze bucket was also found, it was constructed of sheet bronze riveted together, this point is considered an imported item, two other buckets also found and these are believed to be native of copies. [12]

After the Christianisation, the monastery complex was erected Clonmacnoise at the River Shannon near Shannon Bridge. There is today an important tourist destination.

The county itself was formed after the Tudor plantations of Laois and Offaly in an attempt by the English crown to expand its influence in Ireland that had fallen due to the Norman conquest of Ireland. Both Laois (Leix) and Offaly (UI Failghe) was a petty kingdom in Gaelic Ireland is just outside Pale (an area around Dublin and the middle east of Ireland, which remained loyal to the English crown after the Norman Conquest). The older kingdoms Leix and UI Failghe not coincide with today’s county was formed. The Kingdom of Uí Failghe where the name Offaly descended, ruled by Ó Conchobhair Failghe (Anglicized as: O’Conor Faly) whose territory stretched from the eastern part of the county in north Kildare. Kingdom Firceall controlled byO’Molloy clan constitute a large part of the center of the county. Kingdom Firceall was part of the kingdom of Meath, while Uí Failghe was part of the kingdom of Leinster. A large part of the southern part of today’s counties (as well as North Tipperary) ruled by Ó Cearbhaill of Eile (Anglicized as: Ely O’Carroll). Ely was part of the Kingdom of Munster. These petty kingdom were swept away by the Tudor plantations. In 1556, an Act of Parliament Ireland created the “Kings County”, named after Philip, the then King of Ireland. [13] It replaced the old kingdoms of baronies and present County System. Despite the county’s name is maintained as Offaly by the Local Government Act 2001, no legislation ever adopted after independence explicitly to change the name of Kings County, formally named the 1898 Local Government Act, which continued to have legal effect.

Science: George Johnstone Stoney from Birr introduced the concept ofelectron 1891st

Local governments and politics

Offaly County Council is the local authority for the county. The Council is responsible for local services such as housing, social and cultural services, economic development and planning, taxation motor and infrastructure policy in the county.

After the implementation of the Municipal Reform Act 2014, the number of Council back was reduced to 19 from 21 councilors. [14] The reforms also reduced the number of electoral areas 3 which is Tullamore (7 members), Birr (6 members) and Edenderry (6 members). Before the reforms were 4 choices fields in Tullamore (7 members), Ferbane (4 members), Edenderry (6 members) and Birr (4 members). The Council also elected to the City Council in Birr, Tullamore and Edenderry abolished.

Until 2011 general election Offaly was part of the Laois-Offaly constituency that elected five TDs to the Dáil. Between 1921 and 2011, this consisted of the entire territory of both counties. For the 2011 general election certain electoral divisions in South Offaly where part of North Tipperary.

The Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil constituencies) Act 2013 established a new constituency called Offaly for the 2016 general election. [15] The new constituency will incorporate all existing Offaly Laois-Offaly constituency, and twenty-four electoral divisions from Tipperary North . This new constituency will select three TDs to the Dáil.


Population 2006 figure for Offaly is the highest for the county since 1881. [16]The Central Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population increase between 2002 and 2006 (7205) consisted of a natural increase of 2,026 people with the balance of 5179 accounted for by net migration from within Ireland and abroad . The population increased by 11.3% between 2002 and 2006, which was a higher rate than the national average of 8.2%. This can be attributed to the county’s proximity to the Greater Dublin Area, increased accessibility to Dublin (M6, M7 and improved rail services) and lower house prices than in Dublin. [16]

The population of many cities increased during the period 1996-2006: + 21.5% Birr, Tullamore + 28.8% and Edenderry + 53.9%. The population of Port increased by 50.1% between 2002 2006e. [16]

The population as of the 2011 census is 76.687 people with 35.7% (27.378 people) under the age of 25 and 11.6% (8909 people) over 65 years [1]

Tourist attractions

  • Birr. In the southern part of the county is best known for its castle and gardens of Birr Castle is owned by the Parsons family (the family bears the title “Earl of Rosse), and is best known for its 19th-century telescope, the Leviathan of Parsonstown .
  • Georgian Birr
  • Sculpture in the park areas around Lough Boora in Boora Bog.
  • Charleville Castle is located in Tullamore
  • Ancient Christian monastery site of Clonmacnoise with old examples of Irish High Cross as the “Cross of the Scriptures”, the round tower and visitor center.
  • Kinnitty Castle
  • Slieve Bloom Mountains with panoramic views of County Offaly and Laois
  • Banagher and Shannon River cruises along the river.
  • The Boora bog reserve is a haven for wildlife and in particular contain the last Irish population in the partridge.
  • Durrow Abbey and Highcross
  • Tullamore Dew Visitor Centre
  • Birr Theatre and Arts Centre
  • Clara Bog Nature Reserve
  • Leap Castle
  • Old churches Rahan and Lynally
  • Croghan Hill, a 230 m high hill where an old mummy discovered. It is known that the Croghan Bog Man. It is now found in the National History Museum.
  • Moneygall is the ancestral home of the President of the United States, Barack Obama. Located in the village, is a visitor center and gas station called Obama Plaza. [17]


Gaelic games are popular in the county. Offaly GAA consists of about 44 clubs playing Gaelic football and hurling in communities throughout the county. Birr is generally considered a hurling stronghold of Birr GAA winning four All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championships. County teams also had national success in both hurling and football, winning the Liam MacCarthy Cup four times and the Sam Maguire Cup three times. The football team is perhaps best known for Seamus Darby goal in the dying minutes of the 1982 football final as Offaly took the title by one point denying Kerry a historic five All-Ireland titles in a row. Traditionally, West Offaly hurling stronghold been with clubs like Birr, Cool Derry, and kilcormac / Killoughey enjoying success in the Leinster and All-Ireland Championships

Known from Offaly hurlers include:

  • Brian Whelahan, Birr
  • The Dooley Brothers,
  • Brian Carroll, Cool Derry
  • Rory Hanniffy, Birr
  • Shane Dooley, Tullamore
  • Michael Duignan, Banagher

Famous Footballers from Offaly include:

  • Matthew Conor Walsh Island
  • Richie Conor Walsh Island
  • Ciarán McManus, Tubber
  • Niall McNamee, Rhode
  • Martin Furlong, Tullamore
  • Seamus Darby, Rhode
  • Mick Brady, Edenderry
  • Finbarr Cullen, Edenderry

Other popular sports in the county include rugby and association football where Tullamore Town FC is a championship.

There are many golf courses located in the county. Esker Hills is one of the most popular. Irish golfer Shane Lowry is a member here. He is from the city Ferbane outside Tullamore. As an amateur, he won the Irish Open in 2009.


Traditionally, agriculture and industry has been the main driving force in the economy of the county. Offaly has extensive swamps, especially in the northern parts of the county, which is part of the Bog of Allen .Bord na Mona was founded in 1946 and employed hundreds of people in Offaly by peat briquettes (for domestic household use) and delivers peat power stations operated by ESB. Peat briquettes are currently made at Bord na Mona factory in Derrinlough near Birr. Power plants are working at Shannonbridge and Edenderry. With the continued impoverishment of the marshes a number of power stations have been closed in recent years. ESB power station at Lumcloon, Ferbane was a major employer in the Midlands but closed in 2001. Rhode power station was shut down shortly after. These were important landmarks in Offaly with large cooling towers that were visible for miles around Offaly and outside, but was demolished shortly after the stations closed. Many marshes now used as a nature reserve or for tourism Lough Boora.

The opening of the Grand Canal in the 18th century brought prosperity to cities like Banagher and Tullamore. Both cities were important stop on the Dublin to Limerick navigation that supported a number of industries and brought cheap and efficient water transport to the county at the time.

The Celtic Tiger also brought an increase in economic activity for Offaly with business and industrial parks to open in Birr, Edenderry and Tullamore.Many people especially in the eastern part of the county is within easy commuting distance to Dublin where many find work.



Offaly is well served by rail. Railway stations are at Tullamore and Clara.Both stations are on the main Dublin-Westport / Galway railway line with regular trains serving the area especially for Dublin commuters. Port railway station is just across the County Laois border and is in a catchment area of southeastern county. Port railway ~~ POS = TRUNC station ~~ POS = HEAD COMP is the main Dublin Cork Railway with regular commuter to Heuston Station, Dublin and regular service to Cork, Limerick, Killarney and Tralee.

The Limerick Ballybrophy railroad traveling through the southern part of the county but there are no stations on the line in County Offaly. The nearest stations are located at Cloughjordan and Roscrea both just outside the county line. A train from Birr connected to the line at Roscrea until it was closed in the 1960s. A railway line connected even Birr to Portumna.


Three main national secondary roads passing through the county. The N52 road passes from Kilbeggan to Tullamore and Birr which then continues to Nenagh where it intersects with the M7. The N62 from Athlone passes through Ferbaneoch Birr and continues in Roscrea and Thurles. The N80 route starts in Tullamore and continues to the southeast passing Portlaoise and Carlow. There are no major national primary roads in the county, however, M6 skirts county in north ochM7 bypasses the county to the south through Moneygall. Road infrastructure has improved with the completion of Tullamore bypass in 2009 and improved access to regional cities after the completion of the motorway network lines.


Bus Éireann provide public transport services throughout the county with regular bus service to Limerick and Waterford Athlone bus station. Other private bus services provide direct bus services from Birr to Dublin Kearns bus that runs several services daily. Slieve Bloom buses run services from Tullamore and Portarlington Dublin.


The Grand Canal which connects Dublin to the River Shannon was built through the towns of Edenderry and Tullamore and joins the Shannon at Shannon Harbour. Traditionally, an important route for transportation, communication and trade between Dublin, Limerick and the Midlands of Ireland. The route fell into decline as road transport became more popular. A large part of the road is now used for boating and recreational activities.



Midlands 103 (originally Midlands Radio 3) which sends Laois, Offaly and Westmeath are based in Tullamore and has studios across the Midlands.RTÉ’s medium wave transmitter broadcasting RTÉ Radio 1 was also located in Tullamore, but the transfer ceased in 2008.


A number of local newspapers published in Offaly. The Offaly Independent and Tullamore Tribune is based in Tullamore. Midland Tribune based in Birr includes local news in the west and south of the county and parts of North Tipperary, including the cities of Birr, Roscrea and Nenagh and surrounding areas. The Offaly Express was a former newspaper based in Tullamore. It was closed in July 2012 after 29 years in operation.


  • George Brent, Hollywood actors
  • Ged Corcoran, rugby league player, former Halifax RLFC of Super League and currently plays for Toulouse Olympique
  • Brian Cowen, the former prime minister, was born in Clara January 10, 1960 and now lives in the outskirts of Tullamore
  • Neil Delamere, comedian
  • Barry Glendenning, journalist
  • Rex Ingram, Hollywood silent film director, born in Dublin but lived in Kinnitty
  • John Joly, researcher, born in 1857 Bracknagh
  • Shane Lowry, golfers
  • Mundy, musicians
  • William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, astronomer
  • George Johnstone Stoney (1826 – 1911) Physicists. Born, Oakley Park, Clareen.
  • Bindon Blood Stoney (1828 – 1909) Engineer and inventor. Born, Oakley Park, Clareen.

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Offaly)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Kings County
  • High Sheriff of King County


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Offaly”. Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  3. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  4. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  5. Jump up ^ “Home.” Histpop.Org. 1 July, 2004. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency – Census website.” Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  7. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  8. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^ “Activities in Offaly: The Bogland – Na Portaigh (section)”.Offaly Historical & Archaeological Society. In 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  11. Jump up ^
  12. ^ Jump up to: ab
  13. Jump up ^ 3 and 4 Phil & Mar, C.2 (1556)
  14. Jump ,
  15. Jump up ^ “Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil constituencies) Act 2013: Schedule”. Irish Statute Book database. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  16. ^ Jump up to: abc “demography” (PDF). Offaly County Council Development Plan 2009-2015 is taken. 28 June 2008.
  17. Jump up ^ “Moneygall – Welcome to Obama Plaza”.

Harvest Time Blues

Harvest Time Blues (also called Monaghan Rhythm and Blues Festival) is an annual music festival held in Monaghan town in Ireland. Since its inception in 1990 it has become one of the “one of Ireland’s leading live music festivals.” [2] Several noted artists have performed at the festival, including Van Morrison, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac, and ex-Rolling Stones guitarist Mick Taylor. [3 ]


The festival takes place in Monaghan town, located in the north of Ireland, 90 minutes’ drive northwest of Dublin.

Festival venues located across the city, but the main stage is usually in a large tent in the New Road / Glen Road parking lot. Pubs across the city playing host to smaller gigs in what is collectively known as the Blues Trail .[4]


The first Harvest Time Blues Festival took place in 1990, to “promote and enrich the cultural life in Monaghan, North East and Ireland.” [ Weasel words ] [citation needed ] The festival was an initiative mellanSomhairle MacConghail, Arts Officer, County Monaghan, and local publican and blues enthusiast Seamus McKenna. [ citation needed ] festival has taken place every September since, except between 2001 and 2006, and was originally sponsored by Heineken. [ citation needed ] Several noted artists have appeared at the festival over the years, including Van Morrison in 1998, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac, and ex-Rolling Stones guitarist Mick Taylor. [3]

Tommy Castro at harvest Blues 2007

See also

  • blues portal
  • List of blues festivals
  • List of folk festivals


  1. Jump up ^ “> Press release 2010”. Pulled 12/21/2015.
  2. Jump up ^ “”. Pulled 12/21/2015.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “towns and villages in County Monaghan – Monaghan” Archived from the original on 9 May of 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ “Take a break at one of Ireland’s many autumn festivals”.Galway Advertiser. August 5, 2010.

County Monaghan

County Monaghan (/ m ə h n ʌ ən / mouth -ə-hən Irish: Contae Mhuineacháin ) is a municipality in Ireland. It’s part of the border area and in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Monaghan. Monaghan County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 60,483 according to the census of 2011.

Geography and political subdivisions

Monaghan is the fifth-smallest of the republic’s 26 counties in area and the fourth smallest by population. [2] It is the smallest of the nine Ulster counties in the size and also the smallest in terms of population.


Main article: baronies Ireland

  • Cremorne (Irish: Crioch Mhúrn )
  • Dartree (Irish: Dartraighe )
  • Farney (Irish: Fearnaigh )
  • Monaghan (Irish: Muineachán )
  • Trough (Irish: An Triúcha )

Civil parishes and townlands

Main articles: List of civil parishes in County Monaghan and List of townlands in County Monaghan

Towns and Villages

  • The largest towns in County Monaghan (2011 census) Ballinode
  • Ballybay
  • Carrickmacross
  • Castleblayney
  • clones
  • Doohamlet
  • Emyvale
  • Inniskeen
  • Glaslough
  • Killanny
  • Knockatallon
  • Magheracloone
  • Monaghan
  • Newbliss
  • Oram
  • Rockcorry
  • Scots House
  • Scotstown
  • Smithborough
  • Three Mile House
  • Tydavnet
  • Tyholland
  • Truagh
  • Latton
  1. Monaghan = 7452
    2. Carrickmacross = 4925
    3. Castleblayney = 3,634
    4th Clones = 1761
    5 = 1461 Ballybay


Shannahergoa countryside.

Notes mountains include Slieve Beagh (on Tyrone and Fermanagh borders), Mullyash Mountain and Coolberrin Hill (214 m, 702 ft). Lakes include Lough Avaghon, Dromore Lough, Drumlona Lough, Lough Egish, Emy Lough, Lough Fea, Inner Lough (in Dartrey Forest), Muckno Lough and Lough white.Notable rivers are river Fane (along the border Louth), the river Glyde (along Louth and Meath limits), the Ulster Blackwater (along the border Tyrone) and Dromore River (along the border Cavan connecting Cootehill Ballybay).

Monaghan has a number of forests, including Rossmore Forest, Dartrey Forest and Dun Na Rí Forest Park. Managed by Coillte since 1988, most of the trees are conifers. Because of a long history of intensive agriculture and the recent intensive forestry, only small pockets of native woodland remain.

The Finn Bridge is a border crossing point of the River Finn County Fermanagh. It is close to Scots House.

Clones Round Tower


Lead was formerly quarried in County Monaghan. Mines comprises Annaglogh Lead Mines and Lisdrumgormley Lead Mines.


In 1585, the English lord deputy of Ireland, Sir John Perrot, visited the area and met the Irish chieftains. They requested that the Ulster divided into counties and land in the kingdom Airgíalla allocated to each of the McMahon chiefs. A commission was formed to accomplish this and County Monaghan came to. County is divided into five baronies: Farney, Cremorne Dartrey, Monaghan and Truagh, which was under the control of McKenna chiefs.

After the defeat of the uprising Hugh O’Neill, O’Neill and the Ulster chiefs in 1603, the county was not planted as the other counties of Ulster. The countries were instead left in the hands of the native chiefs. The Irish rebellion in 1641 in McMahons and their allies joined the general uprising Irish Catholics. After their defeat, any colonization of the county was of Scottish and English families.

inland waterways

County Monaghan crossed by the late Ulster canal, but Waterways Ireland initiates a system to open the channel from Lough Erne to Clones.

Local governments and politics

2014 Irish local elections
Monaghan County Council
Party seats Change
Sinn Féin 7 =
Fine Gael 5 – 1
Fianna Fáil 4 – 1
Independent 2 =

Main article: Monaghan County Council

Monaghan is divided into four local electoral areas: Carrickmacross, Castleblayney, Clones and Monaghan.

The towns of Ballybay, Carrickmacross, Castleblayney, Clones and Monaghan are represented by nine members of City Council [4] which deals with local issues such as the provision of tools and dwellings.

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the Cavan-Monaghan constituency who chooses five TDs. [5] In the 2011 general election, there was a voter turnout of 72.7%. [6]

For the European elections, the county is part of the North West constituency (formerly Connacht-Ulster).

Politically the county to be a stronghold of Sinn Féin (left wing) which is the largest party in the county, followed by Fine Gael (bourgeois).

Culture and Architecture

County Monaghan is the birthplace of poet and writer Patrick Kavanagh, who based much of his work in the county. Kavanagh is one of the most significant figures in 20th century Irish poetry. The poems “Stony Grey Soil” and “Shancoduff” refers to the county.

Monaghan has produced several successful artists. Chief among these is George Collie (1904-1975), who was born in Carrickmacross and trained at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art. He was a prolific exhibitor at the Royal Hibernian Academy throughout their life and are represented by works in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland and Ulster Museum.

Monaghan was also the home county of the Irish writer Sir Shane Leslie (1885-1971), 3rd Baronet of Glaslough, who lived at Castle Leslie in the northeast corner of the county. A Catholic convert, Irish nationalist and first cousin of Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, Leslie became a major literary figure in the early 1900s. He was a close friend of many politicians and writers today, including the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), who devoted his second novel, The Beautiful and Damned , Leslie.

Monaghan County Museum is recognized as one of the leading regional museums in Ireland, with a Council of Europe Award (1980), among other things, to his credit. Located in Hill Street, Monaghan Town museum aims to reflect the history Co. Monaghan and its people in all its richness and diversity.

The best of the county’s architecture developed in Georgian and Victorian periods, and extends from the worthy public spaces in the Church Square and Diamond Monaghan Town to the great country house Lough Fea, Carrickmacross; Hilton Park, Clones and Castle Leslie, Glaslough.

Significant church buildings include St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic Church, Carrickmacross, which houses a set of glass paintings by Irish artist Harry Clarke (1889-1931); the Gothic Revival Patrick’s Church of Ireland, Monaghan town; and the impressive St Macartan’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Monaghan town, by JJ McCarthy (1817-1882).

Sheet people Monaghan

Literature and Scholarship

  • Patrick Kavanagh (October 21, 1904 – November 30, 1967) -. Poet [7]
  • Patrick McCabe – author and member of Aosdána. Born in 1955.
  • Eugene McCabe – Playwright, novelist and screenwriter. Born in 1930, lives in Clones.
  • Sir Shane Leslie, 3rd Bt (1885-1971) – Writer and political activist, 3rd Baronet of Glaslough and first cousin of Sir Winston Churchill. Stayed at Castle Leslie.
  • Evelyn Shirley (1812-1882) – Writer and antiquarian. Resident of Lough Fea House near Carrickmacross.
  • John Robert Gregg (1867-1948) -. Pioneer of modern shorthand writing[8]
  • Sir Tyrone Guthrie (1900-1971) – Writer, theater director and founder of the Tyrone Guthrie Center. Born in Royal Tunbridge Wells, his grandmother was from Newbliss. He settled on Annaghmakerrig House Co. Monaghan late in his life.
  • Evelyn Conlon – Author and member of Aosdána. Born in 1952.

Politics and military

  • Andrew, 11th Baron Blayney (1770-1834) – prominent military commander with the British Army, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. Also had Castleblayney, his estate town, built in the early nineteenth century.
  • Sir Charles Gavan Duffy (12 April 1816 – February 9, 1903) – Irish nationalist and Australian politician who served as prime minister in the colony of Victoria. Born in Monaghan town. [9]
  • Joseph Finegan – (17 November 1814 – 29 October 1885) Confederate General and the victor at the Battle of Olustee
  • Francis Fitzpatrick (1859-1933) – the recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • General Eoin O’Duffy (October 20, 1892 – November 30, 1944) – by returning the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the Commissioner of An Garda Síochána and the leaders of the Blue Shirts and Fine Gael. He was also commander of the Irish Brigade in the Spanish Civil War. Born near Castleblayney. [10]
  • Juan Mackenna (1771-1814) – Military hero of the Chilean War of Independence and Co-Liberator of Chile.
  • Dr. Heber MacMahon, Lord Bishop of Clogher – Catholic prelate who also served as a military commander for the “Confederation of Kilkenny” during the 1640s. He invited the battle of Scarrifholis, close to Letterkenny in 1650. Bishop MacMahon was born in Inishkeen.
  • Sir William Whitla (1851-1933) – Doctors and politicians.
  • Thomas Taggart (1856-1929) – US senator and mayor of Indianapolis.
  • Charles Davis Lucas (1834-1914) – Born in Armagh which was the very first recipient of the Victoria Cross. Living for a time at Castle Shane.
  • Fergal O’Hanlon (1936-1957) – IRA volunteer, was killed during the campaign limit.
  • Thomas Hughes (1885-1942) – Soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross.
  • Patricia McKenna – former member. Born in 1957.
  • Dr. Rory O’Hanlon – Politician, former Ceann Comhairle and former Cabinet Minister. Born 1934th
  • David Nelson – recipient of the Victoria Cross


  • Dame Mary Bailey (1890-1960) – Famed aviator who was the daughter of The 5th Baron Rossmore and wife of Sir Abe Bailey, the South African “Rand Lord.”
  • Barry McGuigan – World Boxing Champion 1985. Born in Clones 28 February 1960. [11]
  • Tommy Bowe – Rugby Union player, born in Monaghan town on February 22, 1984. [12]
  • James Cecil Parke (1881-1946) – tennis and rugby players. Olympic silver medalist in tennis, two times winner of Wimbledon Mixed Doubles title and Australian men’s singles title winner. The captain of the Irish rugby team. Born iClones.
  • Kevin McBride – Olympic Boxer. Born in Clones in 1973.
  • John McKenna (1855-1936), the first manager of Liverpool Football Club together with WE Barclay.
  • John Cummins, born in 1948, Ballybay. The family moved to Northampton in England when he was eight. Moved to the United States when he was twenty three-and became known in auto racing circles.Winning five regional championships, he also was co hosted a radio show in Washington, DC, as well as being a speaker at various events around the United States. He is currently involved in the performance car preparation and motorsport safety.
  • Jonathan Douglas – former Leeds United and Swindon player. Now playing for Brentford in west London. Jonathan Douglas is from clones.

Music and entertainment

  • “Big Tom” McBride – Country singer. Born in Moy near Castleblayney 18 September 1936. [13]
  • Oliver Callan – satirist and mimic, born in the county in December 1980.[14]
  • The shortcomings – Indie Rock Band from Carrickmacross.
  • Ryan Sheridan – singer and guitarist
  • Gráinne Duffy Gráinne Duffy Band. Musicians – Blues / rock guitarist and singer / songwriter from Castleblaney.


  • Caitriona Balfe – Fashion model and actress, born in 1979. She currently stars in the Outlander .
  • Ardal O’Hanlon – actor and comedian. Born 1965th
  • Charlene McKenna – Actress. Born in 1984.
  • Aoibhinn Mc Ginnity – Actress. Born, 1986.


  • Alexander Williams (1846-1930) – artist, born in Monaghan town.
  • George Collie (1904-1975) – artist, born in Carrickmacross. [15]


  • Dr. John Darley (1799-1884) – Church of Ireland, Lord Bishop of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh, 1874-1884.
  • George Jeffreys (1889-1962) – Welsh founder of the Elim Pentecostal Church, which was first founded in Monaghan town in 1915. The movement now has some 9,000 churches around the world.

Twin cities

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

County Monaghan is twinned with the following places:

  • Geel , Flanders, Belgium
  • Prince Edward Island , Canada
  • Miramichi , New Brunswick, Canada
  • Peterborough , Ontario, Canada

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Monaghan)
  • Lord Lieutenant of Monaghan
  • High Sheriff of Monaghan


  1. Jump up ^ “County Monaghan.” Central Bureau of Statistics . 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  3. Jump up ^ for post 1821 numbers, 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865, for a discussion of his accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of the Pre -svält Irish bills Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54, and also in New developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850 by Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada in the economic history of Review, New Series, vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473-488.
  4. Jump up ^ [1] Filed August 29, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. Jump up ^ “2009 Local Elections – Details electoral area”. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  6. Jump up ^ [2] – Election 2011 Cavan-Monaghan
  7. Jump up ^ “Life”. Patrick Kavanagh 1904-1967. Patrick Kavanagh Trust, Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  8. Jump up ^ Cowan, Leslie. “John Robert Gregg: A Biography.” Oxford: The Pre Press, 1984, p. 11.
  9. Jump up ^ Joy E. Parnaby (1972). “Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan (1816-1903)”. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press.Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  10. Jump up ^ “GEN. Eoin O’Duffy (1892 -1944) “. Cumann na nGaedhael history. Collins 22 Society. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  11. Jump up ^ “Barry McGuigan.” Boxing Encyclopedia.Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  12. Jump up ^ “Tommy Bowe 2009 British and Irish Lions Squad Profile”.Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ “Big Tom”. BBC Music. BBC. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  14. Jump up ^ Chris true. “Biography: Monaghan Mimic”. All music .Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  15. Jump up ^ Snoddy, Theo. “Dictionary of Irish artists, 20th Century”.Dublin: Wolf Press, 1996.

Trim Castle

Trim Castle (Irish: Caislean Bhaile Atha Troim ) is a Norman castle on the south bank of the River Boyne in Trim, County Meath, Ireland. With an area of 30,000 m², it is the largest Norman castle in Ireland. [1] [2] For a period of 30 years, was built by Hugh de Lacy and his son Walter caput of the lordship Meath.


The castle was used as a center for Norman Administration supremacy Meath, one of the new administrative areas in Ireland, created by King Henry II of England. Hugh de Lacy took it in 1172. De Lacy built a huge ring teamwork castle defended by a strong double palisade and outer ditch on top of the hill. It may also have been another defense around the rocks fringing the high ground. Part of a stone footed timber Gatehouse is below the current stone gate on the west side of the castle. De Lacy left Ireland entrust castle Hugh Tyrrel, Baron Castle, one of his chief lieutenants. The ring work was attacked and burned by the forces of Gaelic högkung, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair; Tyrrel appealing in vain for help, had to flee. Ua Conchobair back soon and De Lacy immediately rebuilt the castle in 1173. His son Walter continued reconstruction and the castle was completed c.1224. The next phase of the castle’s development took place in the late 13th century and early 14th century; a new large hall (with croft and attach sun in a radically changed curtain tower), a new fore building and stables were added to keep.At Walter’s death in 1241 his granddaughter Matilda (Maud) inherited the castle. Her second husband varGeoffrey the Gene Ville, Lord Vaucouleurs in France. Matilda died in 1304, and Geoffrey into the Priory of St Mary in Trim.His son had died in 1292 and the estate passed to his eldest daughter, Joan. In 1301, Joan married Roger Mortimer and the castle passed to the Mortimer family who kept it until 1425, when the line died out. [3] The goods on to the next heir in the female line, Richard of York, who was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460 . in 1461, Richard’s son, Edward IV appointed Germyn Lynch in London to be his representative at Trim.


The castle site was chosen because it is on raised ground, overlooking a fording point on the River Boyne. The area was an important early medieval ecclesiastical and royal place that was navigable in medieval times by boat up the river Boyne, about 25 miles from the Irish Sea. Trim Castle is called in Norman poem “The Song of Dermot and the Earl.”

During the late Middle Ages, Trim Castle was the center of administration for Meath and marked the outer northern boundary of The Pale. In the 16th and 17th centuries had declined in importance, except as a potentially important military site, and the castle had deteriorated. During the 15th century Irish Parliament met in Trim Castle seven times, and a coin operated in the castle.

The castle fell into decline in the 16th century but refortified the Irish League of wars in the 1640s. 1649 after the sack of Drogheda, the garrison of Trim fled to connect andrairländska forces and the place was occupied by the army of Oliver Cromwell.

After the war, the 1680s, the castle was granted Wellesley family who kept it until Arthur Wellesley (the Duke of Wellington), sold it to Leslie. In the following years, passed through the congested Estates Court in the hands of Dunsany Plunketts. They left the country open and from time to time allowed different applications, with a part of Castle Field rented for a few years by the City Council as a municipal dump, and a small meeting hall for the Royal British Legion built. The Dunsanys kept castle and surrounding until 1993, when after years of discussion, Lord Dunsany sold the land and buildings to the state, so that only river access and fishing rights.

Office of Public Works began an extensive program of investigative works and conservation, costing over € 6,000,000, including partial restoration of the moat and the installation of a protective roof. The castle was re-opened to the public in 2000.


With an area of 30,000 m², is Trim Castle, the largest Cambro-Norman castle in Ireland. The design of the central three-story keep (also known as a tower or large tower) is unique to a Norman keep be of cruciform, with twenty corner. It was built on the site of the former big ring fortification work in at least three stages, first by Hugh de Lacy (c. 1174) and then in 1196 and 1201-5 by Walter de Lacy. The castle interior was partially subject to an archaeological excavation by David Sweetman of OPW in the 1970s and to a greater extent by Alan Hayden in the 1990s.

The survivors curtain walls are mainly of three phases. West and north sides of the enceinte is defended by rectangular towers (including Trim Gate) dating to the 1170s; Dublin port was built in the 1190’s or early 13’s; and the remaining wall of the south with its round tower dates to the first two decades of the 13th century. The castle has two main gates. On the west side dates to the 1170s and sits on top of a demolished wooden gateway. The upper floors of the stone tower was changed to a half-octagonal shape, c. 1200. Dublin Gate in the southern wall is a single round-towered gate with an external Barbican towers. It dates from the 1190’s or early 13’s and was the first example of its kind to be built in Ireland.

Apart from Keep the most important surviving structures include the following: an early 14th-century three-towered bow work defends keeping the entrance and stables within the (accessed by a stone causeway crossing the partially completed trench of the previous call work); a large end of the 13th century three aisles great hall (with an under croft during its eastern end opening via a water gate to the river); a stout defense tower (turned into a sun in the late 13th century in northern angle of the castle); a smaller aisled hall (added to the east end of the great hall of the 14th or 15th century); a building (possibly mint) to the east end of the hall later; two 15th- or 16th-century stone buildings added in the city gatehouse buildings 17’s (added to the end of the hall range and the northern side of the Keep), and a number of lime kilns (one dating from the late 12th century, the rest of the 18: and 19th centuries).


Trim Castle is open, on payment of an entry fee, to the public every day from Easter Saturday to Halloween (31 October) from 10:00. The area inside the castle walls is freely available to an access fee, while access to the castle keep is via a 45-minute guided tour. In winter, the complex is only open on weekends and holidays.

Points to note

Trim and Talbot Castle. Visible also ärkungliga mint, sun and Trim Cathedral

The castle is famous for the part it played in the filming of Mel Gibson directed the film Braveheart .

In 2003 there was a controversy surrounding the decision of the Minister of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government Martin Cullen not to oppose the construction of a five-story hotel across the street from the castle. The development had been sentenced by a local politician, a Senior Officer of An Bord Pleanála (acting in a private capacity, and later decide to withdraw their appeal, so that it is considered a conflict of interest) and heritage bodies, many of which had been critical of the government’s treatment of other historic sites such as the Carrickmines Castle (ruins unearthed in part to allow for the completion of a road). The hotel opened in August 2006. The recent addition of buildings (including offices OPW) off the western side of the city has been even more visibly intrusive to the castle remains.

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • List of castles in Ireland


  • Reeves-Smith, Terrence. 1995. Irish Castle’s . Belfast: The Apple Press Ltd.
  • The Breffny, Brian. 1977. Castles of Ireland . London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Salter, Mike. 1993. Castles and Strong Houses in Ireland . Worc.: Folly Publications.
  • Sweetman, David. 1999. The medieval castle Ireland . Cork: Collins Press.
  • McNeill, Tom. 1997. Castles in Ireland . London: Routledge.
  1. Jump up ^ Trim Castle, County Meath Tourism Ireland.Http://
  2. Jump up ^ Heritage Ireland. Trim Castle
  3. Jump up ^ Duchas Heritage Service (ed) (2002). Trim Castle Co. Meath.pp. 20-26. ISSN 07-557-128-2X.

Tayto Park

Tayto Park is an amusement park, located in Kilbrew, near Ashbourne in County Meath. The park opened in November 2010. Located 30 minutes from the center of Dublin, Tayto Park hosts a variety of activities to suit all ages.

Tourist attractions

general attractions

  • Pow Wow Playground : playground with towers, slides, climbing walls and rope bridges for children under 12 years.
  • Spudhara Playground : play area with swings and children’s activities during the sixth
  • Dinosaurs Alive : Exhibition of life animatronic dinosaurs (self-guided walk through)
  • Tiny Tater Patch : Giant Spiral hill and mini maze
  • Giant Chessboard : A seasonal attraction that has water jets in the ground
  • Mini Playground : Great fun for children aged 4 years and over
  • crispy Maze
  • Vortex Tunnel : This attraction is a tunnel with swirling lights in the vicinity of the factory tour
  • Tayto Factory Tour : Visitors can see how the nation’s favorite potato chips are made and learn some of Mr. Tayto most guarded secrets (No production on Saturday, Sunday or holidays)
  • Live shows : Magic
  • Face Painting & Arts and Crafts
  • wheelchair Swing
  • Play and Splash : Whacky water zone

Eagle Sky Adventure Zone

  • Cuchulainn Coaster : Ireland’s only wooden roller coaster, and the only one big roller coaster ride of any kind in the country (as of 2016), opened June 5, 2015. [2] Ground was broken on the project August 10, 2014 and construction began 1 september 2014 with a strong focus on mythical Irish history, the roller coaster named after one of the great eternal heroes of Irish history, Cuchulainn. The figure of the great Irish fighters emblazoned across the front of the roller coaster train.
  • Rotator : Rotator is a “Frisbie” style of ride. Riders facing outwards on a rotating gondala which swings like a pendulum.
  • Air Race : This trip, themed around the aircraft, spins and rotates simultaneously.
  • 5D cinema : A short film experience with air gusts, water jets, leg ticklers, flashing lights, bubbles and smoke blasts.
  • Zip Line Extreme : Tayto Park is home to Ireland’s longest and fastest zip wire
  • Extreme climbing wall 21 meters climbing wall to test the climbing skills.
  • Tayto Twister 20 meters tubular slide
  • Sky Walk : Three levels of obstacles and bridges high above the ground

Eagle’s Nest

  • Air Jumpers : Bungee system with trampolines to spring over 5 meters high
  • The Superhero Training Wall : Climb up to 9 meters on the wall
  • Crispy Creek Mining Company : Pan sand by flowing water to reveal rare stones
  • Shot Tower : Strap in, countdown and prepare to shoot 10 meters into the sky
  • Pony Rail : Saddle up and gallop across the plains Tayto Park
  • Honey Jar Bears : Join the honey pot carries for a fun adventure
  • Steam Train Express : 2 feet (610 mm) narrow gauge [3] train with a steam contour / diesel hydraulic locomotive and three coaches from Severn Lamb [4]


  • Agro’s Friends : Is an open area, which includes many rare breeds of animals such as Jacob, Manx & Soay sheep, Highland cattle, pygmy goats, Vietnamese pot belly pigs and other pets.
  • Wildwoods : a wooded area with wildlife including ocelots, ring-tailed coatis, Amur leopards, fishing cat, corsac foxes, aardwolves and more.
  • Feathered friends : Miscellaneous and beautiful collection of exotic birds from around the world
  • Buffalo Ridge : Home to the first herd of American bison in Ireland
  • Cat Country : cougars, lynx and the largest of the big cats, endangered Amur tigers.
  • Down Under : Visit emus and wallabies


Tayto Park is wheelchair except for the tea house in the tree house and buffalo viewing platform. There is a gift shop and dining options such as the restaurant at the Lodge Building, which also offers a private function room or the Pizza Place.

There is free parking for cars and buses as well as disabled parking near the entrance.


Bus Eireann runs 103 and 105 services, which stops at the park on a daily basis.

External links

  • Official website


  1. Jump up ^ [1]
  2. Jump up ^ – Cuchulainn
  3. Jump up ^ Severn Lamb – Texan
  4. Jump up ^ Blooloop – Severn Lamb Provides Texan Rail turnkey package for Tayto Park, Ireland

Slane Castle

Slane Castle is located in the town of Slane, in the Boyne Valley in County Meath, Ireland. The castle has been the family home of the Conyngham family since the 18th century. [1]

It keeps Slane Concert event within its grounds, with the Irish Independentclaimed in 2004 that “Slane today is the type of internationally recognized place that can claim even Madonna attention”. [2] Its sloping lawns forms a natural amphitheater. [3]


View of the River Boyne, just a few kilometers upstream from Newgrange and site of the famous Battle of the Boyne, where Slane Castle in its current form, constructed under the direction of William Burton Conyngham, along with his nephew, 1st Marquess Conyngham. The reconstruction dates back to 1785 and is mainly the work of James Gandon, James Wyatt and Francis Johnston. Francis Johnston was also the architect responsible for the gothic gates at Mill Hill, which is located east of the castle.

The Conynghams is originally a Scottish Protestant family, who planted in Ireland in 1611, during the Plantation of Ulster County Donegal. Thus, the family claimed control over land around the village Tamhnach a tSalainn , near Donegal Town in south County Donegal. Meanwhile, the then head of the family, Charles Conyngham, renamed the village in its own glory as Mount Charles (pronounced locally in South Donegal “Mount-char-Liss). [4]The family is also controlled a substantial property in West Donegal, especially in The Rosses district .

The relationship between the Ulster-Scots Conynghams and Estate Slane in County Meath goes back over 300 years, since the property was purchased by the family after Williamite Confiscation in 1701. Around that time, the family moved their main ancestral seat of south County Donegal in western Ulster Slane.

Prior to Slane Castle had been in possession of Fleming’s, Anglo-Norman Catholics who had joined the Jacobites in the War of the Grand Alliance, and thus efterWilliamite victory was their property eligible for confiscation.Christopher, 17th Baron of Slane (from 1669 to 1614 in July 1726, created The 1st Viscount Longford from Queen Anne1713), was the last Fleming lord Slane. The current owner of the castle is Henry Conyngham, which styles itself [5] as the 8th Marquess Conyngham. The eldest son of Lord Conyngham Alex, Earl of Mount Charles.

1991, a fire in the Castle caused extensive damage to the building and completely gutted the east overlooking the River Boyne. The castle was opened again in 2001 after the completion of a ten-year restoration program.In 2003, a cannon in connection with the castle found in the nearby River Boyne [6]

On the east side of the castle demesne, directly between the River Boyne and the village church of Ireland church in Slane, lay the ruins of St. ERC Hermitage, a 15th-century multi-story chapel, and with about 500 meters west of St. ERC Hermitage an old well can also be found. In one of the central texts of Irish mythology, the Cath Maige Tuireadh is, this well is said to have been blessed by God Dian Cecht so that the Tuatha Dé Danann could bathe in it and be cured, allegedly heal all fatal wounds except beheading. [7] but with the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, and the policy of the Christian reinterpretation of traditional pagan places, it is well now more commonly called Our Lady’s well.

Live at Slane

Main article: Slane Concert

Since 1981, the grounds of Slane Castle used to host rock concerts. The natural amphitheater has a 80,000 person capacity. [8] The concerts was opened by the then Earl of Mount Charles (popularly known for decades that Henry Mount Charles, since March 2009, he has been known as the 8th Marquess Conyngham), the owner of the castle.

The models headed Slane concerts since 1981 include The Rolling Stones, U2, Robbie Williams, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Queen, David Bowie, Neil Young, Bryan Adams, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Guns N ‘Roses, Madonna, REM, Foo Fighters, Celtic Woman and Oasis. On May 28, 2011 Kings Of Leon captioned 30th anniversary event at Slane Castle. Five support act plays, including Thin Lizzy, as in a previous line-up titled first Slane Concert 1982. [9]

Celtic Woman filming her second DVD at Slane Castle, called Celtic Woman: a new journey in August 2006, and U2 filmed the DVD U2 Go Home: Live From Slane Castle in 2001, but the DVD was released in 2003. They also played their 1984 album, The Unforgettable Fire , where while the residence for a time. Parts of Madonna’s documentary film , I’ll tell you a secret filmed at Slane Castle in 2004. Bon Jovi performed at Slane Castle in June 2013.


  1. Jump up ^ Slane Castle History: A Brief History of Henry, eighth Marquis Conyngham Slane Castle
  2. Jump up ^ rainy days and festivals, July 10, 2004
  3. Jump up ^ U2 and Slane Castle tool for 20-year reunion RTÉ News, August 24, 2001
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution prohibits the state gives nobility titles and a citizen may not receive titles of nobility or honor except with the prior approval of the government, is present titles of the peerage considered anachronistic, noble titles or peerage is thus regarded as simply the courtesy titles. ” 40.2 “(PDF), the Constitution of Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office
  6. Jump up ^ Slane Cannon find News File ; Retrieved May 31, 2011
  7. Jump up ^ Cath Maige Tuireadh . Elizabeth A. Gray (trans.)
  8. Jump up ^ A history of Slane Castle concerts since 1981 Slane Castle
  9. Jump up ^ Up to 80,000 down on Slane Irish Times, May 28, 2011


Ráth Chairn (English: Rathcarne or Rathcarran ) is a small village and the Gaeltacht (Irish -speaking area) in County Meath, Ireland. It is about 55 km northwest of Dublin.

Ráth Chairn Gaeltacht was founded in 1935 when 41 families from Conamara settled on land previously acquired by the Irish Land Commission. Each family was provided with a Land Commission house and a farm of about 8.9 hectares (22 acres), a sow, piglets and basic implements. Another 11 families joined the original settlers in 1935. A total of 443 people moved from Connemara to Ráth Chairn area. In 1967 Ráth Chairn official recognition as a Gaeltacht, following a local campaign. [1] Today, and the nearby village of Baile Ghib represent Meath Gaeltacht.

A cooperative (the “Ráth Chairn cooperation Society”) was founded in 1973. Ráth Chairn has since grown to a village with a Catholic church, meeting hall for plays, Corchumann Ráth Chairn and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (also used by Coláiste na bhFiann during the summer months ), sports facilities, an all-Irish primary and secondary school, a library and a pub (an Breadán Feasa).

Several facilities in Ráth Chairn host children and adults who want to learn Irish and residential Irish language courses are run for teenagers during the summer months. [2]

Notable people

  • Bláthnaid Ní Chofaigh, TV Personality
  • Darach Ó Cathain, Sean nos singer

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ – History
  2. Jump up ^


Newgrange (Irish: Sí a Bhrú ) [1] is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located about one kilometer north of the River Boyne. [2] It was built during neolitiskaperioden around 3200 BC, making it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. [3] the site consists of a large circular mound with a stone passage and the inner chamber. The pile has a retaining wall at the front and is surrounded by engraved curb. There is no agreement on what the site was used for, but it has been speculated that it had religious significance – it is in line with the rising sun and its light floods the chamber on the winter solstice. It is the most famous monuments in the Neolithic Brú na Bóinne complex, along with similar passage tomb mounds of Knowth and Dowth, and as such is part of the Brú na Bóinne UNESCO World Heritage List. Newgrange also shares many similarities with other Neolithic structures in Western Europe, which Maeshowe in Orkney, Scotland [4] and Bryn Celli Ddu in Wales.

After its initial use, Newgrange was sealed for thousands of years, although it remained stories of Irish mythology and folklore. Antiquarians first began its study in the 17th century, and archaeological excavations took place at the site in the years that followed. Archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly led the most extensive of these and even reconstructed façade of the site in the 1970s, a reconstruction that is controversial and contentious. [5] Newgrange today is a popular tourist attraction and, according to archaeologist Colin Renfrew, is ” undoubtedly considered as prehistorian as the great national monument of Ireland “and as one of the most important megalithic structures in Europe. [6]

physical Description

Mound and the passage grave

Newgrange monument consists mainly of a large hill, built of alternating layers of earth and stone, with grass growing on top and a reconstructed facade of zero growth white quartz stones studded at intervals with large rounded cobbles that cover a portion of the perimeter. The mound is 76 meters (249 feet) across and 12 meters (39 feet) high and covers 4,500 square meters (1.1 acres) of land. Within the pile is a chamber passage, which can be accessed through an entrance on the southeast side of monumentet.Passagen extends 19 meters (60 feet), [7] , or about a third of the way into the center of the structure. At the end of the passage is small three chambers outside a larger central chamber, with a high Corbelled arch roof.Each of the smaller chambers has a large flat “stone basin”, which was where the bones of the dead possibly originally deposited, although it was actually a cemetery is still unclear. The walls of this passage consists of large stone slabs, twenty-two of them are on the west side, and twenty-one in the east, which averaged at 1.5 meters in height, [8] several are decorated with carvings (as well as graffiti from after the rediscovery) . The ceiling shows no sign of smoke.

Located around the perimeter of the pile is a circle of standing stones, as most archaeologists consider to have been added later in the Bronze Age, had centuries after the original monument abandoned as a tomb.


Newgrange contains various examples of abstract Neolithic petroglyphs carved on it that gives decoration. [9] These carvings fit into ten categories, five of which are curved (circles, spirals, arcs, serpentiniforms and dot-in-circles) and the other five of which are rectilinear (Chevron, lozenges, radials, parallel lines and offsets). They are also characterized by great differences in style, skill level that would have been needed to produce them, and how deeply carved they are. [10] One of the most remarkable examples of art at Newgrange is triskele -like features on the entrance stone. It is about three meters long and 1.2 meters high (10 ft. Long and 4 ft. High), and about five tons of vikt.Det has been described as “one of the most famous rocks in the whole repertoire of megalithic art.” [11] Archaeologists believe most of the carvings were produced before the stones “that were erected, although the entrance stone instead carved in situ before the curbs were placed next to it. [12]

Different archaeologists have speculated on the meaning of decoration, with some, such as George Coffey (in 1890), believe that they are purely decorative, while others, like MJ O’Kelly (1962-1975 led excavations at the site), believed them to have some kind of symbolic purposes, as part of the carvings had been in places that would not have been visible, such as at the bottom of orthostatic slabs below ground level. [13] Extensive research on how art relates to adjustments and astronomy in the Boyne Valley complex was performed by American-Irish researcher Martin Brennan.


The Neolithic people who built the monument were indigenous agriculturalists, growing crops and raising animals like cows in the area where their settlements were located.

Construction and funerals

The complex of Newgrange was originally built between c. 3200 and 3100 BC.[14] According to carbon-14 date, [15] it is approximately five hundred years older than the current form of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, as well as prior to the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece. [16] some put their construction slightly later, at 3000 to 2500 BC [17] geological analysis suggests that much of the materials used to construct Newgrange was beach blocks collected from the rocky beach at Clogherhead, County Louth, ca. 20 km to the northeast. The blocks may be transported to Newgrange place at sea and up the River Boyne by securing them to the underside of boats at low tide (see diagram in Benozzo (2010)); four plates of brown carboniferous sandstone is from further away, the rest of the 547 plates used in the construction of the monument is greywacke of Clogherhead formation, a feldspar-rich sedimentary rock. [18] [19]

None of the structural plates were broken, for they show signs of having been naturally weathered, so they must have been collected and then transported in any way is largely up to the Newgrange site. [20] Meanwhile, the stones used for the cairn , which together would have weighed around 200,000 tons, was probably taken from the river terraces between Newgrange and the Boyne, and it is really a big pond in this area has been speculated place was broken by Newgrange’s builders to use materials for cairn. [20]Frank Mitchell suggested that the monument would be built in the space of five years, basing its estimates on the likely number of local residents during the Neolithic and how much time they could have spent to build it rather than agriculture. This estimate, however, criticized by MJ O’Kelly and his archaeological team, who thought that it would have taken at least thirty years to build. [21]

Excavations have revealed deposits of both fired and unfired human bone in the passage, suggesting human corpses were actually placed within it, some of which had cremated. From examining the unburned bones, it appeared to come from at least two different individuals, but a large part of their skeletons were missing, and what was left were scattered passage. [22] Various grave goods were deposited at the side of the body inside the passage. excavations that took place in the late 1960s and early 1970s revealed seven “spheres”, four pendants, two beads, a used flint flake, a bone chisel and fragments of bone pins and points. [23] Many more artifacts found in passage in previous centuries by visiting antiquarians and tourists, although most of them were taken away and missing or held in private collections. Despite these sometimes recorded, and it is believed that the grave goods came from Newgrange was typical of Neolithic Irish passage grave assemblages. [24] The remains of animals have also been found in the grave, mostly those of mountain hares, rabbits and dogs, but also bats, sheep or goats, cattle, song thrush, and more rarely, molluscs and frog. Most of these animals would simply have written, and died in the chamber many centuries or even millennia after it was constructed. For example, rabbits were only introduced in Ireland in the 13th century [25]


During a large part of the Neolithic period, Newgrange continued as a focus for any ceremonial activity. New monuments added to the site included a wooden circle (or Stonehenge) to the south east of the main deck and a smaller timber circle to the west. The eastern timber circle consisted of five concentric rows of pits. The outer row contained wooden posts. The next row of pits had clay liner and used to burn the animal remains. The three inner rows of pits were dug to accept animal remains. Within the circle were post and stake holes associated with Beaker pottery and flint flakes. The western timber circle consisted of two concentric rows of parallel postholes and pits defining a circle 20 meters in diameter. [ Citation needed ] A concentric pile of mud was constructed around the southern and western sides of the mound that covered a structure consisting of two parallel lines mail and ditches that had been partially burned. An independent circle of large stones were constructed surrounding the pile. Near the entrance, hardener 17 used to set the fire. These structures at Newgrange is generally contemporary with a number henges known from the Boyne Valley, Newgrange at Site A, Site O Newgrange, Dowth henge and Monknewtown Stonehenge. [ Citation needed ]

The site apparently continued to have some ritual significance in the Iron Age; between different objects later deposited around the pile are two pendants made of gold Roman coins 320-337 AD (now in the National Museum of Ireland) and Roman gold jewelery including two bracelets, two finger rings and a necklace, now in the collections of the British Museum. [26]


There have been various debates about its original purpose. Many archaeologists believed that the monument had religious significance of some kind or another, either as a place of worship of a “cult of the dead” or an astronomically-based faith. Archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly, who led the 1962-1975 excavations on the site, believed that the monument must be seen in relation to the nearby Knowth and Dowth, and the construction of Newgrange ‘can not be considered other than an expression of some kind of powerful force or motivation, transferred to the extreme glorification of these three monuments, cathedrals megalithic religion. ” [27] O’Kelly thought Newgrange, along with hundreds of other passage tombs built in Ireland during the Neolithic showed evidence of a religion that venerated the dead as one of its fundamental principles. He believed that this “cult of the dead” was just a special form of European Neolithic religion, and that other megalithic monuments shown evidence of various religious beliefs which were the sun, rather than death-oriented. [27]

However, studies in other areas of expertise offer alternative interpretations of the possible functions, which mainly center on astronomy, engineering, geometry and mythology associated with the Boyne monuments. It is speculated that the sun formed an important part of the religious beliefs of the Neolithic people who built it. One idea was that the room was intended for a ritual absorption of the sun on the shortest day of the year, the winter solstice, as the room gets flooded with sunlight, which might have helped the days start to get longer again. This view is strengthened by the discovery of adaptations of Knowth, Dowth and Lough Crew Cairns leads to the interpretation of these monuments which calendrical or astronomical units.Earlier Newgrange mound was surrounded by an outer ring of immense standing stones, of which twelve of a possible thirty-seven left. However, indicate by carbon dating to the stone circle which encircled Newgrange can not be contemporary with the monument itself but were placed there some 1,000 years later in the Bronze Age. This view is controversial, and relates to a time of coal from a standing stone that cuts with a later hour after the circle, the theory is that the stone in question may have been moved and re-set in its original position at a later date. However, this does demonstrate continuity in the use of Newgrange in over a thousand years; with partial remains were found from only five individuals, the tomb theory is questioned. [ citation needed ]

Once a year, at the winter solstice, the light of the rising sun directly along the long passage, illuminating the inner chamber and reveal the carvings inside, especially triple spirals on the front wall of the chamber. This lighting lasts about 17 minutes. [3] MJ O’Kelly was the first person in modern times to observe this event on December 21, 1967. [28] The sunlight enters the passage through a specially contrived opening, known as a roof box, direct above the main entrance. Although the sun adjustments are not uncommon among passage graves of Newgrange is one of the few to include additional roof box function; (Cairn G at Carrowkeel megalithic Cemetery is another, and it has been suggested that can be found at Bryn Celli Ddu. [29] ). The alignment is such that even if the roof box is above the passage entrance, the light hits the floor of the internal chamber. Today the first light enters about four minutes after sunrise, but calculations based on the precession of the Earth show that 5,000 years ago first light would have entered exactly at soluppgången.Solens focus on Newgrange is very precise compared to similar phenomena in other passage graves as Dowth or Maes Howe in Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland.

Maturity and Beaker settlement

During the Late Neolithic, it seems that Newgrange is no longer used by the locals, which leaves some artifacts in the passage grave and bury any of their dead there. As archaeologist Michael O’Kelly said: “In 2000 [BC] Newgrange was in disrepair and squatters lived around the collapsing edge.” [30] These “squatters” were followers of the Beaker Culture, which had been imported from the European continent and made Beaker style pottery locally. [30]

Discovery, excavation and restoration

Mythology and folklore in the medieval and early modern period

During the medieval period, Newgrange and wider Brú na Bóinne neolithic complex got different attributes in local folklore, which were often linked to figures from the wider Irish mythology. Monuments of Brú was regarded by some as the abode of the supernatural Tuatha Dé Danann, while others considered them to be burial mounds of the ancient kings of Tara. Among those who thought the folkloric tales relating to BRU Tuatha Dé Danann, it was widely believed that they were the abode of the most powerful of the Tuatha, especially Dagda, Boann his wife and his son, Óengus. According to 11th century book Lecan had Dagda Brú built for himself and his three sons, while the 12th century book Leinster describes how Óengus tricked his father into giving him Brú for all eternity. Another text, The Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainne also means Óengus took Brú, when he explained how he took his friend Diarmaid to it. [31]

Meanwhile, in 1142, it had become a part of the dissenting farmland owned by the Cistercian Abbey of Mellifont. These farms were called Granges. By 1378 it was simply called the “new grange”. Because of the Williamite seized Charles Campbell became the land owner as a participant of the estates forfeited 1688. [ citation needed ]

Antiquarianism in the 17th and 18th centuries

In 1699, a local landowner, Charles Campbell, ordered some of his farm laborers to dig up some of Newgrange, which had the appearance of a large mound of earth, so that he could collect the stones inside it. The workers soon discovered the entrance to the tomb of the pile, and a Welsh antiquarian named Edward Lhwyd, who lived in the area were alerted and took an interest in the monument. He wrote an account of the mound and the grave, describes what he saw as his “barbaric sculpture” and notes that animal bones, beads and pieces of glass had been found inside the (modern archaeologists have speculated that the latter two were in fact polished ceramic beads who later turned on the spot and that was a common feature of Neolithic tombs). [32] soon another antiquarian visitors also came to the site, named Sir Thomas Molyneaux, who was a professor at the University of Dublin. He spoke to Charles Campbell, who informed him that he had found the remains of two human corpses in the grave, one (who were male), in one of the tanks, and another further along the passage, which Lhwyd had not been noted. [33] Then Newgrange was attended by a number of antiquarians, who often performed his own measurements of the site and made their own observations, which are often published in various antiquarian journals; these included such figures as Sir William Wilde, Thomas Pownall, Thomas Wright, John O’Donovan, George Petrie and James Ferguson. [34]

These curators are often being their own theories about the origin of Newgrange, many of which have since been proven false. Thomas Pownall conducted a very detailed examination of Newgrange in 1769 [35] which numbers all the stones and also plays a part of the carvings on the stone said, but also that the pile had originally been higher and a lot of stone on top of it had later been removed, a theory which has since been disproved by archaeological research. [36] most of these old also refused to believe that it was the ancient people native to Ireland who built the monument, with many believing that it had been built in the early medieval period of invading Vikings, while others speculated that it was actually built by the ancient Egyptians, ancient Indians or the Phoenicians. [37]

Conservation, archaeological studies, and reconstructions in the 19th and 20th centuries

Sometime in the early 1800’s folly was built a few laps behind Newgrange.Foolishness, with two round windows, made of stones taken from Newgrange. In 1882, according to the law on monuments protection, Newgrange and the nearby monuments Knowth and Dowth were under the control of the State (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, as it was then called), and they were placed under the responsibility of the Board of Public Works. In 1890, under the leadership of Thomas Newenham Deane Board began a project of conservation of the monuments, which had been damaged by the general decline in the previous three millennia, as well as the increasing damage caused by visitors, some of whom had inscribed their.names of stones [38] in the next few decades, a number of archaeologists carried out excavations at the site, discover more about its function and how it had been built; but even at that time it was still widely believed by archaeologists to be Bronze Age origin rather than the older Neolithic. [39] In 1950, electric lighting was installed in the passageway to allow visitors to see more clearly, [40] while an exhaustive archaeological excavations were made from 1962 until 1975, was the excavation report written by Michael J. O’Kelly and published in 1982 by Thames and Hudson archeology, art and Legend: Newgrange . [41]

After O’Kelly excavation, further restoration and rebuilding took place at the site. As part of a reconstruction, white quartzite stones and cobblestones fixed in a near vertical steel-reinforced concrete wall surrounding the entrance of the heap. This work is controversial among the archaeological community. PR Griot described the monument that looks like a “cream cheese cake with dried streams distributed around.” [42] Neil Oliver described the building as “a little brutal, a little far, much like Stalin makes the Stone Age.” [43] Critics of the new wall points that the technology did not exist when the mound was created to fix a retaining wall at this angle. Another theory is that the white quartzite stones had actually formed a square on the ground at the entrance. This theory was preferred at nearby Knowth, where the restorers, the quartzite rocks like an “apron” in front of the entrance to the big pile.

The curved walls that flank each side of the entrance are not original, nor is it intended to be similar to Newgrange original appearance, but was designed to facilitate the access of visitors. But a visitor’s guide book to the site is a reconstruction drawing depicting Neolithic inhabitants use Newgrange showing the modern entrance as if it were part of Newgrange original appearance. [44]

Access to Newgrange

In the early 1970s, Newgrange about 30,000 visitors per year. In 1980 this had doubled to 63,000, and in 1990 had doubled again to 132,000. In 1996, the official number of visitors to Newgrange exceeded 150,000, with thousands of others who can not get access to the site that saturation point had been reached. [45]

Access to Newgrange is only guided tour. Tours begin at the Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre which visitors are bussed to the site in groups. Current day visitors to Newgrange are treated to a reenactment of the winter solstice experience through the use of electric lights located within the grave. The finale of a Newgrange tour results in each tour member standing inside the tomb where the tour guide is then turned off the lights and light the lamp simulates the sun as it seems on the winter solstice. To experience the phenomenon of the morning winter solstice itself inside Newgrange, you must enter a lottery at the interpretive center. Of the thousands who enter, are fifty elected every year, each one must take a single guest. The winners are divided into groups of 10 and taken out in five days around the solstice where the light enters the chamber, weather permitting.


  1. Jump up ^ “Sí a Bhrú / Newgrange.” Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ O’Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend .London: Thames and Hudson. The 13th
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “winter solstice illumination of Newgrange.” Hämtadtolv October of 2007.
  4. Jump up ^ Laing, 1974, p. 42
  5. Jump up ^ “Newgrange got a new lease of light and life in the 1960’s” build “.” Irish Times. 20 December 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ Renfrew, Colin, in O’Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend . London: Thames and Hudson. The seventh
  7. Jump up ^ “Newgrange”. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  8. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 21)
  9. Jump up ^ Joseph Nechvatal, Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances .LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009, p. 163
  10. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 146-147).
  11. Jump up ^ Ó Ríordáin, Seán P.; Glyn, Edmund Daniel (1964).Newgrange and the Boyne Bend. FA Praeger. p. 26. [1]
  12. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 149).
  13. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 148).
  14. Jump up ^ “Newgrange”. Department of Arts, Heritage, Regional, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  15. Jump up ^ E. Grogan, “Prehistoric and early historical cultural change at Brugh na Bóinne”, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 91C, 1991, pp. 126-132
  16. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 48)
  17. Jump up ^ Grant, Jim; Sam Gorin; Neil Fleming (2008). The archeology textbook .Taylor & Francis. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-46286-0. Hämtad17 August 2011.
  18. Jump up ^ Benozzo, F. (2010). “Words archaeological finds: Another example of the Ethno-Philological contribute to the study of European Megalithism”. The European Archaeologist. 33 : 7-10.
  19. Jump up ^ Phillips, WEA; M. Corcoran; E. Eogan (2001) Identification of the source region of the megaliths used in the construction of the Neolithic passage graves in the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath. Unpublished report for the Heritage Council. Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin
  20. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 117)
  21. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 117-118)
  22. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 105-106)
  23. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 105)
  24. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 107)
  25. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 215-216)
  26. Jump up ^ “The British Museum – Collection SEARCH You searched for”.British Museum .Hämtad April 27, 2015.
  27. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 122)
  28. Jump up ^ “Brú na Bóinne (Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth)”.Hämtadtolv October of 2007.
  29. Jump up ^ Pitts (2006) Sensational new discoveries at Bryn Celli Ddu.British Archaeology No. 89 (July / August): 6th
  30. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 145).
  31. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 43-46)
  32. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 24)
  33. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 27)
  34. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 33-34)
  35. Jump up ^ Archaeologia Vol 2, 1773. A description of the funerary monuments of Newgrange, Drogheda, in County Meath in Ireland. By Thomas Pownall, Esq. in a letter to Pastor Gregory Sharpe, DD Master of the Middle Temple.Läs at the Society of Antiquaries June 21/28 1770. Archaeologia Vol.2, pp.236-276 [2]
  36. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 33)
  37. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 35)
  38. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 38-39)
  39. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 42)
  40. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 41)
  41. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 09)
  42. Jump up ^ Giot, P.-R. (1983). “Review: Newgrange. Archeology, art and legend “.Antiken. 57 (220): 150.
  43. Jump up ^ “A History of Ancient Britain” Series episode three, “Age of Cosmology”, BBC documentary, 2011.
  44. Jump up ^ Alan Marshall, “Newgrange Excavation Report Critique”
  45. Jump up ^ Ruth McManus, “Heritage and Tourism in Ireland -an unholy alliance?”, Irish geography. Volume 30 (2), 1997, pages 90-98.


Loughcrew (Irish: Loch Craobh ) is near Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland.(Sometimes written Lough Crew ). Loughcrew is an area of great historical importance in Ireland. It is the place förmegalitiska burial ground dating back to about 3500 and 3300 BC, is located near the top of the Sliabh na Caillí and surrounding mountains and valleys. Passage graves on the site is in line with Equinoxsoluppgången.

The Loughcrew Passage Tombs

Lough Crew Passage Tomb is one of the four main passage graves in Ireland (the other is Brú na Bóinne, Carrowkeel and Carrowmore). They are believed to be from about 3300 F Kr.Platserna consists of cross-chamber covered in most cases of a hill. A unique style of megalithic petroglyphs seen there, including lozenge shapes, leaf shapes, such as circles, a portion surrounded by radiating lines. [1]

The place is spread over three hills, Carnbane East, Carnbane West, and Patrick Town. The Irish name for the area is Sliabh na Caillí , which means “mountain of hag”. Legend says that the monument was created when a giant hag, step over the country, dropped its load of large rocks from her apron.The orthostats and structural monuments stones tend to be from local green gritstone, that was soft enough to cut, but also is vulnerable to vandalism.

In 1980 discovered the Irish-American researcher Martin Brennan to Cairn T in Carnbane East directed to receive the rays of the rising sun in the spring and autumn equinox -. The light shining down the passage and illuminate the art of reverse least [2] [3] Brennan also discovered adaptations Cairn L (53 ° 44’36 “N 7 ° 08’03” W), Knowth and Dowth in the Boyne Valley. Cairn T alignment similar to the well-known lighting for passage grave at Bru na Bóinne (Newgrange) which is adapted to catch the rays of the winter solstice sunrise.

There are about twenty tombs in Loughcrew complex besides Cairn Cairn L and T, along with additional archaeological sites.

Modern history

In later centuries Loughcrew became the seat of a branch of the Norman-Irish Plunkett family, whose most famous member was martyred St. Oliver Plunkett. The family church stands in the grounds of Loughcrew Gardens.With its rugged isolation, Sliabh na Caillí became a critical meeting place throughout the criminal laws of the Catholics. Even if the forest is gone now an excellent example of a Mass rock can still be seen on the top of the Sliabh na Caillí today. The Plunketts were involved in running the Irish Confederation of the 1640s and was displaced in the Cromwellian Settlement of 1652. Their property at Loughcrew awarded by Sir William Petty to Naper Family c. In 1655. The Napers descended from Sir Robert Napier was Chief Baron Finance Ireland in 1593. [4]

The Napers built an extensive property of some 180,000 acres (730 km²) in north Meath in the subsequent centuries that reflected that developed by their neighbors Cromwellians, Taylors of Headfort. After a third and devastating fire in 1964, the three Naper sons went to court and asked that the state makes it possible for the family trust to be broken up and the yard is shared between the three sons. Then, the house and gardens have been restored by Charles and Emily Naper, which open gardens and run an annual opera festival. [5]

See also

  • archaeoastronomy
  • Cailleach
  • List of archaeoastronomical seats per country
  • List of megalithic monuments in Ireland
  • Newgrange


  1. Jump up ^ photos of megalithic art in Cairn T from
  2. Jump up ^ documented in photographs and videos taken on the spot for six consecutive years
  3. Jump up ^ Brennan, Martin, Stars and Stones: Ancient Art and Astronomy Ireland – Thames and Hudson (1983); later re-published asThe Stones of Time (1996).
  4. Jump up ^ Bunbury, Turtle (2003, 2006) “Loughcrew House, Co. Meath – Gilded Magnificence
  5. Jump up ^ Lyttelton, Celia (May 2009), “Interiors: aria state,”Telegraph, UK.


Knowth (/ n aʊ θ /; Irish: Cnóbha ) is a Neolithic passage grave and an ancient monument of the world heritage of Brú na Bóinne in Ireland valley of the River Boyne. It is the largest passage grave of the Brú na Bóinne complex and consists of a large mound (known as Site 1) and 17 smaller satellite tombs. The mound is about 12 meters (40 feet) high and 67 meters (220 feet) in diameter, [1] which covers about a hectare. It contains two passages, placed along an east-west line and surrounded by 127 kerbstones, three missing, and four seriously injured.

The large stack has been estimated to date from 2500 to 2000 BC. [1] The passages are independent of each other, leading to separate tomb. The eastern passage arrives at a cross-chamber, similar to the one at Newgrange, which contains three recesses and basin stones into which the cremated remains of the dead placerades.Den right recess is larger and more elaborately decorated with megalithic art than the other, which is typically Irish passage graves of this type. The western passage terminates in an undifferentiated chamber which is separated from the passage of a threshold stone. The chamber seems to have also contained a basin stone which was later removed and is now located about two-thirds down the passage.

megalithic Art

Knowth contains more than one third of the total number of examples of megalithic art in the whole of Western Europe, [ citation needed ] over 200 decorated stones were found at utgrävningar.En large part of the artwork on the curbs, especially approaching the entrances to the passages. Many of the motifs are typical: spirals, lozenges and serpentiform. But the megalithic art at Knowth contains a variety of images, such as crescent shapes.Interestingly, much of this work of art was carved at the expense of the stones; a type of megalithic technique known as hidden art. This suggests all sorts of theories regarding the function of megalithic art in the Neolithic society that built the monuments in the Boyne Valley. It is possible that they thought the art of hidden. It is also possible that the blocks simply recycled and reused in the other.


There is some evidence for late Neolithic and Bronze Age activity on the site.Most of this is because there is a grooved ware timber circle located near the entrance to the eastern passage. Archaeological evidence suggests that this was used as a ritual or sacred area after the great mound of Knowth had already been forgotten. Evidence for the ritual consists of a large number of offerings available in and around the immediate areas of the timbers that formed the circle.

The hill at Knowth canceled, and the pile or heap slipped, which allows inputs to both passages to be covered. The place remained virtually unused for a period of two thousand years. The place was short as a burial place;some 35 coffin graves found at the site during excavations. [2] These seem to be Celtic burials.

In the late Iron Age and early Christian times, there was an ancient castle with enclosing ditches and Souterrains added. Knowth became a habitational place for the first time. Two trenches dug, at the base of a pile behind the curb, and the other at the top. At this stage, the inputs of both passages appears to have discovered. Evidence found early Christian graffiti on the rocks in the eastern chamber, and four names were carved in Ogham. It seems it was at this stage that the stone basin from the western chamber was moved in an attempt to remove it and was abandoned in the passage because it got stuck. Knowth became a significant political space and the capital of the Kingdom of Northern Brega. [3]

After a brief military interlude after the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the Normans used Knowth as a motte in the 12th century, the site was occupied by the Cistercian monks iMellifont Abbey. It seems that the pile again used as a grange or farm. Stone walls were built over the mound, and stone buildings inside the walls. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the site was mainly used for farming until most of the site was taken over by the state in 1939.

A historical reference to the cave is to be found in the triads in Ireland, dating from the 14th to the 19th century, where ” UAM Chnogba , UAM Slángæ andDearc Fearna ” listed under the heading “the three darkest places in Ireland”. [ 4] the last, that is, “the cave of the Alders,” is generally thought to be the current Dunmore Cave, [5] while the first two translate as caves of Knowth and caves of the Slaney. [6] it is not known exactly the cave system / passage tombs near the river Slaney is being referred to, with the most likely, they Baltinglass. Other sources translate the listed places Rath Croghan, cave or crypt Slane [7] and the “Cave of the Ferns”. [6]

The east-west direction of the passages at Knowth proposes astronomical line with the equinoxes. The focus of Knowth is not present today. This depends on a number of factors. First of all, the passages were discovered by later settlers, and was, to some extent, destroyed or incorporated Souterrains. In this way, the original entrances to the passages were distorted or destroyed, making it difficult to determine whether an adaptation ever existed. Furthermore, the recent excavations (1962 onwards) under George Eogan resulted in the construction of a concrete slab wall inside the piles west entrance, limit any investigation of possible adaptations. It seems likely that the passage was intended to adapt. Moreover, adaptations of ancient monuments change due to Milankovitch cycles.

A short excavation of the site was conducted in 1941 by MACALLISTER. But large full-scale excavations began at the site in 1962 and was conducted by George Eogan of University College Dublin. When his excavations began, very little is known about the full extent of the site. The entrances to the western and eastern passages were discovered in 1967 and 1968 respectively, and, slowly, the layers of activity at the site of Knowth were detected. The excavation has produced a large number of books and reports on the results.The archaeological site of Knowth East ended any chance to research on changes when George Eogan erected a concrete wall across the east-passage entrance. The most extensive research on changes and astronomy at Knowth was carried out by American-Irish researcher Martin Brennan. [8]


Access is by guided tour only. Tours begin at the Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre in Donore. Visitors can look down the eastern passage and visit the nearby modern interpretive room.


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab Harbison, Peter. (1970). Guide to the National Monument of Ireland. Gill & Macmillan.
  2. Jump up ^ O’Brien, Elizabeth. “Post-Roman Britain to Anglo-Saxon England”. British Archaeological Reports , 1999. 27. ISBN 978-1-8417-1118-8
  3. Jump up ^ Stout, Geraldine. “Newgrange and the Boyne Bend”. Cork: Cork University Press, 2002. 76. ISBN 978-1-8591-8341-0
  4. Jump up ^ Meyer, Kuno; Lavelle, Hilary; Purcell, Emer; et al., eds.(2005). Triads in Ireland. Todd Lecture. 13 (1st ed.). Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co.. Taken 2010-11-06.
  5. Jump up ^ Coleman, JC (1965). The caves in Ireland. Tralee, Co. Kerry: Anvil Press. pp. 14-16.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab Meyer, Kuno, ed. (1906). Triads in Ireland. Todd Lecture.13 (1st ed.). Dublin: Hodges, pp Figgis & Co. 4-5. . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  7. Jump up ^ Foot, Arthur Wynne (1878). “An account of a visit to the cave Dunmore, Co. Kilkenny, with some comments on human remains found there. ” Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 4. Dublin. In: 65-94. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  8. Jump up ^ Stars and Stones later be published as stones Time: calendars, sundials and Stone Chambers of Ancient Ireland , 1994 [ISBN 978-0-8928-1509-8 or ISBN 0-89281-509-4]


Kells (/ k ɛ LZ /; Irish: Ceanannas ) [2] is a town in County Meath, Ireland.The city is located off the M3 motorway, 16 km (10 mi) from Navan and 65 km (40 mi) from Dublin. It is best known as the site of Kells Abbey, from the Book of Kells is named.


The settlement was originally known by the Irish name Ceannanas orCeannanus , and it is proposed that the name “Kells” developed from that. [3]From the 12th century onwards, the settlement was referred to in English and Anglo-Norman Kenenus, Kenelles, Kenles , Kenlis, Kellis and finally Kells. [3]it has also been suggested that Kenlis and Kells comes from an alternative Irish name, Ceann Lios , which means “[the] head soon.” Kells, Kenlis and Headfort has all the titles taken by the Taylor family.

1929 Ceannanus Mór was the city’s official name in both Irish and English. [3]After the formation of the Irish Free State, a number of cities was named too. Ceanannas has been the official Irish language form of the place name since 1969. [4] In 1993, Kells re-adopted as the city’s official name in English.[5]


Abbey of Kells is believed to have been founded around 804 AD by monks from St Colmcille monastery in Iona who fled the Viking invasions.

1152, the Synod of Kells completed the transition of Colmcille establishment of an abbey to a pin church. A later synod reduced status Kell to it by Parish.After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Hugh de Lacy was granted dominion Meath in 1182. The religious establishments at Kells continued to flourish under their Anglo-Norman lords.

Kells became a border town garrison Pale and was the scene of many battles between Breifne Irish and Hiberno-Normans, who were both heavily marriage. From 1561 to 1800 Kells returned two MPs. During the uprising in 1641, was burned Kells by O’Reilly clan during its attacks on Palestine.

The period of great famine saw the population of Kells drop by 38% as measured by the censuses of 1841 and 1851. Work and fever hospital was described as full to overflowing.

Tourist attractions

  • The Abbey of Kells, with its round tower, is associated with St. Colmcille (also known as Columba), the Book of Kells, now kept at Trinity College in Dublin and Kells Crozier, displayed at the British Museum. The round tower and five large Celtic crosses can still be seen today. Four of the crosses are in the graveyard of St. Columba Church.The second Celtic cross was placed in the middle of a busy crossroads, until an accident with a school bus. It now stands in front of a former courthouse. A roof protects the post from the weather. Curiously, a replica completely safe from the elements inside the museum.
  • Near the cemetery of St. Columba’s Church stands a small stone roof Oratory (St. Colmcille’s house). This is probably from the 11th century.Access to the monks overnight stay aloft is by ladder. This small rectangular building is located at one of the highest points in the city.The oratorio is kept locked, but can be arranged access visitors.
  • Just outside the town of Kells on the road to Oldcastle is Mount Lloyd, named after Thomas Lloyd of Enniskillen, who camped a great Williamite army here during the 1688-1691 war against jakobiterna.Här also stands a towering building called the Tower of Lloyd, who is 18th century lighthouse folly in the form of a giant Doric column, surmounted by glazed lantern, erected in memory of Thomas Taylor, 1st Earl of Bective, by his son. The tower is about 30 m (100 feet) high.The peak offers views of the surrounding landscape as far as the Mourne Mountains in County Down, Northern Ireland on a clear day.The tower used to display the horse racing and hunting in the nineteenth century. The plaque on the tower reads: “This pillar was designed by Henry Aaron Baker, Esq. architect performed by Joseph Beck stone cutter Mr. Owen McCabe master masons Mr. Bartle Reilly monitors Anno 1791 “. The area around the tower has been developed as a community park (People’s Park), and includes the Paupers’ Grave. This cemetery was a necessity in times of great poverty in the country. Mass is still celebrated there annually and the cemetery is a reminder of Work and extreme poverty brought about by changes in agriculture in the 19th century and during the famine.


The population of Kells city (according to the official 2011 Census of Population) amounts to 5,888 people. This represents a slight increase in the population of the census of 2006. There was an increase of 24.8% of the total population between 1996 and 2002.


Until the opening of the new motorway in June 2010, stood Kells as a busy junction town on the old N3 route with over 18,000 vehicles pass through the city every day. Kells was a known traffic bottleneck from both the N3 national primary route (Dublin, Cavan, Enniskillen and Ballymena) and N52 national secondary road (Dundalk, Tullamore and Nenagh) passing through the center. The new M3 motorway, considerably reduces travel time to Dublin, as well as the number of vehicles in the city.

  • The M3 motorway (opened June 2010) and an adjacent toll plaza charges € 1.40 each way. A second duty stations closer to Dublin charging the same amount, which means that the entire M3, costs € 5.20 for a return journey to Dublin.
  • Kells is served by a regular bus service from Bus Éireann which takes about 1.5 hours to Busáras in Dublin.
  • Meath on Track [6] seeking reinstatement of the Navan rail link, and on to Dublin. It is estimated that a Kells to Dublin city center rail link would take about 60 minutes depending on the stop.
  • The original Kells railway station, serving a line between Oldcastle and Drogheda through Navan, opened July 11, 1853. It was closed for passenger April 14th 1958 finally to all traffic on April 1, 1963. [7]


  • The Butcher Boy was recorded at Headfort House
  • Secret of Kells is an Oscar-nominated animated film set in Kells
  • The late Hollywood actress Maureen O’Hara was born in Kells. Her father, Charles came from the city, but Maureen grew up in Dublin.Charles was born in a house at the bottom of Farrell Street in the city, a building that now houses a supermarket, carpet shop and apartments.She visited the city May 26, 2012 to receive the free city and to unveil a bust in his honor.
  • Since 2014 Kells is home to the only Irish independent documentary film festival, the Guth Gafa [8] International Documentary Film Festival.


  • Jim Connell of Crossakiel b. 1852 Kells wrote the socialist anthem “The Red Flag”
  • Dick Farrelly songwriter best known for his song, The “Isle of Innisfree ‘1952 hit for Bing Crosby and theme of the film” The Quiet Man “.
  • Irish Indie band Ham sandwich and Turn


  • Hay Festival Kells is home to Ireland only Hay Festival.

Notable people

  • Damien McGrane B. 1971 professional golfer is a Kells man.
  • Munster Rugby fullback Denis Hurley was born and raised in Kells.

See also

  • Kells, County Antrim, a village in Northern Ireland
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-08.
  2. Jump up ^ For most of the 20th century, the city’s official name wasCeanannas Mór . In the late 20th century, the town reverted to the more widely known English version of its name, Kells, and dropped Mór from the Irish version of the name.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abc placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  4. Jump up ^ Logainm placental database of Ireland (the Irish)
  5. Jump up ^ SI No. 156/1993 – The Local Government (Renaming Urban District) Order, 1993 Irish Statute Book ..
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^ “Kells Station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Pulled 10/16/2007.
  8. Jump up ^

High King of Ireland

The högkung (Irish: Ard-na hÉireann RI ) was sometimes historical, sometimes legendary figures who had, or claimed to have had dominion over Ireland.

Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from the Hill of Tara of a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years. Modern historians believe this system is artificial, built in the 8th century from various genealogical traditions politically powerful groups, and seeks to motivate the current status of these groups by projecting it back to the remote past. [1]

The concept of national kingship first articulated in the 7th century, but only became a political reality in the Viking Age, and even then not a consistent one. [2] [3] [4] Although the high Kings’ degree of control varied, Ireland never ruled by them as a politically unified state, as the high king perceived as an overlord exercised suzerainty over, and receive tribute from the independent kingdoms under him. [5]: pp. 40-47

Sacred High Kings

Early Irish kingship was sacred nature. In the early narrative literature a king is a king because he marries the sovereignty goddess, free from blemish, upright symbolic Buada [disambiguation needed] (powers) and avoids symbolicgeasa (taboos).

According to the 7th and 8th century legal areas, a hierarchy of domination and client ship developed from Rí tuaithe (king of a single petty kingdom) byruiri (a was of King several petty kingdom) to an Rí ruirech (a was a provincial of king). (See RI.)

Each king ruled directly only in the context of their own petty kingdom and was responsible for ensuring good government by exercising fir flaithemon(rulers’ truth). His responsibilities included calling his óenach (People’s Assembly), collecting taxes, building public works, external relations, defense, disaster legislation, law enforcement and issue a final judgment.

They land in a petty kingdom held allodially of various fines (agnatic kingroups) of free men. King occupied apex of a pyramid of client ship in petty kingdom. This pyramid has gone from the unfree population in its base up to the heads of noble fine held in immediate client ship of the king. The king therefore deducted from the dominant fine within Cenél (a broader kingroup includes the noble fines for petty kingdom).

The kings of Ulster Cycle are kings in this sacred sense, but it is clear that the old concept of kingship coexisted together Christianity for several generations. Diarmait mac Cerbaill, king of Tara in the middle of the 6th century, may have been the last king to have “married” the country. Diarmait died at the hands of AED Dub mac Suibni; some accounts from the following century states that he died of mythical threefold death is appropriate for a sacred king. Adomnán’s life tells how Saint Columba forecast the death of AED Dub. Same Threefold Death said in a late poem have hit Diarmait predecessor, Muirchertach MACC Ercae, and even the usually pålitligaAnnals of Ulster record Muirchertach death by drowning in a vat of wine.

A second sign of the holy kingdom did not vanish with the arrival of Christianity is the supposed lawsuit between Congal Cáech, king of Ulaid and Domnall mac Aedo. Congal probably was blinded in one eye by Domnall bin, from which his surname Cáech (half blind or strabismus), this injury makes him imperfect and unable to remain high King. The antagonism between Domnall and Congal, more prosaically be at the door of the rivalry between the Uí Néill and kings Ulaid, but that a king would be completely in the body seems to have been accepted at this time.


The operations of the Irish heritage is quite complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman takeover of 1171. Ireland was divided into several kingdoms, with some kings because allegiance to others from time to time, and succession rules (to the extent they were ) varied.Kings often succeeded by their sons, but often other branches of the dynasty took a turn either by agreement or by force of arms is rarely clear.Unfortunately king lists and other early sources reveal little about how and why a particular person became king.

To add to the uncertainty, the family often edited many generations later to improve an ancestor position within a kingdom, or to put him in a more powerful family. The unsafe practices in local kingship causing similar problems in the interpretation of the legacy of the high kingship.

The högkung was essentially a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord (where his supremacy was even recognized), who exercised the real power only within the realm of what he was actually king. In the case of the southern part of the UI Neill, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath (now the counties Meath, Westmeath and part of County Dublin). High Kings from the northern branch ruled various kingdoms in what eventually became the province of Ulster.

In 1002, was the high kingdom Ireland wrested from Mael Sechnaill II in Southern Uí Neill from Briain “Boruma” mac Cennédig Kingdom Munster.Some historians have called this a “usurpation” of the throne. [6] Others have pointed out that no one had a strict legal right to the kingdom [5] and Brian “had as much right to the high throne as all Uí Neill and … demonstrated an ability sadly lacking among most of the UI Neill who had preceded him. ” [7]

Brian was killed in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship, but he died in 1022. From 1022 to Norman takeover of 1171, was the high Kingship held parallel “Kings of the opposition”.

Early Christian High Kings

Even at the time when the law writings were attributed to these petty kingdom was swept away by emerging dynasties of dynamic of Kings. The most successful of these early dynasties were Uí Neill (includes descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages such Cenél Eoghain) that as kings Tara had to conquer petty kingdom, expelling their rulers and agglomerating their territories under the direct rule of their expanding family since the fifth century.

Domestic and foreign, pagan and Christian ideas comingled to form a new idea of Irish kingship. The person the idea of a sacred kingship was integrated with the Christian idea of the coronation ceremony, was the relationship between the king to the king over one of tigerna (master) to the king andempire (sovereignty) began to merge with Dominium (ownership).

The church was well located to the idea of a strong political authority. Its priests developed the theory of a high kingship of Ireland and signed a contract that calls kings to rule rather than reign. In return paruchiae(monastery covenant) of the Irish church had royal patronage in the form of shrines, construction, land and protection.

The concept of a high king sometimes into various annals, such as a series of death Máel Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid of 862 in the Annals of Ulster, which lists him as Rí Érenn uile (king of all Ireland), a title that his efterträdareAed Finliath apparently never granted. It is unclear what the political reality behind this title. [8]

Later High Kings

By the twelfth century the dual process of agglomeration of territory and consolidation of kingship saw the handful of remaining land kind kings abandoning the traditional royal sites for cities, employing ministers and governors, receiving advice from a oireacht (a body of noble counselors), chairman reform synods and maintaining standing armies.

Early royal consequence had the correspondence between the lateral branches of the wider dynasty but succession was now limited to a series of father / son, brother / brother and uncle / nephew inheritance within a small royal fine marked by an exclusive name.

These compact families (the Uí Briain of Munster, the Meic Lochlainn in the north, the UI Conchobhair of Connacht) marriage and competed against each other on a national basis, so that on the eve of the Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169 agglomeration / consolidation process was completed and the regional kingdoms split, cut and converted into fiefdoms held by (or rebel against) one of them acting as king of Ireland.

See also

  • List of högkung


  1. Jump up ^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín “Ireland, 400-800”, in Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland , Oxford University Press, 2005, pp 182-234 ..
  2. Jump up ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC CLO.
  3. Jump up ^ Roe, Harry; Ann Dooley (1999). Tales of the Elders of Ireland.Oxford University Press.
  4. Jump up ^ Michael Roberts; et al. (1957). Early Irish history and pseudo-history. Bowes & Bowes Michigan University Press.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Francis John Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings , London, 1973
  6. Jump up ^ Revd. Dr. JH Todd, Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh , London, 1867
  7. Jump up ^ Roger Chatterton Newman, Brian Boru, King of Ireland , Dublin, 1983
  8. Jump up ^ “The Annals of Ulster”. Retrieved 23 May 2012.


  • Lebor Gabála Érenn
  • Geoghegan Clan
  • John Francis Byrne, in 1973, Irish Kings and High Kings , Dublin
  • Annals of the Four Masters
  • Geoffrey Keating, 1636, Foras Feasa s Éirinn
  • High King Niall: the most fertile in Ireland,
  • Times Online Times, January 15, 2006
  • Laoise T. Moore, et al.,
  • The Y chromosome signature hegemony in Gaelic Ireland Am. J. Hum. ,. Genet 78 : 334-338, 2006

The Hill of Tara

The Hill of Tara (Irish: Cnoc na Teamhrach , [1] Team Hair or Team Hair na Rí ), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan ochDunshaughlin in County Meath, Ireland. It contains a number of ancient monuments and according to tradition, was the seat of högkung.


Ancient monuments

On top of the hill, north of the ridge, is an oval Iron Age hilltop enclosure, which measures 318 meters (1,043 ft) north-south by 264 meters (866 feet) east-west and is surrounded by an internal ditch and external bank, known asRaith na Ríogh (Fort of the Kings, also known as the Royal Enclosure). The most prominent earthworks within are the two linked enclosures, a bivallate (double abandoned) ring fort and a bivallate ring barrow known as Teach Chormaic (Cormac’s House) and Forradh or Royal Seat. The center ofForradh is a standing stone, believed to be the Lia Fail (Stone of Destiny) in which High Kings crowned. According to legend, the stone would scream if a number of challenges met by the prospective kung.Vid his touch stone would let out a scream that could be heard all over Ireland. North of the ring-forts is a small neolithic passage grave called Dumha na nGiall (the Mound of Hostages), which was constructed around 3400 (Cal.) BC.

In the north, just outside the limits of Raith na Rí , is a ring fort with three banks called Raith na Seanadh (Rath of the Synods). Excavations of this monument have produced Roman artifacts dating from the 1st-3rd quarters.

Further north is a long, narrow rectangular feature known as the banquet hall ( Teach Miodhchuarta ), although it is more likely to have been a ceremonial avenue or curriculum monument approaching the site, and three circular earthworks known as the sloping ditches ochGráinne’s Fort. All three are large ring mounds that may have been built too close to the steep slope and then fallen.

To the south of the Royal Enclosure lies a ring fort called Raith Laoghaire(Laoghaire’s Fort), where the eponymous king is said to have been buried in an upright position. Half a mil south of the Hill of Tara is another hill fort known as Rath Maeve, the fort either the legendary queen Medb who is more usually associated with Connacht or less well known legendary figure of Medb Lethderg, which is associated with Tara.


A church, called Saint Patrick’s is on the east side of the hill. The “Rath of the Synods” was partially destroyed by the cemetery. [2] The modern church was built from 1822 to 1823 on the site of a former. [3] The earliest evidence of a church in Tara is a charter dating from the 1190’s. In 1212, this church was “among the possessions confirmed to the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John Kilmainham of Innocent III”. [3] A 1791 picture shows the church building internally divided into a nave and chancel, with a bell tower of the west. A stump wall marks the site of the old church today, but some of its stone was reused in the present church. The building is now used as a visitor center. [3]

Tara significance

The Hill of Tara is documented in the 11th century text, The Book of Invasions as the seat of the high kings of Ireland from the time of the mythological Fir Bolg and the Tuatha Dé Danann to text composition.However, there is no evidence that the institution high kingship Ireland given authority over the whole island on its owner.

The Hill of Tara has been in use by the people of the Neolithic era, although it is not known if Tara continuously as a sacred and / or a political center from the Neolithic period to the 12th century.

The central part of the site could not have housed a large permanent retinue, which means that instead was used for occasional meetings. There were no large defensive structures. The earliest surviving written records shows that high kings inaugurated there, ” Seanchas Mor ” legal text (written sometime after 600AD) stipulates that the king must drink beer and symbolically marry the goddess Maeve (Medb) to qualify for the high kingship.

Earlier scientific disputes about Tara original meaning increases as the 20th century archaeologists identified before the Iron Age monuments and human built liveable forms from the Neolithic period (about 5000 years ago).One of these forms, the Mound of Hostages, has a short passage aligned with the sunrise on the sun cross quarter days coincides with the old annual Celtic festivals celebrated at the midpoints between the vernal and autumnal equinox ( “Imbolc” honors preparation for planting time, or “pre-spring” on about 4 February) and the summer and winter solstice ( “Samhain” honor harvest or “first winter” on or about 8 november). [4] pile passage is shorter than the long entrances of monuments of Newgrange, which makes it less precise yield adjustments with the sun; Still, Martin Brennan, in blocks of time , according to the daily changes in the position of a 13-foot (4 m) long sunshine is more than sufficient to determine the date.

A theory that may precede the Hill of Tara splendor before Celtic times is the legendary story naming the Hill of Tara as the capital of the Tuatha Dé Danann, pre-Celtic inhabitants of Ireland. When the Celts established a seat in the hill, the hill became the place from which the kings of Mide ruled Ireland. There is much debate among historians as to how far the king’s influence spread; it may have been as low as in the middle of Ireland, or may have been all the northern half. The high kingship of the whole island was only established an effective degree of Máel Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid (Malachy I). Irish pseudohistorians of the Middle Ages made it stretch back to prehistoric times. On top of the hill stands a stone pillar that was the Irish Lia Fáil (Stone of Destiny) on which högkung crowned; legends suggest that the stone had to roar three times the chosen one was a true king (compare with the Scottish Lia Fail). Both the Hill of Tara as a hill and as a capital seems to have political and religious influence, which diminished since St.Patrick time.

During the uprising in 1798, United Irishmen formed a camp on the hill but was attacked and defeated by British troops May 26, 1798, and Lia Fáil was moved to mark the graves of 400 rebels who died on the mountain that day.In 1843, the Irish Member of Parliament Daniel O’Connell hosted a peaceful political demonstration on the Hill of Tara in favor of repeal of the Act of Union which drew over 750,000 people, indicating permanent significance of the Hill of Tara. [5]

During the early 20’s Hill of Tara was vandalized by British Israelists who thought the Irish were part of the lost tribes of Israel and that the litter contained the Ark of the Covenant. [6]

Motorway development

Main article: N3 road (Ireland)


The M3 motorway, which is owned by SIAC Construction and Cintra SA, which opened in June 2010, passes through the Tara-Skryne Valley – as well as the existing N3 road. Protesters argue that since the Tara Discovery Programme started in 1992, there is an appreciation that the Hill of Tara is just the central complex of a wider landscape. The distance between the motorway and the exact location of the Hill is 2.2 km (1.4 mi) – it cut the old N3 at Blundelstown exchange between the Hill of Tara Hill of Skyrne. The existence of this exchange is located in the valley has led to accusations that the further development of an energy generator is planned near Tara. [Clarification needed ] An alternative route about 6 km (3.7 mi) west of the Hill of Tara is said to be a straighter, cheaper and more less destructive alternatives.[7] [8] on Sunday 23 September 2007 over 1,500 people met on the hill of Tara to participate in a human sculpture representing a harp and spell out the words “SAVE TARA Valley” as requiring the rerouting of the highway M3 Tara valley. Actor Stuart Townsend and Jonathan Rhys Meyers attended this event.[9]

The Hill of Tara was included in the World Monuments Fund’s 2008 Watch List of the 100 most endangered sites in the world. [10] It was included in 2009 in the 15 must-see endangered cultural treasures in the world avSmithsonian Institution. [11]

There are currently [ when? ] A letter writing campaign is underway to preserve the Hill of Tara. [12]

annalistic references

  • AI980.4 A great battle between Mael Sechnaill and son Amlaíb and slaughter of foreigners including Ragnall, son of Imar Temuir, a measure required everywhere.


  • Hill of Tara, Lia Fáil and the surrounding landscape
  • Sunset
  • Highcross
  • Church
  • Summit
  • Aerial view

See also

  • Druids
  • old Uppsala
  • Kingship of Tara
  • Stonehenge
  • Tare
  • Tara (plantation)
  • Tara, Ontario


  1. Jump up ^ “Hill of Tara / Team Hair / Cnoc na Teamhrach”
  2. Jump up ^ The Hill of Tara. Rough Guides. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  3. ^ Jump up to: A bc Draft Tara Skryne landscape conservation area. Meath County Council. 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  4. Jump up ^ photo of Samhain sunrise on the Mound of Hostages “Stone Age mound of hostages is also in line with Samhain sun rise.” The sun rises from the same angle of Imbolc.
  5. Jump up ^ Muldoon, Paul (25 May 2007). “Erin go faster.” The New York Times. Retrieved seven September of 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ . Carew, Mairead (30 October 2004) Tara and the ark of the covenant: a search for the Ark of the Covenant from the British Israelites on the Hill of Tara, 1899 -1902. Royal Irish Academy. ISSN 0-9543855-2- 7th
  7. Jump up ^ Eileen Battersby (26 May 2007). “Is nothing sacred?”. The Irish Times.
  8. Jump up ^ Glenn Frankel (22 January 2005). “In Ireland, Commuter vs Kings”. The Washington Post. p. A01. Taken 14 juni2007.
  9. Jump up ^ Paula Geraghty (24 September 2007). “In Ireland, the Human Aerial Art By Tara: People power combines art and politics of protest.” Indymedia Ireland. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
  10. Jump up ^ 2008 World Monuments watch list of 100 most endangered sites in the Wayback Machine (archived June 7, 2007) World Monuments Fund.
  11. Jump up ^ Logue, Patrick (28 February 2009). “Tara threatened, says the Smithsonian.” Irish Times. Retrieved 26 August augusti2009.
  12. Jump up ^ “The Hill of Tara.” Holy places International Foundation.


Dowth (Irish: Dubhadh ) is a Neolithic passage tomb located in the Boyne Valley, County Meath, Ireland dating from around 2500 to 2000 BC. [1] It is the second oldest behind Newgrange [ citation needed ] of the three main tombs it Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site – a landscape of prehistoric monuments including the great passage-tombs of Dowth, Newgrange and Knowth). It is less developed as a tourist attraction than its neighbors, in part because the chamber is much lower, and partly because the decoration is worse. It was partially excavated in 1847, although it was plundered by the Vikings and earlier looters long before that.


The cairn or tumulus is about 85 meters (280 feet) in diameter and 15 meters (50 feet) high, [1] and surrounded by large kerbstones, some of which are decorated. Quartz Found fallen outside kerbing, indicating that the entrance to the grave surrounded by sparkling white, as Newgrange. Three stone-lined passages leading into the mound from the west.

The long passage crossed by 3 threshold stones and ends in a cross-shaped chamber with a lintelled (not Corbelled as in Newgrange or Knowth) roof.Several of the orthostats (upright stones) of the passage and chamber are decorated with spirals, chevrons, lozenges and rayed circles. On the floor is a single stone basin – slightly worse for wear after 5,000 years. The right arm of the cross leading into another long rectangular chamber with an L-shaped extension entered over a low threshold. This may be the earliest part of the tomb, later in the design of cross grave. It is covered with a 2.4 meter long stone plate containing an oval bullaun (artificial depression). Until recently crossed the tomb was reached by climbing down a ladder in an iron cage, and crawl over loose stones. Now, supply is limited, and all features are guarded by metal grilles.

A curb with bowl-marks, a spiral and a flower like structure marks the entry to the second, less grave – with modern concrete. This has grave some decorated stones, and a single, massive right recess.

At the entrance to the passage of the cross tomb is an early Christian cellar.[1]

Astronomical adaptation

Dowth shares a special solar party with neighboring Newgrange during the winter solstice. Martin Brennan, author of the Stars and Stones: Ancient Art and Astronomy Ireland – Thames and Hudson, 1983, [2] discovered the strange stance over his ten-year study in the Boyne Valley. From November to February the rays of the evening sun reaches into the passage and then the House of Dowth South. During the winter ståndetmot light of the low sun moves along the left side of the passage, then into the circular chamber, where the three stones are lit by the sun.

The convex central stone reflects sunlight into a dark depression, lighting up the decorated stones there. The Rays then subside slowly along the right side of the passage, and after about two hours the sun withdraws from Dowth South.


  1. ^ Jump up to: abc . Harbison, Peter (1970) Guide to National Monument of Ireland. Gill & Macmillan.
  2. Jump up ^ Stars and Stones later be published as stones Time: calendars, sundials and Stone Chambers of Ancient Ireland , 1994 [ISBN 978-0-8928-1509-8 or ISBN 0-89281-509-4]


Brú na Bóinne (Irish: [bˠɾˠuː nə bˠoːn̪ʲə], the Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne ) is an area in County Meath, Ireland, which lies in a bend of the River Boyne. It contains one of the world’s most important prehistoric landscape dating from the Neolithic period, including the great megalithic passage graves of Knowth, Newgrange and Dowth and some 90 additional monuments.

Since 1993 the website has been a World Heritage Site designated by UNESCO, known since 2013 as the “Brú na Bóinne – Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne”.


The area is located County Meath, Ireland, in a bend of the River Boyne. It is about 40 kilometers north of Dublin. [1]

Besides being surrounded on its southern, western and eastern sides of the Boyne, Boyne one of the tributaries, the Mattock, runs along the northern edge, almost completely surrounding Brú na Bóinne with water. All but two of the prehistoric sites are in this river isthmus.

Site Description

The area has been a center of human settlement for at least 6000 years, but the major structures date to about 5,000 years ago, from the Neolithic period. [1]

The site is a complex of Neolithic mounds, chamber tombs, standing stones, henges and other prehistoric enclosures, some from as early as the 35th century BC -32 st century before Christ. The site thus precedes Egyptian pyramids and was built with finesse and knowledge of science and astronomy, as is evident igånggrift at Newgrange. The site is often called the “Bend of the Boyne” and this is often (wrongly) assumed to be a translation of Brú na Bóinne ( Palace or Mansion of the Boyne). [1] The associated archaeological culture is often called “Boyne culture”.

The site covers 780 hectares (1,927 acres) and contains about 40 passage graves, [1] as well as other prehistoric sites and later features. The majority of the monuments are concentrated on the north side of the river. The most famous places in the Brú na Bóinne are passage graves of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth, all known for their collections avmegalitiska art. Each is on a ridge in the river bend and two of graves, Knowth and Newgrange, appears to contain stones reused from a previous monuments on platsen.Newgrange the central hill Boyne Valley passage grave cemetery, the circular heap in which the cruciform burial chamber is disposed with a diameter of over 100 meter.Knowth and Dowth are of comparable size. There is no on-site evidence of past activities on the site, except for the spotfinds of flint tools left by mesolitiskajägare.

The passage graves were constructed starting in about 3300 BC and work stopped around 2900 BC. The area continued to be used for accommodation and ritual purposes until the early avbronsåldern, when a number of election, pit and wooden pole Circles (collectively “henges”) was built.Objects from the later Bronze Age are relatively unnoticed: some chest and ring dikes funerals and Skärvstenshög. For the Iron Age, there is only evidence of sporadic activity, such as funerals near Knowth and Rosnaree.Valuable artefacts from Roman times as coins and jewelry found as offerings in the near Newgrange. [1]

Several other enclosure and Megalith sites have been identified in the river bend and has been simple letter designations such as M Enclosures. Besides the three large graves, several other ceremonial sites make up the complex including:

  • Cloghalea Stonehenge
  • Townleyhall passage grave
  • Monknewtown henge and ritual dust
  • Newgrange cursus

Astronomical adjustments

Each of the three main sites Megalith archaeoastronomical has significant importance. Newgrange and Dowth is the winter solstice sun specializations, while Knowth focus on the Spring and Autumn Equinox. In addition, the immediate surroundings of the main sites investigated for other possible approaches. The layout and design of the Brú na Bóinne complex of the valley have also been studied for astronomical significance.

Brú na Bóinne visitor center

All access to Newgrange and Knowth is by guided tour only, with tours beginning at the Visitor Centre, which opened in 1997 in Donore, County Meath. [1]

public transportation

Bus Éireann route 163 operates between Drogheda and Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre via Donore. [2] The nearest railway station is Drogheda Railway Station about 9 kilometers away.

See also

  • List of archaeoastronomical seats per country


  1. ^ Jump up to: abcdef “Brú na Bóinne”. Department of Arts, Heritage, Regional, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  2. Jump up ^ “bus timetable.” Retrieved seven October 2014.
  • Lewis-Williams, D. and Pearce, D., Inside the Neolithic Mind , Thames and Hudson, London, 2005, ISBN 0-500-05138-0
  • O’Kelly, MJ, Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend , London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., in 1982.

Bective Abbey

Bective Abbey (Irish: Mainistir Bheigthí [1] ) is a Cistercian monastery on the River Boyne in Bective, County Meath, Ireland. The monastery was founded by Murchad O’Maeil-Sheachlainn in 1147 as a “daughter of the house” of Mellifont Abbey. Although nothing remains but the ancient ruins and walls, it is in a remarkable condition. Bective Abbey are easy to find thanks to many signs along the way and it puts in the middle of a farmer’s pasture. In 2012 the OPW bought a portion of land from farmers, it is converted into a large parking lot and a walkway from the monastery to the parking lot.


Bective Abbey was used as a location for the filming of the 1995 historical action-drama film Braveheart . The film was produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role.


  1. Jump up ^

The Battle of the Boyne

The Battle of the Boyne (Irish: Cath na Bóinne IPA: [kah nə bˠoːn̪ʲə]) was a battle in 1690 between the English King James II, and the Dutch Prince William of Orange, who along with his wife, Mary II (his cousin and James daughter) had overthrown James in England in 1688th The battle took place on the River Boyne near Drogheda town on the east coast of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This proved the power of James unsuccessful attempts to regain the British crown and ultimately help to ensure continued Protestant upper hand in Ireland.

The battle took place July 1, 1690 in the old style (Julian) calendar. This corresponds to July 11 in New Style (Gregorian) calendar, but today its commemoration is held July 12, [1] as the decisive battle of Aughrim fought a year later. William James’s forces defeated army, which consisted mostly of raw recruits. The symbolic significance of this kind has made it one of the most famous battles in the history of the British Isles and an important part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Its commemoration today mainly by the Protestant Orange Institution.


The battle was the decisive encounter in a war that was primarily about James attempts to regain the thrones of England and Scotland, as a result of the invitation to William and William’s wife, Maria, to take the throne. It is considered a key moment in the struggle between the Irish Protestant and Catholic interests.

Previous years, William had sent the Duke of Schomberg to take care of the Irish campaign. He was a 75-year-old professional soldier who had followed William the Glorious Revolution. During his command had questions remained static and very little had been done, partly because of the English troops, unaccustomed to the climate [ citation needed ] , was hard hit by the fever.William, dissatisfied with the state of things in Ireland, decided to take care personally.

In an Irish context, the war was a sectarian and ethnic conflicts, in many ways a replay of the Irish Association of Wars 50 years earlier. For the Jacobites, the war was fought for Irish sovereignty, religious toleration for Catholicism, and land ownership. The Catholic upper classes had lost almost all their lands after Cromwell’s conquest, as well as the right to hold public office, practice their religion, and sit in the Irish Parliament. They saw the Catholic King James as a way to remedy these abuses and ensure the autonomy of Ireland from England. To this end, according to Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel they had raised an army to restore James after the Glorious Revolution. By 1690, they controlled all of Ireland except for the province of Ulster. Most of James II’s troops at the Boyne were Irish Catholics; But there was also Scottish-Irish Presbyterians struggle for James II.

The majority of Irish people were Jacobites and supported James II because of his 1687 declaration of indulgence or as it is also known, the explanation for the freedom of conscience granted religious freedom for all denominations in England and Scotland, and also because of James II’s promise that the Irish Parliament for a possible right to self-determination.[2] [3]

Conversely, for Williamites, the war was about to sustain Protestant and English rule in Ireland. They feared for their lives and property of James and his Catholic supporters would exclude Ireland, nor do they trust the promise of tolerance, see Declaration of Indulgence as a ploy to re-establish Catholicism as the sole state religion. Above all, they feared a repeat of the Irish rebellion in 1641, which had been marked by widespread killings. For these reasons, Protestants fought en masse for William of Orange. Many Williamite troops at the Boyne, including their very effective irregular cavalry, were the Ulster Protestants, who called themselves “Inniskillingers” and was referred to by contemporaries as “Scots-Irish”. These “Inniskillingers” were mostly descendants of the Anglo-Scottish Border Reivers and a large number of these Reivers had beaten around Enniskillen in County Fermanagh, hence the name “Inniskillingers”.

Ironically, the historian Derek Brown notes that if the battle is seen as part of the War of the Grand Alliance, Alexander VIII was an ally of William and an enemy of James; The Papal States were part of the Grand Alliance with a common hostility to the Catholic Louis XIV of France, who at the time was trying to establish dominance in Europe and to whom James was an ally. [4]


The opposing armies in the battle led by the Roman Catholic King James II of England, Scotland, and Ireland and opposing him, his nephew and son-in-law, the Protestant King William III ( “William of Orange”) who had set aside James last year. James followers controlled large parts of Ireland and the Irish Parliament. James also had the support of his cousin, Louis XIV, who do not want to see a hostile monarch on the throne of England. Louis sent 6,000 French troops to Ireland to support the Irish Jacobites. William was already governor of the Netherlands and was able to call on Dutch and allied troops from Europe as well as England and Scotland.

James was an experienced officer who had shown their courage in fighting for his brother – King Charles II – in Europe, especially in the Battle of the Dunes (1658). However, recent historians noted that he was prone to panic under pressure and make hasty decisions, possibly because of the onset of dementia that would drive him completely in recent years. William, an experienced commander, was hardly one of history’s great generals and had yet to win a major battle.

Many of his battles ended in stalemates, prompting at least one modern historian to argue that William lacked an ability to manage armies in the thick of the conflict. William success against the French were dependent on tactical maneuvers and good diplomacy rather than force. His diplomacy had assembled the League of Augsburg, a multinational coalition formed to resist French aggression in Europe. From William’s point of view, his seizure of power in England and the ensuing campaign in Ireland was just another front in the war against King Louis XIV.

Subordinate commanders James II was Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, who was Lord Deputy of Ireland and James’s most powerful supporters in Ireland; and the French general Lauzun. William’s second in command was the Duke of Schomberg. Born in Heidelberg, Germany, Schomberg had formerly been a Marshal of France, but being a Huguenot, was forced to leave France in 1685 because of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.


The Williamite army at the Boyne was about 36,000 strong, consisting of troops from many countries. About 20,000 soldiers had been in Ireland since 1689, commanded by Schomberg. William himself arrived with another 16,000 in June 1690. William’s troops were generally much better trained and equipped than James. The best Williamite infantry were from Denmark and the Netherlands, professional soldiers equipped with the latest flintlock muskets. There was also a large contingent of French Huguenot troops fighting with Williamites. William does not have a high opinion of his English and Scottish soldiers, with the exception of the Ulster Protestant irregulars who had held Ulster in the previous year. The English and Scottish soldiers were considered politically unreliable, since James had been their legitimate monarch up to a year before. In addition, they had only been raised recently and had seen little fighting action.

The Jacobites were 23,500 strong. James had several regiments French troops, but most of his labor provided by Irish Catholic. Jacobites’ Irish cavalry, recruited from the property damage irländskalågadeln, proved to be high caliber troops during the battle. But the Irish infantry, predominantly peasants who had been pressed into service, were not trained soldiers. They had hastily trained, badly equipped, and only a minority of them had functional muskets. In fact, some of them carried only farm implements like scythes at the Boyne. On top of that, the Jacobite infantry who actually had firearms equipped with obsolete matchlock musket.

The Battle

William had landed in Carrickfergus in Ulster June 14, 1690 and marsche south to take Dublin. He was heard to observe that “it was worth fighting for.James chose to place his line of defense on the Boyne river, about 30 miles (48 km) from Dublin. The Williamites reached the Boyne on 29 June. The day before the battle, William himself had a narrow escape when he was wounded in the shoulder by Jacobite artillery while surveying the fords over which his troops would cross the Boyne.

The battle itself was fought July 1 OS (11 NS), for control of a ford on the Boyne near Drogheda, about 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) northwest of the village of Oldbridge (and about 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mi ) west-northwest of the modern Boyne River Bridge). William sent about a quarter of his men to cross the river at the Grange, about 4 km (2.5 mi) west of Donore and about 6 miles (9.7 km) southwest of Oldbridge. The Duke of Schomberg’s son, Meinhardt, led this crossing, which Irish dragoons in picquet under Neil O’Neill successfully received. James, an inexperienced general thought he could be outflanked and sent half his troops, along with most of his artillery, to counter this move. What neither side had realized was that there was a deep, swampy ravine at the Grange. Because of the ravine, the opposing forces that could engage each other, but literally set battle. The Williamite forces went on a long detour march later in the day, almost saw them cut off the Jacobite retreat at the village of Naul.

At the main ford near Oldbridge, William infantry led by the elite Dutch Blue Guards forced their way across the river, using their superior firepower to slowly drive back the enemy foot soldiers, but became exposed when the Jacobite cavalry counter-attack. After securing the village Oldbridge, some Williamite infantry tried to wait for another cavalry attacks with disciplined volley fire, but were scattered and driven into the river, with the exception of the blue guards. William’s second-in-command, the Duke of Schomberg, and George Walker were killed in this phase of the battle. The Williamites could not resume their advance until their own horsemen managed to cross the river and after being badly mauled, managed to hold off the Jacobite cavalry until they retired and regrouped at Donore, where they again put up stiff resistance before retiring.

Jacobites retired in good order. William had a chance to catch them when they retreated across the river Nanny at Duleek, but his troops were held up by a successful rear-guard action. The Dutch secretary of King William, Constantijn Huygens, Jr., has given a good description (in Dutch) of the battle and its aftermath, including recent atrocities committed by the victorious soldiers. [5]

The figures of the battle was quite low for a battle of such a scale the 50,000 or so participants on the 2000 died. Three-quarters of the dead were Jacobites. William’s army had considerably more wounded. At that time, most of the victims of the fighting tended to be inflicted in the pursuit of an already defeated enemy; This did not happen at the Boyne, as counter attacks skilled Jacobite cavalry screened the retreat of the rest of his army, and besides William was always reluctant to endanger the person James, because he was the father of his wife, Mary. The Jacobites were badly demoralized by the order to retreat, which lost them the battle. Many of the Irish infantry fate. The Williamites triumphantly marched into Dublin two days after the battle. Jacobite army abandoned the city and marched to Limerick, behind the river Shannon, where they unsuccessfully besieged.

Shortly after the battle, William issued the Declaration of Finglas, offers full pardons common Jacobite soldiers but not their leaders. After his defeat, James did not live in Dublin, but rode with a small escort tillDuncannon and returned to exile in France, even though his army left the field relatively unscathed. James loss of nerve and quick exit from the battlefield enraged his Irish supporters, who fought on until the Treaty of Limerick in 1691; he derisively nicknamed Seamus a “Chaca (” James shit “) in Irish.

There is an oral tradition that no battle took place at all, a symbolic victory demonstrated by the passage of the River Boyne and the total deaths were a result of Williamite Cavalry attacking the local able-bodied men.

It is well documented that Williams horse that day was black, despite all the Orange Order murals depicting it as white with William holding his sword between the horse’s ears to make it look like a unicorn as a symbol of his “savior” status. Depictions of William has been strongly influenced by Benjamin West’s 1778 painting The Battle of the Boyne .


The battle was overshadowed by defeat an Anglo-Dutch fleet by the French two days later at the Battle of Beachy Head, a far more serious event in the short term; only on the Continent was the Boyne treated as an important victory. Its importance lay in the fact that it was the first real victory for the League of Augsburg, the first ever alliance between the Vatican and Protestant countries. The victory motivated more nations to join the Alliance and, in fact ending the fear of a French conquest of Europe.

Boyne also had strategic importance to both England and Ireland. It marked the end of James, hoping to regain his throne by military means and probably secure the triumph of the Glorious Revolution. In Scotland, the news of this defeat temporarily silenced the Highlanders supports Jacobite Rising, Bonnie Dundee had led. In Ireland Boyne Jacobites absolutely sure that they can successfully resist William. But there was a common victory for William, and still celebrated by the Protestant Orange Order on July 12. Ironically, because of the political situation mentioned above, the Pope also celebrated victory of William the Boyne, ordered the bells of the Vatican that called for celebrating.

Some Irish Catholics who were captured after the battle were tortured until they agreed to convert to Protestantism. [6]

Treaty of Limerick was very generous towards Catholics. It allowed the majority of landowners to keep their land as long as they swore allegiance to William of Orange. It also said that James was able to take a certain number of his troops and return to France. But Protestants in England was irritated with this type of treatment against Catholic, especially when they increase in strength and money. Because of this, criminal laws have been introduced.These laws included banning Catholics from owning weapons, reducing their land, and prohibit them from working in the legal profession.



Originally, Irish Protestants celebrated the Battle of Aughrim July 12 (old style, corresponding to 22 July new style), which symbolize their victory iWilliamite war in Ireland. At Aughrim, which took place a year after the Boyne, the Jacobite army was destroyed, deciding the war in Williamites advantage. Boyne, as in the old Julian calendar, took place July 1 were treated as less important, third after Aughrim and the anniversary of the Irish uprising 1641den 23 October.

In 1752, the Gregorian calendar was adopted in Ireland, incorrectly placed the Boyne on July 12 instead of Aughrim (correct corresponding date was 11 July, as the difference between the calendars for the current year, 1690, was not 11 days but within 10 days) . But even after that date, “the twelfth” still celebrated Aughrim. [ Clarification needed ] But after the Orange Order was founded in 1795 in the middle sectarian violence in Armagh [ further explanation needed ] , the focus of parades July 12 switched to the Battle of the Boyne. [ More explanation needed ] Usually date before the introduction of the calendar on 14 September 1752 mapped in English history directly on the Julian date without moving them with 10 or 11 days. [8]

Being suspicious of anything with papist connotations, but rather than move the anniversary of the Boyne to the new July 1 [ clarification needed ] or celebrate the new anniversary of Aughrim, the Orangemen continued to march on July 12 that was (wrongly) thought to have marked the battle the Boyne in new style dates. [ clarification needed ] Despite this, there are also smaller parades and demonstrations on July 1, the date on which maps the old style date of the Boyne to the new style in the usual way and also celebrate the great losses in 36 th (Ulster) Division on the first day of the battle of the Somme in July 1916. [ citation needed ]

The memory of the battle also has resonance among Irish nationalists. In 1923, members of the IRA blew up a large monument to the battle on the battlefield location on the Boyne, and destroyed a statue of William III in 1929 which stood outside Trinity College in the center of the Irish capital. [Citation needed ]

“The twelfth” in the UK and Ireland today

Main article: The twelfth

Battle of the Boyne remains a controversial topic today in Northern Ireland, where some Protestants remember it as the great victory over the Catholics that resulted in the sovereignty of Parliament and the Protestant monarchy .

In recent decades, “the twelfth” has often been marked by confrontations, as members of the Orange Order attempt to celebrate the day by marching past or through what they see as their traditional way. Some of these areas, but now has a nationalist majority who oppose marches passing through what they see as their fields.

Each side thus dresses up the disputes regarding the other alleged attempts to suppress them; Nationalists still see Orange Order marches as provocative attempts to “show who’s the boss”, while unionists insist that they have the right to “walk the Queen’s highway”. Since the beginning of the Troubles is the celebration of the battle seen as playing a crucial role in the awareness of those involved in the trade / nationalist tensions in Northern Ireland.

The battlefield today

The location of the Battle of the Boyne sprawls over a large area west of the town of Drogheda. In the county development plan for 2000, Meath County Council rezoned the land at the eastern edge of Oldbridge, on the site of the main Williamite crossing, to housing status. A subsequent planning application for a development of more than 700 houses were granted by Meath County Council and this was appealed by local historians to An Bord Pleanála (Planning Board). In March 2008, after an extremely long appeal process, An Bord Pleanála approved permit for this development to continue. But because of the current economic climate in Ireland, no work has yet started on this development.

The current Interpretive Centre dedicated to inform tourists and other visitors about the battle is about 1 mil (1.6 km) west of the main crossing point. This facility was rebuilt in 2008 and is now open to tourists. Battle other main battle areas (at Duleek, Donore and Plattin – along the Jacobite line of retreat) are marked with tourist signs.

On April 4, 2007 in a sign of improved relations between the union and nationalist groups, the newly elected first minister of Northern Ireland, the Reverend Ian Paisley, was invited to visit the battle site of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister) Bertie Ahern, later in the year. Invitation Paisley commented that “such a visit would help to show how far we have come when we can celebrate and learn from the past so the next generation understand more clearly”. On May 10, the visit took place, and Paisley presented the Prime Minister with a Jacobite musket against Ahern gift at St Andrews speaks of a walnut bowl made of a tree from the site. A new tree is also planted in the grounds of Oldbridge House of the two politicians to mark the occasion. [9]

See also

  • Boyne Water
  • Irish calendar
  • Irish battles
  • British military history
  • orange Institution



^ The battle took place on 11 July NS, but the anniversary is now celebrated on 12 July.


  1. Jump up ^ Once the Gregorian calendar first came into use in the UK in 1752 was the difference between the two calendars was 11 days since the date of 28 February 1700. However, for dates before when it was still only 10 days, and this led to some confusion in the translation dates of events that occurred before the beginning of the 18th century.
  2. Jump up ^ Harris, Tim (2006). Revolution: the great crisis of the British monarchy, 1685-1720. London: Allen Lane. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-7139-9759-0.
  3. Jump up ^ Magennis, Eoin (1998). “A” besieged Protestant? “Walter Harris and writing of fiction Unmasked Mid-18th century Ireland”.Eighteenth-century Ireland. 13 : 6-111. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ How the Battle of the Boyne earned its place in history, The Guardian, July 11, 2000
  5. Jump up ^ Observaties van een Zeventiende-eeuwse wereldbeschouwer, Constantijn Huygens one the uitvinding van het moderne dagboek .Dekker, Rudolf, Amsterdam 2013 pp. 45-47.
  6. Jump up ^ The O’Fee Family Northern Ireland family records and oral traditions, has explained this to the descendants. Their ancestors were captured in this fight, and will remain a Protestant to this day.
  7. Jump up ^ Chambers, Robert (1832). The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Modern Antiquities in connection with the calendar, including the anecdote, biography and history, Curiosities of Literature and Oddities of human life and nature, volume 2 London .: W. & R. Chambers Limited.Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  8. Jump up ^ For example, William of Orange is said to have landed at Brixham in England on November 5, although Dutch history records he left the Netherlands on 11 November because the Netherlands already use the Gregorian calendar.
  9. Jump up ^ staff, BBCNews – Paisley and Ahern visit place in 1690, the BBC, May 11, 2007

County Meath

County Meath (/ m I D / meedh Irish: Contae na Mi or simply an MHI ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster, and is part of the Mid-East Region. It is named after the historical Kingdom of Meath (fromMidhe means “middle”). Meath County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 194,942 according to the 2016 census. [1]

Geography and political subdivisions

The county is drained by the River Boyne.

Meath is the 14th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties in area and 9th largest in terms of population. [2] It is the second largest of Leinster’s 12 counties in size and the third largest in terms of population. The county town is Navan, where the county hall and the government, although the trim, the former county town, has historical significance and will remain a sitting place of the Circuit Court. County Meath also has the only two Gaeltacht areas in the province of Leinster, at Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib.


There are eighteen historic baronies in the county. [3] They include the baronies of Morgallion and Ratoath. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes.Their official status is illustrated by the placenta Orders made since 2003, where the official Irish name baronies listed under “administrative units”.

Local governments and politics

Main article: Meath County Council

There are 40 elected members in the Meath County Council. Fine Gael hold 13 seats, Fianna Fáil hold 10, Sinn Féin is eight, and there are nine independent. There are two Dail constituencies, Meath and West Meath East.In the past, there was only one constituency. Fianna Fáil has had three seats out of five in the Meath constituency since 1987, Fine Gael has won the other two seats on each of four of the five general elections in this period, except for 1992, when it lost a seat to the Labour Party (which re 1997). The two existing constituencies are within the boundaries of the county.Constituents include a part of neighboring County Westmeath. Together back 6 deputies to the Dáil. Part of the county along the Irish Sea coast, known as the East Meath which includes Julianstown and Laytown-Drogheda Mornington is part of the Louth constituency for general elections. Fianna Fáil is currently no seats, Fine Gael has two in each constituency, Labour has a in the East constituency and Sinn Féin has a Western constituency.


The county is colloquially known by the nickname “The Royal County” because of its history as the seat of the högkung. [4] [5] [6] It is formed from the eastern part of the former Kingdom of Mide (see Kings of Mide) but is now part of the province of Leinster. Historically, Empire and its successor territory domination Meath, included all counties Meath, Fingal and Westmeath and parts of the counties of Cavan, Longford, Louth, Offaly and Kildare. The seat of högkung was at Tara. The archaeological complex of Brú na Bóinne is 5000 years old and includes burial sites at Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth, in the northeast part of the county. It is a UNESCO designated World Heritage Site.

Tourist attractions

  • The Hill of Tara, a historic site.
  • Castle at Trim, Slane (private), Dunsany (restricted orifice), Killeen (a hotel).
  • Religious ruins at Trim (two), Bective, Slane (two), Dunsany, Skryne (Skreen).
  • 2500-year-old pile structures of disputed origin of Teltown. Teltown is home to Ireland’s pre-OS, as some items date back to 1869 f.Kr ..
  • Brú na Bóinne UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Loughcrew, a historic site.
  • Dangan Castle (Summer), the family home field marshal, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Arthur Wellesley, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS.

Trim contains Ireland’s largest Norman castle and was the setting for many Norman-Irish Parliament.
Meath is also home to Kells, with its round tower and monastic past, and Ireland’s only inland lighthouse, 18th Century Spire of Lloyd.

contemporary References

In Margaret Mitchell’s novel, Gone with the wind, County Meath described as the birthplace of Gerald O’Hara, who was Scarlett O’Hara’s father. Tara is the name of Georgia plantation on the O’Hara family resides.


The population of Co. Meath has been marked since 1861 during a period of significant decline. Between 1861 and 1901 the population has almost halved (110373-67497); population stabilized in 1901-1971 (67497-71729) and there was a significant increase between 1971 and 1981-95419. The increase was mainly due to a baby boom locally. The population continued to grow at a constant rate, then increased exponentially between 1996 and 2002, from 109,732 to 134,005. This is mainly due to economic factors, with the return of the residents living in the county, and even an echo of 70s baby boom.Census 2011 provides a statistic of 184 135 to include a dramatic increase in immigration in the county, much of it from neighboring Dublin and Drogheda.

This population growth has seen different trends emerge in recent years, with mild depopulation of the north and west of the county is more than offset by large increases in population in the eastern and southeastern part of the county, mainly because of migration to the district that has good proximity via the road to business parks in the western outskirts of Dublin.The accession of Poland and Lithuania to the European Union in 2004 led to a significant influx of workers from these countries to work in low-wage sectors, including agriculture, quarrying, construction and catering. [ Citation needed ]

Urban areas and populations

City Population
Navan 28158
Ashbourne 11355
Laytown-Betty-Mornington 10889
Ratoath 9043
Trim 8268
Dunboyne 6959
Kells 5888
Southern surroundings Drogheda 5000 [7] [8]
Duleek 3988
Dunshaughlin 3903
Stamullen 3130


There are 2,603 Irish language speakers in County Meath, with 1,299 native speakers in the Meath Gaeltacht. In addition, there are 1304 involved the seven Gaelscoils outside the Gaeltacht area. [9] The Greater Dublin area has the highest number of Irish medium schools in Ireland.


  • Good country with a strong agricultural tradition has historically been prominent for cattle, milk, potatoes and cereals. Recently, the production volumes have declined because of competition for labor from other sectors of the economy. Migrant workers from Eastern Europe have helped, however. Meath County, Ireland’s leading producer of potatoes, and a significant producer of beef, barley, milk, wheat and root vegetables.
  • Quarrying and Mining. Europe’s largest underground lead and zinc mine, Tara Mines, has worked since 1977, at a site west of Navan. Current ore production from the mine is 2.6 million tons of ore, containing more than 200,000 tonnes of zinc metal. Glacial deposits of gravel occurs in a band stretching from Offaly border at Edenderry, to the sea at Laytown.This is the basis for a long-running tradition of quarrying. A large cement plant near Duleek is located in this area.
  • An increasing proportion of Meath residents commute to Dublin, with a resulting shift to a services-based economy in developing dormitory towns.
  • The meat in Clonee and Trim.
  • Historically Navan was a manufacturing city, which participates in the sector of household items. Navan was the center of Irish furniture industry. Gradually, this has fallen as a source of employment, but it has served as an inspiration to other companies that produce finished products for the construction industry.
  • Navan was the center of the Irish carpet making industry, before disappeared to foreign competition.
  • Horse breeding and training.
  • Localized tourism in Trim, Kells, Tara and the Boyne Valley.
  • Like other counties with thriving agriculture and traditional local industrial sectors Westmeath, Wexford, Kilkenny and Monaghan. Meath has some multinational investment opportunities. Drogheda, Blanchard, swords, and Leixlip are neighboring cities that provide employment to multinational investment opportunities.



  • The M1 motorway between Dublin and Belfast.
  • The N2 highway / M2 link Dublin and Derry.
  • The N3 highway / M3 connecting Dublin and Cavan.
  • The highway N4 / M4 link Dublin and Sligo.


  • His Field, Dunboyne and the M3 Parkway has a frequent service to Dublin City Centre.
  • Laytown is a frequent commuter service. The station is located on Dublin’s “Northern Commuter Line”
  • There is a commuter train (Western Commuter Line) from Enfield.Although the service is very rare (only eight trains daily to Dublin with few direct trains 4:00 to 9:00)., Not many villages that Enfield has a commuter service at all [ citation needed ]
  • Navan is currently served by a freight only boost the railway line from Drogheda on the Dublin-Belfast main line, freight (zinc and lead concentrates from the Tara Mines in Navan to Dublin Port) connects at Drogheda .The direct course remains abandoned, although its path is reasonable intact, and plans drawn up to open it in line with current government transport policy. However, this plan has now been put on hold because of the economic downturn.

See also

  • Counties of Ireland
  • Lord Lieutenant of Meath
  • High Sheriff of Meath
  • Visiting Kell


  1. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – County Meath Overview
  2. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists . Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191. ISBN 0-340-89695-7.
  3. Jump up ^ placental Database for Ireland – baronies.
  4. Jump up ^ Meath County Council. “Meath – a rich and royal land”.Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  5. Jump up ^ “County Meath – Newgrange, Slane Castle, and The Book of Kells”. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  6. Jump up ^ Rowan Kelleher, Suzanne (2004). Frommers Ireland from $ 80 per day (20 th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Publishing, Inc. p. 204. ISBN 0-7645-4217-6.
  7. Jump up^,36330,en.pdf
  8. Jump up^,6769,en.jpg
  9. Jump up ^ “Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn said Ghalltacht 2010-2011” (PDF) (in Irish). 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.

County Mayo

County Mayo  (Irish:  Contae Mhaigh Eo  , which means “plain of the yew”) is a municipality in Ireland. In the west of Ireland, is part of the province of Connacht, and is named after the village of Mayo, now widely known as the Mayo Abbey. Mayo County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 130,638 at the census of 2011.  [1]  The limits of the county, which was established in 1585, reflecting the Mac William Íochtar domination at the time.


Glengad Circle, Kilcommon, Erris

It is bounded to the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean; in the south of County Galway; east of Roscommon; and north of County Sligo. Mayo is the third largest of Ireland’s 32 counties in area and 15th largest in terms of population.  [2]  It is the second largest of Connacht’s five counties in both size and population. There is a clear geological difference between the western and the eastern part of the county. The West consists largely of poor elves and is covered with large parts of the extensive Atlantic blanket bog, while the east is largely a limestone landskap.Jordbruksmark is more productive in the East than in the West.

  • The highest point in Mayo (and Connacht) ärMweelrea, at 814 m (2,671 ft)
  • Denfloden Moy in the northeast part of the county is known for its salmon fishing
  • Ireland’s largest island, Achill Island, located off the west coast of Mayo
  • Mayo, Ireland’s highest cliffs vidCroaghaun, Achill Island,  [3]  while Benwee Head Cliffs in Kilcommon Erris drop (270 m) almost perpendicularly 900 feet into the Atlantic Ocean.  [4]  )
  • The northwestern areas of County Mayo has some of the best renewable energy in Europe, if not the world, in terms of wind resources, wave, tidal and hydropower [5] [6] [7]

Local authorities and political subdivisions 


County Council (Irish:  Comhairle Contae Mhaigh Eo  ) is the authority responsible for the municipalities. As a council, it is regulated by the Local Government Act 2001. The county is divided into four municipal areas of Castlebar, Ballina, Clare and the West (an area stretching from Westport to Belmullet). The Council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transport, urban planning and development, parks and culture, and environment. For local elections the county is divided into the four municipal districts, replacing the previous sexlokala choice areas: Ballina (6), Belmullet (4), Castlebar (7), Clare (6), Swinford (4) and Westport (4) .  [8] the county town is  Aras an Contae  in Castlebar main population center is located in the center of the county. For national elections half of Clare municipality is in Galway West and extends from Ashford Castle Ireland West Airport.

The municipality populations are:

  • Ballina 32979
  • castlebar 34000
  • Clare 32469
  • West Mayo 31190

Near Roonagh Quay looking towards Croagh Patrick

There are nine historic baronies, four in the north and five in the southern part of the county:

North Mayo

  • Erris (northwest containing Belmullet, Gweesalia, Bangor Erris, Kilcommon, Ballycroy)
  • Burrishoole (west Mayo containing Achill, Mulranny and Newport, County Mayo)
  • Gallen (East Mayo containing Bonniconlon, Foxford)
  • Tyrawley (northeastern containing Ballina, Ballycastle, Killala)

south Mayo

  • Clan Morris (Southeast – Clare and Balla)
  • Costello (East South East contains Kilkelly Ballyhaunis), etc ..
  • Murrisksydväst containing Port, Louisburgh, Croagh Patrick)
  • Kilmaine (south-containing Ballinrobe, Cong)
  • Carra (south-containing Castlebar, Partry)

The largest towns in County Mayo (2011 Census) 

  1. Castlebar, 12318
  2. Ballina, 11 086
  3. Westport, 6063
  4. Clare, 3979
  5. Ballinrobe3682

Towns and Villages 

Castlebar and Ballina are the two most populous cities in the county, 12,318 in Castlebar is located in the center of the county and 10.361 (11,086 including the environment) in Ballina is located at the northeast corner of the county. These are followed by Westport, which has 5,543 inhabitants and Clare, with a population of 3412 in the 2011 census returns.  [9]

  • Achill Island
  • Attymass
  • Balla
  • Ballindine
  • Ballinrobe
  • Ballintubber
  • Bally
  • Ballycroy
  • Ballyhaunis
  • Ballyglass
  • Ballyvary
  • Bangor Erris
  • Belcarra
  • Belmullet
  • Bohola
  • Bonniconlon
  • Breaffy
  • Carnacon
  • Carracastle
  • Carrowteige
  • Charlestown
  • Cong
  • Corroy
  • Crossmolina
  • Derrew
  • Faulagh
  • Foxford
  • Glengad
  • Glenamoy
  • Gweesalia
  • Inisbiggle
  • Islandeady
  • Irishtown
  • Charcoal
  • Kilkelly
  • Killala
  • Kilmaine
  • Kiltimagh
  • Knock More
  • Knock on
  • Louisburgh
  • Mayo Abbey
  • Mulranny
  • Newport
  • Rossport
  • Shrule
  • Swinford
  • Tourmakeady
  • Turlough

Flora and fauna 

A survey of the land and freshwater algae Clare Island was made between 1990 and 2005 and published in 2007. A list of  Gunnera tinctoria  is also noted.  [10]

Consultants working for the Corrib gas project has conducted extensive surveys of wild flora and fauna in Kilcommon Parish, Erris between 2002 and 2009. This information is published in the Corrib Gas Draft Environmental Impact Assessments in 2009 and 2010.  [11]



County Mayo has a long history and prehistory.  [12]  throughout the county, there is a wealth of archaeological remains from the Neolithic period (about 4,000BC to 2,500BC), especially when it comes megalithic tombs and ritual stone circles.

Megalithic at Faulagh, Erris

The first people who came to Ireland – mainly coastal areas as the interior was heavily forest – arrived during the Middle Stone Age, as long as eleven thousand years ago.  [12] The object of hunter / gatherers sometimes found in middens, garbage pits around the hearths where people would have rested and cooked over the large fireplaces. As rocks erode, Midden-remain the victim as blackened areas containing charred stones, bones and shells. They are usually a meter below the surface. Mesolithic people do not have great rituals associated with funerals, unlike the Neolithic (New Stone Age) period.  [13]

Ceide Fields

The Neolithic period followed Mesolithic about 6000 years ago. People began to cultivate the land, domesticate animals for food and milk, and settle in one place for long periods. The people had the skills to make pottery, build houses of wood, weaving, and knapping (stone tools work). The first farmers cleared forest to graze cattle and grow crops. In North Mayo, where ground cover was flimsy, thin soils washed away and blanket bog covered the land is used by neolithic peoples.

Extensive pre-bog field systems have been discovered under the blanket bog, especially along the north Mayo coast of Erris and northern Tyrawley in places Ceide Fields, centered on the northeastern coast.

The Neolithic people developed rituals associated with burying their dead;that’s why they built large, complex, galleried stone tombs of their dead leader, known today as the megalithic tombs. There are over 160 registered megaliths in County Mayo, such Faulagh.

megalithic tombs 

There are four different types of Irish megalithic Type– court tombs, portal tombs, passage tombs and wedge tombs -examples of all four types can be found in County Mayo.  [14] Areas particularly rich in megalithic tombs include Achill, Kilcommon, Ballyhaunis, Killala and Behy / Glenurla area around Ceide Fields.

The Bronze Age (2500 BC to about 500 BC) 

Megalithic tomb building continued into the Bronze Age, when the metal began working tools alongside stone tools. The Bronze Age lasted from about 4,500 years ago to 2,500 years ago (2,500BC to 500BC). Archaeological remains from this period include stone specializations, stone circles and fulachta fiadh (early cooking sites). They continued to bury their chiefs in megalithic tombs that changed the design during this period, more fuss wedge tomb type and casket funerals.

The Iron Age (500 BC to 500 AD approximately) 

Approximately 2,500 years ago the Iron Age took over from the Bronze Age, as more and more metal took place. This is thought to have coincided with the arrival of the Celtic-speaking peoples and the introduction of the Irish ancestor. Towards the end of this period, the Roman Empire was at its height in the UK but it is not thought that the Roman Empire extended to Ireland to any great extent. Remains from this period, which lasted until the early Christian period began about 325AD (with the arrival of St. Patrick to Ireland as a slave) includes Crannogs (Lake homes), promontory fort, ring forts and Souterrains of which there are many examples across the county. The Iron Age was a time of tribal warfare with king ships, each struggling neighboring kings, vying for control of areas and take slaves. Areas marked by high stone markers, Ogham stones, with the help of the first written word, using the Ogham alphabet .Järnålders is the period during which the stories of the Ulster Cycle and the stories took place. The Táin Bó Flidhais which occurred mainly in Erris sets the scene well.

Early Christian period (325 AD – 800 AD approximately) 

Statue of St. Patrick Aghagower

Christianity came to Ireland around the beginning of the 5th century. It took many changes, including the introduction of writing and recording events.Strain “tuatha” and the new religious settlements were side by side.Sometimes it suited chiefs to become part of the early churches, other times they remain as separate entities. Patrick (4th century AD) may have spent time in County Mayo and it is believed that he spent forty days and forty nights on Croagh Patrick pray for the people of Ireland. From the middle of the 6th century hundreds of small monastery settlements were established around the county.  [15]  Some examples of well-known early monastic sites in Mayo include Mayo Abbey, Aughagower, Ballintubber, Errew, Cong, Killala, Turlough on the outskirts Castlebar, and island settlements outside Mullet Peninsula and the islands Inishkea, Inishglora and Duvillaun.

In 795AD the first of the Viking raids took place. The Vikings came from Scandinavia to raid monasteries as they were places of wealth of precious metal processing takes place in them. Some of the major ecclesiastical settlements erected around the tower to prevent their valuable items looted and also to show their status and strength against these pagan raiders from the north. There are round towers on Aughagower, Balla, Killala, Turlough and Meelick. The Vikings established settlements that later evolved into cities (Dublin, Cork, Wexford, Waterford, etc ..) but no one was in County Mayo. Between the ages of Kings of Connacht, Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg (973-1010) and Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (1106-1156), various tribal areas incorporated into the kingdom of Connacht and controlled by Siol Muirdaig dynasty, originally based on Rathcroghan in County Roscommon, and from c. 1050 at Tuam. The families of O’Malley and O’Dowd Mayo served as admirals of the fleet of Connacht, while families O’Lachtnan, Mac Fhirbhisigh, O’Cleary was ecclesiastical and bardic clans.

Anglo-Normans (12th to 16th centuries) 

From 1169 AD, when one of the warring kings (Dermot MacMurrough) in eastern Ireland appealed to the King of England for help in his fight with a neighboring king, the answer was the arrival of the Anglo-Norman colonization of Ireland. County Mayo came under Norman control in 1235AD. Norman control meant the eclipse of many Gaelic lords and chieftains, principally the O’Connors of Connacht.  [15]  During the 1230s, the Anglo-Normans and Welsh according to Richard Mór de Burgh (c. 1194-1242 invaded and settled in the county, introduce new families as Burke, Gibbons, Staunton, Prendergast, Morris, Joyce Walsh, Barrett, Lynott, Costello, Padden and price, Norman names are still common in County Mayo. After the collapse of domination in the 1330s, all these families became estranged from Anglo -irländska administration based in Dublin and is equivalent to the Gaelic-Irish, adopting their language, religion, dress, laws, customs and culture, and married for Irish families. they “became more Irish than the Irish themselves.”

The most powerful clan to emerge during this time was Mac William Burke, also known as Mac William Iochtar (see Burke Civil War 1333-1338), descended from Sir William Liath de Burgh, who defeated Gaelic-Irish at the Second Battle of Athenry in August 1316. they were often at war with their cousins, Clanricarde of Galway, and in alliance with or against different factions of O’Conor’s Siol Muiredaig and O’Kelly’s of Uí Maine. The O’Donnellär of Tyrconnell regularly invaded in an attempt to secure their right to rule.

Anglo Norman encouraged and established many religious orders from continental Europe to settle in Ireland. Mendicant orders-August, Carmelites, Dominicans and Franciscans started new settlements throughout Ireland, and built great churches, many under the patronage of prominent Gaelic families. Some of these sites include Cong, Strade, Ballintubber, Errew, Burrishoole Abbey and Mayo Abbey.  [16]  During the 15th and 16th centuries, despite periodic conflicts between them as England chopped and changed between the religious beliefs, the Irish usually considered the king of England as their king. When Elizabeth came to the throne in the mid 16th century, the English people, as was customary at the time, followed the religious practices of the reigning monarch and became Protestant. Many Irish Grainne O’Malley, had the famous pirate queen close relations with the British monarchy and the English kings and queens were welcome visitors to the Irish coast. The Irish, however, generally kept their Catholic religious practices and beliefs. The early crop of settlers in Ireland began in the Queen Mary in the middle of the 16th century and continued throughout the long reign of Queen Elizabeth I until 1603. When the term County Mayo  had come into use. In the summer of 1588 the galleons of the Spanish Armada was destroyed by storms along the west coast of Ireland.Some of the unfortunate Spaniards came ashore in Mayo, only to be robbed and imprisoned, and in many cases slaughtered. Almost all religious foundations established by the Anglo-Normans were suppressed in the wake of the Reformation in the 16th century.  [17]

Protestant settlers from Scotland, England, and elsewhere in Ireland, settled in the county in the early 17th century. Many were killed or forced to flee because of the 1641 Rebellion, during which a number of massacres committed avkatolska Gaelic Irish, especially on Shrule in 1642. One third of the total population reported to have died because of war, famine and plague between 1641 and 1653, with several areas remain disturbed and frequented avReparees to the 1670s.

17 and 18 centuries 

Gráinne O’Malley meeting Queen Elizabeth 1

Pirate Queen Gráinne O’Malley is probably the most famous person from County Mayo from the mid-16th to the early 17th century.  [18]  In the 1640s, when Oliver Cromwell overthrew the British monarchy and establish a parliamentary government, hit Ireland seriously. With a strict regimen of absolute control to pay their armies and friends, the need to pay them with grants of land in Ireland led to the “to hell or Connaught policy.  [19]  displaced native Irish families from other (east and south mostly) parts of the country either forced to leave the country, often as slaves, or (if they were well behaved and compliant with the order of the parliamentarians) distributed land “west of the Shannon” and postpone his own country in the east. The land to the west was split and divided between the more and more people as the large estates were granted on the best land in the east to those most pleased the English.  [20]  Mayo does not seem to be affected much during Williamite war in Ireland, although many natives were banned and exiled .

Nephin Mountain, County Mayo

For most people in County Mayo 18th century was a period of unrelieved misery. Because of the criminal laws, Catholics had no hope of social advancement, while they remained in their homeland. Some, like William Brown (1777-1857), left Foxford with his family at the age of nine and thirty years later, was an admiral in the burgeoning Argentine Navy. Today he is a national hero in the country.  [21]

The general unrest in Ireland felt as taut over Mayo and as the 18th century approached, and news reached Ireland of US frihetskrigetoch French revolution, the oppressed Irish, constantly suppressed by government policies and decisions from Dublin and London, began to gather for their own position against English rule in their country. By 1798 the Irish were ready for rebellion. The French came to help the Irish cause. General Humbert, from France landed in Killala with over 1000 officials where they began marching across the county to Castlebar, where there was an English garrison. Take them by surprise Humbert Army vann.Han established a “Republic of Connaught” with a Moore family from Moore Hall near Partry.Humbert’s army marched against Sligo, Leitrim and Longford where they suddenly faced a massive English army and forced to surrender in less than half an hour. The French soldiers were treated honor, but for the Irish handover meant slaughter. Many died on the scaffold in towns like Castlebar and Clare, where the high sheriff County Mayo, the Honourable Denis Browne, MP, brother of Lord Altamont, wreaked a terrible revenge – and thus earning himself the nickname that has survived in folk memory until today “Donnchadh a shout” (Denis ropes).

In the 18th century and early 19th century, sectarian tensions arose evangelical Protestant missionaries tried to “solve the Irish poor from the mistakes Popery”. One of the most famous was the pastor Edward Nangle behalf of Dugort Achill.  [22]  There were also the years of the campaign for Catholic Emancipation and later for the abolition of tithes, a predominantly Catholic population was forced to pay for the upkeep of the clergy of the established ( Protestant) church.

19th and 20th centuries 

During the first years of the 19th century, famine was a common occurrence, especially when population pressure was a problem. The population of Ireland grew to over eight million people before the Irish Famine of 1845-1847 The Irish people depended on the potato crop for their livelihood. The disaster occurred in August 1845 when a killer fungus (later diagnosed as Phytophthora infestans) began destroying the potato crop. When widespread famine struck killed about one million people and another million left the country. People died in the fields from starvation and disease.The disaster was particularly poor in County Mayo, where almost ninety percent of the population dependent on potatoes as their basföda.Av 1848, Mayo County was a total misery and despair, with any attempt to ease measures in complete disarray.  [23]

Michael Davitt

There are many reminders of the great famine seen at the Mayo landscape: Workhouse places, famine graves, places of soup kitchens, abandoned homes and villages and even traces of undug “lazy beds” in the field on the sides of mountains. Many roads and alleys were built as famine relief measures. There were nine workhouses in the county. Ballina, Ballinrobe, Belmullet, Castlebar, Clare, Killala, Newport, Swinford and Westport  [24]

The distribution of iriska1871. Mayo relative remoteness meant that Irish is still widely spoken decades after the Great Famine and is still spoken today in the northwestern part of the county

A poor little place called Knock, County Mayo, made headlines when it was announced that an apparition of the Virgin Mary, St. Joseph and St. John had taken place at the August 21, 1879 was witnessed by fifteen local people.  [25]

A national movement began in County Mayo in 1879 by Michael Davitt, James Daly and others, which led to the biggest social change ever seen in Ireland. Michael Davitt, a worker whose family had moved to England joined forces with Charles Stewart Parnell to win back the land for people from landlords and stop the eviction for nonpayment of rent.  [26]

A new word came into the English language by an incident that occurred in Mayo. An English landlord named Captain Charles Cunningham Boycott was able to get some workers to do something for him, as uncomfortable as he was to them, so he brought in Protestant workers from elsewhere. He spent so much on the security and protection for his harvest cost him a fortune, and although no one in the area would serve him in business, or deal with him. This ostracisation became known as the “boycott” and Captain Boycott was left with no choice but to leave Mayo and take his family with him to England.  [27]

“Land Question” gradually solved through a system of state-supported system for land purchases.  [28]  The tenants became owners of their countries during the recently set hinterland Commission.

A Mayo nun, Mother Agnes Morrogh-Bernard (1842-1932), established Foxford Woollen Mill in 1892. She made Foxford synonymous worldwide with high quality tweeds, rugs and blankets.  [29] [30]  Mayo has remained an essentially countryside to the present.

Mayo in the Annals of Lough Cé 

  • Mac William Burk, ie Edmond, died.
  • A hosting O’Domhnaill, ie Aedh Ruadh, in Lower Connacht and their hostages were received by him; and he took the army of Lower Connacht with him against Mac William Burk; and all went from there to the Clann-Rickard and Machaire riabhach and Baile-a Chlair, ie Mac William urban, burned by them. Mac William and O’Briain came with them, and the son of O’Conchobhair of Corcumruaidh killed by them;O’Domhnaill and went home with triumph.
  • O’hUiginn, ie Brian, the son Ferghal Ruadh, director of schools Erinn and Alba, died this year.
  • Large attic of the year, just after Christmas.
  • The defeat Muaidh given by O’Domhnaill, ie Aedh Ruadh, to foreigners and Gaeidhel in the province of Connacht.
  • Mac Goisdelbh, that John died. (The Annals of the Four Masters  John DUV Mac Costello, Lord Sliabh-Lugha, died, and two men was set up in his place, namely, William, son of Edmond of the Plain, his own brother, and Jordan, the son Philip Mac Costello.  )
  • Maelmuire, son of Tadhg Og O’hUiginn, a prominent poet, died this year.
  • son of Mac William Burk was killed this year near the castle Sligech, that William, son of Rickard, son of Edmond, son of Thomas Burk.
  • O’Dubhda, Dubh, that William, son of Domhnall Ballach died.
  • Large starvation entire Erinn in hoc advertiser.
  • Cormac, son of Domhnall, son of Brian O’hUiginn, violently killed with a shot of an arrow by Clann-Feorais this år.Richard Og, son of Richard O’Cuairsceith, was killed on the same day, ie Wednesday after Pentecost.
  • Domhnall, son of Brian O’hUiginn, tutors in schools Erinn in poetry, died in hoc anno.
  • defeat of Bel-atha-na-ngarbhán given by Rickard Burk and his kinsmen to Mac William Iochtair and Mainechs where Mother Ruaidhri Mac Suibhne killed.
  • A great war between O’Domhnaill, ie Aedh, and O’Neill, ie art, son of Aedh, and a war between O ‘Domhnaill and Mac William Burk, ie Edmond, son of Rickard. O’Domhnaill retains fifteen axes in Tir Conaill, and in the province of Connacht, and Feara-Manach. O’Domhnaill assumes Doire with a small band, and takes palace Bel-in Chlair bordering on Luighne and Gaileng; and he leaves the guards in it, and go back into Tir-Fhiachrach. Mac William Burk marketers his army, and lay siege to the city. And when he heard this O ‘Domhnaill advancing back towards the city, and Mac William leave the place and go to put rules and guards in the castle Eiscir-abhann in Tir Fhiachrach.
  • Eoghan O’Maille killed this year in Tir Boghaine, with crews of three ships.
  • Great depredations were committed by O’Domhnaill in Gailenga which time he burned and plundered the country as far as Cruachan-Gaileng; and O Ruadháin killed there by him, and a great many more with him.
  • A rainy, really wet, summer and harvest this year; it was a hard, tormenting years and years of suffering and disease.
  • A major plague in the beginning of this year in Erinn.Mac William Burk, ie Meiler son Tibbot killed per dolum of sons Seoinín Mother, son Mac Seoinín.William, son of William Mac Siurtán, mortuus est.
  • O’Maille, ie Cormac, son of Eoghan O’Maille, public supporter of hospitality and nobility western Connacht, mortuus est. Domhnall, son of Thomas O’Maille, took his place.
  • Large inclemency of the weather, and mortality of livestock, in the beginning of the year.
  • Large attic of this year, the Friday before Christmas, which threw down a large number of wooden and stone buildings, and several trees; and it broke, especially the monastery Dun-na-nGall; and it shattered and blew away a large number of boats on the sea and land.
  • Castle Ard-na-Riadh was taken by the sons O’Dubhda the son of John Burk, and a war broke out between them and the descendants of Richard Burk, and many depredations and murders committed between them, in hoc anno.
  • Castle Ard-na-Riadh taken by sons Thomas Jar from sons O’Dubhda, at night, in the same way.
  • This year was a sickly, sickly years, where many diseases, viz. A general plague and smallpox, and plague flux, and the bed-distemper, advised överdrivet.Mac David, ie Thomas, son of David, son of Edmond, died in hoc anno. Mac Goisdelbh, that John Dubh, died in hoc anno.
  • Thomas O’hUiginn, ie supervisor of the men of Erinn and Alba in poetry, died in år.Hövding from Lower Connacht, viz., Tadhg Og, son of Tadhg, son of Aedh and Tadhg son of Cathal Og O’Conchobhair and Clann-Donnchadha and sons O’Dubhda, went to the descendants of Richard Burk, on the initiative of bishop Barrett. And herds in the country went ahead of them to Termon of Oiremh and the bishop followed them on Termon and took crews to the army; and restitution was not of them to honor the saint or shrine.
  • Mac Goisdelbh, that John, the son of Like-Dubh, a generous, humane man, and a good captain, was killed by Piers Mac Goisdelbh, and some of the people of Airtech, in hoc anno.
  • A host of O’Domhnaill, ie Maghnus, in Lower Connacht, in the middle month of autumn, which opportunity he destroyed much corn, and burned and passed the Lower Connacht, viz., Tir Fiachrach and Cairbre and two Luighne and Corann, and Tir -Oilella, heading norrut.Och O’hEghra Riabhach city taken by him at that time; and he gave shelter to O’hEghra itself, subject to submit to his authority, and took him away in captivity.

Clans and families

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In the early historical period, what is now County Mayo consisted of a number of great kingdoms, smaller lordships and tribes of obscure origins.They included:

  • Calraige- prehistoric tribe found in parishes Attymass, Kilgarvan, Crossmolina and the River Moy
  • Ciarraige- settlers from Munster found in the southeast around Kiltimagh Mayo and West Roscommon
  • Conmaicne- a people that is located in the barony of Kilmaine claimed descendants of Fergus Mac Róich
  • Gran Domnann- branch of Laigin, originally from the UK, located in Erris
  • Gamanraige- prehistoric kings of Connacht, known for breach of Medb and Ailill of Cruachan Tain Bó Flidhais. Based in Erris, Carrowmore Lake, Killala Bay, Lough Conn
  • Gailenga- realm extends east from Castlebar to adjacent parts of Mayo
  • Uí FiachrachMuidhe – September 1 of Connachta, built around Ballina, some of whom were kings of Connacht
  • Partraige- apparently a pre- Gaelic folk Lough Mask and Lough Carra, namesakes of Partry
  • Ui Mail – kingdom kringClew Bay, east towards Castlebar, its rulers adopted the name O’Malley


The main surname Mayo, according to figures taken from the register of civil-born index of 1890 were:

  1. walsh
  2. Gallagher
  3. kelly
  4. Malley / O’Malley
  5. moraine
  6. Duffy
  7. McHale
  8. Gibbons
  9. Joyce
  10. Connor / O’Connor
  11. Conway
  12. Higgins
  13. Murphy
  14. Burke / Bourke
  15. Reilly / O’Reilly
  16. Gardner
  17. Durkan
  18. Doherty / O’Doherty
  19. McHugh
  20. Sweeney
  21. McManamon

Of these Walsh (Breathnach), Gibbons, Joyce Burke / Bourke are of Anglo-Norman origin. Gallagher and Sweeney / Mac Sweeney was gallowglass clans. Kelly Duffy, Connor / O’Connor, Doherty, Conway, Lyons, Higgins, McHugh, is at home in other parts of Ireland. McAndrew, McNicholas, Malley / O’Malley, Moran, McHale, Mulchrone, Flatley, Gaughan, Reape, Munnelly, Kilbane, Durkan / Durcan are all at home in Mayo.  [31]


historical population

The county has experienced perhaps the highest emigration from Ireland.  Citation needed  ]  In the 1840s-1880s, waves of emigrants left the rural townlands of the county. Initially triggered by famine and then to look for work in the newly industrialized Britain and the United States, the population fell considerably. From 388,887 years in 1841, the population fell to 199,166 in 1901. The population reached a low of 109,525 in 1971 as emigration continued. Emigration slowed as the Irish economy began to grow in the 1990s and early 2000s talet.Följaktligen Mayo’s population increased from 110,713 years 1991 to 130,638 in 2011.

Religion and belief 

According to figures in the 2006 National Census religious demographic breakdown County Mayo was 114.215 Roman Catholics, 2476 Church of Ireland, 733 Muslims, 409 other Christians, 280 Presbyterians, 250 Orthodox Christians, 204 method, 853 other specified religions, 3,267 no religion, and 1152 is not specified religion.


9% of the population of the county lives in Mayo Gaeltacht. Gaeltacht Irish speaking region in County Mayo is the third largest in Ireland with 10.886 inhabitants. Tourmakeady is the largest village in this area. All schools in the area to use Irish as the language of instruction. Irish has seen a surge in Mayo, as well as in other parts of Ireland, with the opening of gaelscoileanna.Mayo has four gaelscoileanna in its four major cities, providing basic education to students through Irish.  [38]



Mayo is well connected by train. Westport train station is the terminus station on the Dublin to Westport Rail service. Stations are also located on Ballyhaunis, Clare, Castlebar Manulla, Ballina and Foxford .All railway stations are located on the same railway line, except Ballina and Foxford which require passengers to change Manulla Junction. There are currently four services in each direction every day on the line.

There are also proposals to reopen the current defunct western railway corridor linking Limerick to Sligo.


There are a number of national primary roads in the county including the N5 road linking Westport to Dublin, the N17 road linking the county of Galway and Sligo and N26 road linking Ballina to Dublin via the N5. There are a number of national secondary roads in the county, also including the N58 road, the road N59, N60 road, the road N83 and N84 road.


Ireland West Airport Knock is an international airport located in the county.The name comes from the nearby village of Knock. During the past few years have seen the airport’s passenger numbers grow to over 650,000 annually with a number of UK and European destinations. August 2014 saw the airport has its busiest month on record with 102.774 passengers using the airport.

Tourist attractions

Cliffs along the Atlantic coast in County Mayo, near Ballymena

  • Achill Island
  • Ashford Castle
  • Ballintubber Abbey
  • Blacksod lighthouse
  • Broadhaven Bay
  • Burrishoole Abbey
  • Ceide Fields
  • Clare Island
  • Clew Bay
  • Croagh Patrick
  • Eagle Island lighthouse
  • Erris
  • Faulagh
  • Joyce Country
  • Killala Bay
  • Knock Shrine
  • List of designated very scenic views
  • Lough Mask
  • Mayo Peace Park
  • Moore Hall
  • Mullet Peninsula
  • Murrisk Abbey
  • Museum of Country Life
  • Nephin
  • Partry Mountains
  • Rockfleet Castle
  • Sruwaddacon Bay
  • Tourmakeady
  • Westport House


Newspapers in the county include  the Mayo News  , The  Connaught Telegraph  , the  Connacht Tribune  ,  Western people  , and  to the Mayo Advertiser  , who is Mayo single free newspaper.  [39]  Mayo has its own online TV channel  Mayo TV launched in 2011. It includes news and events from all over the county and regularly transmits live to a worldwide audience. Local radio stations include  Community Radio Castlebar  , Westport Community Radio and  MWR  (Mid West Radio). The documentary  Pipe Down  , which won best documentary at the 2009 Waterford Film Festival, was made in Mayo.  [40]


Energy controversy 

Main articles: Corrib gas project and the Corrib gas controversy

“Justice” (for the Rossport 5) moved in Ros Dumhach hay field

There is local opposition to Shell’s decision to process raw gas from the Corrib gas field in the onshore terminal. In 2005, five local men in prison for contempt of court after refusing to follow an Irish court. Subsequent protests against the project led to the Shell to Sea and related promotions.

energy audit 

Mayo Energy Analysis 2009-2020 is a study on the impact of peak oil and subsequent fossil fuel depletion for a rural county in the west of Ireland. The study draws together many different threads to investigate the current energy supply and demand in the field of study and assess these demands in the face of the challenges of declining production of fossil fuels and anticipated disruptions in supply chains and long-term economic recession. [41] [42] [43]


Croke Park equipped Mayo colors 2004 2004 All-Ireland Senior Football Final

The Mayo GAA men’s team last won the Sam Maguire Cup in 1951, when the team was led by Seán Flanagan. The Mayo team is currently one of the best teams in Ireland. Their All-Ireland final appearances since have been 1989, 1996 (draw and replay), 1997, 2004, 2006, 2012 and 2013.  [44]  They also won the Sam Maguire Cup in 1936 and 1950. The team’s unofficial supporters club is Mayo Club ’51, named after the last team that won the Sam Maguire.The County Mayo GAA colors are traditionally green and red.  [45]


Philip Gaughan – (1865-1913) The first Irish American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor during the Spanish-American War

  • Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo- Viceroy of India from 1869 to 1872.
  • Browne family
  • Admiral William Brown (1777-1857) – born in Foxford, founder of the Argentine Navy.
  • Patrick Browne (1720-1790) – physician and botanist of Jamaica.
  • Frank Carter American serial killer.
  • Brian Rua U’Cearbhain- 17th century prophet from Erris.
  • Willie Corduff- winner of the Goldman Environmental Prize
  • Jerry Cowley- GP noting.
  • Michael Davitt- founder of the Land League, was born in Mayo. Achill bridge is named after him as well Castlebar local high school (Davitt College).
  • Richard Douthwaite- economist and advocate of Westport
  • Frank Durkan- New York City human rights attorney best known for representing many members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), including declared gun-runners and central North American member of the IRA George Harrison, who stood trial and was acquitted, in 1982, Desmond Mackin – accused of shooting a British soldier.
  • Earl of Mayo (Bourke).
  • Michael Feeney, MBE – founder of the Mayo Peace Park.
  • Seán Flanagan (1922- 1993) – senior Fianna Fáil politicians and Gaelic football. He served under Taoiseach Jack Lynch Health (1966-1969) and Minister of Lands (1969-1973).
  • Adrian FLANELLIKNANDE- Irish Radio Network host from in 1970.
  • Flidais- heroine of the Ulster Cycle Erris legend of Tain Bó Flidhais.
  • James Owen Hannay akaGeorge A. Birmingham – author of such novels about County Mayo  seething pot  (1905) and  Hyacinth  (1906).
  • Kevin Glynn (industrial designer) – Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.
  • John Healy- author and journalist (1930-1991).
  • Only Kenny- politician, leader of Fine Gael since 2002 and Prime Minister of Ireland (2011-present).
  • Tommy Langan (23 September 1921-22 September 1974) is considered the greatest Gaelic football full ahead of time.
  • Marquis of Sligo (Browne)
  • Ciarán McDonald- Gaelic footballer.
  • John McDonnell (born July 2, 1938) – Athletics coach. He has won several national championships (42) than any coach in any sport in the history of American collegiate athletics.
  • Paul O’Dwyer- president of the New York City Council, prominent New York human rights lawyer, supporters of Irish nationalism and defense of several Irish Republican Army armed men from deportation, including “The Fort Worth Five” and Vincent Conlon.
  • William O’Dwyer- mayor of New York from 1946 to 1950.
  • Bernard O’Hara (b 1945) – Irish historian.
  • Gráinne O’Malley- 16th century pirate queen and prince O’Malley clan, also known as Granuaile.
  • Pat Rabbitte, former leader of the Labour Party was born in Woodstock near Ballindine.
  • Ian O’Reilly (born in Moore Hall, 1999) – Actor Sky1 in the hit TV Show “Moone Boy ‘
  • Michael ring- Fine Gael politician.
  • Mary Robinson (born in Ballina, 1944) – the first female president of Ireland (1990-1997), and the United shögkommissarie for human rights.
  • Martin Sheridan (born Bohola, 1881-1918), five-time Olympic gold medalist, with a total of nine Olympic medals
  • Aoibhinn Ní Shúilleabháin (born Carnacon 1983) – winner of the 2005 Rose of Tralee contest. She is the 47th Rose and the first from County Mayo.
  • John Solon- member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.
  • Frank Stagg- Irish Republican Army. Hunger striker.
  • Jimmy Walsh Born 22 September 1885 in Killala was an outfielder in Major League Baseball .Won World Series with the Boston Red Sox in 1916
  • Louis Walsh (born August 5, 1952) – Pop music manager.

See also

  • Achill
  • castlebar transmitter
  • Connaught Irish
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Mayo)
  • List of Lough in County Mayo
  • List of mountains and hills in County Mayo
  • List of rivers of County Mayo
  • List of roads in County Mayo
  • Louis Walsh
  • Mayo College
  • County Council
  • Táin Bó Flidhais
  • Westport House
  • Westport
  • Lord Lieutenant of Mayo
  • High Sheriff of Mayo
  • Wild Atlantic Way


  1. Jump up ^ “statistical tables Census 2011 – city and country” (PDF).Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  3. Jump up ^
  4. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey Ireland, 2012
  5. Jump up ^ “Analysis of the potential economic benefits of the development of Ocean Energy in Ireland” (PDF). Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland. August 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ “Belmullet Wave Energy Test Site”. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  7. Jump up ^ “Ocean Energy Roadmap 2050” (PDF). Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland. October 2010. Hämtad26 April 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ “2009 Local Elections – Mayo County Council” Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  9. Jump up ^ “Population and Actual and percentage changes in 2006 and 2011 by the Electoral Division year and statistics”. Census 2011 reports.Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Guiry, MD, John, DM, Rindi, and F. McCarthy, TK, eds.(2007)  New Survey of Clare Island. Volume 6 :. Fresh water and land Algiers Royal Irish Academy ISBN 978-1-904890-31-7
  11. Jump up ^ From the latest EIS in June 2010 Click “Additional Information”. Then select “Volume 2 of 3 Appendices Books 1-6” then select “Volume 2 Book 3 of 6” there will be eleven comprehensive tomes manage wildlife, marine, freshwater and land flora and fauna in a small area of Kilcommon parish.
  12. ^ Jump up to: ab  “Comhairle Contae Mhaigh Eo Archaeological Overview”. Pulled 04/26/2013.
  13. Jump up ^ “Travel with us through the history of Ireland”. Pulled 04/26/2013.
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  15. ^ Jump up to: ab  “County Mayo: A draft History by Bernard O’Hara and Nollaig Ó’Muraíle”. Pulled 04/26/2013.
  16. Jump up ^ “University of Duisburg-Essen: Languages of Ireland”. Pulled 04/26/2013.
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  31. Jump up ^ principal surname Mayo  , Nollaig O Muraile in  Mayo aspects of its heritage  , p. 83, edited by Bernard O’Hara, 1982)
  32. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  33. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  34. Jump up ^
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  36. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  37. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review.  37  (4) :. 473-488 doi: 1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
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Mellifont Abbey

Mellifont Abbey (Irish: An Mhainistir Mhor , literally “the great abbey”), located near Drogheda in County Louth, was the first Cistercian monastery built in Ireland.


Drawing of the door of the chapter house from 1755, just before it was removed from the site.

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Founded in 1142 on the orders of Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, Mellifont Abbey sits on the banks of the River Mattock, some ten kilometers (6 miles) northwest of Drogheda.

By 1170, Mellifont had a hundred monks and three hundred lay brothers. The Abbey became the model for other Cistercian monastery built in Ireland, with his formal style imported from the monasteries of the same order in France; it was the most important monastery in Ireland until it was closed in 1539, when it became a fortified house.

The Synod of 1152

Main article: Synod of Kells Mellifont

An important synod held in Mellifont in 1152 recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters, indicating that the synod attended bishops and kings along with the papal legate John Paparo (Saint Malachy had died some four years in advance). The inauguration of the church took place in 1157 and claimed the church’s authority by banishing the king of Meath, Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn.

Various kings gave donations to help this foundation: Muirchertach Ua Lochlainn, provincial king of Ulster gave cattle, some gold and even a local town country Donnchad Ua Cearbhallär king of Airgialla (Oriel), who had donated the land, also gave gold, while Derbforgaill, wife Tigernan Ua Ruairc gave gold, a chalice and altar cloth.

The Abbey then closing

1603 The Treaty of Mellifont agreed English crown and Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone in the monastery grounds Mellifont was then belong to Garret Moore, 1st Viscount Moore, who was a close friend of Tyrone, and helped to persuade him to sign the treaty. Moore family left on the front Mellifont in 1927.

William of Orange used Mellifont Abbey House as his headquarters during the Battle of the Boyne 1690th

Mellifont Abbey is now a ruin. Some of the original monastery remains, save an 13th century lavabo (where monks washed their hands before eating), some Romanesque arches and a 14th-taletdomkapitlet.

New Mellifont Abbey is home to Cistercian in County Louth, and is located in Collon, a small village and townland in the southwest corner of County Louth, Ireland, on the N2 national head headed.


  • Tommaltach Ua Conchobair

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Louth)