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Achill Island

Achill Island (/ k æ əl /; Irish: Acaill, Oilean Acla ) in County Mayo is the largest island off Ireland, and is located off the west coast. It has a population of 2700. Its area is 148 km 2 (57 sq mi). Achill is connected to the mainland by Michael Davitt Bridge, between the villages of Gob an Choire (Achill Sound) and Poll Raithní (Polranny). A bridge first completed here in 1887, replaced by another structure in 1949, and then replaced by the current bridge was completed in 2008. Other population centers include the villages of Keel, Dooagh, Dumha EIGE (Dooega), Dun Ibhir (Dooniver), The Valley and Dugort. Assembly head Gaelic football pitch and two high schools are on the mainland at Poll Raithní. Early settlements believed to have been formed on Achill around 3000 BC. A paddle dating from this period were found at the Crannog close Dookinella. The island is 87% bog. Parish of Achill also includes Curraun peninsula .Some of the people in Curraun consider themselves Achill people, and most residents of Achill refer to this area as “Achill”. There are between 500-600 native Irish speakers in Achill parish.During the summer of 1996 the RNLI decided to station a lifeboat on Kildownet.

History

It is believed that at the end of the Neolithic period (around 4000 BC), Achill had a population of 500-1000 people. The island would have been mostly forest until Neolithic people börjadeodling of crops. The settlement grew during the Iron Age, and the proliferation of small promontory fort along the coast indicate warlike character of the times. Megalithic tombs (see picture to the right) and fortresses can be seen at Slievemore, along the Atlantic Drive and Achillbeg.

Over

Achill Island is located in the Barony of Burrishoole in the territory of the old Umhall (Umhall Uactarach and Umhall Ioctarach), which originally covered an area stretching from Galway / Mayo border to Achill Head.

Hereditary chiefs Umhall was O’Malley, recorded in the area 814 AD when they successfully repelled an attack by the Vikings in Clew Bay. The Anglo-Norman invasion avConnacht in 1235 AD saw Umhall territory taken over by Butler and later by Burgos. Butler Burrishoole domination continued in the late 14th century when Thomas le Botiller registered as being in possession of Akkyll & Owyll.

Immigration

In the 17th and 18th centuries it was much migration to Achill from other parts of Ireland, particularly Ulster, because of the political and religious turmoil of the time. For a while there were two different dialects of Irish spoken on Achill. This led to many townlands registered as having two names during the 1824 Ordnance Survey, and some maps today give different names to the same place. Achill Ireland still has many traces of Ulster Irish.

Specific historical places and events

Grace O’Malley castle

Grace O’Malley’s Kildamhnait Castle is a 15th-century tower house in connection with the O’Malley Clan, which was once a ruling family of Achill.Grace O ‘Malley, or Granuaile, the most famous of the O’Malleys, was born on Clare Island around 1530. [ citation needed ] Her father was chief of the Barony of Murrisk. The O’Malley was a powerful shipping family, which are traded in a great extent. Grace was a fearless leader and became known as a sea captain and pirate. She is said to have met with Queen Elizabeth I in 1593. She died about 1603 and is buried in the O’Malley family tomb on Clare Island.

Achill Mission

One of Achill most famous historical sites, the Achill Mission or “colony” in Dugort. In 1831, the Church of Ireland minister Edward Nangle founded a missionary assignment in Dugort.Uppdraget included schools, homes, an orphanage, a medical center and a guest house. The colony was very successful for a time and produced a regular Journal called Achill Herald and western witness . Nangle extended its mission in Mweelin, where a school was built. Achill Mission began to decline slowly after Nangle moved from Achill and finally closed in 1880 talet.Nangle died 1883rd

Railway

1894 Westport – Newport railway line was extended to Achill Sound. The railway station is now a hostel. The train provided a great service to Achill, but it also fulfilled an old profetia.Brian Rua O ‘Cearbhain had prophesied that “chariots of iron wheels” would carry the bodies in Achill on their first and last trip. In 1894, the first train on Achill railway through the bodies of the victims of the Clew Bay Drowning. This tragedy occurred when a boat overturned in Clew Bay, drowning thirty youngsters. They had gone to meet the steamship that would take them to Scotland for potato picking.

Kirkintilloch Fire

The Kirkintilloch Fire in 1937 fulfilled the second part of the prophecy, when the bodies of ten victims were carried by rail to Achill. These people had died in a fire in a bothy in Kirkintilloch. This term refers to temporary housing for those who went to Scotland to pick potatoes, a walking pattern which was established in the early nineteenth century.

Kildamhnait

Kildamhnait on the southeast coast of Achill is named after St. Damhnait or Dymphna, who founded a church there in the 16th century. There is also a holy well just outside the cemetery. The present church was built in the 1700s and the cemetery contains memorials to the victims of two of Achill greatest tragedies, the Kirchintilloch Fire (1937) and Clew Bay Drowning (1894).

Monastery

In 1852, Dr. John MacHale, Archbishop of Tuam aside in Bunnacurry for the construction of a monastery. A Franciscan monastery was built for many years provided an education for local barn.Ruinerna of this monastery are still seen in Bunnacurry today.

The Valley House

The historic Valley House is located in The Valley, close to Dugort in the north-eastern part of Achill Island. The current building sits on the site of a hunting lodge built by the Earl of Cavan in the 19th century. Its fame stems from an incident in 1894 in which the then owner, an English hostess named Agnes McDonnell, was brutally beaten and the house on fire, allegedly by a local man, James Lynchehaun. Lynchehaun had been employed by McDonnell as her country agent, but the two fell out and he was fired and told to quit their accommodation on her property. A long legal battle ensued, with Lynchehaun refuses to leave. At that time, in the 1890s, the issue of land ownership in Ireland politically charged, and after the events at Valley House in 1894 Lynchehaun was to argue that his actions were motivated by politics. He escaped custody and fled to the United States, where he successfully defeated legal attempt by the British authorities to have him extradited to be prosecuted as a result of the attack and burning of the Valley House. Agnes McDonnell suffered terrible injuries from the attack but survived and lived for another 23 years, dying in 1923. Lynchehaun said to have returned to Achill on two occasions, once in disguise as an American tourist, and eventually died in Girvan, Scotland, in 1937 . the Valley House is now a hostel and bar.

The abandoned village

Near Dugort, at the foot of Slievemore Mountain is the abandoned village.There are some 80 destroyed houses in the village.

The houses were built of stone unmortared, which means that no cement or mortar used to hold the stones together. Each house consisted of only one room and this room was used as a kitchen, living room, bedroom and even stable.

If you look at the fields around the abandoned village and right up the mountain, you can see the tracks in the “lazy beds”, which is the way crops like potatoes grown. In Achill, as in many areas of Ireland, a system called “Rundale” used for agriculture. This meant that the land around the village was rented from a landlord. This land is then shared by all the villagers to graze their cattle and sheep. Each family would then have two or three small pieces of land scattered about the village, which they used to grow crops.

For many years people lived in the village and then in 1845 famine struck in Achill as it did in the rest of Ireland. Most of the families moved to the nearby village of Dooagh, located by the sea, while others emigrated. Living by the sea meant that seafood can be used for food. The village was completely deserted and that is where the name “Deserted Village” came from.

No one has lived in this house since the time of famine, but the families who moved to Dooagh and their descendants continued to use the village as a “Booley village”. This means that during the summer season, would the younger members of the family, teenage boys and girls, to take the cattle graze on the hillside, and they would stay in the houses in the abandoned village. This practice continued until the 1940s. Boolying was also performed in other parts of Achill, including Annagh on Croaghaun mountains and in Curraun.

On Ailt, Kildownet you can see the remains of a similar fate by. This village was in 1855 when the tenants were evicted by the local landlord so that land can be used for grazing cattle, the tenants were forced to lease holdings in Currane, Dooega and Slievemore. Others emigrated to America.

Archaeology

Achill Archaeological Field School is based on Achill Archaeology Centre in Dooagh, which has served as a catalyst for a wide range of archaeological research on the island. It was founded in 1991 and is a school for students in archeology and anthropology. Since 1991, several thousand students from 21 countries come to Achill to study and participate in the ongoing excavations. The school is involved in a study of prehistoric and historic landscapes of Slievemore, which contains a research excavations at a number of places in the deserted village of Slievemore. Slievemore is rich in archaeological monuments spanning the period from 5000 years from the Neolithic to the post medieval. [2] Recent archaeological research suggests the village was occupied year at least as early as the 19th century, but it is known to have served as a seasonal occupation Booley village of the first half of the 20th century. A Booley village (a number which is in a ruined state on the island) is a village occupied only during part of the year, such as a resort community, a lakeside community, or (where appropriate on Achill) a place to live while tend flocks or herds of ruminants during winter or summer grazing. [3] Specifically, some of the people in Dooagh and Pollagh would migrate in summer to Slievemore and then go back to Dooagh fall. In summer 2009 field school excavated Roundhouse 2 on Slievemore Mountain under the direction of archaeologist Stuart Rathbone. Only outside the north wall, the entrance way and the inside of the round house was completely excavated. [4]

From 2004 to 2006 Achill Island Marine Archaeology Project, directed by Chuck Meide was sponsored by the College of William and Mary, the Institute of Maritime, Achill Folklife Centre (now Achill Archaeology Centre), and the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program (LAMP). This project focused on the documentation of archaeological resources related to Achill’s rich maritime heritage. Maritime archaeologists recorded 19th century fishing village, ice house and boathouse ruins, a number of anchors that had been salvaged from the sea, 19’s and later Currach pens, a number of traditional vernacular watercraft including a possible 100-year-old Achill yawl, and the remains of four historic shipwrecks . [5] [6]

Other points of interest

Despite some progress, the island retains a striking natural beauty. The cliffs of Croaghaun on the western part of the island is the third highest sea cliffs in Europe, but are inaccessible by road. Near the westernmost point of Achill, Achill Head, is Keem Bay. Keel Beach is quite popular among tourists and some locals as a surfing spot. South of Keem Beach ärMoytoge Head, with its rounded appearance drops dramatically down to the sea. An old British observation post, built during the First World War to prevent the Germans from unloading arms to the Irish Republican Army, is still on Moytoge. During World War II this post built by the Irish Defence Forces Look Out Post for Coast Watch service wing of the armed forces. It worked from 1939 to 1945. [7]

The mountain Slievemore (672 m) rises dramatically in the northern part of the island and the Atlantic Drive (along the south / west of the island), some dramatically beautiful views. On the slopes of Slievemore, is an abandoned village (the “Deserted Village”) the abandoned village is traditionally believed to be a relic from a village Gorta Mór (The Great Hunger of 1845-1849).

Just west of the abandoned village is an old Martello tower, again built by the British to warn of a possible French invasion during the Napoleonic Wars.The area also has about 5000 years old Neolithic tomb.

Achillbeg ( Acaill Beag , Little Achill ) is a small island just off the southern tip of Achill. Its inhabitants were relocated on Achill in the 1960s. [8] A plaque to Johnny Kilbane is on Achillbeg and was erected to celebrate 100 years since his first championship win. [9]

The villages Dooniver and Askill has very picturesque landscapes and the bike path is popular with tourists.

Caislean Ghráinne, also known as Kildownet castle, is a small tower house built in the early 1400s. [10] It is in Cloughmore, in the south of Achill Island.It is known for its associations with Grace O’Malley, along with greater Rockfleet castle in Newport.

Achill Island also has a coastal road along the southern part of the island with some beautiful views cliff.

Economy

While a number of attempts to establish small industrial units in the island has been made, the economy of the island is largely dependent on tourism.Subsidies from Achill people working abroad, especially in the UK, US and Africa leads many families to stay in Achill during the 19th and 20th centuries. [ Citation needed ] Since the advent of Ireland’s “Celtic Tiger” economy less Achill people were forced seek work abroad. agriculture plays a minor role and the fact that the island is mostly bog means that its potential for agriculture is limited largely sheep farming. In the past, fishing was a significant activity, but this aspect of the economy is small now. At one time the island was known for its shark fishing, basking in particular was fished for its valuable liver oil. There was a big spurt of growth in tourism in the 1960s and 1970s before the life was hard and difficult on the island. Despite the healthy visitor numbers per year, is the common perception that tourism in Achill has slowly declined since its heyday. Currently the largest employers on Achill are two hotels. [11] In late 2009, Ireland’s only Turbot farm opens in Bunnacurry Business Park.

Religion

Most people on Achill are either Catholic or Anglican (Church of Ireland).There are three priests on Achill and eight churches [ clarification needed ] in total.

  • Catholic:
    • Bunnacurry Church (St. Joseph)
    • The Valley Church; Open only for certain events.
    • Dookinella Church
    • Currane Church
    • Pollagh Church
    • Derreens Church
    • Dooega Church
    • Belfarsed Church
    • Achill Sound Church
  • Church of Ireland:
    • Dugort Church (St. Thomas Church)
    • Innisbiggle Island church

Training

Hedge schools were in most villages in Achill in different periods of history.A university founded by the missions to Achill in Mweelin. In modern times, there used to be two high schools in Achill, Mc Hale College and Scoil Damhnait. But in August 2011, the two schools merged to form Pobail Coláiste Acla. For primary schools, there are nine national schools including Bull Dartmouth NS, NS Valley, Bunnacurry NS, Dookinella NS, Dooagh NS, Saulia NS, Achill Sound NS, Tonragee NS and NS Curanne. National schools closed include Dooega NS, NS Crumpaun, Ashleam NS.

Transport

  • Achill railway station was opened May 13, 1895, but finally closed on October 1, 1937. [12]
  • The Great Western Greenway is a greenway rail trail that follows the line of the former Midland Great Western Railway branch line from Westport to Achill through Newport and Mulranny. [13] It has proven to be very successful in attracting visitors Achill and the surrounding areas.
  • Bus Eireann 440 daily commute to Westport and then from the islands scattered villages.
  • Bus Eireann provides transport for those areas that secondary school children
  • There are many Taxicab and Hackney carriage services on the island

Cuisine

As a popular tourist destination Achill has many bars, cafes and restaurants offering a full range of food. But the island’s Atlantic City seafood is a specialty at Achill with common foods including lobster, mussels, salmon, trout and winkles. With a large sheep population Achill lamb a very popular meal on the island too. Moreover, Achill a large population of cows that produce excellent beef. [ Citation needed ]

Sports

Achill has a Gaelic football club competing in the championship and Division 1C Mayo League. There are also Achill Rovers who play in Mayo Association Football League. [14] and Achill Golf Club. [ Citation needed ] Card games, inklusiveWhist and 24 card game is also popular on Achill. [ Citation needed ] The island’s main leisure outdoor center Achill Outdoor Education Centre . [15] Achill Island barren landscape and the surrounding sea provides an ideal location for outdoor activities such as surfing, kite-surfing and sea kayaking. Fishing and water sports are popular among tourists and locals alike. Regattas featuring a local vessel, Achill Yawl, have been popular since the 19th century, although most of the current dinghies, unlike their traditional working boat ancestors, have been structurally modified to encourage increased speed under sail. The island’s waters and stunning underwater sites sometimes frequented by divers, but Achill unpredictable weather in general has prevented a commercially successful recreational diving industry.

Population

In 2011 the population was 2569. The island’s population has declined from about 6,000 before the Great Hunger.

Demography

The table below presents data on Achill Island population is taken from theDiscover Islands Ireland (Alex Ritsema, Collins Press, 1999), and the census of Ireland.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1841 4901
1851 4030 -17.8%
1901 4825 + 19.7%
1951 4906 + 1.7%
Year Pop. ±%
1996 2718 -44.6%
2002 2620 -3.6%
2006 2620 + 0.0%
2011 2569 -1.9%
Source: John Chambers. “Islands – Change in population 1841 – 2011”.Irishislands.info . Retrieved February 24, 2015.

Architecture

The “Deserted Village” at the foot of Slievemore was a Booley village;seTranshumance

The location of the village is relatively protected

The most famous of these earlier seen in “Deserted Village” Ruins near the cemetery at the foot of Slievemore. Even the houses of the village form a relatively comfortable class of residence, even as recently as a hundred years ago, some people still use “Beehive” style house (small circular single-roomed dwellings with a hole in the roof to let out smoke).

Many of the oldest and most picturesque inhabited cottages are from operations in the Congested District Board for Ireland -a body set up around the turn of the 20th century in Ireland to improve the welfare of the residents of small villages and towns. Most of the houses in Achill at the time was very small and tightly packed together in villages. CDB subsidized the construction of new, more spacious (but still small by modern standards) home outside the traditional villages.

Some of the recent building (1980 onwards) on the island fits so nicely into the landscape as the previous style whitewashed raised gable houses. Many homes have been built, but many of these houses have been built in prominent scenic areas and has damaged the traditional view of the island lying empty for most of the year.

Notable people

  • Charles Boycott (1832-1897) – unpopular landowner from whom the term boycott arose.
  • The artist Paul Henry stayed on the island for a number of years in the early 1900s.
  • Thomas Patten from Dooega died during the siege of Madrid in December 1936th
  • English writer Honor Tracy lived there until his death in 1989
  • Singer James Kilbane live on the island.

Literature

Heinrich Böll: Irisches Tagebuch , Berlin 1957
Kingston, Bob: the deserted village of Slievemore , Castlebar 1990
McDonald Theresa: Achill: 5000 BC to 1900 AD Archaeology History Folklore , IAS Publications [1992]
Meehan, Rose: The Story of Mayo , Castlebar 2003
Carney, James: Playboy & Yellow lady 1986 Poolbeg [16] Hugo Hamilton Island Talking, [17] in 2007, Kevin Barry: Beatlebone 2015

See also

  • Achillbeg
  • Achill oysters
  • Achill Sound
  • A skill
  • Bunnacurry
  • Connaught Irish
  • Darren Fletcher
  • Dooagh
  • Dooniver
  • gallowglass
  • Innisbiggle
  • James Kilbane
  • Kevin Kilbane
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Mid West Radio
  • Nevin (surname)
  • Saula
  • Wild Atlantic Way

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Island Change in population, 1841 – 2011”. 28 January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ “Achill Archaeological Field School 2009”. Achill Archaeological Field School . Archived from the original The 28 February 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  3. Jump up ^ deserted village, Slievemore, Achill Island , achill247.com Retrieved February 17, 2008.
  4. Jump up ^ Amanda Burt, a member of Achill Field School, summer 2009.
  5. Jump up ^ “Achill Island Marine Archaeology Project | Institute of Maritime History “. Maritimehistory.org. February 20, 2012. Hämtat20 March 2012.
  6. Jump up ^ “Meide, Chuck and Kathryn Sikes (2014) Manipulating Maritime Cultural Landscape: Vernacular Boats and economic relations in the nineteenth century Achill Island, Ireland Maritime Journal 9 (1).115-141 “. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ See Michael Kennedy, “Protection Neutral Ireland (Dublin, 2008), p. 50
  8. Jump up ^ Jonathan Beaumont (2005), Achillbeg: The Life of an island , ISBN 0-85361-631-0
  9. Jump up ^ “Login to Facebook – Facebook.” Facebook .
  10. Jump up ^ “Irish Castles Grace O’Malley.” Www.mythandlegends.net .Pulled 06/13/2016.
  11. Jump up ^ “Achill Island (Co. Mayo)”. Irelandbyways.com. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Achill station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways . Archive (PDF) from the original September 26, 2007 is taken. Eight September of 2007.
  13. Jump up ^ “Home.” Great Western Greenway . Retrieved ten August 2011.
  14. Jump up ^ FAI Club Portal for Achill Rovers
  15. Jump up ^ Dave Jordan. “Achill Outdoor”.
  16. Jump up ^ James Carney. “The Playboy & yellow lady”. Open Library.Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  17. Jump up ^ island Talking Hugo Hamilton in the footsteps of Heinrich Böll, 50 years after

Wicklow Head

Wicklow Head is a promontory near the southeastern edge of the city Wicklow County Wicklow, approximately 3 km from the center of town.

Geographically, the most easterly point on mainland Ireland.

See also 

  • Lambay Island
  • Extreme Points in Ireland – at the entry points in each direction around Ireland

Wicklow

Wicklow (Irish: Cill Mhantáin , which means “church toothless one”) [1] [2] is the county town of Wicklow and capital of the Mid-East Region of Ireland.Located south of Dublin on the eastern coast of the island, has a population of 10,356 according to the census of 2011. [3] The town is to the east of the N11 route between Dublin and Wexford. Wicklow is also connected to the rail network with Dublin commuter services now extending to the city.Additional services contact with Arklow, Wexford and Rosslare Europort, a main port. There is also a commercial port, mainly importing timber and textiles. The Vartry River is the main river that runs through town.

Geography

Looks north of Wicklow Golf Club (foreground, with rock formations visible on the right), Wicklow Bay towards large Sugarloaf (center) and Bray Head (right) in the distance. Wicklow Town is hidden in the golf club house.

Wicklow town forms a rough semicircle around Wicklow harbor. To the immediate north is “The Murrough,” a popular grassy walking area by the sea, and the eastern coastal strip. The Murrough is a place of growing commercial use, so much so that a road that runs past the town directly to the commercial part of the area began construction in 2008 and was completed in summer 2010. The eastern coastal strip covering the Wicklow bay, a crescent-shaped stone beach about 10 km long .

Ballyguile Hill is in the southwest of the city. A large part of the residential areas in the 1970s and 1980s occurred in this area, despite the significant gradient from the center.

The country rises in the rolling hills to the west, going to meet the Wicklow mountains in the middle of the county. The dominant feature in the south is the rocky headlands of the bride’s head and Wicklow Head, easternmost point of mainland Ireland. On a very clear day it is possible to see the Snowdonia mountain range in Wales.

Climate

As with much of the rest of northwestern Europe, Wicklow experience a maritime climate ( Cfb ), with cool summers, mild winters, and lack of extreme temperatures. The average maximum January temperatures are 9.2 ° C (48.6 ° F), while the average maximum August temperature is 21.2 ° C (70.2 ° F). On average the sunniest month in May The wettest month is October with 118.9 mm (4.6 inches) of rain and the driest month is April with 60.7 mm (2.4 inches). With the exception of October and November, the rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with rain falling within a relatively narrow band of between 60 (2.4 in) and 86 mm (3.4 inches) a month. But a significant spike occurs in October and November that records almost double the typical rainfall in April.

Wicklow is protected locally by Ballyguile slope and the more distant of the Wicklow mountains. This sheltered location makes it one of the driest and warmest places in Ireland. It may only be about 60% of the rain on the West Coast. Moreover, since Wicklow is protected by the mountains from the south and westerly winds, has higher average temperature than many parts of Ireland. The average high in August of 21.2 ° C (70.2 ° F) is a full 1 ° C higher than the highest average month in Dublin, only 50 km (30miles) north.

While its location is favorable for protection against the winds that are common to a large part of Ireland’s Wicklow particularly exposed to easterly winds. As these winds come from northern European countries Wicklow, along with a large part of the east coast of Ireland, experience relatively sharp temperature drops in winter for short periods.

Economy

Since 1995 the city has undergone major changes and expansion that reflects the simultaneous growth in the Irish economy. Significant residential development has occurred west of the city along Marlton Road (R751). More recently, residential areas concentrated in the northwest of the city towards the neighboring village of Rathnew. The completion of the Ashford / Rathnew Bypass in 2004 has meant that Wicklow is now linked to the capital Dublin, located 42 km north of dual carriageway and motorway. These factors have led to a steady growth in population in Wicklow and its surrounding townlands while its importance as a commuter town for Dublin increasing.

toponymy

Past spellings of its name include Wykinglo in 1173, Wygingelow in 1185,Wykinglo in 1192, Wykinglowe in 1355. [5] [6]

The Swedish toponymist Magne Oftedal [7] criticize the usual explanation that the name comes from the Old Norse Vikingr (meaning “Viking”) and Norse (which means “meadow”), that is, “the Vikings’ meadow ‘or’ Viking meadow”. He notices that -LO never been used outside Norway (see Oslo) and Scandinavia. Furthermore, this word almost never in combination with a male name or a generic word meaning “a category of persons”. Moreover, it seems “Viking” Never in toponymic records. For him, the first element can be explained as Uikar- or Uik- “bay” in Old Norse, and between N of the old forms is a mistake of the clerks.

But all recorded forms show that N. That is why Liam Price [8] says it’s probably a Norwegian ortnamns and A. Sommerfelt [9] provides that previously Viking-lo and understands it as “Viking” meadow “. Yet the Irish patronimics could Ó hUiginn and Mac Uiginn (anglicised O’Higgins and Maguigan) keep a key to meaning “Meadow of a man named Viking”. [10]

Wykinglo were common names used by Viking seafarers and traders who traveled around the Anglo-Scandinavian world. The Normans and Anglo-Normans who conquered Ireland preferred the non Gaelic placename.

The origins of the Irish name Cill Mhantáin has no connection with the name Wicklow . It has an interesting folklore own. Saint Patrick and a few followers are said to have tried to land on Travailahawk beach, south of hamnen.Fientliga locals attacked them, causing one of Patrick’s party to lose their front teeth. Manntach (toothless one), as he became known, was undeterred and returned to the city, eventually founding a church. [11]Therefore Cill Mhantáin , which means “church toothless one.” Although its anglicised spelling Kilmantan [12] was used for a time, eventually fell out of use.

History

During the excavations to build the Wicklow way bypass in 2010, was a bronze age cooking pit (Fulach Fiadh) and kennel space revealed in Ballynerrn lower part of town. A radio carbon-dating exercise on location sets timeline discovery in 900BC. [13] The first Celts arrived in Ireland around 600BC. According to the Greek cartographer and historian, Ptolemy, the area around the Wicklow was a Celtic tribe called Cauci / Canci. This strain is believed to have originated in the region that includes today’s Belgium / German border. The area around the Wicklow called Menapia in Ptolemy map which in turn goes back to 130 e.Kr .. [13]

Vikings landed in Ireland around 795 AD and began raiding monasteries and settlements of wealth and to capture slaves. In the mid-9th century, Vikings established a base that utilized the natural harbor in Wicklow. It is from this chapter in Wicklow history that the name “Wicklow” from. [13]

Norman influence can still be seen today in some of its rooms and surname.After the Norman invasion, was granted Wicklow Maurice FitzGerald, who started to build the “Black Castle”, a country facing the fortification is destroyed on the coast just south of the harbor. The castle was briefly held by the local O’Byrne and the O’Toole Kavanagh clans [14] in the uprising in 1641, but was quickly abandoned when British soldiers approached the city.Sir Charles Coote, who led the troops then recorded engaging in “wild and indiscriminate” slaughter of the citizens in an act of revenge. [15] Local oral history claims that one of these documents “wanton cruelty” was trapping and intentional burning to death of an unknown number of people in a building in the city. Although no record of this detail Coote attack on Wicklow is a small laneway, locally called “Melancholy Lane”, said to have been where this event took place.

Even the surrounding County Wicklow is rich in Bronze Age monuments, is the oldest settlement in the city destroyed Franciscan monastery. This is located in the west end of Main Street, in the gardens of local Catholic parish grounds. Other notable buildings include the Town Hall and Gaol was built in 1702 and has recently been renovated as a heritage center and tourist attraction. East breakwaters, arguably the most important building in town, built in the early 1880s Wicklow Harbour Commissioners. The architect was William George Strype and the builder was John Jackson of Westminster.North breakwater was completed by about 1909 – John Pansing was the designer and Louis Nott Bristol builder. The Gaol was a place of execution until the end of the 19th century and it was here that Billy Byrne, a leader of the 1798 uprising, met his end in 1799. He is commemorated by a statue in the square. The prison was closed in 1924 and is now a tourist attraction with live displays and exhibitions. [16]

At Fitzwilliam Square in the center of Wicklow town is an obelisk commemorating career Captain Robert Halpin, commander of the telegraph cable ship Great Eastern, who was born in Wicklow, 1836. [17]

Transport

Bus Eireann and Irish Rail both active through the city. Bus Eireann provide an hour which is half an hour at peak time service to Dublin city center and Airport.Also a service operated twice daily via Arklow Rathdrum.

  • Route 133 Wicklow (monuments) -Dublin Airport via Grand Hotel, Wicklow Community College, Lidl, Rathnew, Ashford, Newcastle hospitals, Newtownmountkennedy, Garden Village, Kilpedder, Glen of the Downs, Kilmacanogue, Ballywaltrim, Bray, Loughlinstown Hospital, N11, UCD Belfield , RTÉ, Donnybrook Village, Leeson Street, Dawson Street / Kildare Street, City Quays route to Dublin Airport. [18]
  • Route 133 Wicklow (monuments) -Arklow through the Grand Hotel, Wicklow Community College, Lidl, Rathnew, Glenealy, Rathdrum, Meeting of the Waters, Avoca and Wooden path to Arklow. [18]
  • A train service operates north to Dublin Connolly via Kilcoole, Greystones, Bray, Dun Laoghaire, Pearse Street and Tara Street on the way to Connolly 6 times on Monday to Friday. [19]

Train traffic south to Rosslare Europort via Rathdrum, Arklow, Gorey, Enniscorthy, Wexford and Rosslare Strand. [19]

International relations

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Wicklow has twinning agreements with:

  • Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France [20]
  • Porthmadog, Wales [ citation needed ]
  • Eichenzell, Germany

Notable residents

  • Robert Halpin, (b. 1836) -designed Captain of Brunel’s SS Great Eastern which laid the transatlantic telegraph cable in the late 19th century
  • FE Higgins, author and former resident of Wicklow [21]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ DeAngelis, Camille (2007). Moon handbooks: Ireland. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 1-59880-048-5. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Seán Connors. Mapping Ireland: from kingdoms to the counties , Mercier Press, 2001, ISBN 1-85635-355-9, p45
  3. Jump up ^ “Legal Wicklow Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “Wicklow weather”. Ashford weather station.
  5. Jump up ^ Liam Price, place names in the Barony of Newcastle , p. 171st
  6. Jump up ^ Donall Mac Giolla Easpaig, L’influence scandinave sur la toponymie irlandaise in l’heritage maritime des Vikings Europe a l’Ouest, Colloque International de la Hague, Presses Universitaire de Caen, 2002, p. 467 et 468. Translation Jacques TRANIER.
  7. Jump up ^ Scandinavian place names in Ireland in the Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress (Dublin 1973), B. Alquist and D. Greene Editions, Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, 1976. p. 130th
  8. Jump up ^ Price’s. 172nd
  9. Jump up ^ The English forms of names of the main provinces of Ireland , in Lochlann . A review of Celtic Studies . IA. Sommer Editions, Trad.Meadow. Oslo University Press, 1958. p. 224.
  10. Jump up ^ Mac Giolla Easpaig p. 468
  11. Jump up ^ The Annals of Clonmacnoise, the annals of Ireland from the earliest period AD 1408 . Mageoghagan, Conell & Murphy, Dennis, 1896, p. 66.
  12. Jump up ^ “Wicklow archive”. Placental Database of Ireland Logainm.ie. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  13. ^ Jump up to: abc . John Finlay (2013) footsteps by Wicklow past.
  14. Jump up ^ Wills, James lives of brilliant and prominent Irish .MacGregor, Polson, 1840, p. 449th
  15. Jump up ^ Wills, James lives of brilliant and prominent Irish .MacGregor, Polson, 1840, p. 448th
  16. Jump up ^ S Shepherd; et al. (1992). Illustrated Guide to Ireland.Reader’s Digest.
  17. Jump up ^ The illustrated road book of Ireland. Automobile Association.In 1970.
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab http://www.buseireann.ie/pdf/1367495369-133.pdf
  19. ^ Jump up to: ab http://www.irishrail.ie/media/08-dublinrosslareeuroport250920131.pdf?v=gchdrpe
  20. Jump up ^ “Wicklow Town hosted a Scene Europe 2011 – the year to volunteer.” Wicklow County Council. 2012. Retrieved 24 September, 2013.
  21. Jump up ^ “Fiona’s new book to once again be a favorite.” Irish Independent. March 27, 2008. Retrieved four October, 2013.

List of National Parks in Ireland

This is a  list of national parks in Ireland  .

The table below shows the name of the national park and in which county Ireland it is located. The first park that was established in Ireland, Killarney is located in County Kerry in 1932. Since then, five more national parks have been opened; the latest being Ballycroy in County Mayo. The smallest is the Burren National Park in The Burren in County Clare is located on only 15 km 2  in size.

national park Area Land area established
Ballycroy County Mayo 110 km  2  (42 sq mi) 1998  [1]
Connemara County Galway 30 km  2  (12 sq mi) 1990
Glenveagh County Donegal 170 km  2  (66 sq mi) 1984
Killarney County Kerry 105 km  2  (41 sq mi) 1932
Burren County Clare 15 km  2  (5.8 sq mi) 1991  [2]
Wicklow Mountains County Wicklow 205 km  2  (79 sq mi) 1991

See also

  • Conservation in Ireland
  • National Parks in Northern Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ Ballycroy National Park website
  2. Jump up ^ / National Parks & Wildlife Service News

The Wicklow Mountains

The Wicklow Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Chill Mhantain , [1] archaic: Cualu) is the largest continuous upland area in Ireland. They occupy the entire center of Wicklow and stretch beyond its borders in County Dublin, Wexford and Carlow. Where the mountains extend into Dublin, locally known as the Dublin Mountains (Irish: Sléibhte Bhaile Átha Cliath .) [1] The highest peak is Lugnaquilla at 925 meters (3,035 feet).

Area consists essentially of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. They have driven up during the Caledonian orogeny in the early Devonian period and are part of Leinster chain, the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK. Bergen owe a large part of its current topography of the effects of the last ice age, which deepened Dalarna and created Corrie and ribbon lakes. Copper and lead have been the main metals mined in the mountains and a brief gold rush occurred in the 18th century.

Several major river systems have their source in the mountains, such as the Liffey, Dargle, Slaney and Avoca rivers. Powerscourt is the highest in Ireland at 121 meters (397 feet). A number of these rivers have been used to create reservoirs for drinking water for Dublin and its surroundings.

Wicklow Mountains experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters. The dominant habitat highlands consist of blanket bog, moor and mountain grasslands. Highlands support a number of bird species, including the merlin and the peregrine falcon. Dalarna is a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests.

The mountains have been inhabited since Neolithic times and a number of ancient monuments, including a series of passage tombs, survive to the present. The monastery at Glendalough, founded in the late sixth century by Saint Kevin, was an important center of the early church in Ireland. After the Norman invasion in the 12th century, the Wicklow Mountains became a stronghold and hideout for Irish clans opposed to English rule. The O’Byrne and the O’Toole family conducted a campaign of harassment against the settlers for nearly five centuries. Later mountains harbored rebels during 1798 Rising. Rebel activity died out after the construction of the Wicklow Military Road in the early 19th century and the mountains began to attract tourists to the ruins at Glendalough and admire the mountain scenery.

Wicklow Mountains continues to be a major attraction for tourism and recreation. The whole mountain area is designated as a special area of conservation and special protection under EU law. The Wicklow Mountains National Park was established in 1991 to preserve local biodiversity and landscape.

toponymy

Wicklow Mountains takes its name from County Wicklow, which in turn takes its name from Wicklow town. The origin of the name comes from Danish Wykynglo or Wykinlo . [2] The Irish name for Wicklow, Cill Mhantáinmeans “church Mantan”, named after the apostle Saint Patrick. [2] Wicklow was not established as a county until 1606; before that it had been part of County Dublin. [3] An early name for the entire area of the Wicklow Mountains were Cualu . [4] There are also historical names for different areas in the mountains held by local clans: the north of Wicklow and south Dublin was known as Cualann while Glen of Imaal gets its name from the area of Hy Mail . [2] September 1 in the O’Byrne family called Gaval Rannall obsessed area around Glenmalure, known as Gaval-Rannall or Ranelagh . [2] in the Middle Ages, before the establishment of County Wicklow, the English administration in Dublin referred to the region Leinster mountains. [5]

Topography

Main article: mountains Wicklow Mountains

Wicklow Mountains is the largest area of continuous high ground in Ireland, which has an unbroken area of over 500 km 2 (190 sq mi) of 300 meters (1000 feet). [6] They occupy the middle of Wicklowoch extends into County Dublin , Carlow and Wexford. [7] the general direction of mountain ranges is from northeast to southwest. [8] the formation of several different groups, namely Kippure in the north, on the border of Dublin and Wicklow, Djouce, Tonelagee, Camaderry and Lugnaquilla center , the church and the Keadeen Mountain in the west; and Croghan Kinsella in the south. [8] In the east, separated from the rest of the range of Vartry plateau, is the group that includes the Great Sugar Loaf, Little Sugar Loaf and Bray Head. [8]

Lugnaquilla is the highest peak in the Wicklow Mountains at 925 meters (3,035 feet) and the 13th highest in Ireland. [9] It is also the highest peak in the Leinster and is the only Irish Munrohittas outside Munster. [10] Kippure is on 757 meters (2,484 feet). [11] There are a total of 39 peaks over 600 meters (2000 feet) in the Wicklow mountains. [12] There are only three passes through the mountains within 600 meters (2,000 feet) with Sally Gap (498 meters ( 1,634 feet)) and the Wicklow Gap (478 meters (1,567 ft)) is the highest road pass in the country. [13]

Geology

See also: Geology Ireland

The pointed mica – slate top of Djouce (left) contrasts with the rounded granite peak of War Hill (right)

Wicklow Mountains mainly consists of granite surrounded by a sheath of mica – slate and older rocks such as quartzite. The oldest rocks are quartzites Bray group include Bray Head and Little Sugar Loaf Mountain and the Great Sugar Loaf mountain. [14] These transformed from sandstone deposited in the deep waters of the ancient Iapetus Ocean during kambriumperioden (542-488 million years ago). [15] layers of sediment continued to produce shale and shale along the seabed mixed with volcanic rock pushed up to the Iapetus began to shrink with the process of subduction during the Ordovician period (488-443 million years ago). [16] These stones behind now uplifted peneplain of Vartry plateau between Bray group and subject area.[17]

Iapetus closed up completely at the end of the Silurian period (443-415 million years ago) and the Wicklow Mountains were lifted during the main phase of the Caledonian orogeny at the beginning of the Devonian period (415-358 million years ago), when the continents Baltica and Laurentia collided. [ 18] the collision pushed up a large Batholith granite, known as the Leinster Chain: this is the largest contiguous area of granite in Ireland and the UK, and runs from the coast of Dun Laoghaire in Dublin to New Ross County Wexford and include Wicklow ochBlackstairs Mountains. [19 ] [20] the heat generated by the collision turned slates and slate surround granite schists that formed a halo (shell) around the granite. [21] the process averosion has removed much of the surrounding slate from the mountain tops, exposing the underlying granite. [22] some remains of the slate roof at some of the mountain peaks, notablyLugnaquilla. [21] the circular granite topped peaks contrast with sharper slate peaks: eg War Hill (granite) and Djouce. (slate) [23]

The last major geological event to shape the Wicklow Mountains was Quaternary glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago). [24] The ice deepened and formed Dalarna in the U-shape that characterizes Wicklow Glens, such as Glendalough and Glenmacnass. [ 25]when the ice melted, the small glaciers left in Corrie which till now Dam lakes of Lough Bray and Nahanagan. [25] Corrie, but lakes also occur, such as the North jail and southern prison Lugnaquilla. [26] Escaping meltwater cut narrow rocky gorges on several sites, including Glen of the Downs, the devil’s Glen and scalp. [17] Ribbon lakes, such as Lough Dan and Glendalough lakes, formed as well. [27]

Mining and quarrying

The zone of collision between continental plates that led to the formation of the Wicklow Mountains also led to mineralization and the formation of Ireland’s most important metal belt. [28] The most important mines have been on the Avoca and Glendalough. Mining has taken place in Avoca since at least the Bronze Age (c. 2.500 to 600 BCE). [29] Iron ore extraction took place between the 12th and 17th centuries before being replaced by lead mining until the mid-18th century. [30] the main activity from 1720 to the closure of the last mine in 1982 was copper mining. [31] sulfur is also taken at certain times and in small quantities, gold, silver and zinc. [32] Lead Mining has been the main activity in Glendalough valley and its Glendasan neighboring valleys and Glenmalure. Lead was first discovered in Glendasan in the early 19th century and lead veins later followed by Camaderry mountain to Glendalough. [33] Mining smaller scale took place in Glenmalure. [34] Ore from these mines was shipped to Bally Corus for processing. [35] the last mine closed in 1957. [36]

In 1795 discovered a local schoolteacher gold in Aughatinavought River, a tributary of the River Aughrim then renamed Gold Mines River which rises on the slopes of Croghan Kinsella mountain. [37] In the ensuing gold rush, around 80 kg (180 pounds) of gold was recovered from the river local gold miners, including a single blob that weighs 682 grams (24.1 ounces), the largest gold nugget ever discovered in Ireland and the UK. [37] mine tunnels then were arrested by the British government extracted an additional 300 kg (660 pounds) of gold . [37] Various attempts have been made to locate motherlode on Croghan Kinsella but in vain. [37]

Granite from the Wicklow Mountains has been used as a material for many buildings in Wicklow and Dublin and beyond. Quarries on Ballyknockan has provided material for buildings such as the Bank of Ireland at College Green in Dublin, Dun Laoghaire Lighthouse and Liverpool Cathedral. [38] Similarly, quarries at Glencullen available stone for buildings to GPO påO’Connell Street and the Industry and Commerce building on Kildare Street in Dublin.[39] Barnacullia, on the slopes of Three Rock Mountain, delivered cobblestones to Dublin Corporation. [40] the quarry at Dalkey supplied granite for Dun Laoghaire Harbour and the Thames embankment. [13]

Hydrology

See also: Rivers of Ireland

Wicklow Mountains are the source of several major river systems. Because the thin blanket bog peat can not keep large amounts of water, many of these rivers has a flashy hydrography, fills quickly after heavy rain. [41]

The River Liffey rises between the mountains of Kippure and Tonduff the Liffey Head Bog. [42] One of the major tributaries of the Liffey, the River Dodder rises near the slopes of Kippure. [43] The King River rises Mullaghcleevaun and connects Liffey near Blessington. [2]

The River Vartry rises on the slopes of Djouce mountain. [2] In the vicinity of the River Dargle rises between Tonduff and War Hill, falls as Powerscourt, Ireland’s highest waterfall at 121 meters (397 feet), [44] over a cliff formed by a glacier at the point of contact between the granite and mica schist of the Wicklow Mountains. [45] the waterfalls at the heads Dalarna Glendalough, Glenmacnass and Glendasan occurs at about the slate-granite crosses, [46]which consider Carrawaystick waterfall in Glenmalure. [47]

The River Slaney rises in northern prison of Lugnaquilla mountains and winds through Glen of Imaal was joined by Leoh, Knickeen and Little Slaney.[48] Another of its tributaries, the river Derreen, rising on Lugnaquilla south side. [49]

Each of the main branches of the River Avoca – the Avonmore, the Avonbeg and Aughrim rivers – has its origin in the smaller tributaries, many of which rises in the Wicklow Mountains. [2] The Glenealo, Glendasan and Annamoe rivers meet to form Avonmore near Laragh. [2] the Annamoe rises near the Sally Gap and is joined by Cloghoge Brook between Lough Tay and Lough Dan and the river Inchavore Lough Dan. [2] the Avonbeg rise påTaffelberget and the three lakes. [2] Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers join to form the river Avoca at the meeting of the waters of the Vale of Avoca, celebrated in songthe meeting ~~ POS = HEAD COMP waters by Thomas Moore. [41] the Avoca joined by the river Aughrim on Wooden, sometimes called “the second meeting of the waters” . [2] the Aughrim formed at the junction between the Derry river water and Ow, of which the latter rises Lugnaquilla. [2]

reservoirs

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Ireland

Several of these rivers have been dammed to create reservoirs that provide drinking water for the residents of Dublin and its surroundings. The first of these was the river Vartry, dammed to create Vartry Reservoir near Roundwood in the 1860s. [50] A second pond was added in 1924 to increase capacity. [50] The River Dodder feed the two Bohernabreena reservoirs in the northern foothills of the Wicklow Mountains on Glenasmole in Dublin, which was built between 1883 and 1887 to supply water to the townland of Rathmines. [51] the Poulaphouca Reservoir, the river Liffey near Blessington, was constructed between 1938 and 1940. [52] There are also two hydroelectric plants in Poulaphouca, built in the 1940s. [53] a pump hydro plant was constructed at Turlough Hill between 1968 and 1974. [54] the water pumped from Lough Nanahangan, a natural corrie lake, in an artificial reservoir on Tomaneena mountains and released at the top the demand for electricity. [55] [56]

Climate

See also: Climate of Ireland

Like the rest of Ireland, the Wicklow Mountains to experience a temperate maritime climate with mild, wet summers and cold, damp winters. [57] The annual rainfall reaches 2,000 mm (79 inches) on the highest mountains with more western peaks get the most rainfall (for .g. Djouce mountains, to the east, the c. 1630 mm (64 inches), while Duff Hill, in the West, the c. 1950 mm (77 inches) per year). [58] June and July are generally the driest months and there is an average of four hours of sunshine per day throughout the year. [59]the snow cover in winter can reach an average of 50 days per year on the highest peaks. [59] Strong winds are a major factor in peat erosion summits. [ 58]

Habitat

See also: Flora and fauna of Ireland in Ireland

The primary habitat of the highlands consists of heath and bog. The mountain blanket bogs formed about 4,000 years ago as a result of a combination of climate change and human activity. [60] Prior to this, the mountains were shrouded with pine trees. [60] A change in the climate is wetter and milder weather left the ground waterlogged and leached nutrients from ground, leading to the formation of peat. [61] Mountain blanket bog found in areas above 200 meters (660 feet) in height, and where there are more than 175 days of rain per year. [61] the most important builders of peat is the Sphagnum sphagnum. [62] Carnivorous plants such as sundew and butterworts specific to bogs and bog asphodel and bog cotton are also common. [61] Shoulders water is essential for reproduction of flies and damselflies and Wicklow mountain bogs also supports insects dust skater whirligig beetles, water sailors and midges as well as the common frog and seaweed lizard. [63] wading birds snipes, curlews and golden plovers feed in the wet marshland. [64]

Because of the drainage of water from bogs as a result of human activity, most of the Wicklow peat has dried out too much for Sphagnum mosses grow and heaths and hedvegetation has taken over. [65] Active peat building still exists in some places, most notably Liffey Head Bog. [61] common heather (or whiting) and bell heather is the most common moorland plants along with blueberries (or fraughan, as it is called in Ireland), bog cotton, deergrass and purple moor grass. [65] species found Wicklow heaths include red grouse, meadow pipit and skylark. [66] the birds of prey found in the highlands include kestrels, hen harriers, merlins and peregrine falcons. [64]the latter of which are protected species. [67] the highlands used for sheep grazing and so moors periodically burned to keep the growth of heather in check and promote the growth of grass. [68]

Feral goat valley in Glenealo

Red deer, once at home in Wicklow but hunted to extinction, reintroduced on Powerscourt in the 18th century. [69] Japanese sika deer were also imported by Powerscourt and harkorsades with red deer. [69] All the deer were found in the Wicklow Mountains originates from Power’s crew and either sika deer or hybrid red sika deer. [70] Other mammals present include wild goats, mountain hares, badgers, stoats, otters, red squirrels, gray squirrels and bats.[71] the Irish Elk is an extinct species of deer that lived Wicklow mountains c. 11,000 years ago, is still to be discovered in large quantities in Ballybetagh Bog near Glencullen. [72] Wolves was also once home in the mountains but were hunted to extinction in Ireland: the last wolf in Wicklow was killed at Glendalough 1710. [73]

Widespread clearance of forests began in the Bronze Age and continued until the early 20th century. [74] Afforestation programs began in the 1920s and accelerated in the 1950s with the widespread planting of coniferous forests, particularly in mountain moorland areas previously considered unsuitable for planting. [75] the dominant tree is the Sitka spruce and 58% of forest plantations, [76] with lodgepole pine, spruce, pine, larch and douglas fir also planted. [77] biodiversity is low in conifer plantations because they are not native tree species. [78] Broadleaf crops are rare, accounting for less than 10% of the forest. [79]

The young rivers in the upper valleys are spawning grounds for salmon and trout. [80] char, isolated in Wicklow lakes after the end of the last ice age, [81]have been recorded at Lough Dan and lakes of Glendalough but are now believed extinct. [ 80] a program to reintroduce them in Upper Lake in Glendalough began in 2009. [82]

History

See also: History of Ireland

The Neolithic passage grave on top of Seefin Mountain

The earliest traces of human activity in the interior of the Wicklow goes to about 4300 f.Kr .. [83] Passage graves from the Neolithic period, is the earliest and most prominent feature of Irish prehistoric civilization in the Wicklow Mountains. [84] These graves sit on many of the western and northern summits Saggart in Dublin and Baltinglass Wicklow, such vidSeefin and Seefingan. [85] the archaeologist Geraldine Stout has suggested that they had a territorial marking function, much like today’s border crossings. [86] other prehistoric monuments found in the highlands include stone circles, standing stones and rock art. [87] the existence of standing stones at elevations suggests that they may have earned route marking purposes. [88]the largest complex of ancient castles in Ireland is to be found in the hills near Baltinglass. [88]

The earliest known tribes that have controlled the Wicklow Mountains include Dál Messin Corb, the Uí Mail UI Theig and UI Briúin. [89] A member of Dál Messin Corb was Saint Kevin, who founded the monastery in Glendalough in the latter part of the 6th century . [89] Kevin traveled to Glendalough from Hollywood, crosses the mountains through the Wicklow Gap. [90] in the 8th century, Glendalough had grown into a substantial settlement of 500-1000 people and an important place of learning and pilgrimage. [91] monasteries often attacked, especially in times of illness or starvation, and Glendalough wealth made it a common target for both local tribes and later the Scandinavian invaders. [92] monastery declined in importance after the arrival of the Normans in the 12th century and its subsequent annexation to the archdiocese Dublin. [93] it was burned by the English in 1398, although the settlement continued until the end of the 16th century. [93] there are also important early Irish church sites in Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains on Rathmichael and Tully. [94]

1170, during the Norman invasion of Ireland, Strongbow and Dermot MacMurrough successfully besieged Dublin by following a high road through the Wicklow Mountains, prevent defense along the normal route west of the mountains. [95] The Norman invasion offset two important Gaelic clans of Kildare, the O ‘Byrne and O’Toole, who moved into the Wicklow mountains, the O’Byrnes O’Toole in the east and the west. [96] from their strongholds both families carried out a sustained campaign of harassment against the invaders and the Wicklow mountains became known as terra guerre ( “land of war”), in contrast to the terra Pacis ( “land for peace”) of the settled lowlands. [97]

Valley Glenmalure gave an almost unassailable refuge for clans and English forces suffered heavy losses there, first in 1274 and again in 1580 in the Battle of Glenmalure. [98] [99] The latter defeat was at the hands of Fiach McHugh O ‘Byrne, who led that many attacks against the English and helped in escapes many of the hostages held by the English to ensure the loyalty of the Irish clans. [100] such hostages were Red Hugh O’Donnell, who had run away from Dublin Castle at night January 6, 1592 in the company of art O’Neill. [99] the two men crossed the mountains in blizzard conditions, leading to Fiach McHugh O’Byrne foothold in Glenmalure. [99] Art O’Neill died of exposure during the trip and Red Hugh had several toes amputated because of frostbite. [101] a cross and a plaque north of Conavalla mountains mark the place where art O’Neill was killed and an annual walk is now held by the two men’s footsteps. [102] the O’Byrnes “and O’Toole’s dominance came finally to an end with the succession of 1652 when their land was confiscated by the English Commonwealth. [103]

Glendalough Valley, showing the monastery town, Lower Lake and Upper Lake

A longer period of peace reigned in the Wicklow Mountains from the end of the Cromwellian period up to the 1798 Rising. [104] Although the main rebellion quickly defeated, Irish rebels again used the Wicklow Mountains as a hiding place and stronghold of attacking the English for many years afterwards. [ 105] Among their numbers, Michael Dwyer, was born in the Wicklow Mountains, born in townlandav Camara Glen of Imaal, and General Joseph Holt. [106] Both men eventually surrendered and was transported to Australia. [106] determined to prevent any future insurgent activity, a military road through the mountains, similar to those built in the Scottish highlands to curb the jakobitupproren, was proposed by the British government for troops to be deployed rapidly in the region. [107] the Wicklow military road was built between 1800 and 1809, runs from Rathfarnham, Dublin to Aghavannagh, County Wicklow through Glencree, Sally Gap and Laragh. [108]a series of military camps and police stations were built along the route, even if they were little used and soon fell into disrepair as the Wicklow Mountains soon ceased to be a center of insurgent activity after the road was completed. [108]

The census in 1841 recorded a population of 13,000 in Wicklow uplands of 126.143 people in the county as a whole. [109] After the Great Famine, the census in 1891 showed that the population of the county Wicklow had decreased to 62,136 by the proportional fall in the inland regions even greater as the population fate margin countries. [110]

The construction of the railway in the 19th century led to the development of tourism in the Wicklow Mountains. [111] visitors were taken by horse carriage in the mountains from the railway station in Rathdrum. [111]Glendalough established itself quickly as the most popular tourist destination and a train that was considered in 1897 but the proposals came to nothing. [112] tourism ~~ POS = TRUNC potential Military road was seen shortly after its completion and GN Wright Tours in Ireland (1822) is one of the earliest guides to the sights along the way. [113]

Present

See also: Wicklow Mountains National Park

The main agricultural activity in the inland sheep graze, mainly uses Wicklow Cheviot breed. [114] Mark also used for forestry and peat cutting. [115]Tourism and recreation are also important activities in the hinterland.Glendalough is still the most popular destination, receiving about one million visitors each year. [116] Leisure Activities in the mountains include walking, mountaineering, winter climbing, fishing and cycling. [117] Hill walking in the Wicklow Mountains first popularized by JB Malone through a weekly column he wrote in the Evening Herald newspaper. [118] Malone later instrumental in the creation of the Wicklow Way, Ireland’s first National marked trail, which opened in 1980 and crosses the Wicklow Mountains. [118]the Wicklow Way has been joined by the Dublin Mountains Way and St. Kevin’s Way pilgrim road, both of which also pass through parts of the mountains. [119] [120]

At the foot of concern pollution and unwanted development of the Wicklow Uplands, the government announced the creation of the Wicklow Mountains National Park in 1990 to preserve the area’s biodiversity and landscape. [121]The park was officially established in 1991 and now covers an area of over 20,000 hectares (200 square kilometers , 77 square miles). [122] In addition, the Wicklow Mountains (including areas outside the National Park) is classified as a special area of conservation under the EU Habitats Directive and as a special protection area under the EU birds Directive. [123]

Dublin foot of the Wicklow Mountains is managed by the Dublin Mountains Partnership (DMP), a group formed in May 2008 in order to enhance the recreational experience of users of the Dublin Mountains. [124] Its members include representatives of government agencies, local authorities and recreational users. [124 ] DMP has restored trails and developed hiking trails, orienteering courses and a mountain bike course. [125]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Wicklow Mountains”. Placental Database of Ireland.Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs. Taken 5 juli2011.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijkl Joyce 1900.
  3. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 32.
  4. Jump up ^ Corlett 1999, p. 34.
  5. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, p. 154.
  6. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 253rd
  7. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, p. 11.
  8. ^ Jump up to: abc Lewis 1837th
  9. Jump up ^ “Lugnaquilla”. MountainViews.ie. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  10. Jump up ^ “900m Irish mountains”. MountainViews.ie. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  11. Jump up ^ “Kippure”. MountainViews.ie. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  12. Jump up ^ “Vandeleur-Lynam List, 600m Irish mountains”.MountainViews.ie .Hämtad 5 July 2011.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Whittow, 1975, p. 268th
  14. Jump up ^ Holland 2003, p. 22.
  15. Jump up ^ Jackson, Parkes & Simms, 2010, p. 142.
  16. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, pp. 18-22.
  17. ^ Jump up to: ab Whittow, 1975, p. 271.
  18. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, pp. 23-28.
  19. Jump up ^ Holland 2003, p. 23.
  20. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 252nd
  21. ^ Jump up to: ab Holland 2003, p. 27.
  22. Jump up ^ Williams & Harper 1999, p. 29.
  23. Jump up ^ Coillte & GSI in 1997, §2.
  24. Jump up ^ Holland, 2003, p. 29.
  25. ^ Jump up to: ab Holland 2003, p. 30.
  26. Jump up ^ Warren, 1993, p. 28.
  27. Jump up ^ “Lakes & Rivers”. Wicklow Mountains National Park.National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  28. Jump up ^ Whittow, 1975, p. 261st
  29. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, p. 10.
  30. Jump up ^ Heritage Council 2007, pp. 10-11.
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  53. Jump up ^ Moriarty 1988b, p. 57-59.
  54. Jump up ^ “Turlough Hill”. History of ESB. ESB Group. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
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  56. Jump up ^ “Tomaneena”. MountainViews.ie. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
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  89. ^ Jump up to: ab Corlett 1999, p. 35.
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  93. ^ Jump up to: ab Gurrin 2006, p. 22.
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  95. Jump up ^ Lydon, 1994, p. 151.
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  101. Jump up ^ Flynn, 2003, p. 31.
  102. Jump up ^ “O’Neill Art Walk”. Simon Stewart Hill Walking in Ireland.Hämtadsexton July 2011.
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  104. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 68th
  105. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 69th
  106. ^ Jump up to: ab Flynn, 2003, p 46-48 ..
  107. Jump up ^ Fewer 2007, p. 23.
  108. ^ Jump up to: ab Fewer 2007, passim .
  109. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, p. 71.
  110. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2003, p. 72.
  111. ^ Jump up to: ab Gurrin 2006, p. 72.
  112. Jump up ^ Gurrin 2006, pp. 72, 74th
  113. Jump up ^ Fewer 2007, p. 202.
  114. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 16.
  115. Jump up ^ Nairn & Crowley, 1998, pp. 168-9, 179th
  116. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 18.
  117. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 17.
  118. ^ Jump up to: ab Dalby 2009, p. 10.
  119. Jump up ^ “Dublin Mountains Way”. IrishTrails.ie. Irish Sports Council. Hämtad17 July 2011.
  120. Jump up ^ “St. Kevin’s Way”. IrishTrails.ie. Irish Sports Council. Taken 17 juli2011.
  121. Jump up ^ McDonald, Frank (4 April 1990). “Wicklow to get the National Park”. The Irish Times. Dublin. p. 5.
  122. Jump up ^ “Park History”. Wicklow Mountains National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  123. Jump up ^ National Parks and Wildlife Service 2005, p. 9.
  124. ^ Jump up to: ab “About Dublin Mountains Partnership”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  125. Jump up ^ “activities”. Dublin Mountains Partnership. Retrieved 17 July 2011.

Richard Cassels

Richard Cassels (1690-1751), who anglicised his name to Richard Castle , ranked by Edward Lovett Pearce as one of the greatest architects working in Ireland in the 18th century. Cassel was born in 1690 in Kassel, Germany. Even German, his family was of French origin, derived from the Franco-Netherlandish ‘You Ry’ family, known to many architects among their number. A cousin Simon, you Ry designed Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel.

Early work

Richard Cassels, who originally trained as an engineer, came to Ireland in 1728 on behalf of Sir Gustav Hume County Fermanagh designing the Hume a mansion on the shores of Lough Erne. Hume had probably discovered Cassels works in London, where he was influenced by the circle of architects influenced by Lord Burlington. Cassels, shortly after arriving in Ireland, established a thriving architectural practice in Dublin. Architecturally at the time Dublin was an exciting place to be – Edward Lovett Pearce, also newly established in the city, working at Castletown House, the grand mansion of Speaker William Connolly, and the new Irish Houses of Parliament the same time. Both of these buildings were designed in the recently introduced Palladian style. Palladian architecture was currently enjoying a revival that would sweep across Europe and adopted with a glow in Ireland. Cassels was well versed in the concepts of Palladio and Vitruvius, but was also in favor of more baroque style.

In Dublin itself Cassels worked at the Houses of Parliament with Pearce, his mentor and friend. Cassels’ first solo mission was Printing House in Trinity College, to resemble a temple complete with a Doric portico. This portico was an interesting feature that symbolizes Cassels’ early works – a portico is an almost essential feature of Palladian architecture. But that Cassel’s work matured, he tended to just suggest a portico by semi-attached columns supporting a pediment as the focal point of a facade. Perhaps he felt the great Italian arcades that gave protection from the sun is not provided for the house in less clement Ireland. This blind, only suggested, the portico part of his last Dublin masterpiece Leinster House was built for the Earl of Kildare between 1745 and 1751. In 1741 he designed the Bishop’s Palace which is now part of the Waterford Treasures – three museums in the Viking Triangle, Waterford, Ireland. A comparison of the Printing House and Leinster House shows the development of the true Palladian style to, usually called, Georgian style in Ireland in the quarter century that Dublin would almost rebuilt.

Premature death of Edward Lovett Pearce, aged 34, in 1733, did Cassels Ireland’s leading architect working in the coveted Palladian style. He immediately adopted all Pearce’s mission and thus began designing a series of lavish mansions. After completion of the Houses of Parliament, it appeared to have been a rush of aristocracy to build a series of new townhouses in the same style and Cassels was often the first choice for the architect. This led to the creation of what came to be called Georgian Dublin.

For his exteriors he used a Palladian style that was distinctive for its strength and sobriety. In this he seems to have been influenced by Pearce and even James Gibbs. But when it came to the interiors, Cassels gave free rein to his love for the more continental baroque. The walls were covered with stucco reliefs, ceiling medallions and motifs of plaster segments moldings and carvings, in an almost rococo style peculiar to Ireland.

Notable works

Some of the finest works of Cassels starts are listed below. ( Date often varies from one source to another )

Trinity College, the Printing House

This perfect little Doric temple, completed in 1734, and is believed to be Cassels’ first major solo work. A four-columned portico of Doric columns projected from severe rusticated building and the whole is only the width of the portico. ( This building is sometimes attributed to Edward Lovett Pearce ).

Carton House (1739)

Main article: Carton House

Cassels made major changes to Carton House in Kildare from 1739 to 1745 for the Earl of Kildare. The resulting facade was in his usual restrained and symmetrical style. The large garden facade ends medvenetianska windows at each end, while in the center, is a single storey portico so restrained as to be almost a porch. The roof line is hidden by a balustrade, is broken by a pediment supported over the central Gulf. The interior is a riot of plaster-work ornamentation. The Lafranchini brothers, known for its plaster-work, performed some of his finest work here, and would work again with Cassels on Russborough.

The Conolly Folly

The Conolly Folly designed by him and built in 1740 as a park ornament for Castletown House.

Russborough House (1742)

Main article: Russborough House

Russborough was designed by Cassels Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltown. It was built between 1741 and 1755. A central block containing the main rooms are flanked by curved and segmented colonnades leading to two symmetrical service building. The main entrance, in the center of one of Cassels brand “suggested” engineer, is on a raised piano nobile. It is reached by a wide staircase. The main feature of the interior is rococo plaster-work and ceiling, again by the master stuccoists Paul and Philip Lanfrachini; and ornate carved marble fireplaces, all contrasting with the austerity of the exterior.

Summer House (1731)

Summer House was a large Palladian mansion in County Meath originally Pearce, who died before the project began. Cassel took over the project and was responsible for Rococo interiors. The building was damaged by fire in 1920 and finally demolished in the 1970s.

Power House (1741)

Powers House, Wicklow, was a large country house, originally a 13th century castle, which was completely rebuilt by Cassels, beginning in 1730 and ending in 1741. The demesne was about 850 acres (3.4 km 2 ). The three-storey building had at least 68 rooms. The entrance was (18 m) long and 60 feet (12 meters) 40 feet wide where family heirlooms appeared. The main reception rooms were on the first floor instead of the more typical on the ground floor. King George IV was the guest of Richard Wingfield, 5th Viscount Powers in August 1821. [1] Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Powers inherited the title and Powerscourt, which consisted of 49,000 acres (198 km 2) of land in Ireland, at age 8 in 1844 . When he turned 21, he began an extensive reonovation of the house and created new gardens. Inspiration for the garden design followed visits by Powers to ornamental gardens at the Palace of Versailles, Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna and Schwetzingen Palace Heidelberg .Trädgården development took 20 years to complete in 1880. The commanding hilltop Cassels deviated slightly from his usual dark style, to give the house something of what John Vanbrugh would have called “air castle” – a severe palladian facade ends with two circular domed towers. The house was destroyed by fire in 1974 when it was owned by the Slazenger family and renovated in 1996. In the 1830s, the house was a place for a number of conferences on unfulfilled prophecies of the Bible, attending men like John Nelson Darby and Edward Irving. These conferences held under the auspices of Theodosia Wingfield Powers, then widow Lady Powers.

Tyrone House (1740)

Cassels designed this Dublin house for Marcus Beresford, Earl of Tyrone in Marlborough Street between 1740 and 1745. Less than Power House is said to be the first significant aristocratic houses to be built in the northern part of the city. There are good examples of Cassels’ robust sober style. The central Venetian window above the main entrance is the only example of decoration or frivolity to this dramatic severe facade.

Leinster House (1745)

Main article: Leinster House

The house was originally known as Kildare House after James Fitzgerald, the Earl of Kildare, who ordered Cassels to build it between 1745 and 1747. Intended to be Dublin’s magnificent mansion, the result could not have been disappointed Kildare. It is said that another Irish architect James Hoban, later copied facade Leinster House for his design of the White House in Washington (also Castle Coole designed by James Wyatt bears a closer resemblance).

Rotunda Hospital (1757)

Originally the main BB Dublin, it was redesigned by Cassels which converted it to a Palladian palaces, complete with a rotunda that gives the hospital its name.

Watertown House, Westmeath

Built for Gustaf Handcock-Temple in the 1740s. The house was three floors over basement and seven bays wide, was built of brick with stone facing.Cassel’s work includes a pigeon, (almost identical to Killiney Hill Obelisk) walled gardens, courtyard and grotto. The front facade was seven bays wide and three stories high over a basement. The house was abandoned in 1923. It was sold for scrap in 1928 when most of the house was demolished. [2]

Westport House, Mayo.

Built Browne, Westport House is a beautifully located two floors above the basement ashlar stone house overlooking Clew Bay in County Mayo. Cassel decided to move the village of Westport to improve the outlook from the house in öster.Det original house was quite small and was later extended by others.

Succession to Ireland

Richard Cassels died in 1751. His legacy is that he gave Ireland a distinct type of Palladian architecture all their own, to be fully appreciated one must consider the buildings simultaneously externally and internally, the restrained, even severe, but still large external facades, which does not jar the eye of the Irish landscape, gives no hint of flamboyance, even wild rococo opulence within. This is almost nowhere else in Europe, the cold grandeur of England’s finest Palladian mansions Kedleston Hall and Holkham Hall could not be removed further from the joy and the movement of the interior of one of Richard Cassels’s Irish Palladian interiors.

See also

  • Ballyhaise House
  • Bellinter House
  • Hazelwood House, Sligo

References

  1. Jump up ^ Dooley, Terence (2001). The decline in the large house in Ireland. Wolfound Press Ltd. ISBN 0-86327-850-7.
  2. Jump up ^ ‘Water: the rise and fall of a south Westmeath property “by Richard Coplen.

Russborough House

Russborough House is a stately house is located near the Blessington Lakes in County Wicklow, Ireland, between the towns of Blessington and Ballymore Eustace and is said to be the longest house in Ireland, with a facade measuring 210 m / 700 ft. It is an example of Palladian architecture, designed by Richard Cassels for Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltownoch built between 1741 and 1755. The interior of the house contains some ornate plasterwork on the ceilings of the Lafranchini brothers, who also collaborated with Cassels on Carton House.

History

The Leeson family has its origin in Northamptonshire and had moved to Ireland in the second half of the 17th century. A sizable fortune made in brewing and property in Dublin on to Joseph Leeson, who bought the land at the former Russell Town. He became an MP and was made Earl of Milltown 1763. [1]

Russborough House was designed for Joseph Leeson Richard Cassels and was built between 1741 and 1755. It remained in the possession of the Earl of Milltown until the sixth jarlen.På death of his widow in 1914 it passed to a nephew, Edmund Turton, who rarely stopped. In Turton’s death in 1929, his widow sold the house to the Captain Denis Bowes Daly, 1931. Sir Alfred and Lady Beit bought Russborough in 1952 from Captain Daly to house his art collection and in 1976 established Alfred Beit Foundation to administer egendomen.Stiftelsen opened the historic mansion and its collections to the Irish public in 1978. Beit died in 1994, but the Lady Beit remain in the home for his own death in 2005. [1]

On 7 February 2010, a fire severely damaged the west wing and caused part of the roof to collapse. No art was damaged, deleted, along with furniture to allow for restoration of the west wing. Initial investigations of the damage suggested an electrical fault from the pipes in the ceiling may have triggered the fire. [2]

In recent years, locally advertised Farmers Markets have been held on a regular basis in the grounds of the house.

Art Collections

Russborough has housed two art collections, begun with the Milltown estate, whose collection was donated to the National Gallery of Ireland by the widow of the sixth Earl.

Sir Alfred Beit bought the house in 1952, where he housed his own family collection of the works of many great artists, including Goya, Vermeer, Peter Paul Rubens and Thomas Gainsborough. This collection then stolen four times: in 1974 by an IRA gang, including British heiress Rose Dugdale, [3] in 1986 by Martin Cahill (nicknamed “The General”); 2001 and 2002 by Martin Cahill associate Martin Foley. Two paintings, Gainsborough’s Madame Bacelli and Vermeer’s Lady writing a letter with her Maid , the latter is probably the most valuable painting in the collection, were stolen twice of theft, even though each subsequently recovered (the latter in 1993, the same year as the recovery of Goya portrait of Dona Antonia Zarate [4] ). Beit collection has donated many of his works to the State but significant proportion of the paintings have been returned and made available for viewing by the owners, Alfred Beit Foundation. Other paintings have returned four Joseph Vernet paintings titled “Morning”, “Midday”, “Sunset” and “Night’- these actually painted Russborough in the 1750s and had stayed in the house for most of the last 260 years .

popular culture

Russborough House was used as a setting in the 2011 movie Haywire .

Russborough House was used as a setting in the 2016 film Love & Friendship , directed by Whit Stillman. [5]

It was featured in Travel Channel mysteries of the castle , retells the story of the 1974 art robbery.

See also

  • Palladian architecture
  • Blessington
  • Poulaphouca Reservoir

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Russborough County Wicklow CONSERVATION PLAN” (PDF). Pulled 12/18/2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Russborough House damaged in the fire, the Irish Times,February 8, 2010. Taken presented on 26 August 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ “No regrets for renegade IRA art robbers Rose Dugdale”. Irish Independent.
  4. Jump up ^ Dolnick, Edward. “How Ireland regained its Vermeer”. The Times , 31 July 2005. Retrieved on 24 May 2009.
  5. Jump up ^ . McGrath, Meadhbh (27 May 2016) “” I loved places, they were perfect for us “- the director Whit Stillman talks filming Love & Friendship in Ireland”. Irish Independent. Retrieved July 15, 2016.

Glendalough

Glendalough (/ ˌ ɡ l ɛ nd ə l ɒ x /; Irish: Gleann DA Loch , meaning “Valley of two lakes”) is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, Ireland, known for an early medieval monastic founded in the 6th century by St Kevin.

History

Kevin, a descendant of one of the ruling families in Leinster, studied as a boy under the care of three holy men, Eoghan, Lochan and Eanna. During this time he went to Glendalough. He would return later, with a small group of monks to found a monastery where the ‘two rivers form a confluence’. Kevin’s writings discuss his fighting “knights” at Glendalough; Researchers now believe that this refers to the process of self-examination and his personal temptations. [1] His fame as a holy man spread and he attracted many followers. He died in about 618th For six centuries afterwards, Glendalough flourished and the Irish Annals contain references to the death of abbots and raids on the settlement. [2]

Around 1042, the oak wood from Glendalough used to build the second longest (30 m) Viking longship ever recorded. A modern copy of the ship was built in 2004 and is currently located in Roskilde, Denmark. [3]

At the Synod of Rath Breasail in 1111, Glendalough was named one of the two pins in the North Leinster.

The Book of Glendalough was written about 1131st

St. Laurence O’Toole, born in 1128, became the abbot of Glendalough and was well known for his holiness and hospitality. Even after his appointment as Archbishop of Dublin in 1162, he returned occasionally to Glendalough, to the solitude of St. Kevin bed. He died in Eu in Normandy in 1180. [2]

During 1214, the pins in Glendalough and Dublin were. From this point, cultural and ecclesiastical status Glendalough declined. The destruction of the settlement of the English forces in 1398 left it a ruin, but it continued as a church of local importance and a place of pilgrimage.

Glendalough features on the 1598 map “A Modern Display of Ireland, one of the British Isles” by Abraham Ortelius’ Glandalag “.

Descriptions of Glendalough from the 18th and 19th centuries include references to times of “riotous assembly” on the feast of St. Kevin on 3 June.[2]

The current remaining in Glendalough tell only a small part of its history.The monastery in its heyday included workshops, areas for manuscript writing and copying, apartments, an infirmary, farm buildings and housing for both monks and lay a large population. The buildings that survive probably date from between the 10th and 12th centuries. [2]

regular see

Glendalough is currently a full view of the Catholic Church. It is used for bishops who hold no ordinary power of their own and thus are titular Bishop.[4]

titular Bishop

  • Raymond D’Mello (20 December 1969 -13 December 1973)
  • Marian Przykucki (December 12, 1973 to June 15, 1981)
  • Donal Murray (4 March 1982-10 February 1996)
  • Diarmuid Martin (5 December 1998 – October 14, 2014)
  • Guy Sansaricq (6 June 2006 – August 16, 2014) [4]

annalistic references

See Annals of Inisfallen (AI)

  • AI800.2 Minndenach, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested.
  • AI809.2 Échtbrann, abbot of Glenn dá Locha [rested].
  • AI1003.6 Dúnchad Ua Mancháin, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested.

Monuments in Lower Valley

Gateway

Gateway to the monastery town of Glendalough is one of the most important monuments, now totally unique in Ireland. It was originally two floors with two fine granite arch. The antae or protruding walls at each end indicates that it had a wooden roof. Inside the gate, in the west wall, is a cross-inscribed stone. This designated sanctuary, the limit of the area refuge. Paving of the causeway in the monastery town are still preserved in part, but very little remains of the enclosure wall. [2]

The Round Tower

This fine tower built of mica-schist interspersed with granite is approximately 30 meters high, with an entrance hall 3.5 meters from the base. The conical roof was built in 1876 using the original stones. The tower originally had six hours floors connected by ladders. The four floors above the main floor, each lit by a small window; while the upper floors are four windows facing the cardinal points of the compass. round towers, landmarks for approaching visitors, was built as a bell tower, but also served on occasion as a store-house and as safe havens in times of attack. [2]

cathedral

The largest and most impressive of the buildings at Glendalough, the cathedral had several phases of construction, at the earliest, consisting of the current nave with its antae. The large mica-schist rocks that can be seen up to the height of the square-headed west doorway was reused from a previous smaller church. The chancel and sacristy are from the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The chancel arch and east window was nicely decorated, although many of the stones are now missing. The north door of the nave is also from this period. According south window in the chancel is an ambry or wall cupboard and a piscina, a basin used for washing the sacred vessels. A few meters south of the cathedral an early cross of local granite, with a unpierced ring, commonly known as St. Kevin’s Cross. [2]

Priests’ House

Almost completely reconstructed from the original stones, built on a 1779 sketch made by Beranger, the priests’ house a small Romanesque building, with a decorative bow at the east end. It gets its name from the practice of the Inter Ring priests there in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its initial purpose is unknown, although it may have been used to house relics of St.Kevin. [2]

St. Kevin Church or “kitchen”

This stone roof building originally had only one ship, with the entrance in the west and a little round-headed window in the east gable. The upper part of the window can be seen in what became the chancel arch, while the chancel (now missing) and the sacristy were added later. The steep roof formed by the overlapping blocks, is a carrier of a semicircular arch. Access to the cottage or the roof chamber was through a rectangular opening to the western part of the vault. Church also had one hour the first floor. The bell tower with its conical lid and four small windows rising from the western part of the stone ceiling in the form of a miniature circular tower. [2]

St. Ciarán’s (Kieran’s) Church

The remains of this ship-and-cows church discovered in 1875. The church celebrates probably St. Ciarán (Kieran), the founder of Clonmacnoise, a monastic settlement that had associations with Glendalough in the 10th century. [2]

St Marys or Our Lady’s Church

One of the earliest and most made of churches, Mary or Our Lady’s Church consists of nave with a recent cows. Its granite west door with an architrave has inclined jambs and a massive lintel. In front of the lintel is inscribed with an unusual saltire or x-shaped cross. East windows are round-headed, with a hood molding and carved two very worn heads on the outside. [2]

Trinity Church

A simple nave-and-chancel church, with a fine chancel arch. Trinity Church is located next to the main road. A square-headed doorway in the west side leads to a later annexe, possibly a sacristy. A round tower or bell tower was built in a vault in this chamber. This fell in a storm in 1818. The door into the south wall of the nave also originates from this period. Protruding brackets on the ends would have carried the border joists in the ceiling. [2]

St. Saviour church

The latest of Glendalough churches, the St. Saviour built in the 12th century, probably at the time of St. Laurence O’Toole. Nave and chancel with its fine decorating stones were restored in the 1870s with the help of stones found at the site. The Romanesque chancel arch has three orders, with very ornate capitals. The east window has two round head lights. Its decorated features include a snake, a lion, and two birds holding a human head between its beak.A staircase in the eastern wall leading from a neighboring domestic building would have given access to a room above the choir. [2]

Monument near Upper Lake

Reefert Church

Located in a grove of trees, this ship-and-cows church dates from around 1100. Most of the surrounding walls are modern. The name comes from Righ Fearta , the burial place of kings. The church was built in a simple style, has a granite doorway with sloping side panels and the flat piece and a granite cross bow. The protruding brackets at each end by Verge timber for the roof.East of the church there are two intersections of note, one with a utarbetadinterlace patterns. On the other side of Poulanass River, near the Reefert are the remains of another small church. [2]

St. Kevin Cell

Built on a rocky spur of the lake, this stone structure was 3.6 meters in diameter with walls 0.9 meters thick and a doorway on the east side. Only the foundations survive today and it is possible that the cell had a stone Corbelled roof, similar to the beehive huts on Skellig Michael, County Kerry.[2]

The “Caher”

This stone walls circular enclosure on flat land between the two lakes is 20 meters in diameter and is of unknown date. Nearby are several intersections, apparently used as stations on the pilgrimage. [2]

Temple-na-Skellig and St. Kevin bed

This small rectangular church on the southern shore of the Upper Lake is accessible only by boat, through a series of steps from the bridge. West of the church is a raised platform with stone walls, where the residential huts probably stod.Kyrkan, partly built in the 12th century, has a granite doorway with inclined jambs. At the eastern end is a Latin cross inscribed with several common grave slabs and three small crosses. Nearby is St. Kevin’s bed, a cave in the rock about 8 meters above the level of Upper Lake and said a retreat of St. Kevin and later to St. Laurence O’Toole. Partly artificial, driven back 2 meters into the mountain. [2]

Geography

The valley was formed during the last ice age by glaciers that left a moraine valley mouth. The Poulanass river, which plunges into the valley from the south, creating a delta, which eventually awarded the original lake in two. [5]

Vegetation and Natural Resources

Glendalough is surrounded by semi-natural oak forest. A large part of this previously coppiced (cut to the base at regular intervals) to produce wood, charcoal and bark. In spring, the Oakwood floor covered with a display avblåklockor, sorrel and wood anemones. Other common plants are wood rush, bracken, fern ferns and various species of mosses. The bottom is largely of holly, hazel and ash.

In the western part of Upper Lake lie the ruins of an abandoned mining village normally only be reached on foot. The mining of lead took place here from 1850 until about 1957, but the mines in the valley of Glendalough were smaller and less important than those around Glendasan Valley, from where they are separated by Camaderry Mountain. 1859 the Glendasan Glendalough mines and interconnected by a series adits, now flooded, through the rock.This made it easier to transport ore from Glendalough and process it there.

Wildlife

Glendalough is a good place to look for some of Ireland’s newest breeding species, such as the mergansers and great spotted woodpecker, and some of the most rare, such as the redstart and wood warbler, peregrine, dipper, cuckoo, Jay ochormvråk can also be seen. [6]

Recreation

There are many hiking trails of varying difficulty around Glendalough. In the valley itself are nine color-coded hiking trails maintained by the Wicklow Mountains National Park. They all begin at an information office close to Upper Lough where maps are available. There are also a number of guided walking options.

The Wicklow Way, a long distance waymarked footpath, passes through Glendalough on its way from Rathfarnham in the north to the southernmost point of Clonegal in County Carlow.

Mountaineering Glendalough’s granite rock, located on the hillside above the northwest part of the valley, has been a popular rock-climbing spot since the first climb was established in 1948. The current guidebook, published in 1993, lists about 110 lines, on all grades up to E5 / 6a, but many more climbs, mainly in the higher grades, have been recorded since then. [7]

The climb varies between one and four slots, and up to over 100 meters in length. There are several sectors:

  • Twin Buttress , a major pillar divided in the middle of a seasonal waterfall, which contains the most popular climbs. This area is accessed via a zigzag path at the head of the valley.
  • The upper Cliffs , a band of rocks high up on the hillside east of the Twin Buttress.
  • Acorn Buttress, a small buttress just below the Twin Buttress, which is a popular base camp location.
  • Hobnail Buttress , a small pillar with some easy climbing, on the hillside one kilometer to the east.

The quality of climbing along with various grades attracts climbers of all levels to Glendalough, and make it a favorite destination for climbers Dublin in particular. The Irish’s Club has worked a climbing hut in the area since the 1950s. Below the cliff is an extensive boulder field. This is a popular place for bouldering activities, [8] the blocks within the reach of the path is especially popular.

Gallery

  • St. Kevin’s Church, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, Ireland 2012
  • Lower Lake.
  • Upper Lake.
  • Round Tower.
  • St. Kevin church
  • 1949 Irish shilling stamp Vox Hiberniae flying over Gleann Da Loc .
  • Upper Lake and Valley
  • The Round Tower at Glendalough.
  • St. Kevin Church on the coat of arms of County Wicklow
  • Glendalough (1890)
  • Glendalough Gatehouse
  • St. Kevin, Glendalough
  • St Kevin B
  • Glendalough (2011)

See also

  • Abbot of Glendalough
  • Bishop of Glendalough
  • Irish round tower
  • Saint Kevin
  • List of abbeys and priories in Wicklow

References

  1. Jump up ^ Glendalough
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefghijklmnopq tourist Glendalough, Produced by “The Office of Public Works’ (Oifig na nOibreacha Poibli), Glendalough, County Wicklow.
  3. Jump up ^ “Havhingsten fra Glendalough (Skuldelev 2), trans. Sea Stallion from Glendaloug “. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab Catholic hierarchy List of titular Bishop of Glenndálocha
  5. Jump up ^ Nairn, Richard (2001). Discovering Wild Wicklow.Townhouse and houses. p. 8. ISBN 1-86059-141-8.
  6. Jump up ^ BirdWatch Ireland Irish Birds Vol.7 (2004-5) pp.377,542,547;Vol.8 (2006-9) p 101,103,253,257,367,369,574,576 .; Vol.9 (2010) p.69
  7. Jump up ^ Lyons, Joe; Fenlon, Robbie (1993). Mountaineering Guide to Wicklow. Mountaineering Council of Ireland. ISBN 978-0-902940-11-6.
  8. Jump up ^ TheShortSpan – Bouldering in Ireland

Greystones

Greystones (Irish: Na Clocha Liatha ) is a coastal town and seaside resort in Wicklow, Ireland. It is located on the east coast of Ireland, 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Bray and 27 km (17 mi) south of Dublin, with a population of about 17,000. The town bordering the Irish Sea in the east, Bray Head in the north and the Wicklow Mountains to the west.

The town was named after one kilometer long gray rocks between the two beaches on the ocean. The port area and the railway station is on the northern and southern ends respectively. North Beach, which begins at the harbor, is a rocky beach and a portion of its length is overlooked by the southern cliffs of Bray Head, which is subject to erosion. South Beach is a wide sandy beach about one kilometer long. There is a Blue Flag beach and receives many visitors and tourists, mainly during the summer.

In 2008 Greystones named the world’s most liveable society “at the Awards in China. [1]

History

Greystones is south of the site of an ancient castle of the Barony of Rathdown. There was a small village, like the castle, was known as Rathdown, which appeared on a 1712 map. This site occupied an area now called the Grove, north of Greystones harbor, but only the ruins of a chapel, St. Crispin Cell survive. Greystones is a very recent settlement and first mentioned in Topographia Hibernica , a 1795 publication. It is described as a“noted fishing spot four miles outside Bray.”

In the early 19’s there were some families scattered around the harbor, Black, Wind Gates, Killincarrig and Rathdown. Delgany was a more extensive and longer-established village. However Greystones put on the map with the arrival of the railway in 1855, a difficult task carried out in consultation with Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the famous engineer. The train station was built on the line between the properties of two landowners; the La Touche family, Bellevue House (now in ruins, near Delgany), and Hawkins-Whitshed family Killincarrig House (now Greystones Golf Club). That gave contacts with Bray and Dublin, and left room for development on adjacent farms.

During the latter half of the 19th century, under the ownership of William Robert La Touche, Greystones “development momentum. North of the station, where Church Road, Victoria Road and Trafalgar Road and set many houses built in the years after the arrival of the railroad. After his father’s death, Elizabeth Hawkins-Whitshed was the sole heir of his property. In 1879, she married Frederick Gustavus Burnaby; a soldier, politician and travel. Burnaby died in battle in 1885, Elizabeth married twice, but the property continued to be called Burnaby Estate. In the early 20’s, began to Burnaby to expand the town on his side of the station, and the roads and houses in Burnaby has been developed and the population grew rapidly. The names of these two families remain well known today, with many roads and residential areas that bears their name.

Between 1885 and 1897, people Greystones campaign for a port to help the fishing industry and imports such as coal. The pier, dock, sea wall and boat slip left but has endured significant damage. In the early 20th century, the city felt the effects of coastal erosion (which is still a major problem); loss of fields and most of the houses on the North Beach Road , and costly internal relocation of the railway has all led to. In 1968, the old Kis to the lighthouse foundation added to the end of the pier.

At the end of World War II, cars and petrol became widely available, making Grey will gradually expand, filling the space between itself and outlying areas such as Black, Killincarrig and Delgany. But the popularity of the railroad declined; its existence is in danger in the 1980s, as government cutbacks reduced service only a few trains per day. During the 1990s, a revival with the arrival of the electrified DART from Bray, and a much more frequent schedule.

Grey has experienced a huge increase in its population since the 1970s with the construction of several large residential areas. A new development at Charles Country, just south of the city, including over 1,000 apartments. As of the 2006 census, the population in Greystones, including town and surrounding areas, amounting to 14,569 making it the second largest town in the county after Bray. [2]

Along with residential neighborhoods, the roads and facilities improved to cater for growth. The road between Greystones and Bray has expanded and realigned. A new two-lane road link (R774) connecting Greystones to N11 has been completed. The construction of a full interchange with the N11 has also been completed.

According to the 2006 census, Greystones Ireland’s largest church attendance as a part of the population (9.77%).

Transport

Road

Greystones is accessible from the N11 Dublin-Wexford road; a new interchange (Junction 11 on the N11) constructed near the Charles Country connecting to the city via a dual carriageway.

Rail

Greystones train station, which opened October 30, 1855 [3] is the southern terminus of the DART railway, a service that connects thirty stations along the east coast of Dublin. Iarnród Éireann diesel commuter and intercity trains also serve Greystones, connecting the city with Wicklow, Arklow, Gorey, Wexford, and Ross Euro in the south, and Dublin’s Connolly Station in the north.

Bus

Grey is served by 84, 184 and 84X Dublin Bus routes, while road 702 Aircoach service begins at Charles Country connecting the area with Dublin Airport.

Walk

Bray and Grey is associated with a Cliff Walk, which follows the route of the railroad around Bray Head. The walk is 6 km long and takes about two hours.[4]

Policy

Greystones is part of South EP constituency and Wicklow Dáil constituency.In municipal Greystones has six councilors on Wicklow County Council, representing Greystones municipal district.

The following elected officials are based in and around Grey and Stone municipality:

TD

  • Stephen Donnelly, TD (Ind)
  • Simon Harris TD (FG)

County Councillors:

  • Cllr. Gráinne McLoughlin (FK, Cathaoirleach of Greystones Municipal District)
  • Cllr. Jennifer Whitmore (Ind, Leas-Cathaoirleach of Greystones Municipal District)
  • Cllr. Tom Fortune (Ind)
  • Cllr. Nicola Lawless (SF)
  • Cllr. Derek Mitchell (FG)
  • Cllr. Gerry Walsh (FF)

Future development

Marina

This would be a € 300 million redevelopment scheme for the port, to be built by the consortium Sispar (Sispar is a joint venture consortium of Sisk and Michael Cotter park development) of a public-private partnership with Wicklow County Council. This has been and remains an important current issue in the city. Objections centered on the privatization of public beach land without broad public understanding, [5] but the work began. The development was the introduction of a new port, 341 apartments, a 230 berth marina, a new public plaza and facilities for local sports clubs. [6]

If the granting of planning permission, was 6.210 submissions received from An Bord Pleanála on the original plans, which more than 6200 were objections. [7] Many of the objections came from outside the County Wicklow, according to a spokesman for Wicklow County Council. [8] many opposed the details of the plan at the same time accept the general idea. A hearing was held and the board asked the developers to make some changes that resulted in plans scaled down by about 10%. [9] Some 3700 objections were raised on these updated planer.Den August 9, 2007, the Board approved the final plans, while imposing 13 conditions for construction works, including preservation of public access to the Cliff Walk during the development period, strict guidelines when it comes to dust control, recycling of demolition materials and restrictions on operating hours and noise levels. The Board also ruled over a former inspector’s report, rather than allow an old unlicensed landfill to remain at the new apartments. [9] [10]

In February 2010 it was announced that the development of the port would be paused indefinitely because of conditions in the Irish property market. [11]

After the development was halted loans attributable to development transferred to NAMA. Sispar insisted that it needed the support of NAMA to finish the project. [12] in September 2012 it was reported that NAMA had written off € 50 is payable for the troubled development of Greystones Harbour. It turned out that it was not Sispar consortium but Sisk alone who controlled the loans. [13]

People

Greystones and its surroundings (including Delgany) is home to several celebrities including:

  • Damien Rice; Musician
  • Andrew Hozier-Byrne; Musician
  • Éamon the Buitléar; wildlife filmmaker and naturalist.
  • Reggie Corrigan; former professional rugby player, Irish team member and former most capped Leinster player of all time.
  • Ronnie Drew of The Dubliners lived in Greystones.
  • John L. Murray, Chief Justice of Ireland 2004-2011.
  • George Hamilton; commentator for RTÉ television.
  • Frank Kelly; the actor who portrayed Father Jack in Father Ted .
  • Paul McNaughton; Former Swedish International Rugby players, as Leinster manager
  • Sean FITZPATRICK; former chairman of Anglo Irish Bank [14]
  • Stephen Donnelly; TD
  • Amy Bowtell; Irish Female professional tennis player.
  • Marten Toonder, artist, creator of Oliver B. Bumble
  • Paul Dunne (golfer)

Sports

The compound football

The city is home to a successful association football club, Grey United, [15]which is based at the Woodlands near the southern beach. GUFC is the largest school / girls soccer club in the country, and has more than 700 members. [15] Perhaps the club’s most famous alumni are current Irish international Paul McShane. Another successful club, Grey AFC, located on “The Arch Field” just beside the railway bridge in the harbor. Five of their players have represented Ireland at various levels. Ian Horan, Chris Mason and Stephen McCann has represented the Irish Between the team and Stephen Roche and Richie O’Hanlon has represented the Irish Colleges team.The Saturday and Sunday both sides play in the top division in the Leinster Senior League

Badminton

St. Kilian’s Badminton Club plays in Shoreline Leisure Center on Mill Road every Thursday. Their website can be found at St. Kilian’s Club Badminton

Baseball

Greystones is home to Greystones Mariners Baseball Club, catering to all ages. Sailors adult team competing nationally and several of the players representing Ireland at the National baseball team.

Scalar

A lawn bowling club is located on Burnaby Park.

Cricket

Cricket returned to Greystones in 2012 with the formation of Greystones Cricket, a vibrant and family-oriented club that currently practice (networks) at Greystones RFC and play their home games at Greystones United FC grounds. They have three senior men’s team and a women’s team plays in the Leinster Cricket Union competitions, a Taverners and two junior teams.

Gaelic game

Éire Og Grey GAA Club is located on Mill Road, in the southern part of the city. The club has recently undergone an extensive renovation that saw the improvements made to the clubhouse, seats, lighting and parkeringsplatser.Det is now one of the most used club facilities in the Greystones area.

Golf

There are two 18-hole golf courses and a driving range in the city. Greystones Golf Club was founded in 1895 and allows for great views of the city, the landscape, and the Irish Sea. Charles Country Golf Club is newer, flatter and located by the sea. These places can be reached by walking from the train station. There are other courses within a short driving distance (less than eight km) Delgany, Glen of the Downs, Kilcoole, Druids Glen (just outside Kilcoole), Bray and Woodbrook.

Marine

Grey has many marine-based clubs including sailing and windsurfing, fishing, diving, rowing and Sea Scouts.

Grey Rowing Club was founded in 1920 and is still ongoing today.

Shore angling for cod and plaice on the beaches and the harbor attracts many people, especially during the summer. Swimming is popular in warmer weather, especially on the south shore. The coast is also suitable for jogging and hiking.

Rugby

Main article: Grey RFC

Tennis

Grey Lawn Tennis Club is a vibrant, active club with 12 lighted outdoor courts and a large clubhouse. Located on Mill Road, on the southern part of town near the rugby and GAA clubs regularly hosts regional and national competitions, has a large number of tennis activities and coaching opportunities for children and adults and runs a number of social events during the year.

Vänorts

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Grey has twinning agreements with:

  • Holyhead, Wales, UK. [16]

Religion

Greystones various Christian denominations in the town, with most divisions traditional Christianity represented. There is a Roman Catholic, [17]a Presbyterian, [18] an Anglican (Church of Ireland), [19] an evangelical, [20] and one Armenian Evangelical [21] church in Greystones. Carraig Eden Theological College is the main Pentecostal center for theological studies and ministerial training in Ireland, offering BTH and MTH degrees in applied theology [22] The majority of the residents are Roman Catholic, but Greystones is the city with the highest population of Protestants in Ireland with 9.77% of the population claiming to be the Church of Ireland (according to 2006 census).

Education and research

Grey has seven elementary schools:

  • St. Kevin’s National School (Catholic, former Christian Brothers)
  • St. Brigid’s National School (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Laurence National School (Roman Catholic)
  • Patrick’s National School (mostly Church of Ireland)
  • Greystones Educate Together National School (Educate Together, non-denominational)
  • Gaelscoil na gCloch Liath (inter-denominational, teaching given through the Irish language).
  • Grey Community National School (non-denominational)

The city also has a Roman Catholic high school:

  • St. David’s Holy Faith Secondary School is a public, co-educational school with about 500 students.

A church in Ireland, has been co-educational secondary school opened its doors in 2014 in Greystones; Temple Carrig School. Yet it is relatively common for local young people to attend schools in neighboring towns.

It is a Spanish school, school SEK-Dublin, the Belvedere Hall in Wind Gates.

Wicklow County Council manages a Carnegie library opposite Burnaby Park on Main Street (Church Road).

Entertainment

Grey has a number of entertainment facilities; Charles Country Sports and Entertainment Park which includes a skate park, several all-weather soccer and basketball courts and a playground. [23] A large number of gigs organized by local independent youth takes place, played by mostly local bands even if the international punk and hardcore acts have played in city. The Grey Theater, suitable for drama, dance, concerts and other events, is in the center and is complemented by Greystones Studios, which offers classes, performance space, rehearsal rooms and AV studios. [24]

Film and TV

  • Ormonde cinema in Greystones, which closed in July 2007, with theFather Ted episode “The Passion of St. Tibulus “and also in an episode of Custer’s Last Standup . [25]
  • Greystones featured as a backdrop for some scenes in the popular BBC series Ballykissangel .
  • In the 1980s, many scenes from a series called “Rose of Dublin” filmed around the port area of Greystones.
  • The city generally used in the Irish program Glenroe .
  • The film Taffin starring Pierce Brosnan, was filmed in Greystones.
  • Greystones in an episode of Dream Team , a Sky One football soap series.
  • Parts of George Gently , a 2007 British detective-off of the BBC, was filmed around the harbor. Martin Shaw played in production, set in 1960s Britain (Northhumberland). Beach House pub was renamed “The Mariner Rest” for the occasion.
  • The film Yesterday’s Children , starring Jane Seymour, was filmed in Greystones.

Economy

Greystones is home to several local companies that was founded in the city and is now recognized nationally. Happy Pear organic food companies, [26] [27]headquarters in their restaurant on the High Street, Goldfish.ie [28] [29] [30]telecommunications company headquartered in Church Road; and RTÉ Dragons’ Den -winning now Smart Storage. [31] [32] Although based in Porvoo is an international bottle top manufacturer Caps United, which has six production plants and 16 sales offices across Europe http://www.unitedcaps.com /.

Gallery

  • Harbour and Little Sugar Loaf
  • Street ~~ POS = TRUNC
  • sea

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Greystones” the world’s most liveable society ”. ” Rte. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ “Table 14A people in every town of 1500 inhabitants and over classified by age” (PDF). CSO. Be checked out three February 2009.
  3. Jump up ^ “Greystones and Delgany station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 8 September of 2007.
  4. Jump up ^ Greenwood, Margaret; Connolly, Mark; Wallis, Geoff (2003).The Rough Guide to Ireland. London: Rough Guides. p. 158. ISBN 1-84353-059-7.
  5. Jump up ^ http://www.indymedia.ie/article/86343
  6. Jump up ^ The proposed development Greystones Harbour.com.Retrieved on 23 May 2006. Archive March 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. Jump up ^ Proposal to the city € 300 Marina “serious shortcomings” the Irish Independent on 28 March 2006. downloaded the 24 May 2006.
  8. Jump up ^ Grey Marine Plan generates 5,500 submissions Irish Times on 16 February 2006. Retrieved August 9, 2007.
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab € 300m Greystones development to proceed RTÉ News 9 August 2007. Retrieved August 9 in 2007.
  10. Jump up ^ Greystones development gets go-ahead the Irish Times, 9 August 2007. Retrieved August 9 in 2007.
  11. Jump up ^ Greystones development break the Irish Times, 22 February 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  12. Jump up ^ Burke, Roisin (8 April 2012). “NAMA now struggling to survive as Cotter € 1m sailing yacht”. Business. Dublin. Sunday Independent.
  13. Jump up ^ Burke, Roisin (2 September 2012). “NAMA agree to debt reduction”. Business. Dublin. Sunday Independent.
  14. Jump up ^ Heffernan, Breda (22 December 2012). “Sean Fitzpatrick was released on bail after facing new charges.” Irish Independent. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  15. ^ Jump up to: ab “Greystones United”. Grey United Football Club. Be checked out three February 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ Williams, Ffion (18 January 2012). “Holyhead to officially twinned with Irishtown Greystones on Friday.” Bangor and Anglesey Mail. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  17. Jump up ^ “Welcome”. Greystones.dublindiocese.ie. January 30, 2006. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
  18. Jump up ^ “Welcome – Greystones Presbyterian Church”. Grey Presbyterian Church. Are downloaded February 2009.
  19. Jump up ^ “Church of Ireland – a province of the Anglican Communion.”Ireland.anglican.org. Be checked out three February 2009.
  20. Jump up ^ “Hillside Evangelical Church – Home.”Hillsideevangelicalchurch.ie. Be checked out three February 2009.
  21. Jump up ^ Northern European Field Manager Philip McAlister. “Ireland † Nazarene Northern Europe Field”. Naznef.org. Archived from the original February 15, 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  22. Jump up ^ “Carraig Eden Theological College”. Retrieved 31 October of 2008.
  23. Jump up ^ “Charles Country Sports and Recreational Park”. Wicklow Council. Archived from the original The 20 December 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  24. Jump up ^ “Greystones Theatre”. Greystones Theatre. Are downloaded February 2009.
  25. Jump up ^ “Custer’s Last Stand-Up TV programs – TV.com”. TV.com. Be checked out three February 2009.
  26. Jump up ^ https://thehappypear.ie/
  27. Jump up^ http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/people/the-happy-pear-when-we-started-people-looked-at-us-with-pity-1.2506772
  28. Jump up ^ http://www.goldfish.ie/
  29. Jump up^ http://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/goldfish-ie-hooks-100k-per-annum-telecoms-deal-1.1349209
  30. Jump up^ http://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/ringing-in-new-era-for-corporate-communications-1.956054
  31. Jump up ^ http://www.smartstorage.ie/
  32. Jump up^ http://www.irishtimes.com/business/work/co-wicklow-based-smart-storage-to-create-60-new-jobs-1.2650899

Powerscourt

Powerscourt (Irish: Eastát Chuirt a Phaoraigh ), located in Ennis, County Wicklow, Ireland, is a large country estate which is famous for its houses and gardens, today occupying 19 hectares (47 acres). The house, originally a 13th century castle, was extensively altered during the 18th century by German architect Richard Cassels, beginning in 1731 [1] and ends in 1741. A fire in 1974 left the house situated as a shell until it was renovated in 1996.

Today the farm is owned and operated by the Slazenger family, the founder and former owner of Slazenger sporting goods company. It is a popular tourist attraction, and includes a golf course, enAvoca Hand Weavers restaurant and an Autograph Collection Hotel.

History

13th century house

The original owner of the 13-century castle, was a man named La poet, who eventually anglicised to “Power.” The castle’s position was of strategic military importance since the castle’s owner can control access to the nearby Dargle, Glencree and Glencullen rivers.

The three-storey building had at least 68 rooms. The entrance hall, where family heirlooms were shown, was 18 meters (60 feet) long and 12 meters (40 feet) wide. The main reception rooms were on the first floor instead of on the ground floor, the more typical place. A mil long avenue of beech trees leads to the house.

18th century house

Power House was extensively altered during the 18th century by German architect Richard Cassels, beginning in 1731 and ending 1741st

On a commanding hill, Richard Cassels deviated slightly from his usual dark style, giving the house something of what John Vanbrugh would have called “castle air.” This is most noticeable in the structure difficult Palladian facade bookended by two circular domed towers.

King George IV was the guest of Richard Wingfield, fifth Viscount Powers in August 1821. In the 1830s, the house was a place for a number of conferences on unfulfilled prophecies of the Bible, attending men like John Nelson Darby and Edward Irving. These conferences held under the auspices of Theodosia Wingfield Powers, when the Dowager Lady Powers. Her letters and papers were published in 2004, including summaries avPowersprofetiska conferences. [2] [3]

19-century gardens

In 1844, at the age of eight, Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Powers inherited the title and Powerscourt, consisting of 200 square kilometers (49,000 acres) of land in Ireland. When he turned 21, he embarked on an extensive renovation of the house and created new gardens.

Main attractions due include the Tower Valley (with stone tower), Japanese gardens, winged horse statues, Triton Lake, pets cemetery, Dolphin Pond, walled gardens, Bamberg Gate and the Italian garden. Pepperpot Tower said to be designed after a favored 3-tumspepperpot Lady Wingfield. Of particular interest is the pets cemetery, whose tombstones have been described as “astonishingly personal”. [ Citation needed ]

Inspiration for the garden design followed visits by Powers to ornamental gardens at the Palace of Versailles, Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna, ochSchwetzingen Castle near Heidelberg. The garden development took 20 years to complete the 1880th

20’s fire and renovation

In 1961, the estate was sold by the 9th Viscount, Mervyn Patrick Wingfield, the Slazenger family, who still own it today. Wendy Slazenger, daughter of the late Ralph Slazenger, married 10 Viscount, Niall Mervyn Wingfield, 1962. Through their children, Hon. Anthony Mervyn Wingfield and Hon. Julia Wingfield, remains a strong relationship between the two families and Powerscourt.

The house was destroyed by fire in November 4, 1974 and then renovated in 1996. Only two rooms are open to the public as they once appeared while Powers had inhabitants, while the rest of the ground floor and the first floor is now a shop units.

In 2011, Lonely Planet voted Powers in the top ten houses in the world, while in 2014, the National Geographic listed Powers as No. 3 in the world’s top ten Gardens.

21st Century

Tara’s Palace Museum of Childhood

Tara’s Palace Museum of Childhood moved from Malahide Castle near Dublin to Power House in June 2011. The museum has dollhouses, miniatures, dolls, historical toys and Tara’s Palace, one of the largest dollhouse in the world, on a par with Fairy Castle at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois, and queen Mary’s Dolls’ House at Windsor Castle. [ citation needed ]

waterfall

Powerscourt and its surrounding valley is also owned by Powerscourt, even if the two sites are no longer directly connected. At 121 meters, it is the highest waterfall in Ireland. 1858 established the seventh Viscount Powers a deer park around the waterfall, resulting in the successful introduction of the Japanese Sika Ireland.

Regular bus service from Powers to the waterfall was discontinued in 2005, but during the high summer season, intermittent bus services are still available. The waterfall is seven kilometers from Ennis, and walk. While the distance is not insurmountable, can walking be dangerous because the road is narrow and lacks a shaft for long stretches.

A separate entrance fee is required for access to the waterfall, which range from € 3.50 (children) to € 5.50 (adults). [4]

Golfclub

Power Golf Club , located at Powerscourt in County Wicklow, Ireland, is home to two par 72, 18-hole courses: the East, which was first created, and the West. Both contain fast greens and undulating fairways, and they were over 6900 yards long. 1998 East Course hosted the PGA Championship Irish.[5] [6]

popular culture

  • The house was used as a filming location most famous in Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon , which was filmed there before the 1974 fire. [Citation needed ]
  • The Slazenger family invited Lynn Garrison move its flights film unit, collection and airplane hangars, from Leixlip to Powersourt airfield in 1973. The collection would feature in Irish productions, including the Blue Max, Darling Lili, Zeppelin and Von Richthofen and Brown . It remained here until 1981. [ citation needed ]
  • The farm was used as the background and the ancestral home of the “Artist” and Moll Flanders love interest in the film Moll Flanders . [ Citation needed ]
  • 2002 version of The Count of Monte Cristo was filmed there. [7]
  • David Copperfield was filmed there in 2000. [ citation needed ]
  • Where is Jack? Filmed there in 1969. [ citation needed ]
  • Outdoor scenes for 2005 movie The League of Gentlemen’s Apocalypse , which include William III of England (aka “Good King Billy”) is played by Bernard Hill and Queen Mary II, played by Victoria Wood. [ Citation needed ]
  • A key scene from the 1981 film Excalibur , where Arthur is fighting Lancelot was filmed at the waterfall. [ Citation needed ]
  • Power House is the ancestral home of the fictional Lord Francis Powers in David Dickinson series of novels about the Victorian detective (Goodnight Sweet Prince , Death and the Jubilee , death called to the Bar ).[ Citation needed ]
  • The gardens used to sign Celtic Woman’s Songs from the Heart DVD and TV special. [ Citation needed ]
  • The Hallmark Channel original movie “Honeymoon for a” starring Nicollette Sheridan was filmed at the farm with the help of external scenes in the house and waterfall. [8] The film’s plot included a fight between the owners of “Castlewilde” (Powers) and local citizens concerned about the construction of a golf course, which has properties. [9]

References

  1. Jump up ^ Power House & Gardens
  2. Jump up ^ “You’ve Got Mail – Evangelicals now.” Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  3. Jump up ^ Viscountess, Powers, Theodosia A. (1 January 2004). “The letters and papers of Lady Powers.”. Chapter two. Retrieved July 20, 2016 – via The Open Library.
  4. Jump up ^ “Waterfall – Powerscourt”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  5. Jump up ^ “Gibbons finds perfection in Powers”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  6. Jump up ^ “Bernard Gibbons honored for service to the golf industry – Independent.ie”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  7. Jump up ^ “The Count of Monte Cristo”. January 25, 2002 is taken. July 20, 2016 – via IMDb.
  8. Jump up ^ e-power.ie. “Wicklow Film Commission – Filming in Ireland”. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  9. Jump up ^http://www.hallmarkchannelpress.com/pr/honeymoon/home

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