Limerick (/ l ɪ m ᵊ r ɪ k /; [5] Irish: Luimneach [l̪imʲɨnʲəx]) [6] is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city. The city lies on the River Shannon, in the historic core of the city is located on Kings Island, bounded by the River Shannon ochAbbey.Limerick is also the head of the Shannon estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 95,854 (2011 census), Limerick is the third most populous city in the state and fourth most populous city on the island of Ireland.

Geography and political subdivisions

There are 102.161 people living in Limerick City Metropolitan District. [3] On June 1, 2014 after the merger of Limerick City and County Council, a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed in the United council extended the city. Metropolitan District includes the city conurbation and extends outwards towards Patrick Castleconnell the west and the east. [7] City Metropolitan Area excludes, however, the suburbs are within County Clare.When included, this increases the overall city and the metropolitan area with a further 5,000 with a combined total population of 107,161. [8] Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork-Limerick-Galway corridor, which has a population of 1 million people. It is located in a strategic location on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city center. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area with rich pastures.Historically, much of the city’s industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland and it is especially known for Limerick Ham.

History

Main article: History of Limerick

Ancient and medieval history

Luimneach referred originally to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh . The earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn , was the original name for Kings Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. The island was also called Inis an Ghaill Duibh , “The Dark (haired) Foreigner Island”. The name is recorded in the Viking sourcesHlymrekr .

The city is of 812 which is the earliest likely settlement; However, history suggests the presence of earlier settlements in the area surrounding the King’s Island, the island in the center. Antiquity map-maker, Ptolemy, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, is a place called “Regia” on the site of the King’s Island. History also records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt of 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to rename a Eóganachta King, Cart Hann fair. Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died 652, indicating that the city was a place of any note. In 812 sailed Vikings up Shannon and plundered the city, burned the monastery Mungret but had to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number. [9] The Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as king John castle and St Mary’s Cathedral. [10]

In the early Middle Ages, Limerick in the middle of the Kingdom of Thomond which corresponds to today’s Mid West region, however Kingdom includes North Kerry and parts of southern Offaly.En of the kingdom’s most notable kings was Brian Boru, ancestor of the O’Brien Clan of Dalcassians. Thomond word is synonymous with the region and is held in place names that Thomondgate, Thomond Bridge & Thomond Park.

Late Renaissance / Early Modern History

Limerick in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was often called the most beautiful town in Ireland. The English-born Judge Luke Gernon, lives in Limerick, wrote in 1620 that at his first sight of the city he had been amazed by its splendor: “tall buildings, marble, as well as the University of Oxford.”[11]

During the civil wars in the 17th century, the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s. The Treaty Limerickavslutade Williamite war in Ireland, which was fought between supporters of the Catholic King James II (Jacobites) and the Protestant King William of Orange (Williamites). Treaty offered tolerance to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics who swore an oath of allegiance to William and Mary. The Treaty was national significance because it certainly closer to British and Protestant dominance over Ireland.The articles of the Treaty which protect Catholic rights is not passed by the Protestant Irish Parliament rather updated penal laws against Catholics who had major consequences for Irish history. Reputedly treaty was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular blocks of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal on Clancy Strand. Because of the Treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City. This turbulent period earned the city its motto: Urbs antiqua fuit studisque asperrima belli (an ancient city well studied in the art of war).

Fred times that followed the unrest in the late 17th century made it possible for the city to prosper through trade in the late 18th century. During this time established Limerick Port as one of Ireland’s major commercial ports exporting agricultural products from one of Ireland’s most fertile areas, the Golden Vale, the UK and the US. [12] This increase in trade and prosperity, especially among the city’s merchant class saw a rapid expansion of the city as Georgian Limerick began to take shape. This gave the city its current appearance, including the extensive terraced streets of fine Georgian townhouses that are left in the city center today. The Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin-Cork railway line in 1848 ochWaterford 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the subsequent decades developed Limerick as a regional center for communication. But the economic downturn in European conflicts in the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, and after the Act of Union in 1800, and the effects of the Great Irish Famine of 1848 caused much of the 19th Century to be a more troubled period.

20th century history

The Limerick boycott was an economic boycott is against the tiny Jewish community for over two years during the first decade of the twentieth century. It was accompanied by a number of assaults, threats and stone throwing, which caused many Jews to leave the city. It initiated in 1904 by a Redemptorist priest, Father John Creagh.

During the Irish War of Independence, the Limerick Soviet was a self-proclaimed Soviet who were from 15 to 27 April 1919. A general strike organized by the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the British army’s declaration of a “Special Military Area” under the Defence of the Realm Act, which covered most of Limerick city and part of the county. During the strike a special strike committee set up to print their own money, control food prices and publish newspapers.

In the mid-20th century, Limerick characterized by economic stagnation and decline of many traditional industries closed or left the city. But there were some successes. In 1942 Shannon International Airport (located 20 km west of the city) is opened for the first time offer transatlantic flights. In 1959, Shannon Airport enabled the opening of the Shannon Free Zone, which attracted a large number of multinational companies to the region. A long campaign for a third-level educational institution should be placed in the city, finally bore fruit with the establishment of Nihe Limerick in 1969 which eventually became the University of Limerick, 1989.

Government and politics

The municipal area of Limerick city is under the jurisdiction of Limerick City and County Council. The Council has responsibility for local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing in the city. The Council comprises elected parish council with an appointed full-time president that city (and county) manager. Local elections are held every five years and council members annually elect a Cathaoirleach, or Chairman as the Chairman of the Council. The current Cathaoirleach Cllr Liam Galvin is from Newcastle West electoral district. [19] The 21 members of the Council of 3 electoral districts in the city region also elects a mayor to represent the city. Mayoral position is largely ceremonial and have much reduced responsibilities following the merger of the Limerick local authorities. Even the mayor is the city’s first citizen, the Council position is lower than the Cathaoirleach. The current mayor is Councillor Jerry O’Dea. [20] Formerly known mayors include TDs Donogh O’Malley, Stephen Coughlan, Michael Lipper, Jim Kemmy and Jan O’Sullivan. [21]

For most of its history; from 1197 when it won its first charter, Limerick City had its own local authority, Limerick Corporation, later known as the Limerick City Council. It was one of the oldest in Ireland and exceeded only in the age of the Dublin City Council. In October 2012 the Irish government published putting people First- action for effective municipal stated government policy of reform in all the key areas of local government in Ireland. Among the recommendations was a merger of Limerick City Council with Limerick County Council. The changes came into force on 1 June 2014, since the implementation of the Municipal Act Reform 2014. [22]

In the 1960s onwards the city had outgrown its limit considerably; however, city limits changed only slightly, but still never reflected the city’s total urban area. A limited extension limit on the city’s north side in 2008 extended the city limits of 1020 hectares increase the city’s area by almost 50% and increase the population by approximately 7000. [23] The former border, covering 2,086 hectares, demarcated in 1950. Newer suburbs Dooradoyle, Castletroy – including universities, Gouldavoher and Raheen was constantly given to Limerick County Council until the merger of the two authorities in June 2014. The municipal structure in Limerick caused a number of inefficiencies, most especially when it comes to planning. A number of neighborhoods in Westbury and Parteen north of the city controlled by Clare County Council.

After the merger of the two agencies in 2014, a new Metropolitan District of Limerick City was established that included the city urban area and also settlements near the town of Patricks and Castleconnell. Metropolitan districts returned 21 Councillors to Limerick City and County Council has a total of 40 Councillors returned from across Limerick city and county. [24]The Limerick City Metropolitan District is divided into three divisions or electoral areas; Limerick City East, North Limerick City and Limerick City South who chooses eight, six and seven Councillors, respectively [24] [25]

Fianna Fáil, the largest party of the British government with 13 seats, followed by Fine Gael 12, Sinn Féin has six, Anti-Austerity Alliance, Labour and Independents have three seats each. [26]

National Dail elections Limerick City, Limerick City constituency. From 2011, the constituency boundaries changed in accordance with the proposals of the Constituency Commission and the subsequent Electoral (Amendment) Act of 2009. Changed voice borders of Limerick East and West Limerick to Limerick City and Limerick. Limerick includes the city, suburban areas Castletroy and as far east as Castleconnell. It also includes part of South County Clare .The Limerick county constituency takes in most of the rest of the county. For European parliament elections Limerick is in South Ireland.

Climate

Limerick’s climate is classified as temperate oceanic (Köppen Cfb ). Met Éireann has a climatological weather station at Shannon Airport, 20 kilometers west of the town in County Clare. Shannon Airport registers an average of 977 millimeters of precipitation annually, most of which is rain.Limerick has a mild climate, with the average daily maximum in July 20 ° C (68 ° F) and the average daily minimum in January 3 ° C (37 ° F). The highest temperature recorded was 31.6 ° C (88.9 ° F) in 1995, and the lowest was -11.4 ° C (11.5 ° F) in 2010. Limerick is cloudiest city in the state, averaging only 1295 hours of sunshine per year, 3.5 hours of sunshine each day. There are on average 59 days of no sunshine recording, six days of thunderstorms, hail 19 days and 8 days of snow per year. Shannon Airport is located by the sea at a height of 14 meters, so the snow is less common at the station than in the city itself.

Culture

In 2014 became Limerick Ireland’s inaugural National City of Culture , with a wide range of artistic and cultural events that take place in various locations around the city throughout the year.

The Limerick City Gallery of Art Pery Square is the city’s premier venue for contemporary art exhibitions. It is home to a permanent collection of Irish art, showing works from the early 18th to the 20th century. The gallery houses the National Collection of Contemporary Drawing founded by artist Samuel Walsh in 1987. Limerick’s major contemporary art event is EVA International, Ireland Biennial of Contemporary Art. [28] EVA International (formerly EV + A – Exhibition of Visual + Art) is curated by a new guest curator every two years and includes modern art pieces by both international and Irish artists. In the middle of the exhibition is Limerick City Gallery of Art, but EVA generally use a number of other locations throughout the city, including public places.

Lime Tree Theatre officially opened at Mary Immaculate College campus on October 30, 2012. The modern space can host theater, music, comedy, traditional arts, schools, performances and conferences. [29]

The Belltable Arts Centre on O’Connell Street (in liquidation in February 2013) [30] hosts for local playwrights and drama. Mike Finn’s numerous plays have been successful, including Pigtown , set around a century of its history, and Shock and Awe , an energetic retelling of Homer’s Iliad. The University Concert Hall is located in the UL is a 1000 seat location and provides a great venue for national and international artists to visit the city. Limerick is also home to street theater companies, including “Umbrella”.

Limerick is also well catered for when it comes to literature. Limerick Writers’ Centre was founded in 2008 and is responsible for a wide range writing activities in the city. Limerick has long been known for its passion for art, culture and heritage and you only have to look at some of its natives, which include Pulitzer Prize winning author Frank McCourt; writer Kate O’Brien, Michael Curtin and recently Kevin Barry and Donal Ryan. Limerick poets have also contributed greatly to its literary heritage with Michael Hogan, Desmond O’Grady, John Liddy … the list goes on, proving that reading and writing is one of the most important creative activities that treaty city can be proud of.

Other active Limerick arts groups include Contact Studios, which offers individual studio spaces for visual artists; the Daghdha Dance Company, a contemporary dance company that has adopted a renovated church in John’s Square, adjacent to St. John’s Cathedral, the performance space); the Fresh Film Festival, held each spring, and includes films made by young people (7-18 years) from all over Sweden; Impact Theatre Company; Limerick Printmakers Studio and Gallery, which provides printmaking facilities, a place for exhibitions and events and a training program. Limerick Youth Theatre provides young people with an opening in acting and production. It caught the attention of the national media with their production of 2005,Romeo and Juliet , which made comparisons between the ongoing feud in the city with that of Montagu and the Capulets in the play.

The Irish Chamber Orchestra and the Irish World Music Centre are both based in the University of Limerick. The University has a thousand-seat state-of-the-art concert hall that often hosts visiting performers. The city has an active music scene, which has produced bands like The Cranberries guitarist Noel Hogan’s Mono Band, The Hitchers and many more. World-renowned electronic musician Richard D. James, better known as Aphex Twin, born in Limerick in 1971. The Limerick Art Gallery and the Art College cater for painting, sculpture and performance art of all styles.

Limerick is also home to comedians The Rubber Bandits, D’unbelievables (Pat Shortt and Jon Kenny) and Karl Spain. Dolan Warehouse on the Dock Road has two sites that specialize in live music; upstairs space that tends to accommodate comedians and folk and jazz acts and a much larger bin holds 400, which tends to organize more popular (usually rock) Act, both nationally and internationally. Dance music is catered for in Baker City that holds mainly local underground nights and Trinity Rooms that have regularly hosts big names like Hot Chip, Groove Armada, DJ Yoda and Jazzy Jeff alongside more groundbreaking names as Dan Le Sac, Christian Smith, and Missill .

The city is the setting for Frank McCourt’s memoir Angela’s Ashes and adaptation. Frank McCourt Museum is located in Frank’s old school on Hartsonge Street opened in 2011 and contains many artefacts from the book, there is also Frank’s ashes. [31] It is the setting for the contemporary coming-of-age drama, Cowboys & Angels and Robert Cunningham’s Somebody’s daughter] , who was shot in various locations around the city and had its premiere in king John’s Castle in July 2004. [ citation needed ]

A limerick is a type of humorous verse of five lines with a Aabba rhyme schemes: the poem’s connection with the city is unclear, but the name is generally considered to be a reference to the city of Limerick or County Limerick, [32] [33] at times especially to Maigue Poets, and may be derived from an earlier form of nonsense verse parlor game that traditionally included a chorus that included “will [or not] you come (up) to Limerick?” [34] the earliest known use of the name “Shannon” in this poem type is a 1880 reference, in Saint John, New Brunswick newspaper to a seemingly familiar melody. [35]

River is an annual summer festival held in Limerick. The festival began in 2004. 2014 Festival was held May 2 to 5, and had a record 80,000 visitors. [36] [37]

Media

Broadcasting

RTÉ lyric fm, a state-run classical music radio station and part of RTÉ, broadcasts nationally from studios in the city center. Limerick’s local radio station is Live 95FM, broadcasting from the “Radio House”, near the waterfront at Steamboat Quay. Spin South West, owned by Communicorp, shipments to County Kerry, Clare, Limerick, Tipperary and Laois southwest from its studios at landmarks in the Raheen Industrial Estate. Student radio station, Wired FM, broadcasts on 99.9FM from Mary Immaculate College.Wired FM also has studios in Limerick Institute of Technology. Limerick Regional Hospital has a radio station on 94.2FM, but this can be heard only in the hospital and the surrounding area. West Limerick 102 sent from Newcastle West. The national program, RTE radio studios in the city, which is regularly used for broadcasting from Limerick.

Print

Several local newspapers published in the city, including Limerick Post andThe Limerick Leader , periodicals include Limerick Event Guide , Business Limerick and Limerick now .

Tourist attractions

Main article: Architecture Limerick

Limerick City is a major tourist destination, just a 15-minute drive from Shannon Airport. Tourist attractions in the architectural and historical note at the center include Limerick City Museum, King John’s Castle (1212), St. Mary’s Cathedral (1168), the Hunt Museum, the University of Limerick, Georgian house and gardens, Treaty Stone. There are several seasonal tours (Angela’s Ashes walking tour of Limerick City, the historic walking tour and boat trips along the River Shannon).

The city center is divided between the traditional areas of “English Town” in the south end of Kungs Iceland, which include King John Castle; “Irish Town” which includes the older streets on the south shore; and the current economic center further south, called “Newtown Pery”. [38] Newtown Pery was built in the late 18th century before the Act of Union and, unusually for an Irish city and unique in Limerick, is laid out on a grid plan. The Limerick City Museum (formerly known as the Jim Kemmy Municipal Museum), located in Istabraq Hall, City Hall, Merchants Quay. It contains displayed on Limerick’s history and manufacture. [39]

The Georgian center of the city, with fine Georgian architecture in Newtown Pery, developed from the mid 18th century. This core contains O’Connell Street (George Street before Independence) from Cecil Street intersection running to the south-western part of the Crescent, and Southeast Pery Street including Glentworth Street and Barrington Street. Other architectural buildings of architectural note in the city’s St John’s Cathedral, designed by the notable Victorian architect Philip Charles Hardwick. St Mary’s Cathedral, at over 800 years old, is one of the oldest in Ireland. St. John’s Cathedral, whilst more modern, has been Ireland’s tallest spire at 94 m (308 ft). [40] One of Ireland’s most famous museums, the Hunt Museum, based in the historic 18th century former Custom House. The museum was established to house an internationally important collection of some 2,000 works of art and antiquities formed by John and Gertrude Hunt during their lifetimes. On display are the 9th century Antrim Cross, a sketch by Picasso and a bronze sculpture of a horse, said to be from a design by Leonardo da Vinci.

The largest park in Limerick is People’s Park, which opened in 1877 in memory of Richard Russell, a prominent local businessman. The park is dominated by Thomas Spring Rice Memorial (MP for the city from 1820 to 1832) and has a large collection of mature deciduous and evergreen trees.

Limerick city center has changed considerably with the construction of several modern high-rise at the beginning of the 2000s, in particular as part of the renovation of the former port area along Dock Road. Suburban areas, where the majority of the population now live, have grown out from the center along the main roads to Ennis (North Circular and Ennis Road areas / Caherdavin), Dublin (Castletroy and the University) and Cork (Ballinacurra / Dooradoyle / Raheen) .Förorts house is generally two-storey semi-detached homes for single families. These were built from the 1950s onwards in large estates by government projects and commercial development, but there are many examples of Edwardian and older 1930s suburban homes on the main suburban streets leading towards the city (North & South Circular, Ballinacurra Road, O O’Connell Avenue).

Currently tourism is growing, with over 1,000 new beds opened in the city in 2006 thanks to the opening of five new hotels. The city provides visitors with ‘Street Ambassadors’, people designated to help others around and make the stay enjoyable. Limerick City has a vibrant nightlife with many nightclubs and pubs that provide a range of drinking experiences from the warm and cozy to the cutting edge. Dolan Warehouse is a popular small concert hall that hosts many local, national and international folk, indie, jazz and rock acts. It is also an established place for traditional Irish music.

In County Limerick, Adare village and the Foynes Flying Boat Museum, about 35 km (22 miles / 30 minutes) from Limerick City along the scenic coastal route N69 from Limerick to Tralee, are also popular attractions.Bunratty Castle in Co. Clare is another local attraction of national significance. It is located 15.4 km north of the city. Limerick is known to be the antipodes to Campbell Island in New Zealand. [41]

Demography

Limerick is officially the third largest city in Ireland (after Dublin and Cork) with a population of 102.161 people according to the census in 2011 was carried out by the CSO. [3] The last census reported a large decrease in population in the central districts partly due to Limerick regeneration process was in these areas, the largest decrease was reported nationally and even emigration after the collapse of the local and national economy from 2008 onwards. [42] the population of Limerick Larger Urban Zone as defined in the EU is 162,413. [43] Limerick has a particular ethnic population, and a large immigrant groups, who saw particularly rapid growth during the Celtic tiger and the following decade. The Polish community is the second largest outside Dublin, with an estimated 10,000 lives and works in the city. Ireland’s first Polish bank opened in 2007. [44] The African community has established a number of churches, which now is part of the cultural makeup of the city.[45]

Limerick has a large stock of council housing. Prior to the merger of Limerick City and County Council 41% of all homes in the old Limerick City Council boundary was the municipality, which was the highest in Ireland.This figure, however, is no longer accurate, given the greater metropolitan district. [46]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Limerick

Limerick is in the heart of the region known as “the Midwest”. Also known as the “Shannon Region”, this is mainly an economic and social concepts. The region encompasses County Limerick, County Clare, North Tipperary, North West County Kerry and the south Offaly, with its focal point centered on Limerick and its environs within an 8 km (5 mi) radius.

The area is perhaps the most important economic region outside of Dublin and Cork. Its economic success has been driven in part by the University of Limerick, Limerick Institute of Technology, Shannon Airport in Co. Clare and Shannon Development (an economic development agency), whose predecessor was SFADCO (Shannon Free Airport Development Company), an economic agency that provided tax incentives for businesses locating in the area around Shannon Airport. From 2006 Shannon Development are mostly concerned with disposing of valuable industrial park properties.Limerick Chamber of Commerce, the voice of business in the region, is a thriving organization. Limerick Chamber will celebrate its bicentennial / bicentenary 2015.

Historically Limerick was an agricultural commodity based economy, because of its status as the first major harbor along the River Shannon. In the mid-18th century, Limerick Port grew to become one of Ireland’s main trading ports, exporting agricultural products from the most fertile areas of Ireland known as the Golden Vale, as well as produce from the surrounding counties. [12] The city was one of the main meat processing areas in Ireland, and industry included confectionery and flour production. The city was famous for its bacon industry but this went into decline in the mid-20th talet.Fiskeindustrin in Limerick, based on Clancy Strand opposite King John Castle and the nearby Coonagh, once employed hundreds of men. [47] The boat was common Gandelow which was also used as a little lighter (barge) to ferry goods to and from larger ships in the harbor. [48] in the 1920s, the construction of a dam at Ardnacrusha seriously affected the salmon farming and that, and the introduction of quotas, had in the 1950s caused the salmon to decline. [49] In 2006, most fishermen abandoned their driftnet licenses and industry can now be said to be dormant. [50]

In line with the changing economic landscape in Ireland, many multinational companies based in Limerick. Dell had its main European manufacturing facility at Raheen Business Park, but in January 2009, Dell announced it would close its Limerick computer factory and move production lines to Poland. [51] plant was the largest Dell factory outside the US and produced 30.000 to 60.000 units per day for export to the EMEA. Dell remains one of the largest employers in the Midwest with more than 1000 employees in service and support. [52] Analog Devices have their European manufacturing in Raheen, 3 km southwest of the city center. The site has more than 1,000 people. Johnson & Johnson subsidiary Vistakon (the world’s largest manufacturers of contact lenses) has a large facility in Castletroy in the Technological Park and also employs nearly 1,000 people. It is Vistakon single production outside the United States and one of the largest contact lens factories in the world. Cook Medical, the world’s largest privately held medical device company that employs more than 800 people in Limerick at the Technological Park.

The recent economic recession in Ireland has had a major impact on Limerick. The announcement in 2009 that Dell was moving production from Limerick to Poland has devastated the local economy. 1900 jobs disappeared at Dell and it is believed that for every job lost at Dell at least another 4-5 was at risk. The closure of the Dell plant amounted to 2% of Ireland’s GDP.[53] The decline in the construction industry has also cost many jobs that have stalled Limerick regeneration program that promised a massive investment in Limerick deprived neighborhoods. From 2012, unemployment has become a major problem all over the city with unemployment in the city of 28.6%, which is almost twice the national average. [46]

Retail

See also: Shopping in Limerick

The service industry is an important employer in the city. The Crescent Shopping Centre is the main shopping area of the city. It is in Dooradoyle about 3 km south of the center. It is the largest shopping center in Ireland (outside Dublin) and the largest in the province of Munster. It has over 90 shopping outlets along with restaurants and a 12-screen Omniplex Cinema.Regular bus services run from the center to the Crescent Shopping Centre.Stadskärnan also a large shopping district that includes a mixture of more traditional types of stores as well as some modern high street shops.Cruises Street is one of the main shopping streets. O’Connell Street, William Street, Bedford Row and Thomas Street) is also the most important retail streets. The city center has seen the great works of remodeling and pedestrian areas in recent years to improve their appearance. Work has been completed on pedestrianising Bedford Row, Thomas Street and parts of Catherine Street and widening walkways on William Street. Work will begin shortly on the pedestrianized O’Connell Street between William Street and Roches Street. It is hoped that the work will make the center more attractive to consumers and visitors who have seen some serious slowdown in the last decade as the retail offer in the center has consistently lagged behind the suburban shopping malls. The result has been a sharp drop in footfall in the city center, which in turn has resulted in the closure of many downtown retail businesses, which accelerated from the recession of 2008 and onwards.[ Citation needed ]

Retail parks and shopping centers

During the Celtic Tiger years, a number of shopping centers and retail parks opened in the suburbs of Limerick. The “Crescent Shopping Centre” expanded in the early 2000s to become one of the largest in Ireland. The “Jetland Shopping Centre” in Caherdavin opened in 2005. Its main anchor is Dunnes Stores. The Childers Road Retail Park and the Parkway Shopping Centre in the eastern part of the city also has a number of high street stores.Unfinished venues include Coonagh Cross retail development and Valley Parkway Shopping Centre on the Dublin Road. The Opera Centre was also a retail development in the city center but it is unlikely to go ahead.

The Milk Market

The Milk Market is on Cornmarket Row in the center sells locally produced food and products. The market is controlled by Limerick Market Trustees and is one of the oldest markets operated in the country. It is open on Friday, Saturday and Sunday with Saturday market serves as the flagship and is the most popular market. In 2010, work was carried out to rehabilitate the existing premises to an all – weather, year-round facility that is operated in an outdoor environment. Efforts to build a large canopy over the existing market premises and officially reopened in June 2010.

The Milk Market Project won the 2011 Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland (RIAI) Peoples Choice Award. ” Local architects Healy & Partners designed the project. Also involved were local civilians and designers Dennany Reidy Associates. [54]

Transport

Air

Shannon Airport is located 20 km west of the town in County Clare. It is one of Ireland’s main airports and is easily accessible from Limerick via the N18 dual carriageway and from other regions via the Limerick tunnel. It has regular flights to European and North American destinations. Airlines using the airport include Ryanair, Aer Lingus, United Airlines, American Airlines, Aer Lingus Regional and Delta Air Lines. There is no rail connection to the airport. Coonagh airfield, a few kilometers west of Caherdavin serves small private aircraft. Kerry and Cork airports are about 1 hour 30 minutes and 2 hours drive away, respectively. Kerry Airport is connected to Farranfore railway station, from the railway station Limerick travel via Limerick Junction and Mallow.

Bus

Public transport is provided by Bus Éireann, Ireland’s national bus operator.Routes City Service has been modified September 17, 2012 and is now following the bus timetables.:

  • 301 University Hospital Limerick – City Centre – Westbury (a 30 minute frequency)
  • 302 Caherdavin – City Centre (20 minute frequency)
  • 303 Pine View – City Centre – O’Malley Park (30 minute frequency)
  • 304 UL – City Centre – Raheen (15 minute frequency)
  • 305 Maria Park – City Centre – Lynwood Park (60 minutes Frequency)
  • 306 Brookfield – City Centre – Ballynanty (60 Minute Frequency)

Buses go to towns and villages in the county and to Shannon Airport. There are also a number of Intercity and international buses from Bus Eireann bus terminal adjacent Limerick Colbert Railway Station. These include the hours services to Dublin, Cork and Galway. Bus Eireann has also started “X51” Limerick to Galway Express traveling on the M18 in addition to the regular service. Buses run every 2 hours to Tralee and Killarney. There are also regular daily services to Waterford and Athlone, and a daily service to London via ferry from Rosslare Europort.

There are a number of private bus companies in operation, providing urban and intercity. Dublin Coach M7 provide express service which operates hourly from Arthur’s Quay to go to Dublin or Ennis. [55] JJ Kavanagh also provides services Dublin to Limerick and Shannon Airport also Arthurs Quay. Citylink run a number of services from Limerick to Galway and Cork and operate from Henry Street. Eurobus provide a regular service from William Street to University ochCastletroy via Childers Road.

Rail

Iarnród Éireann Limerick’s Colbert Station is the rail hub for the city and the Mid West Region with a number of intercity and commuter trains. Limerick railway station was opened on 28 August 1858 to replace a former temporary station 500 m east, which had operated from May 9, 1848. [56]

The following inter-city routes are available from Limerick Colbert Station:

  • Limerick to Dublin Heuston : 16 services daily including 4 direct connections. All remaining Dublin – Limerick services require passengers to switch to Dublin to Cork train anti ng Limerick Junction or Ballybrophy railway station.
  • Limerick Waterford : two services daily (but not on Sundays). The passengers have to change trains at Limerick Junction continue to Waterford with stations in Tipperary, Cahir, Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir.
  • Limerick to Galway : 5 services daily. This service will resume on March 29, 2010. [57]
  • Limerick Cork : Passengers can travel between Limerick and Cork through Limerick Junction. There is no direct service.
  • Limerick Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee : Passengers can travel between Limerick and Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee via Limerick Junction where trains go through to reach Mallow County Kerry.

There are 3 suburban / commuter services in Limerick Suburban Rail Network:

  • Limerick – Ennis entering Sixmilebridge
  • Limerick – Nenagh calling Castleconnell and Bird Hill (with some services continuing to Cloughjordan and Roscrea and connects to the Dublin-Cork railway at Ballybrophy.) Because of the speed limitations of this alternative Dublin – road limerick can take 60 minutes longer (with a change of Ballybrophy) than Limerick Junction than a more direct service.
  • Limerick – Limerick Junction & Thurles

There are also a number of disused railway lines, including Limerick to Foynes line was closed for freight in the early 2000s, has lost passenger service in the early 1960s, although the track is still on location.This is the last remaining part of the North Kerry line closed to passenger traffic in the early 1960s and for freight (other than Limerick – Foynes) in the mid-1970s, and has lifted the Ballingrane (näraRathkeale) and Tralee.

The Railway Procurement Agency has suggested that a tram system should be built in the city. [ Citation needed ]

Road

Limerick’s central location in the mid – west of Ireland offers many important national primary routes converge on the city. The M7 (Dublin), N / M18 (Galway, Ennis, Shannon), N / M20 (Cork), N21 (Tralee) and N24 (Waterford) roads all start / stop in or near the city. Road infrastructure has improved over the past decade with the completion of the southern ring road and the Limerick Tunnel bypass of the city and the M20 bypass the Dooradoyle and Raheen south of the city. Connections to other cities also improved with the completion of M7motorväg in December 2010, and continuing upgrades underway to N / M18 to Shannon, Ennis and Galway. A highway is also planned between Cork and Limerick.

waterways

Historically, the shipping industry has been key to the development of Limerick. Vikings established the city as a trading port sea. The city’s location on a great Irish river system, in Shannon, possible transport to the midlands in Ireland and further north and west. Of the 18th century with the opening of the duct systems throughout Ireland, Limerick Port established itself as Ireland’s main trading port on the western side of the country. This was made possible by the ease of access from facilitated by the opening of channels but most importantly the River Shannon. The opening of the Grand Canal in the 18th century gave further access to Dublin and eastern parts of the country. There are also a number of disused canals near the city, including Park Canal and the Passey – Errina Canal on the old Limerick navigation. Waterway transport Shannon was regularly used to transport goods from Limerick to Dublin and vice versa, but this mode of transport fell into decline in the 20th century. Originally Limerick port was located near the confluence of the Abbey and Shannon rivers at Kings Island. Today the port is located further downstream at Shannon with Dock Road and is run by Shannon Foynes Port Company, which operates all marine activities in the Shannon Estuary. There is a general port facility. Plans to close the door and move all operations to the depth of the plant further downstream in Foynes has been abandoned. The plans included a major renovation of the dock area.

Training

Limerick Institute of Technology

Limerick is an important center of higher education in Ireland.

Technical and continuing education in the city traces its beginning to the formation of the Limerick Athenaeum Society in 1852, marking the foundation of Limerick Institute of Technology. The association’s objectives include “promotion of literature, science, art and music.” [58]

Today Limerick is home to a number of higher education institutions, including the University of Limerick, Limerick Institute of Technology and Mary Immaculate College and has a student population of over 20,000. [59]

University of Limerick (UL), has a student population of over 13,000, and is about 5 km east of the city center in the suburb of Castletroy. It was noted that the National Institute for Higher Education (Nihe) in 1972, and in 1989 was the first university to be established since the founding of the state in 1922. It is notable for its programs in engineering, information technology, materials science, sports science, humanities, teacher training, social sciences and music. In 2007, the university opened a medical school. The Irish World Music Centre specializes in traditional music and dance, and UL is host to the Irish Chamber Orchestra. Campus include a 50m Olympic standard swimming complex, the first established in Ireland. [60] The University has one of the longest footbridges in Europe, called “The Living Bridge”, designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects of London. [61] [62] Thomond College of Education, Limerickvar a successful teacher training college for secondary level and integrated into the university, 1991.

Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT) has a student population of 7,000 and is a center for undergraduate and postgraduate studies in finance, technology, information technology, humanities, sciences and arts education. The main campus is located on Moylish Park, about 3 km northwest of the city center and the School of Art & Design is located on campus at Clare Street and Georges Quay. Additional facilities and outreach centers located on O’Connell Street, Ennis, Co. Clare and LIT has two campuses in Co. Tipperary, Thurles and LIT LIT Clonmel. These were former campus in Tipperary Institute, which merged with LIT in 2011. [63]

LIT was originally established in 1852 as a school of ornamental art. In the mid-1970s, was formed as Limerick College of Art, Commerce & Technology (interact) and achieved the appointment of a Regional Technical College (RTC) in 1993, and finally an Institute of Technology in 1997. The Institute has a strong sporting ethos, which is not surprising given its location adjacent to Thomond Park and the Gaelic Grounds. It has a strong focus on business incubators, operating in several corporate centers: The National Franchise Centre; Croom Community Enterprise Centre; Thurles Chamber Enterprise Centre (TCEC), The Hartnett Enterprise Acceleration Centre (HEAC). Two more centers Enterprise, Enterprise and Research Centre, Clonmel and Irish Fashion Incubator Limited (IFIL) will be added to its unique “Enterprise Ladder” in 2013. LIT is also home to the Millennium Theatre, a popular northside venue for exhibitions and concerts.

Mary Immaculate College is an education and arts college located just southwest of the city center. The emphasis is on the training of primary level teachers.

Griffith College Limerick (GCL) is a private college in Limerick. School was formed in 2006 when the Mid West Business Institute was acquired by Griffith College. School is full time and part time courses in accounting, business, law, engineering, computer and information technology and has a range of part-time courses.

Primary and secondary education in the city is organized in a similar way as the rest of Ireland. Limerick City Vocational Training Committee (CLVEC) provides training services to over 10,000 students in the city in secondary and further education levels. It also runs Gaelcholáiste Luimnigh, an all Irish school. The other major high schools in the city are Castletroy College, Crescent College comprehensive, St. Nessan’s and Villiers Church of Ireland school, all of which are co-educational. Ardscoil Ris, St. Clements Redemptorist College, CBS Sexton Street and St Munchin College are boys-only schools and Laurel Hill, presentation, Ard Scoil Mhuire and Scoil Carmel’s girls-only schools.

Sports

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastime in Limerick. The city and suburbs are also many tennis, athletics, cricket and golf clubs. The city is host to many major sporting events.Recent examples include the 2008 and 2009 Irish Open Golf Championships, the Irish 2010 Special Olympics, All-Ireland Corporate Games and the World Baton twirling championships. [64] Shannon has been appointed European sports for 2011 by the European Capitals of Sport Association (ACES). [65]the National Elite Swimming Club is based at the University of Limerick Arena.

basketball

Like the rest of Ireland, basketball was a very popular sport in Limerick in the 1970s and 1980s, with up to four divisions in men and women’s local leagues.It suffered from a decline in the 1990s, culminating in the complete closure of local league basketball in the city and surrounding areas. The most important clubs in the city was St. Colm’s and Marathon with St Colm’s in particular, has a long history in the national serierna.Det has been something of a revival of basketball in the city in recent years, particularly on minors level.

Limerick is currently represented in the national leagues of men’s UL Eagles team and the women’s UL Aughinish team. They both play their home matches at the 2500 capacity University Stadium at the University of Limerick. There are a number of other teams at school and club levels, including St Colm’s, Limerick Lakers, Taste of Europe, Celtic Limerick and Limerick Lions.

Cricket

Limerick Cricket Club is a member of the Munster Cricket Union and play in competitions organized by the Union. The club has previously provided players for the Ireland national cricket team.

Rowing

Three rowing clubs are in the city, namely the Shannon Rowing Club, St. Michaels Rowing Club and Athlunkard Boat Club. St. Michael member and Limerick native Sam Lynch won World Championship gold in the Men lightweight single skulls in Lucerne in 2001 to defend his title in order to take the gold again in Seville in 2002.

GAA sports

Ireland’s national sports of Hurling and Gaelic football is widely played in the city and its surrounding suburbs. While Limerick have not won the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship since 1973, reached the finals in 1974, 1980, 1994, 1996 and 2007 and is one of the four best teams in the game, in terms of All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship won. The county won successive All-Ireland Under-21 titles in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The county’s GAA teams show Sporting Limerick logo. Sporting Limerick is a non-commercial brand developed to “capture Limerick City & County unique sports culture and to promote their place one of Europe’s leading regions in the field performances, off-field facilities and its fantastic supporter base. “[66]

Na Piarsaigh is the only city club playing hurling on a higher level.Claughaun (Clochán), Monaleen (Moin a’Lín) and Mungret (Mungairit) competing in middle and old Christians (Sean-Chríostaithe), Milford (ATH a Mhuilinn) Saint Patrick (Naomh Pádraig) and Abbey Sars Fields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainistreach) compete at junior level.

Limerick won the first All-Ireland Senior Football Championship 1887 which is represented by the city Commercials club, and repeated the feat in 1896. Since then the game has lived mostly in the shadow of hurling, but a surge in 2000 saw the county win their first Munster Under-21 title and has since then reached three Munster senior finals. Monaleen (Moin a’Lín) is the only city club to play football at a higher quality. Saint Patrick (Naomh Pádraig), Claughaun (Cloghane), Mungret St Pauls (Mungairit Naomh Pol) and Na Piarsaigh are middle and Milford (ATH a Mhuilinn), Abbey Sars Fields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainstreach) and Ballinacurra Gaels (Gaeil Bhaile na Cora ) play at the junior level.

Thomond Park is home because avMunster Rugby

A number of secondary schools compete in the Dr. Harty Cup, which is the Munster Colleges Lung Mastership. Limerick CBS has won the cup on 10 occasions, including four in a row from 1964 to 1967 and later in 1993. The school also won the Dr. Croke Cup, the All-Ireland Colleges Hurling Championship on two occasions, in 1964 and 1966. Ardscoil Ris has won the championship twice, in 2010 and 2011, and St. Munchin College won it once, years 1922nd

Both the University of Limerick (UL) and Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT) has been successful in the Fitzgibbon Cup, the All-Ireland Hurling Championship Higher Education. UL first won the championship in 1989 and has won it four times in total. LIT two wins came in 2005 and 2007. Both colleges met in the final in 2011 with UL scoring an injury time goal to win.[67]

Limerick’s Gaelic Grounds (Pairc na nGael), on the Ennis Road, the county is the team’s home venue for both sports and has a current capacity of 49,000 for the reconstruction of 2004. 1961 hosting Ireland’s largest audience for a sporting event outside of Croke Park where over 61,000 paid to see Munster throw final between Tipperary and Cork. [68]

Golf

There are three golf clubs in conjunction with Limerick City. Limerick Golf Club was founded in 1891 and is located in Ballymena Clough, 5 km (3 mi) due south of the city center. Castletroy Golf Club was founded in 1937 and is located in the suburb of Castletroy in the southwestern part of the city.Rathbane Golf Club is based on Rathbane Golf Course, a municipal facility opened in 1998 in the southern outskirts of the city and operated under license for Limerick City Council. Both Limerick Castletroy and has had great success at national level in between the club competitions. Limerick has won the Irish Senior Cup, the blue riband event of Irish amateur golf, on four occasions and was the first Irish club to win the European Club Championship in 1980. [69] Castletroy has won the Irish Senior Cup once.

Limerick Golf Club hosted the JP McManus Invitational Pro Am, one of the largest pro-am events of its kind in the world. It has contributed over € 95 to local charities since its inception in 1990. [70] The event moved to larger Adare Golf Club in 2005, it had grown out of Ballyclough place. [71] Adare also played host to the Irish Open in 2007 and 2008.

Rugby

Rugby union is very popular in the city and is commonly played at all levels.Limerick is often called home Irish rugby. [72] [73] Since its inception in 1991 All-Ireland League has been dominated by Limerick City team with three clubs win the competition 13 times between them: Shannon (9); Garry (3) and Young Munster (1). With other leading clubs in the city’s old Crescent, Thomond and UL Bohemians. Richmond and St.Marys the city clubs playing in the junior leagues.

The city’s high schools compete in the Munster Senior and Junior Cups and a number of schools have enjoyed considerable success at both levels. The most successful rugby school in the town of Crescent College who has won the Senior Cup ten times, most recently in 2013, and the Junior Cup five times, most recently in 2010. The school is connected to Old Crescent RFC.St. Munchin’s has won the Senior Cup five times since 1968 and the Junior Cup three times. While Limerick CBS is better known for throwing success, won the Senior Cup on four occasions during the 1920s and 30s and the Junior Cup 1932. Ardscoil Ris has won the Junior Cup twice, in 2003 and 2005 and Castletroy College won both older and junior competitions in 2008.

All Munster European Heineken Cup matches played at Thomond Park Stadium, where the Munster team kept a record of being unbeaten in the Heineken Cup to 26 matches in succession until the 16-9 defeat of Leicester in January 2007. Munster have won the Heineken Cup twice. 2006 and 2008. the main ~~ POS = TRUNC street ~~ POS = hEAD COMP O’Connell Street was crowded for 2006 match [74] Munster quoted a famous 12-0 win against the New Zealand All Blacks in 1978 at Thomond Park. Munster are the only Irish team to have beaten the All Blacks, and nearly a second time when the teams met again in 2008, losing 18-16. Munster also defeated an Australian touring side at Thomond Park in 2010. [75]

Rugby League is also played in Limerick and the city is represented in the Conference of Munster Irish Elite Series to the Treaty City Titans, the most successful Irish club and 6 times Elite League champions and current Elite League champions Country Cowboys. A Limerick-based side is also planning to enter the Super League 2016 play matches from Thomond Park, it is also supposed to host the high-profile rugby league matches including the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, was an Academy also established to identify players to play Super League clubs . [76] [77]

Football

Football is very popular in the city and has more players than any other sport. The city is represented in the League of Ireland from Limerick FC. The club first entered the league in 1937 and has been ever since, although there have been a number of variants of the club. Their most successful period was from the 1960s to the 1980s, when they won two League of Ireland championship and two FAI Cup. The club played at The Market Field until the mid 1980s when they controversially moved to a new location. A period of declining fortunes and a nomadic life followed. [78] The club is currently playing in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the top tier of Irish football. Limerick FC returned to the market Field June 5, 2015 after the purchase of the stadium by the Limerick Enterprise Development Partnership (LEDP) from Bord na gCon, the Irish greyhound racing authority.The purchase was financed by a donation from the JP McManus Charitable Foundation. [79]

Horse racing

Limerick Racecourse is located 10 km outside the city on Greenmount, Patrick and keeps flat and National Hunt meetings during the year.

Boxing

Limerick has developed a world boxing champion, Andy Lee, the current WBO Middleweight Champion is from Limerick.

Energy

In 2013 there was a new energy strategy launched for the region Limerick and Clare. The project is a short-term 2020 renewable energy provides a reduction of 20% CO 2 emissions, while short-term measures are good for the long term goal of 100% renewable energy. The strategy was completed by the Danish Aalborg University. [80]

Pictures

  • King John Castle on the River Shannon.
  • Another view of King John Castle.
  • Sylvester O’Halloran Bridge.
  • A view along the quay in the city of Limerick.
  • The Treaty Stone on the banks of the River Shannon.
  • Another view of the Treaty Stone.
  • Maria Cathedral.
  • Limerick on the River Shannon, seen from the Episcopal Quay.
  • Limerick City and the River Shannon at sunset.
  • Cast iron sculpture avAntony Gormley located in the Central Plaza iUniversity of Limerick.

See also

  • List of Limerick people
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

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