CategoryCounty Meath

Trim Castle

Trim Castle (Irish: Caislean Bhaile Atha Troim ) is a Norman castle on the south bank of the River Boyne in Trim, County Meath, Ireland. With an area of 30,000 m², it is the largest Norman castle in Ireland. [1] [2] For a period of 30 years, was built by Hugh de Lacy and his son Walter caput of the lordship Meath.


The castle was used as a center for Norman Administration supremacy Meath, one of the new administrative areas in Ireland, created by King Henry II of England. Hugh de Lacy took it in 1172. De Lacy built a huge ring teamwork castle defended by a strong double palisade and outer ditch on top of the hill. It may also have been another defense around the rocks fringing the high ground. Part of a stone footed timber Gatehouse is below the current stone gate on the west side of the castle. De Lacy left Ireland entrust castle Hugh Tyrrel, Baron Castle, one of his chief lieutenants. The ring work was attacked and burned by the forces of Gaelic högkung, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair; Tyrrel appealing in vain for help, had to flee. Ua Conchobair back soon and De Lacy immediately rebuilt the castle in 1173. His son Walter continued reconstruction and the castle was completed c.1224. The next phase of the castle’s development took place in the late 13th century and early 14th century; a new large hall (with croft and attach sun in a radically changed curtain tower), a new fore building and stables were added to keep.At Walter’s death in 1241 his granddaughter Matilda (Maud) inherited the castle. Her second husband varGeoffrey the Gene Ville, Lord Vaucouleurs in France. Matilda died in 1304, and Geoffrey into the Priory of St Mary in Trim.His son had died in 1292 and the estate passed to his eldest daughter, Joan. In 1301, Joan married Roger Mortimer and the castle passed to the Mortimer family who kept it until 1425, when the line died out. [3] The goods on to the next heir in the female line, Richard of York, who was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460 . in 1461, Richard’s son, Edward IV appointed Germyn Lynch in London to be his representative at Trim.


The castle site was chosen because it is on raised ground, overlooking a fording point on the River Boyne. The area was an important early medieval ecclesiastical and royal place that was navigable in medieval times by boat up the river Boyne, about 25 miles from the Irish Sea. Trim Castle is called in Norman poem “The Song of Dermot and the Earl.”

During the late Middle Ages, Trim Castle was the center of administration for Meath and marked the outer northern boundary of The Pale. In the 16th and 17th centuries had declined in importance, except as a potentially important military site, and the castle had deteriorated. During the 15th century Irish Parliament met in Trim Castle seven times, and a coin operated in the castle.

The castle fell into decline in the 16th century but refortified the Irish League of wars in the 1640s. 1649 after the sack of Drogheda, the garrison of Trim fled to connect andrairländska forces and the place was occupied by the army of Oliver Cromwell.

After the war, the 1680s, the castle was granted Wellesley family who kept it until Arthur Wellesley (the Duke of Wellington), sold it to Leslie. In the following years, passed through the congested Estates Court in the hands of Dunsany Plunketts. They left the country open and from time to time allowed different applications, with a part of Castle Field rented for a few years by the City Council as a municipal dump, and a small meeting hall for the Royal British Legion built. The Dunsanys kept castle and surrounding until 1993, when after years of discussion, Lord Dunsany sold the land and buildings to the state, so that only river access and fishing rights.

Office of Public Works began an extensive program of investigative works and conservation, costing over € 6,000,000, including partial restoration of the moat and the installation of a protective roof. The castle was re-opened to the public in 2000.


With an area of 30,000 m², is Trim Castle, the largest Cambro-Norman castle in Ireland. The design of the central three-story keep (also known as a tower or large tower) is unique to a Norman keep be of cruciform, with twenty corner. It was built on the site of the former big ring fortification work in at least three stages, first by Hugh de Lacy (c. 1174) and then in 1196 and 1201-5 by Walter de Lacy. The castle interior was partially subject to an archaeological excavation by David Sweetman of OPW in the 1970s and to a greater extent by Alan Hayden in the 1990s.

The survivors curtain walls are mainly of three phases. West and north sides of the enceinte is defended by rectangular towers (including Trim Gate) dating to the 1170s; Dublin port was built in the 1190’s or early 13’s; and the remaining wall of the south with its round tower dates to the first two decades of the 13th century. The castle has two main gates. On the west side dates to the 1170s and sits on top of a demolished wooden gateway. The upper floors of the stone tower was changed to a half-octagonal shape, c. 1200. Dublin Gate in the southern wall is a single round-towered gate with an external Barbican towers. It dates from the 1190’s or early 13’s and was the first example of its kind to be built in Ireland.

Apart from Keep the most important surviving structures include the following: an early 14th-century three-towered bow work defends keeping the entrance and stables within the (accessed by a stone causeway crossing the partially completed trench of the previous call work); a large end of the 13th century three aisles great hall (with an under croft during its eastern end opening via a water gate to the river); a stout defense tower (turned into a sun in the late 13th century in northern angle of the castle); a smaller aisled hall (added to the east end of the great hall of the 14th or 15th century); a building (possibly mint) to the east end of the hall later; two 15th- or 16th-century stone buildings added in the city gatehouse buildings 17’s (added to the end of the hall range and the northern side of the Keep), and a number of lime kilns (one dating from the late 12th century, the rest of the 18: and 19th centuries).


Trim Castle is open, on payment of an entry fee, to the public every day from Easter Saturday to Halloween (31 October) from 10:00. The area inside the castle walls is freely available to an access fee, while access to the castle keep is via a 45-minute guided tour. In winter, the complex is only open on weekends and holidays.

Points to note

Trim and Talbot Castle. Visible also ärkungliga mint, sun and Trim Cathedral

The castle is famous for the part it played in the filming of Mel Gibson directed the film Braveheart .

In 2003 there was a controversy surrounding the decision of the Minister of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government Martin Cullen not to oppose the construction of a five-story hotel across the street from the castle. The development had been sentenced by a local politician, a Senior Officer of An Bord Pleanála (acting in a private capacity, and later decide to withdraw their appeal, so that it is considered a conflict of interest) and heritage bodies, many of which had been critical of the government’s treatment of other historic sites such as the Carrickmines Castle (ruins unearthed in part to allow for the completion of a road). The hotel opened in August 2006. The recent addition of buildings (including offices OPW) off the western side of the city has been even more visibly intrusive to the castle remains.

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • List of castles in Ireland


  • Reeves-Smith, Terrence. 1995. Irish Castle’s . Belfast: The Apple Press Ltd.
  • The Breffny, Brian. 1977. Castles of Ireland . London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Salter, Mike. 1993. Castles and Strong Houses in Ireland . Worc.: Folly Publications.
  • Sweetman, David. 1999. The medieval castle Ireland . Cork: Collins Press.
  • McNeill, Tom. 1997. Castles in Ireland . London: Routledge.
  1. Jump up ^ Trim Castle, County Meath Tourism Ireland.Http://
  2. Jump up ^ Heritage Ireland. Trim Castle
  3. Jump up ^ Duchas Heritage Service (ed) (2002). Trim Castle Co. Meath.pp. 20-26. ISSN 07-557-128-2X.

Tayto Park

Tayto Park is an amusement park, located in Kilbrew, near Ashbourne in County Meath. The park opened in November 2010. Located 30 minutes from the center of Dublin, Tayto Park hosts a variety of activities to suit all ages.

Tourist attractions

general attractions

  • Pow Wow Playground : playground with towers, slides, climbing walls and rope bridges for children under 12 years.
  • Spudhara Playground : play area with swings and children’s activities during the sixth
  • Dinosaurs Alive : Exhibition of life animatronic dinosaurs (self-guided walk through)
  • Tiny Tater Patch : Giant Spiral hill and mini maze
  • Giant Chessboard : A seasonal attraction that has water jets in the ground
  • Mini Playground : Great fun for children aged 4 years and over
  • crispy Maze
  • Vortex Tunnel : This attraction is a tunnel with swirling lights in the vicinity of the factory tour
  • Tayto Factory Tour : Visitors can see how the nation’s favorite potato chips are made and learn some of Mr. Tayto most guarded secrets (No production on Saturday, Sunday or holidays)
  • Live shows : Magic
  • Face Painting & Arts and Crafts
  • wheelchair Swing
  • Play and Splash : Whacky water zone

Eagle Sky Adventure Zone

  • Cuchulainn Coaster : Ireland’s only wooden roller coaster, and the only one big roller coaster ride of any kind in the country (as of 2016), opened June 5, 2015. [2] Ground was broken on the project August 10, 2014 and construction began 1 september 2014 with a strong focus on mythical Irish history, the roller coaster named after one of the great eternal heroes of Irish history, Cuchulainn. The figure of the great Irish fighters emblazoned across the front of the roller coaster train.
  • Rotator : Rotator is a “Frisbie” style of ride. Riders facing outwards on a rotating gondala which swings like a pendulum.
  • Air Race : This trip, themed around the aircraft, spins and rotates simultaneously.
  • 5D cinema : A short film experience with air gusts, water jets, leg ticklers, flashing lights, bubbles and smoke blasts.
  • Zip Line Extreme : Tayto Park is home to Ireland’s longest and fastest zip wire
  • Extreme climbing wall 21 meters climbing wall to test the climbing skills.
  • Tayto Twister 20 meters tubular slide
  • Sky Walk : Three levels of obstacles and bridges high above the ground

Eagle’s Nest

  • Air Jumpers : Bungee system with trampolines to spring over 5 meters high
  • The Superhero Training Wall : Climb up to 9 meters on the wall
  • Crispy Creek Mining Company : Pan sand by flowing water to reveal rare stones
  • Shot Tower : Strap in, countdown and prepare to shoot 10 meters into the sky
  • Pony Rail : Saddle up and gallop across the plains Tayto Park
  • Honey Jar Bears : Join the honey pot carries for a fun adventure
  • Steam Train Express : 2 feet (610 mm) narrow gauge [3] train with a steam contour / diesel hydraulic locomotive and three coaches from Severn Lamb [4]


  • Agro’s Friends : Is an open area, which includes many rare breeds of animals such as Jacob, Manx & Soay sheep, Highland cattle, pygmy goats, Vietnamese pot belly pigs and other pets.
  • Wildwoods : a wooded area with wildlife including ocelots, ring-tailed coatis, Amur leopards, fishing cat, corsac foxes, aardwolves and more.
  • Feathered friends : Miscellaneous and beautiful collection of exotic birds from around the world
  • Buffalo Ridge : Home to the first herd of American bison in Ireland
  • Cat Country : cougars, lynx and the largest of the big cats, endangered Amur tigers.
  • Down Under : Visit emus and wallabies


Tayto Park is wheelchair except for the tea house in the tree house and buffalo viewing platform. There is a gift shop and dining options such as the restaurant at the Lodge Building, which also offers a private function room or the Pizza Place.

There is free parking for cars and buses as well as disabled parking near the entrance.


Bus Eireann runs 103 and 105 services, which stops at the park on a daily basis.

External links

  • Official website


  1. Jump up ^ [1]
  2. Jump up ^ – Cuchulainn
  3. Jump up ^ Severn Lamb – Texan
  4. Jump up ^ Blooloop – Severn Lamb Provides Texan Rail turnkey package for Tayto Park, Ireland

Slane Castle

Slane Castle is located in the town of Slane, in the Boyne Valley in County Meath, Ireland. The castle has been the family home of the Conyngham family since the 18th century. [1]

It keeps Slane Concert event within its grounds, with the Irish Independentclaimed in 2004 that “Slane today is the type of internationally recognized place that can claim even Madonna attention”. [2] Its sloping lawns forms a natural amphitheater. [3]


View of the River Boyne, just a few kilometers upstream from Newgrange and site of the famous Battle of the Boyne, where Slane Castle in its current form, constructed under the direction of William Burton Conyngham, along with his nephew, 1st Marquess Conyngham. The reconstruction dates back to 1785 and is mainly the work of James Gandon, James Wyatt and Francis Johnston. Francis Johnston was also the architect responsible for the gothic gates at Mill Hill, which is located east of the castle.

The Conynghams is originally a Scottish Protestant family, who planted in Ireland in 1611, during the Plantation of Ulster County Donegal. Thus, the family claimed control over land around the village Tamhnach a tSalainn , near Donegal Town in south County Donegal. Meanwhile, the then head of the family, Charles Conyngham, renamed the village in its own glory as Mount Charles (pronounced locally in South Donegal “Mount-char-Liss). [4]The family is also controlled a substantial property in West Donegal, especially in The Rosses district .

The relationship between the Ulster-Scots Conynghams and Estate Slane in County Meath goes back over 300 years, since the property was purchased by the family after Williamite Confiscation in 1701. Around that time, the family moved their main ancestral seat of south County Donegal in western Ulster Slane.

Prior to Slane Castle had been in possession of Fleming’s, Anglo-Norman Catholics who had joined the Jacobites in the War of the Grand Alliance, and thus efterWilliamite victory was their property eligible for confiscation.Christopher, 17th Baron of Slane (from 1669 to 1614 in July 1726, created The 1st Viscount Longford from Queen Anne1713), was the last Fleming lord Slane. The current owner of the castle is Henry Conyngham, which styles itself [5] as the 8th Marquess Conyngham. The eldest son of Lord Conyngham Alex, Earl of Mount Charles.

1991, a fire in the Castle caused extensive damage to the building and completely gutted the east overlooking the River Boyne. The castle was opened again in 2001 after the completion of a ten-year restoration program.In 2003, a cannon in connection with the castle found in the nearby River Boyne [6]

On the east side of the castle demesne, directly between the River Boyne and the village church of Ireland church in Slane, lay the ruins of St. ERC Hermitage, a 15th-century multi-story chapel, and with about 500 meters west of St. ERC Hermitage an old well can also be found. In one of the central texts of Irish mythology, the Cath Maige Tuireadh is, this well is said to have been blessed by God Dian Cecht so that the Tuatha Dé Danann could bathe in it and be cured, allegedly heal all fatal wounds except beheading. [7] but with the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, and the policy of the Christian reinterpretation of traditional pagan places, it is well now more commonly called Our Lady’s well.

Live at Slane

Main article: Slane Concert

Since 1981, the grounds of Slane Castle used to host rock concerts. The natural amphitheater has a 80,000 person capacity. [8] The concerts was opened by the then Earl of Mount Charles (popularly known for decades that Henry Mount Charles, since March 2009, he has been known as the 8th Marquess Conyngham), the owner of the castle.

The models headed Slane concerts since 1981 include The Rolling Stones, U2, Robbie Williams, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Queen, David Bowie, Neil Young, Bryan Adams, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Guns N ‘Roses, Madonna, REM, Foo Fighters, Celtic Woman and Oasis. On May 28, 2011 Kings Of Leon captioned 30th anniversary event at Slane Castle. Five support act plays, including Thin Lizzy, as in a previous line-up titled first Slane Concert 1982. [9]

Celtic Woman filming her second DVD at Slane Castle, called Celtic Woman: a new journey in August 2006, and U2 filmed the DVD U2 Go Home: Live From Slane Castle in 2001, but the DVD was released in 2003. They also played their 1984 album, The Unforgettable Fire , where while the residence for a time. Parts of Madonna’s documentary film , I’ll tell you a secret filmed at Slane Castle in 2004. Bon Jovi performed at Slane Castle in June 2013.


  1. Jump up ^ Slane Castle History: A Brief History of Henry, eighth Marquis Conyngham Slane Castle
  2. Jump up ^ rainy days and festivals, July 10, 2004
  3. Jump up ^ U2 and Slane Castle tool for 20-year reunion RTÉ News, August 24, 2001
  4. Jump up ^
  5. Jump up ^ Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution prohibits the state gives nobility titles and a citizen may not receive titles of nobility or honor except with the prior approval of the government, is present titles of the peerage considered anachronistic, noble titles or peerage is thus regarded as simply the courtesy titles. ” 40.2 “(PDF), the Constitution of Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office
  6. Jump up ^ Slane Cannon find News File ; Retrieved May 31, 2011
  7. Jump up ^ Cath Maige Tuireadh . Elizabeth A. Gray (trans.)
  8. Jump up ^ A history of Slane Castle concerts since 1981 Slane Castle
  9. Jump up ^ Up to 80,000 down on Slane Irish Times, May 28, 2011


Ráth Chairn (English: Rathcarne or Rathcarran ) is a small village and the Gaeltacht (Irish -speaking area) in County Meath, Ireland. It is about 55 km northwest of Dublin.

Ráth Chairn Gaeltacht was founded in 1935 when 41 families from Conamara settled on land previously acquired by the Irish Land Commission. Each family was provided with a Land Commission house and a farm of about 8.9 hectares (22 acres), a sow, piglets and basic implements. Another 11 families joined the original settlers in 1935. A total of 443 people moved from Connemara to Ráth Chairn area. In 1967 Ráth Chairn official recognition as a Gaeltacht, following a local campaign. [1] Today, and the nearby village of Baile Ghib represent Meath Gaeltacht.

A cooperative (the “Ráth Chairn cooperation Society”) was founded in 1973. Ráth Chairn has since grown to a village with a Catholic church, meeting hall for plays, Corchumann Ráth Chairn and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta (also used by Coláiste na bhFiann during the summer months ), sports facilities, an all-Irish primary and secondary school, a library and a pub (an Breadán Feasa).

Several facilities in Ráth Chairn host children and adults who want to learn Irish and residential Irish language courses are run for teenagers during the summer months. [2]

Notable people

  • Bláthnaid Ní Chofaigh, TV Personality
  • Darach Ó Cathain, Sean nos singer

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ – History
  2. Jump up ^


Newgrange (Irish: Sí a Bhrú ) [1] is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located about one kilometer north of the River Boyne. [2] It was built during neolitiskaperioden around 3200 BC, making it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. [3] the site consists of a large circular mound with a stone passage and the inner chamber. The pile has a retaining wall at the front and is surrounded by engraved curb. There is no agreement on what the site was used for, but it has been speculated that it had religious significance – it is in line with the rising sun and its light floods the chamber on the winter solstice. It is the most famous monuments in the Neolithic Brú na Bóinne complex, along with similar passage tomb mounds of Knowth and Dowth, and as such is part of the Brú na Bóinne UNESCO World Heritage List. Newgrange also shares many similarities with other Neolithic structures in Western Europe, which Maeshowe in Orkney, Scotland [4] and Bryn Celli Ddu in Wales.

After its initial use, Newgrange was sealed for thousands of years, although it remained stories of Irish mythology and folklore. Antiquarians first began its study in the 17th century, and archaeological excavations took place at the site in the years that followed. Archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly led the most extensive of these and even reconstructed façade of the site in the 1970s, a reconstruction that is controversial and contentious. [5] Newgrange today is a popular tourist attraction and, according to archaeologist Colin Renfrew, is ” undoubtedly considered as prehistorian as the great national monument of Ireland “and as one of the most important megalithic structures in Europe. [6]

physical Description

Mound and the passage grave

Newgrange monument consists mainly of a large hill, built of alternating layers of earth and stone, with grass growing on top and a reconstructed facade of zero growth white quartz stones studded at intervals with large rounded cobbles that cover a portion of the perimeter. The mound is 76 meters (249 feet) across and 12 meters (39 feet) high and covers 4,500 square meters (1.1 acres) of land. Within the pile is a chamber passage, which can be accessed through an entrance on the southeast side of monumentet.Passagen extends 19 meters (60 feet), [7] , or about a third of the way into the center of the structure. At the end of the passage is small three chambers outside a larger central chamber, with a high Corbelled arch roof.Each of the smaller chambers has a large flat “stone basin”, which was where the bones of the dead possibly originally deposited, although it was actually a cemetery is still unclear. The walls of this passage consists of large stone slabs, twenty-two of them are on the west side, and twenty-one in the east, which averaged at 1.5 meters in height, [8] several are decorated with carvings (as well as graffiti from after the rediscovery) . The ceiling shows no sign of smoke.

Located around the perimeter of the pile is a circle of standing stones, as most archaeologists consider to have been added later in the Bronze Age, had centuries after the original monument abandoned as a tomb.


Newgrange contains various examples of abstract Neolithic petroglyphs carved on it that gives decoration. [9] These carvings fit into ten categories, five of which are curved (circles, spirals, arcs, serpentiniforms and dot-in-circles) and the other five of which are rectilinear (Chevron, lozenges, radials, parallel lines and offsets). They are also characterized by great differences in style, skill level that would have been needed to produce them, and how deeply carved they are. [10] One of the most remarkable examples of art at Newgrange is triskele -like features on the entrance stone. It is about three meters long and 1.2 meters high (10 ft. Long and 4 ft. High), and about five tons of vikt.Det has been described as “one of the most famous rocks in the whole repertoire of megalithic art.” [11] Archaeologists believe most of the carvings were produced before the stones “that were erected, although the entrance stone instead carved in situ before the curbs were placed next to it. [12]

Different archaeologists have speculated on the meaning of decoration, with some, such as George Coffey (in 1890), believe that they are purely decorative, while others, like MJ O’Kelly (1962-1975 led excavations at the site), believed them to have some kind of symbolic purposes, as part of the carvings had been in places that would not have been visible, such as at the bottom of orthostatic slabs below ground level. [13] Extensive research on how art relates to adjustments and astronomy in the Boyne Valley complex was performed by American-Irish researcher Martin Brennan.


The Neolithic people who built the monument were indigenous agriculturalists, growing crops and raising animals like cows in the area where their settlements were located.

Construction and funerals

The complex of Newgrange was originally built between c. 3200 and 3100 BC.[14] According to carbon-14 date, [15] it is approximately five hundred years older than the current form of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, as well as prior to the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece. [16] some put their construction slightly later, at 3000 to 2500 BC [17] geological analysis suggests that much of the materials used to construct Newgrange was beach blocks collected from the rocky beach at Clogherhead, County Louth, ca. 20 km to the northeast. The blocks may be transported to Newgrange place at sea and up the River Boyne by securing them to the underside of boats at low tide (see diagram in Benozzo (2010)); four plates of brown carboniferous sandstone is from further away, the rest of the 547 plates used in the construction of the monument is greywacke of Clogherhead formation, a feldspar-rich sedimentary rock. [18] [19]

None of the structural plates were broken, for they show signs of having been naturally weathered, so they must have been collected and then transported in any way is largely up to the Newgrange site. [20] Meanwhile, the stones used for the cairn , which together would have weighed around 200,000 tons, was probably taken from the river terraces between Newgrange and the Boyne, and it is really a big pond in this area has been speculated place was broken by Newgrange’s builders to use materials for cairn. [20]Frank Mitchell suggested that the monument would be built in the space of five years, basing its estimates on the likely number of local residents during the Neolithic and how much time they could have spent to build it rather than agriculture. This estimate, however, criticized by MJ O’Kelly and his archaeological team, who thought that it would have taken at least thirty years to build. [21]

Excavations have revealed deposits of both fired and unfired human bone in the passage, suggesting human corpses were actually placed within it, some of which had cremated. From examining the unburned bones, it appeared to come from at least two different individuals, but a large part of their skeletons were missing, and what was left were scattered passage. [22] Various grave goods were deposited at the side of the body inside the passage. excavations that took place in the late 1960s and early 1970s revealed seven “spheres”, four pendants, two beads, a used flint flake, a bone chisel and fragments of bone pins and points. [23] Many more artifacts found in passage in previous centuries by visiting antiquarians and tourists, although most of them were taken away and missing or held in private collections. Despite these sometimes recorded, and it is believed that the grave goods came from Newgrange was typical of Neolithic Irish passage grave assemblages. [24] The remains of animals have also been found in the grave, mostly those of mountain hares, rabbits and dogs, but also bats, sheep or goats, cattle, song thrush, and more rarely, molluscs and frog. Most of these animals would simply have written, and died in the chamber many centuries or even millennia after it was constructed. For example, rabbits were only introduced in Ireland in the 13th century [25]


During a large part of the Neolithic period, Newgrange continued as a focus for any ceremonial activity. New monuments added to the site included a wooden circle (or Stonehenge) to the south east of the main deck and a smaller timber circle to the west. The eastern timber circle consisted of five concentric rows of pits. The outer row contained wooden posts. The next row of pits had clay liner and used to burn the animal remains. The three inner rows of pits were dug to accept animal remains. Within the circle were post and stake holes associated with Beaker pottery and flint flakes. The western timber circle consisted of two concentric rows of parallel postholes and pits defining a circle 20 meters in diameter. [ Citation needed ] A concentric pile of mud was constructed around the southern and western sides of the mound that covered a structure consisting of two parallel lines mail and ditches that had been partially burned. An independent circle of large stones were constructed surrounding the pile. Near the entrance, hardener 17 used to set the fire. These structures at Newgrange is generally contemporary with a number henges known from the Boyne Valley, Newgrange at Site A, Site O Newgrange, Dowth henge and Monknewtown Stonehenge. [ Citation needed ]

The site apparently continued to have some ritual significance in the Iron Age; between different objects later deposited around the pile are two pendants made of gold Roman coins 320-337 AD (now in the National Museum of Ireland) and Roman gold jewelery including two bracelets, two finger rings and a necklace, now in the collections of the British Museum. [26]


There have been various debates about its original purpose. Many archaeologists believed that the monument had religious significance of some kind or another, either as a place of worship of a “cult of the dead” or an astronomically-based faith. Archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly, who led the 1962-1975 excavations on the site, believed that the monument must be seen in relation to the nearby Knowth and Dowth, and the construction of Newgrange ‘can not be considered other than an expression of some kind of powerful force or motivation, transferred to the extreme glorification of these three monuments, cathedrals megalithic religion. ” [27] O’Kelly thought Newgrange, along with hundreds of other passage tombs built in Ireland during the Neolithic showed evidence of a religion that venerated the dead as one of its fundamental principles. He believed that this “cult of the dead” was just a special form of European Neolithic religion, and that other megalithic monuments shown evidence of various religious beliefs which were the sun, rather than death-oriented. [27]

However, studies in other areas of expertise offer alternative interpretations of the possible functions, which mainly center on astronomy, engineering, geometry and mythology associated with the Boyne monuments. It is speculated that the sun formed an important part of the religious beliefs of the Neolithic people who built it. One idea was that the room was intended for a ritual absorption of the sun on the shortest day of the year, the winter solstice, as the room gets flooded with sunlight, which might have helped the days start to get longer again. This view is strengthened by the discovery of adaptations of Knowth, Dowth and Lough Crew Cairns leads to the interpretation of these monuments which calendrical or astronomical units.Earlier Newgrange mound was surrounded by an outer ring of immense standing stones, of which twelve of a possible thirty-seven left. However, indicate by carbon dating to the stone circle which encircled Newgrange can not be contemporary with the monument itself but were placed there some 1,000 years later in the Bronze Age. This view is controversial, and relates to a time of coal from a standing stone that cuts with a later hour after the circle, the theory is that the stone in question may have been moved and re-set in its original position at a later date. However, this does demonstrate continuity in the use of Newgrange in over a thousand years; with partial remains were found from only five individuals, the tomb theory is questioned. [ citation needed ]

Once a year, at the winter solstice, the light of the rising sun directly along the long passage, illuminating the inner chamber and reveal the carvings inside, especially triple spirals on the front wall of the chamber. This lighting lasts about 17 minutes. [3] MJ O’Kelly was the first person in modern times to observe this event on December 21, 1967. [28] The sunlight enters the passage through a specially contrived opening, known as a roof box, direct above the main entrance. Although the sun adjustments are not uncommon among passage graves of Newgrange is one of the few to include additional roof box function; (Cairn G at Carrowkeel megalithic Cemetery is another, and it has been suggested that can be found at Bryn Celli Ddu. [29] ). The alignment is such that even if the roof box is above the passage entrance, the light hits the floor of the internal chamber. Today the first light enters about four minutes after sunrise, but calculations based on the precession of the Earth show that 5,000 years ago first light would have entered exactly at soluppgången.Solens focus on Newgrange is very precise compared to similar phenomena in other passage graves as Dowth or Maes Howe in Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland.

Maturity and Beaker settlement

During the Late Neolithic, it seems that Newgrange is no longer used by the locals, which leaves some artifacts in the passage grave and bury any of their dead there. As archaeologist Michael O’Kelly said: “In 2000 [BC] Newgrange was in disrepair and squatters lived around the collapsing edge.” [30] These “squatters” were followers of the Beaker Culture, which had been imported from the European continent and made Beaker style pottery locally. [30]

Discovery, excavation and restoration

Mythology and folklore in the medieval and early modern period

During the medieval period, Newgrange and wider Brú na Bóinne neolithic complex got different attributes in local folklore, which were often linked to figures from the wider Irish mythology. Monuments of Brú was regarded by some as the abode of the supernatural Tuatha Dé Danann, while others considered them to be burial mounds of the ancient kings of Tara. Among those who thought the folkloric tales relating to BRU Tuatha Dé Danann, it was widely believed that they were the abode of the most powerful of the Tuatha, especially Dagda, Boann his wife and his son, Óengus. According to 11th century book Lecan had Dagda Brú built for himself and his three sons, while the 12th century book Leinster describes how Óengus tricked his father into giving him Brú for all eternity. Another text, The Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainne also means Óengus took Brú, when he explained how he took his friend Diarmaid to it. [31]

Meanwhile, in 1142, it had become a part of the dissenting farmland owned by the Cistercian Abbey of Mellifont. These farms were called Granges. By 1378 it was simply called the “new grange”. Because of the Williamite seized Charles Campbell became the land owner as a participant of the estates forfeited 1688. [ citation needed ]

Antiquarianism in the 17th and 18th centuries

In 1699, a local landowner, Charles Campbell, ordered some of his farm laborers to dig up some of Newgrange, which had the appearance of a large mound of earth, so that he could collect the stones inside it. The workers soon discovered the entrance to the tomb of the pile, and a Welsh antiquarian named Edward Lhwyd, who lived in the area were alerted and took an interest in the monument. He wrote an account of the mound and the grave, describes what he saw as his “barbaric sculpture” and notes that animal bones, beads and pieces of glass had been found inside the (modern archaeologists have speculated that the latter two were in fact polished ceramic beads who later turned on the spot and that was a common feature of Neolithic tombs). [32] soon another antiquarian visitors also came to the site, named Sir Thomas Molyneaux, who was a professor at the University of Dublin. He spoke to Charles Campbell, who informed him that he had found the remains of two human corpses in the grave, one (who were male), in one of the tanks, and another further along the passage, which Lhwyd had not been noted. [33] Then Newgrange was attended by a number of antiquarians, who often performed his own measurements of the site and made their own observations, which are often published in various antiquarian journals; these included such figures as Sir William Wilde, Thomas Pownall, Thomas Wright, John O’Donovan, George Petrie and James Ferguson. [34]

These curators are often being their own theories about the origin of Newgrange, many of which have since been proven false. Thomas Pownall conducted a very detailed examination of Newgrange in 1769 [35] which numbers all the stones and also plays a part of the carvings on the stone said, but also that the pile had originally been higher and a lot of stone on top of it had later been removed, a theory which has since been disproved by archaeological research. [36] most of these old also refused to believe that it was the ancient people native to Ireland who built the monument, with many believing that it had been built in the early medieval period of invading Vikings, while others speculated that it was actually built by the ancient Egyptians, ancient Indians or the Phoenicians. [37]

Conservation, archaeological studies, and reconstructions in the 19th and 20th centuries

Sometime in the early 1800’s folly was built a few laps behind Newgrange.Foolishness, with two round windows, made of stones taken from Newgrange. In 1882, according to the law on monuments protection, Newgrange and the nearby monuments Knowth and Dowth were under the control of the State (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, as it was then called), and they were placed under the responsibility of the Board of Public Works. In 1890, under the leadership of Thomas Newenham Deane Board began a project of conservation of the monuments, which had been damaged by the general decline in the previous three millennia, as well as the increasing damage caused by visitors, some of whom had inscribed their.names of stones [38] in the next few decades, a number of archaeologists carried out excavations at the site, discover more about its function and how it had been built; but even at that time it was still widely believed by archaeologists to be Bronze Age origin rather than the older Neolithic. [39] In 1950, electric lighting was installed in the passageway to allow visitors to see more clearly, [40] while an exhaustive archaeological excavations were made from 1962 until 1975, was the excavation report written by Michael J. O’Kelly and published in 1982 by Thames and Hudson archeology, art and Legend: Newgrange . [41]

After O’Kelly excavation, further restoration and rebuilding took place at the site. As part of a reconstruction, white quartzite stones and cobblestones fixed in a near vertical steel-reinforced concrete wall surrounding the entrance of the heap. This work is controversial among the archaeological community. PR Griot described the monument that looks like a “cream cheese cake with dried streams distributed around.” [42] Neil Oliver described the building as “a little brutal, a little far, much like Stalin makes the Stone Age.” [43] Critics of the new wall points that the technology did not exist when the mound was created to fix a retaining wall at this angle. Another theory is that the white quartzite stones had actually formed a square on the ground at the entrance. This theory was preferred at nearby Knowth, where the restorers, the quartzite rocks like an “apron” in front of the entrance to the big pile.

The curved walls that flank each side of the entrance are not original, nor is it intended to be similar to Newgrange original appearance, but was designed to facilitate the access of visitors. But a visitor’s guide book to the site is a reconstruction drawing depicting Neolithic inhabitants use Newgrange showing the modern entrance as if it were part of Newgrange original appearance. [44]

Access to Newgrange

In the early 1970s, Newgrange about 30,000 visitors per year. In 1980 this had doubled to 63,000, and in 1990 had doubled again to 132,000. In 1996, the official number of visitors to Newgrange exceeded 150,000, with thousands of others who can not get access to the site that saturation point had been reached. [45]

Access to Newgrange is only guided tour. Tours begin at the Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre which visitors are bussed to the site in groups. Current day visitors to Newgrange are treated to a reenactment of the winter solstice experience through the use of electric lights located within the grave. The finale of a Newgrange tour results in each tour member standing inside the tomb where the tour guide is then turned off the lights and light the lamp simulates the sun as it seems on the winter solstice. To experience the phenomenon of the morning winter solstice itself inside Newgrange, you must enter a lottery at the interpretive center. Of the thousands who enter, are fifty elected every year, each one must take a single guest. The winners are divided into groups of 10 and taken out in five days around the solstice where the light enters the chamber, weather permitting.


  1. Jump up ^ “Sí a Bhrú / Newgrange.” Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ O’Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend .London: Thames and Hudson. The 13th
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab “winter solstice illumination of Newgrange.” Hämtadtolv October of 2007.
  4. Jump up ^ Laing, 1974, p. 42
  5. Jump up ^ “Newgrange got a new lease of light and life in the 1960’s” build “.” Irish Times. 20 December 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ Renfrew, Colin, in O’Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend . London: Thames and Hudson. The seventh
  7. Jump up ^ “Newgrange”. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  8. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 21)
  9. Jump up ^ Joseph Nechvatal, Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances .LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009, p. 163
  10. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 146-147).
  11. Jump up ^ Ó Ríordáin, Seán P.; Glyn, Edmund Daniel (1964).Newgrange and the Boyne Bend. FA Praeger. p. 26. [1]
  12. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 149).
  13. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 148).
  14. Jump up ^ “Newgrange”. Department of Arts, Heritage, Regional, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  15. Jump up ^ E. Grogan, “Prehistoric and early historical cultural change at Brugh na Bóinne”, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 91C, 1991, pp. 126-132
  16. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 48)
  17. Jump up ^ Grant, Jim; Sam Gorin; Neil Fleming (2008). The archeology textbook .Taylor & Francis. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-46286-0. Hämtad17 August 2011.
  18. Jump up ^ Benozzo, F. (2010). “Words archaeological finds: Another example of the Ethno-Philological contribute to the study of European Megalithism”. The European Archaeologist. 33 : 7-10.
  19. Jump up ^ Phillips, WEA; M. Corcoran; E. Eogan (2001) Identification of the source region of the megaliths used in the construction of the Neolithic passage graves in the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath. Unpublished report for the Heritage Council. Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin
  20. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 117)
  21. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 117-118)
  22. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 105-106)
  23. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 105)
  24. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 107)
  25. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 215-216)
  26. Jump up ^ “The British Museum – Collection SEARCH You searched for”.British Museum .Hämtad April 27, 2015.
  27. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 122)
  28. Jump up ^ “Brú na Bóinne (Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth)”.Hämtadtolv October of 2007.
  29. Jump up ^ Pitts (2006) Sensational new discoveries at Bryn Celli Ddu.British Archaeology No. 89 (July / August): 6th
  30. ^ Jump up to: ab O’Kelly (1982: 145).
  31. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 43-46)
  32. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 24)
  33. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 27)
  34. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 33-34)
  35. Jump up ^ Archaeologia Vol 2, 1773. A description of the funerary monuments of Newgrange, Drogheda, in County Meath in Ireland. By Thomas Pownall, Esq. in a letter to Pastor Gregory Sharpe, DD Master of the Middle Temple.Läs at the Society of Antiquaries June 21/28 1770. Archaeologia Vol.2, pp.236-276 [2]
  36. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 33)
  37. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 35)
  38. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 38-39)
  39. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 42)
  40. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 41)
  41. Jump up ^ O’Kelly (1982: 09)
  42. Jump up ^ Giot, P.-R. (1983). “Review: Newgrange. Archeology, art and legend “.Antiken. 57 (220): 150.
  43. Jump up ^ “A History of Ancient Britain” Series episode three, “Age of Cosmology”, BBC documentary, 2011.
  44. Jump up ^ Alan Marshall, “Newgrange Excavation Report Critique”
  45. Jump up ^ Ruth McManus, “Heritage and Tourism in Ireland -an unholy alliance?”, Irish geography. Volume 30 (2), 1997, pages 90-98.


Loughcrew (Irish: Loch Craobh ) is near Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland.(Sometimes written Lough Crew ). Loughcrew is an area of great historical importance in Ireland. It is the place förmegalitiska burial ground dating back to about 3500 and 3300 BC, is located near the top of the Sliabh na Caillí and surrounding mountains and valleys. Passage graves on the site is in line with Equinoxsoluppgången.

The Loughcrew Passage Tombs

Lough Crew Passage Tomb is one of the four main passage graves in Ireland (the other is Brú na Bóinne, Carrowkeel and Carrowmore). They are believed to be from about 3300 F Kr.Platserna consists of cross-chamber covered in most cases of a hill. A unique style of megalithic petroglyphs seen there, including lozenge shapes, leaf shapes, such as circles, a portion surrounded by radiating lines. [1]

The place is spread over three hills, Carnbane East, Carnbane West, and Patrick Town. The Irish name for the area is Sliabh na Caillí , which means “mountain of hag”. Legend says that the monument was created when a giant hag, step over the country, dropped its load of large rocks from her apron.The orthostats and structural monuments stones tend to be from local green gritstone, that was soft enough to cut, but also is vulnerable to vandalism.

In 1980 discovered the Irish-American researcher Martin Brennan to Cairn T in Carnbane East directed to receive the rays of the rising sun in the spring and autumn equinox -. The light shining down the passage and illuminate the art of reverse least [2] [3] Brennan also discovered adaptations Cairn L (53 ° 44’36 “N 7 ° 08’03” W), Knowth and Dowth in the Boyne Valley. Cairn T alignment similar to the well-known lighting for passage grave at Bru na Bóinne (Newgrange) which is adapted to catch the rays of the winter solstice sunrise.

There are about twenty tombs in Loughcrew complex besides Cairn Cairn L and T, along with additional archaeological sites.

Modern history

In later centuries Loughcrew became the seat of a branch of the Norman-Irish Plunkett family, whose most famous member was martyred St. Oliver Plunkett. The family church stands in the grounds of Loughcrew Gardens.With its rugged isolation, Sliabh na Caillí became a critical meeting place throughout the criminal laws of the Catholics. Even if the forest is gone now an excellent example of a Mass rock can still be seen on the top of the Sliabh na Caillí today. The Plunketts were involved in running the Irish Confederation of the 1640s and was displaced in the Cromwellian Settlement of 1652. Their property at Loughcrew awarded by Sir William Petty to Naper Family c. In 1655. The Napers descended from Sir Robert Napier was Chief Baron Finance Ireland in 1593. [4]

The Napers built an extensive property of some 180,000 acres (730 km²) in north Meath in the subsequent centuries that reflected that developed by their neighbors Cromwellians, Taylors of Headfort. After a third and devastating fire in 1964, the three Naper sons went to court and asked that the state makes it possible for the family trust to be broken up and the yard is shared between the three sons. Then, the house and gardens have been restored by Charles and Emily Naper, which open gardens and run an annual opera festival. [5]

See also

  • archaeoastronomy
  • Cailleach
  • List of archaeoastronomical seats per country
  • List of megalithic monuments in Ireland
  • Newgrange


  1. Jump up ^ photos of megalithic art in Cairn T from
  2. Jump up ^ documented in photographs and videos taken on the spot for six consecutive years
  3. Jump up ^ Brennan, Martin, Stars and Stones: Ancient Art and Astronomy Ireland – Thames and Hudson (1983); later re-published asThe Stones of Time (1996).
  4. Jump up ^ Bunbury, Turtle (2003, 2006) “Loughcrew House, Co. Meath – Gilded Magnificence
  5. Jump up ^ Lyttelton, Celia (May 2009), “Interiors: aria state,”Telegraph, UK.


Knowth (/ n aʊ θ /; Irish: Cnóbha ) is a Neolithic passage grave and an ancient monument of the world heritage of Brú na Bóinne in Ireland valley of the River Boyne. It is the largest passage grave of the Brú na Bóinne complex and consists of a large mound (known as Site 1) and 17 smaller satellite tombs. The mound is about 12 meters (40 feet) high and 67 meters (220 feet) in diameter, [1] which covers about a hectare. It contains two passages, placed along an east-west line and surrounded by 127 kerbstones, three missing, and four seriously injured.

The large stack has been estimated to date from 2500 to 2000 BC. [1] The passages are independent of each other, leading to separate tomb. The eastern passage arrives at a cross-chamber, similar to the one at Newgrange, which contains three recesses and basin stones into which the cremated remains of the dead placerades.Den right recess is larger and more elaborately decorated with megalithic art than the other, which is typically Irish passage graves of this type. The western passage terminates in an undifferentiated chamber which is separated from the passage of a threshold stone. The chamber seems to have also contained a basin stone which was later removed and is now located about two-thirds down the passage.

megalithic Art

Knowth contains more than one third of the total number of examples of megalithic art in the whole of Western Europe, [ citation needed ] over 200 decorated stones were found at utgrävningar.En large part of the artwork on the curbs, especially approaching the entrances to the passages. Many of the motifs are typical: spirals, lozenges and serpentiform. But the megalithic art at Knowth contains a variety of images, such as crescent shapes.Interestingly, much of this work of art was carved at the expense of the stones; a type of megalithic technique known as hidden art. This suggests all sorts of theories regarding the function of megalithic art in the Neolithic society that built the monuments in the Boyne Valley. It is possible that they thought the art of hidden. It is also possible that the blocks simply recycled and reused in the other.


There is some evidence for late Neolithic and Bronze Age activity on the site.Most of this is because there is a grooved ware timber circle located near the entrance to the eastern passage. Archaeological evidence suggests that this was used as a ritual or sacred area after the great mound of Knowth had already been forgotten. Evidence for the ritual consists of a large number of offerings available in and around the immediate areas of the timbers that formed the circle.

The hill at Knowth canceled, and the pile or heap slipped, which allows inputs to both passages to be covered. The place remained virtually unused for a period of two thousand years. The place was short as a burial place;some 35 coffin graves found at the site during excavations. [2] These seem to be Celtic burials.

In the late Iron Age and early Christian times, there was an ancient castle with enclosing ditches and Souterrains added. Knowth became a habitational place for the first time. Two trenches dug, at the base of a pile behind the curb, and the other at the top. At this stage, the inputs of both passages appears to have discovered. Evidence found early Christian graffiti on the rocks in the eastern chamber, and four names were carved in Ogham. It seems it was at this stage that the stone basin from the western chamber was moved in an attempt to remove it and was abandoned in the passage because it got stuck. Knowth became a significant political space and the capital of the Kingdom of Northern Brega. [3]

After a brief military interlude after the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the Normans used Knowth as a motte in the 12th century, the site was occupied by the Cistercian monks iMellifont Abbey. It seems that the pile again used as a grange or farm. Stone walls were built over the mound, and stone buildings inside the walls. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the site was mainly used for farming until most of the site was taken over by the state in 1939.

A historical reference to the cave is to be found in the triads in Ireland, dating from the 14th to the 19th century, where ” UAM Chnogba , UAM Slángæ andDearc Fearna ” listed under the heading “the three darkest places in Ireland”. [ 4] the last, that is, “the cave of the Alders,” is generally thought to be the current Dunmore Cave, [5] while the first two translate as caves of Knowth and caves of the Slaney. [6] it is not known exactly the cave system / passage tombs near the river Slaney is being referred to, with the most likely, they Baltinglass. Other sources translate the listed places Rath Croghan, cave or crypt Slane [7] and the “Cave of the Ferns”. [6]

The east-west direction of the passages at Knowth proposes astronomical line with the equinoxes. The focus of Knowth is not present today. This depends on a number of factors. First of all, the passages were discovered by later settlers, and was, to some extent, destroyed or incorporated Souterrains. In this way, the original entrances to the passages were distorted or destroyed, making it difficult to determine whether an adaptation ever existed. Furthermore, the recent excavations (1962 onwards) under George Eogan resulted in the construction of a concrete slab wall inside the piles west entrance, limit any investigation of possible adaptations. It seems likely that the passage was intended to adapt. Moreover, adaptations of ancient monuments change due to Milankovitch cycles.

A short excavation of the site was conducted in 1941 by MACALLISTER. But large full-scale excavations began at the site in 1962 and was conducted by George Eogan of University College Dublin. When his excavations began, very little is known about the full extent of the site. The entrances to the western and eastern passages were discovered in 1967 and 1968 respectively, and, slowly, the layers of activity at the site of Knowth were detected. The excavation has produced a large number of books and reports on the results.The archaeological site of Knowth East ended any chance to research on changes when George Eogan erected a concrete wall across the east-passage entrance. The most extensive research on changes and astronomy at Knowth was carried out by American-Irish researcher Martin Brennan. [8]


Access is by guided tour only. Tours begin at the Brú na Bóinne Visitor Centre in Donore. Visitors can look down the eastern passage and visit the nearby modern interpretive room.


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab Harbison, Peter. (1970). Guide to the National Monument of Ireland. Gill & Macmillan.
  2. Jump up ^ O’Brien, Elizabeth. “Post-Roman Britain to Anglo-Saxon England”. British Archaeological Reports , 1999. 27. ISBN 978-1-8417-1118-8
  3. Jump up ^ Stout, Geraldine. “Newgrange and the Boyne Bend”. Cork: Cork University Press, 2002. 76. ISBN 978-1-8591-8341-0
  4. Jump up ^ Meyer, Kuno; Lavelle, Hilary; Purcell, Emer; et al., eds.(2005). Triads in Ireland. Todd Lecture. 13 (1st ed.). Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co.. Taken 2010-11-06.
  5. Jump up ^ Coleman, JC (1965). The caves in Ireland. Tralee, Co. Kerry: Anvil Press. pp. 14-16.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab Meyer, Kuno, ed. (1906). Triads in Ireland. Todd Lecture.13 (1st ed.). Dublin: Hodges, pp Figgis & Co. 4-5. . Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  7. Jump up ^ Foot, Arthur Wynne (1878). “An account of a visit to the cave Dunmore, Co. Kilkenny, with some comments on human remains found there. ” Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 4. Dublin. In: 65-94. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  8. Jump up ^ Stars and Stones later be published as stones Time: calendars, sundials and Stone Chambers of Ancient Ireland , 1994 [ISBN 978-0-8928-1509-8 or ISBN 0-89281-509-4]


Kells (/ k ɛ LZ /; Irish: Ceanannas ) [2] is a town in County Meath, Ireland.The city is located off the M3 motorway, 16 km (10 mi) from Navan and 65 km (40 mi) from Dublin. It is best known as the site of Kells Abbey, from the Book of Kells is named.


The settlement was originally known by the Irish name Ceannanas orCeannanus , and it is proposed that the name “Kells” developed from that. [3]From the 12th century onwards, the settlement was referred to in English and Anglo-Norman Kenenus, Kenelles, Kenles , Kenlis, Kellis and finally Kells. [3]it has also been suggested that Kenlis and Kells comes from an alternative Irish name, Ceann Lios , which means “[the] head soon.” Kells, Kenlis and Headfort has all the titles taken by the Taylor family.

1929 Ceannanus Mór was the city’s official name in both Irish and English. [3]After the formation of the Irish Free State, a number of cities was named too. Ceanannas has been the official Irish language form of the place name since 1969. [4] In 1993, Kells re-adopted as the city’s official name in English.[5]


Abbey of Kells is believed to have been founded around 804 AD by monks from St Colmcille monastery in Iona who fled the Viking invasions.

1152, the Synod of Kells completed the transition of Colmcille establishment of an abbey to a pin church. A later synod reduced status Kell to it by Parish.After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Hugh de Lacy was granted dominion Meath in 1182. The religious establishments at Kells continued to flourish under their Anglo-Norman lords.

Kells became a border town garrison Pale and was the scene of many battles between Breifne Irish and Hiberno-Normans, who were both heavily marriage. From 1561 to 1800 Kells returned two MPs. During the uprising in 1641, was burned Kells by O’Reilly clan during its attacks on Palestine.

The period of great famine saw the population of Kells drop by 38% as measured by the censuses of 1841 and 1851. Work and fever hospital was described as full to overflowing.

Tourist attractions

  • The Abbey of Kells, with its round tower, is associated with St. Colmcille (also known as Columba), the Book of Kells, now kept at Trinity College in Dublin and Kells Crozier, displayed at the British Museum. The round tower and five large Celtic crosses can still be seen today. Four of the crosses are in the graveyard of St. Columba Church.The second Celtic cross was placed in the middle of a busy crossroads, until an accident with a school bus. It now stands in front of a former courthouse. A roof protects the post from the weather. Curiously, a replica completely safe from the elements inside the museum.
  • Near the cemetery of St. Columba’s Church stands a small stone roof Oratory (St. Colmcille’s house). This is probably from the 11th century.Access to the monks overnight stay aloft is by ladder. This small rectangular building is located at one of the highest points in the city.The oratorio is kept locked, but can be arranged access visitors.
  • Just outside the town of Kells on the road to Oldcastle is Mount Lloyd, named after Thomas Lloyd of Enniskillen, who camped a great Williamite army here during the 1688-1691 war against jakobiterna.Här also stands a towering building called the Tower of Lloyd, who is 18th century lighthouse folly in the form of a giant Doric column, surmounted by glazed lantern, erected in memory of Thomas Taylor, 1st Earl of Bective, by his son. The tower is about 30 m (100 feet) high.The peak offers views of the surrounding landscape as far as the Mourne Mountains in County Down, Northern Ireland on a clear day.The tower used to display the horse racing and hunting in the nineteenth century. The plaque on the tower reads: “This pillar was designed by Henry Aaron Baker, Esq. architect performed by Joseph Beck stone cutter Mr. Owen McCabe master masons Mr. Bartle Reilly monitors Anno 1791 “. The area around the tower has been developed as a community park (People’s Park), and includes the Paupers’ Grave. This cemetery was a necessity in times of great poverty in the country. Mass is still celebrated there annually and the cemetery is a reminder of Work and extreme poverty brought about by changes in agriculture in the 19th century and during the famine.


The population of Kells city (according to the official 2011 Census of Population) amounts to 5,888 people. This represents a slight increase in the population of the census of 2006. There was an increase of 24.8% of the total population between 1996 and 2002.


Until the opening of the new motorway in June 2010, stood Kells as a busy junction town on the old N3 route with over 18,000 vehicles pass through the city every day. Kells was a known traffic bottleneck from both the N3 national primary route (Dublin, Cavan, Enniskillen and Ballymena) and N52 national secondary road (Dundalk, Tullamore and Nenagh) passing through the center. The new M3 motorway, considerably reduces travel time to Dublin, as well as the number of vehicles in the city.

  • The M3 motorway (opened June 2010) and an adjacent toll plaza charges € 1.40 each way. A second duty stations closer to Dublin charging the same amount, which means that the entire M3, costs € 5.20 for a return journey to Dublin.
  • Kells is served by a regular bus service from Bus Éireann which takes about 1.5 hours to Busáras in Dublin.
  • Meath on Track [6] seeking reinstatement of the Navan rail link, and on to Dublin. It is estimated that a Kells to Dublin city center rail link would take about 60 minutes depending on the stop.
  • The original Kells railway station, serving a line between Oldcastle and Drogheda through Navan, opened July 11, 1853. It was closed for passenger April 14th 1958 finally to all traffic on April 1, 1963. [7]


  • The Butcher Boy was recorded at Headfort House
  • Secret of Kells is an Oscar-nominated animated film set in Kells
  • The late Hollywood actress Maureen O’Hara was born in Kells. Her father, Charles came from the city, but Maureen grew up in Dublin.Charles was born in a house at the bottom of Farrell Street in the city, a building that now houses a supermarket, carpet shop and apartments.She visited the city May 26, 2012 to receive the free city and to unveil a bust in his honor.
  • Since 2014 Kells is home to the only Irish independent documentary film festival, the Guth Gafa [8] International Documentary Film Festival.


  • Jim Connell of Crossakiel b. 1852 Kells wrote the socialist anthem “The Red Flag”
  • Dick Farrelly songwriter best known for his song, The “Isle of Innisfree ‘1952 hit for Bing Crosby and theme of the film” The Quiet Man “.
  • Irish Indie band Ham sandwich and Turn


  • Hay Festival Kells is home to Ireland only Hay Festival.

Notable people

  • Damien McGrane B. 1971 professional golfer is a Kells man.
  • Munster Rugby fullback Denis Hurley was born and raised in Kells.

See also

  • Kells, County Antrim, a village in Northern Ireland
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-08.
  2. Jump up ^ For most of the 20th century, the city’s official name wasCeanannas Mór . In the late 20th century, the town reverted to the more widely known English version of its name, Kells, and dropped Mór from the Irish version of the name.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abc placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  4. Jump up ^ Logainm placental database of Ireland (the Irish)
  5. Jump up ^ SI No. 156/1993 – The Local Government (Renaming Urban District) Order, 1993 Irish Statute Book ..
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^ “Kells Station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Pulled 10/16/2007.
  8. Jump up ^

High King of Ireland

The högkung (Irish: Ard-na hÉireann RI ) was sometimes historical, sometimes legendary figures who had, or claimed to have had dominion over Ireland.

Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from the Hill of Tara of a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years. Modern historians believe this system is artificial, built in the 8th century from various genealogical traditions politically powerful groups, and seeks to motivate the current status of these groups by projecting it back to the remote past. [1]

The concept of national kingship first articulated in the 7th century, but only became a political reality in the Viking Age, and even then not a consistent one. [2] [3] [4] Although the high Kings’ degree of control varied, Ireland never ruled by them as a politically unified state, as the high king perceived as an overlord exercised suzerainty over, and receive tribute from the independent kingdoms under him. [5]: pp. 40-47

Sacred High Kings

Early Irish kingship was sacred nature. In the early narrative literature a king is a king because he marries the sovereignty goddess, free from blemish, upright symbolic Buada [disambiguation needed] (powers) and avoids symbolicgeasa (taboos).

According to the 7th and 8th century legal areas, a hierarchy of domination and client ship developed from Rí tuaithe (king of a single petty kingdom) byruiri (a was of King several petty kingdom) to an Rí ruirech (a was a provincial of king). (See RI.)

Each king ruled directly only in the context of their own petty kingdom and was responsible for ensuring good government by exercising fir flaithemon(rulers’ truth). His responsibilities included calling his óenach (People’s Assembly), collecting taxes, building public works, external relations, defense, disaster legislation, law enforcement and issue a final judgment.

They land in a petty kingdom held allodially of various fines (agnatic kingroups) of free men. King occupied apex of a pyramid of client ship in petty kingdom. This pyramid has gone from the unfree population in its base up to the heads of noble fine held in immediate client ship of the king. The king therefore deducted from the dominant fine within Cenél (a broader kingroup includes the noble fines for petty kingdom).

The kings of Ulster Cycle are kings in this sacred sense, but it is clear that the old concept of kingship coexisted together Christianity for several generations. Diarmait mac Cerbaill, king of Tara in the middle of the 6th century, may have been the last king to have “married” the country. Diarmait died at the hands of AED Dub mac Suibni; some accounts from the following century states that he died of mythical threefold death is appropriate for a sacred king. Adomnán’s life tells how Saint Columba forecast the death of AED Dub. Same Threefold Death said in a late poem have hit Diarmait predecessor, Muirchertach MACC Ercae, and even the usually pålitligaAnnals of Ulster record Muirchertach death by drowning in a vat of wine.

A second sign of the holy kingdom did not vanish with the arrival of Christianity is the supposed lawsuit between Congal Cáech, king of Ulaid and Domnall mac Aedo. Congal probably was blinded in one eye by Domnall bin, from which his surname Cáech (half blind or strabismus), this injury makes him imperfect and unable to remain high King. The antagonism between Domnall and Congal, more prosaically be at the door of the rivalry between the Uí Néill and kings Ulaid, but that a king would be completely in the body seems to have been accepted at this time.


The operations of the Irish heritage is quite complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman takeover of 1171. Ireland was divided into several kingdoms, with some kings because allegiance to others from time to time, and succession rules (to the extent they were ) varied.Kings often succeeded by their sons, but often other branches of the dynasty took a turn either by agreement or by force of arms is rarely clear.Unfortunately king lists and other early sources reveal little about how and why a particular person became king.

To add to the uncertainty, the family often edited many generations later to improve an ancestor position within a kingdom, or to put him in a more powerful family. The unsafe practices in local kingship causing similar problems in the interpretation of the legacy of the high kingship.

The högkung was essentially a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord (where his supremacy was even recognized), who exercised the real power only within the realm of what he was actually king. In the case of the southern part of the UI Neill, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath (now the counties Meath, Westmeath and part of County Dublin). High Kings from the northern branch ruled various kingdoms in what eventually became the province of Ulster.

In 1002, was the high kingdom Ireland wrested from Mael Sechnaill II in Southern Uí Neill from Briain “Boruma” mac Cennédig Kingdom Munster.Some historians have called this a “usurpation” of the throne. [6] Others have pointed out that no one had a strict legal right to the kingdom [5] and Brian “had as much right to the high throne as all Uí Neill and … demonstrated an ability sadly lacking among most of the UI Neill who had preceded him. ” [7]

Brian was killed in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship, but he died in 1022. From 1022 to Norman takeover of 1171, was the high Kingship held parallel “Kings of the opposition”.

Early Christian High Kings

Even at the time when the law writings were attributed to these petty kingdom was swept away by emerging dynasties of dynamic of Kings. The most successful of these early dynasties were Uí Neill (includes descendants of Niall of the Nine Hostages such Cenél Eoghain) that as kings Tara had to conquer petty kingdom, expelling their rulers and agglomerating their territories under the direct rule of their expanding family since the fifth century.

Domestic and foreign, pagan and Christian ideas comingled to form a new idea of Irish kingship. The person the idea of a sacred kingship was integrated with the Christian idea of the coronation ceremony, was the relationship between the king to the king over one of tigerna (master) to the king andempire (sovereignty) began to merge with Dominium (ownership).

The church was well located to the idea of a strong political authority. Its priests developed the theory of a high kingship of Ireland and signed a contract that calls kings to rule rather than reign. In return paruchiae(monastery covenant) of the Irish church had royal patronage in the form of shrines, construction, land and protection.

The concept of a high king sometimes into various annals, such as a series of death Máel Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid of 862 in the Annals of Ulster, which lists him as Rí Érenn uile (king of all Ireland), a title that his efterträdareAed Finliath apparently never granted. It is unclear what the political reality behind this title. [8]

Later High Kings

By the twelfth century the dual process of agglomeration of territory and consolidation of kingship saw the handful of remaining land kind kings abandoning the traditional royal sites for cities, employing ministers and governors, receiving advice from a oireacht (a body of noble counselors), chairman reform synods and maintaining standing armies.

Early royal consequence had the correspondence between the lateral branches of the wider dynasty but succession was now limited to a series of father / son, brother / brother and uncle / nephew inheritance within a small royal fine marked by an exclusive name.

These compact families (the Uí Briain of Munster, the Meic Lochlainn in the north, the UI Conchobhair of Connacht) marriage and competed against each other on a national basis, so that on the eve of the Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169 agglomeration / consolidation process was completed and the regional kingdoms split, cut and converted into fiefdoms held by (or rebel against) one of them acting as king of Ireland.

See also

  • List of högkung


  1. Jump up ^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín “Ireland, 400-800”, in Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland , Oxford University Press, 2005, pp 182-234 ..
  2. Jump up ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC CLO.
  3. Jump up ^ Roe, Harry; Ann Dooley (1999). Tales of the Elders of Ireland.Oxford University Press.
  4. Jump up ^ Michael Roberts; et al. (1957). Early Irish history and pseudo-history. Bowes & Bowes Michigan University Press.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab Francis John Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings , London, 1973
  6. Jump up ^ Revd. Dr. JH Todd, Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh , London, 1867
  7. Jump up ^ Roger Chatterton Newman, Brian Boru, King of Ireland , Dublin, 1983
  8. Jump up ^ “The Annals of Ulster”. Retrieved 23 May 2012.


  • Lebor Gabála Érenn
  • Geoghegan Clan
  • John Francis Byrne, in 1973, Irish Kings and High Kings , Dublin
  • Annals of the Four Masters
  • Geoffrey Keating, 1636, Foras Feasa s Éirinn
  • High King Niall: the most fertile in Ireland,
  • Times Online Times, January 15, 2006
  • Laoise T. Moore, et al.,
  • The Y chromosome signature hegemony in Gaelic Ireland Am. J. Hum. ,. Genet 78 : 334-338, 2006

The Hill of Tara

The Hill of Tara (Irish: Cnoc na Teamhrach , [1] Team Hair or Team Hair na Rí ), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan ochDunshaughlin in County Meath, Ireland. It contains a number of ancient monuments and according to tradition, was the seat of högkung.


Ancient monuments

On top of the hill, north of the ridge, is an oval Iron Age hilltop enclosure, which measures 318 meters (1,043 ft) north-south by 264 meters (866 feet) east-west and is surrounded by an internal ditch and external bank, known asRaith na Ríogh (Fort of the Kings, also known as the Royal Enclosure). The most prominent earthworks within are the two linked enclosures, a bivallate (double abandoned) ring fort and a bivallate ring barrow known as Teach Chormaic (Cormac’s House) and Forradh or Royal Seat. The center ofForradh is a standing stone, believed to be the Lia Fail (Stone of Destiny) in which High Kings crowned. According to legend, the stone would scream if a number of challenges met by the prospective kung.Vid his touch stone would let out a scream that could be heard all over Ireland. North of the ring-forts is a small neolithic passage grave called Dumha na nGiall (the Mound of Hostages), which was constructed around 3400 (Cal.) BC.

In the north, just outside the limits of Raith na Rí , is a ring fort with three banks called Raith na Seanadh (Rath of the Synods). Excavations of this monument have produced Roman artifacts dating from the 1st-3rd quarters.

Further north is a long, narrow rectangular feature known as the banquet hall ( Teach Miodhchuarta ), although it is more likely to have been a ceremonial avenue or curriculum monument approaching the site, and three circular earthworks known as the sloping ditches ochGráinne’s Fort. All three are large ring mounds that may have been built too close to the steep slope and then fallen.

To the south of the Royal Enclosure lies a ring fort called Raith Laoghaire(Laoghaire’s Fort), where the eponymous king is said to have been buried in an upright position. Half a mil south of the Hill of Tara is another hill fort known as Rath Maeve, the fort either the legendary queen Medb who is more usually associated with Connacht or less well known legendary figure of Medb Lethderg, which is associated with Tara.


A church, called Saint Patrick’s is on the east side of the hill. The “Rath of the Synods” was partially destroyed by the cemetery. [2] The modern church was built from 1822 to 1823 on the site of a former. [3] The earliest evidence of a church in Tara is a charter dating from the 1190’s. In 1212, this church was “among the possessions confirmed to the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John Kilmainham of Innocent III”. [3] A 1791 picture shows the church building internally divided into a nave and chancel, with a bell tower of the west. A stump wall marks the site of the old church today, but some of its stone was reused in the present church. The building is now used as a visitor center. [3]

Tara significance

The Hill of Tara is documented in the 11th century text, The Book of Invasions as the seat of the high kings of Ireland from the time of the mythological Fir Bolg and the Tuatha Dé Danann to text composition.However, there is no evidence that the institution high kingship Ireland given authority over the whole island on its owner.

The Hill of Tara has been in use by the people of the Neolithic era, although it is not known if Tara continuously as a sacred and / or a political center from the Neolithic period to the 12th century.

The central part of the site could not have housed a large permanent retinue, which means that instead was used for occasional meetings. There were no large defensive structures. The earliest surviving written records shows that high kings inaugurated there, ” Seanchas Mor ” legal text (written sometime after 600AD) stipulates that the king must drink beer and symbolically marry the goddess Maeve (Medb) to qualify for the high kingship.

Earlier scientific disputes about Tara original meaning increases as the 20th century archaeologists identified before the Iron Age monuments and human built liveable forms from the Neolithic period (about 5000 years ago).One of these forms, the Mound of Hostages, has a short passage aligned with the sunrise on the sun cross quarter days coincides with the old annual Celtic festivals celebrated at the midpoints between the vernal and autumnal equinox ( “Imbolc” honors preparation for planting time, or “pre-spring” on about 4 February) and the summer and winter solstice ( “Samhain” honor harvest or “first winter” on or about 8 november). [4] pile passage is shorter than the long entrances of monuments of Newgrange, which makes it less precise yield adjustments with the sun; Still, Martin Brennan, in blocks of time , according to the daily changes in the position of a 13-foot (4 m) long sunshine is more than sufficient to determine the date.

A theory that may precede the Hill of Tara splendor before Celtic times is the legendary story naming the Hill of Tara as the capital of the Tuatha Dé Danann, pre-Celtic inhabitants of Ireland. When the Celts established a seat in the hill, the hill became the place from which the kings of Mide ruled Ireland. There is much debate among historians as to how far the king’s influence spread; it may have been as low as in the middle of Ireland, or may have been all the northern half. The high kingship of the whole island was only established an effective degree of Máel Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid (Malachy I). Irish pseudohistorians of the Middle Ages made it stretch back to prehistoric times. On top of the hill stands a stone pillar that was the Irish Lia Fáil (Stone of Destiny) on which högkung crowned; legends suggest that the stone had to roar three times the chosen one was a true king (compare with the Scottish Lia Fail). Both the Hill of Tara as a hill and as a capital seems to have political and religious influence, which diminished since St.Patrick time.

During the uprising in 1798, United Irishmen formed a camp on the hill but was attacked and defeated by British troops May 26, 1798, and Lia Fáil was moved to mark the graves of 400 rebels who died on the mountain that day.In 1843, the Irish Member of Parliament Daniel O’Connell hosted a peaceful political demonstration on the Hill of Tara in favor of repeal of the Act of Union which drew over 750,000 people, indicating permanent significance of the Hill of Tara. [5]

During the early 20’s Hill of Tara was vandalized by British Israelists who thought the Irish were part of the lost tribes of Israel and that the litter contained the Ark of the Covenant. [6]

Motorway development

Main article: N3 road (Ireland)


The M3 motorway, which is owned by SIAC Construction and Cintra SA, which opened in June 2010, passes through the Tara-Skryne Valley – as well as the existing N3 road. Protesters argue that since the Tara Discovery Programme started in 1992, there is an appreciation that the Hill of Tara is just the central complex of a wider landscape. The distance between the motorway and the exact location of the Hill is 2.2 km (1.4 mi) – it cut the old N3 at Blundelstown exchange between the Hill of Tara Hill of Skyrne. The existence of this exchange is located in the valley has led to accusations that the further development of an energy generator is planned near Tara. [Clarification needed ] An alternative route about 6 km (3.7 mi) west of the Hill of Tara is said to be a straighter, cheaper and more less destructive alternatives.[7] [8] on Sunday 23 September 2007 over 1,500 people met on the hill of Tara to participate in a human sculpture representing a harp and spell out the words “SAVE TARA Valley” as requiring the rerouting of the highway M3 Tara valley. Actor Stuart Townsend and Jonathan Rhys Meyers attended this event.[9]

The Hill of Tara was included in the World Monuments Fund’s 2008 Watch List of the 100 most endangered sites in the world. [10] It was included in 2009 in the 15 must-see endangered cultural treasures in the world avSmithsonian Institution. [11]

There are currently [ when? ] A letter writing campaign is underway to preserve the Hill of Tara. [12]

annalistic references

  • AI980.4 A great battle between Mael Sechnaill and son Amlaíb and slaughter of foreigners including Ragnall, son of Imar Temuir, a measure required everywhere.


  • Hill of Tara, Lia Fáil and the surrounding landscape
  • Sunset
  • Highcross
  • Church
  • Summit
  • Aerial view

See also

  • Druids
  • old Uppsala
  • Kingship of Tara
  • Stonehenge
  • Tare
  • Tara (plantation)
  • Tara, Ontario


  1. Jump up ^ “Hill of Tara / Team Hair / Cnoc na Teamhrach”
  2. Jump up ^ The Hill of Tara. Rough Guides. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
  3. ^ Jump up to: A bc Draft Tara Skryne landscape conservation area. Meath County Council. 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  4. Jump up ^ photo of Samhain sunrise on the Mound of Hostages “Stone Age mound of hostages is also in line with Samhain sun rise.” The sun rises from the same angle of Imbolc.
  5. Jump up ^ Muldoon, Paul (25 May 2007). “Erin go faster.” The New York Times. Retrieved seven September of 2008.
  6. Jump up ^ . Carew, Mairead (30 October 2004) Tara and the ark of the covenant: a search for the Ark of the Covenant from the British Israelites on the Hill of Tara, 1899 -1902. Royal Irish Academy. ISSN 0-9543855-2- 7th
  7. Jump up ^ Eileen Battersby (26 May 2007). “Is nothing sacred?”. The Irish Times.
  8. Jump up ^ Glenn Frankel (22 January 2005). “In Ireland, Commuter vs Kings”. The Washington Post. p. A01. Taken 14 juni2007.
  9. Jump up ^ Paula Geraghty (24 September 2007). “In Ireland, the Human Aerial Art By Tara: People power combines art and politics of protest.” Indymedia Ireland. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
  10. Jump up ^ 2008 World Monuments watch list of 100 most endangered sites in the Wayback Machine (archived June 7, 2007) World Monuments Fund.
  11. Jump up ^ Logue, Patrick (28 February 2009). “Tara threatened, says the Smithsonian.” Irish Times. Retrieved 26 August augusti2009.
  12. Jump up ^ “The Hill of Tara.” Holy places International Foundation.

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