CategoryCounty Londonderry

Lough Foyle

Lough Foyle , sometimes Loch Foyle [1] (from Irish: Loch Feabhail , which means “Feabhal’s loch” [2] [3] ), is the mouth of the River Foyle. It lies between County Londonderry iNordirland and County Donegal in Ireland. Sovereignty over these waters has been disputed since the partition of Ireland.

Seen from space: Derry in the Ulster coast of Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle west to the east of the city ochInishowen.

Ramsarområde

Lough Foyle Ramsar site (wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention), is 2204.36 hectares in area, at latitude 55 05 N and longitude 24 07 01 37 W. It was designated a Ramsar on February 2, 1999. The site consists of a large shallow sea lough which includes the estuaries of the rivers Foyle, Faughan and Roe. It contains extensive areas of tidal mudflats and sand flats, salt marshes and associated brackish ditches. The site qualified under criterion 1 of the Ramsar Convention because it is a particularly good representative example of a wetland which plays a substantial hydrological, biological and ecological systems role in the natural functioning of a major river basin is located in a border location. The qualified even under the Ramsar criterion 2 because it supports a considerable number of rare, vulnerable or endangered species of plants and animals. A number of known species have been recorded for the Lough Foyle estuary and the lower parts of some of its tributary rivers. These include shad, shad, smelt and sea lamprey, which are all Irish Red List species.Important populations of Atlantic salmon migrate through the system to and from their spawning areas. [4]

The site is qualified even under the Ramsar criterion 3 as it supports a large number of wintering waterfowl including internationally important populations of whooper swans, light belliedPrutgås and bar-tailed godwit and wild bird species of national importance in an all-Ireland context, including the red-throated diver, great crested grebe, Mute Swan, Bewick’s swan, greylag , shelduck, teal, mallard, wigeon, eider ducks and red-breasted merganser. Nationally important wader species include Eurasian Oystercatcher, Eurasian golden plover, gray plover, lapwing, red knot, dunlin, curlew, redshank and greenshank. [4]

Flora and fauna

Flora

A survey of Lough Foyle was made between March 1937 and June 1939 by H. Blackler. [5] This map shows the distribution of some species of algae in the lough and a complete annotated list of algae recorded along with photographs of various locations. The list includes: cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, lichens and two species avZostera. The marine algae of Lough Foyle are also included in Morton (2003). [6]

Fauna

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has a reserve on Lough. [7]

Transport

In 1792, the four mil Strabane Canal was constructed from the tidal waters of Lough Foyle at Leck, to Strabane. The canal fell into disuse in 1962. In June 2006 the Strabane Lifford Development Commission awarded a £ 1.3m cross-border waterways restoration contract. The project includes restoration of one and a half miles from the canal and two locks to working order. Work began on the Lough Foyle side of the canal in the summer of 2006, but in 2010 the partial restoration was considered unsatisfactory and the municipality refused to continue to maintain the channel. The Broharris canal was built in the 1820s, when an average, about two miles long on the south shore of Lough Foyle near Ballykelly was made towards Limavady. It served both as a drainage channel and a navigation with goods brought from Londonderry Port, seafood and kelp from the sand banks along the beach.

In the summer, operates a ferry service between Green and Magilligan of Lough Foyle.

railway trip

Northern Ireland Railways runs from Londonderry train station along the scenic shores of Lough Foyle, with views of the Inishowen in County Donegal and the Atlantic Ocean via Coleraine to Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street .The strategic Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvement of permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services.

From Londonderry railway station, the next stop is Bella Clean followed by Castle then Coleraine on his way to Belfast. Walkers access to the trains arrive at the Castle can go to Mussenden Temple is owned by the National Trust and can see the mouth of Lough Foyle and Green a bit away in County Donegal.

Literature

The main character of Alfred Bester’s famous science fiction novel, The Stars My Destination , named Gulliver Foyle. Bester took the names of their characters from different places in Ireland and the UK.

World War I

The United States Navy established a Naval Air Station, July 1, 1918 to operate seaplanes during the First World War. The base was closed shortly after the first armistice in Compiegne. [8]

WWII

At the end of World War II after the Allied victory, the rest of the Atlantic fleet of German U-boats used to attack supply lines from America to Britain during the Battle of the Atlantic gathered in Lough Foyle ochsank, as part of Operation Dead.

Controversial status

Lough Foyle is a disputed territory between Ireland and the United Kingdom after the Irish division in 1922 both sides claimed it was in its own territory.Although this dispute is still ongoing, there are currently no negotiations regarding its ownership. The State Department stressed its view June 2, 2009 that all the Lough Foyle is located in the UK, a spokesman states; “The British position is that the entire Lough Foyle is in the UK. We recognize that the Irish Government does not accept this position … There are no negotiations currently underway on this issue. The regulation of activities in the Lough is now responsible for the Loughs Agency, a cross-border bodies set up under the Belfast Agreement of 1998. ” [9]

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • List of Ramsar sites in Northern Ireland
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Ireland sharing

References

  1. Jump up ^ See Google Books, for example, published online.
  2. Jump up ^ Flanagan, Deirdre & Laurence, Irish place names , page 212. Gill & MacMillan, 2002. ISBN 0-7171-3396-6
  3. Jump up ^ placental NI Lough Foyle
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “Especially and Proposed Ramsar sites in Northern Ireland” (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved July 7, 2008.
  5. Jump up ^ Blackler, H. 1951st A study of algae Lough Foyle, Northern Ireland. Proc. R. Ir. . Acad 54B (6): 97-139
  6. Hoppa upp^Morton, O. 2003. Den marina makroalger i County Donegal, Irland .. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. 27 : 3-164
  7. Jump up ^ Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  8. Jump up ^ Van Wye, Adrian O. (1969). Naval Aviation in World War I, Washington, DC. Chief of Naval Operations. pp. 80th
  9. Hoppa upp^3 juni 14:08:52 BST 2009. “Londonderry Sentiniel, Foyle” loughed “i tvist – 3 juni 2009” . Londonderrysentinel.co.uk . Hämtad 4 april 2011 .

The Bogside

The Bogside (Irish: Taobh a Bhogaigh ) is a neighborhood outside the city walls of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. The large gable murals of the Bogside Artists, Free Derry Corner and Gasyard Feile (an annual music and arts festival held in a previous gasyard) are popular tourist attractions. The Bogside is a majority Catholic area, and adjacent to the majority-Protestant Fountain neighborhood.

History

The troubles

The area has been a focus point for many of the events in trouble; In 1969, a fierce three-day battle against the RUC and local Protestants -known as the Battle of the Bogside -became a starting point for the unrest. Between 1969 and 1972, the area along the Creggan and other Catholic areas became a no-go area for the British army and the police. Both the official and the Provisional IRA patrol open area and local residents often paid subscriptions to båda.Den January 30, 1972 in the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association organized a march against internment, which came into force last year turned into a bloodbath. The British Parachute Regiment shot dead 14 unarmed protesters and injured 14 more; This resulted in a large increase in the recruitment of both wings of the IRA in the city. After Operation Motorman and the end of Free Derry and other prohibited areas in Northern Ireland Bogside along with the majority of the city experienced frequent street riots and sectarian conflict which lasts until the early 1990s. In 1974 the Official IRA declared an end to its armed campaign, and with volunteers in place already mad about the ceasefire in mid-1972, which crossed the line to the hardliners. In the result, Seamus Costello and other socialist militants formed the Irish Republican Socialist Movement. This new movement included the Irish National Liberation Army, the paramilitary wing IRSM.Derry and especially Bogside became one of the strongholds of the INLA; in fact, all three volunteers who died in the 1981 Irish hunger strike was from Londonderry or County Londonderry.De Irish People’s Liberation Organisation, a breakout of the INLA, made a small but effective presence in Derry engaged in a feud with the INLA in the city along with other areas of Ireland from 1987 to 1992. the feud ended with Provisionals step in and kill the main Belfast management while letting the rest of the organization dissolved in the rest of Ireland. During the rest of the 1990s, became the Bogside relatively peaceful compared to other places [ citation needed ] in Northern Ireland at the time that Belfast, despite street riots were still frequent.

Subsequent history

Today Bogside has experienced much change. It has seen minimal [ clarification needed ] remodeling compared to other areas in the city but the 21-century houses are somewhat known throughout the area. The area is also a stronghold förDissident Republican activity. The area after the Belfast Agreement has always been known to frequent street riots but the biggest since 1998 2011 Northern Ireland riots. The riots took place in other parts of Northern Ireland but in Derry city they were mostly in the Bogside. The vigilante group Republican fight against drugs was founded in 2008 has a very strong [ clarification needed ] presence in the Bogside. The group’s goal is to use punishment shootings kill suspected drug dealers. [ Citation needed ]

  • The Bogside, looking down from the entrance to the city walls
  • Bloody Sunday Memorial
  • Westland Street in the Bogside, seen from the city walls (31 July 2007)

See also

  • history Derry
  • Free Derry
  • Irish history
  • Free Derry Corner

Derry

Derry (/ d ɛ r ɪ / [2] ), officially Londonderry (/ l ʌ nd ə n ˌ d ɛ r ɪ / [2] ), is the second largest city in Northern Ireland [3] [4] and the fourth largest town on the island of Ireland. [5] the name Derry is a Anglicisation of the Irish nameDaire or Doire meaning ‘Oak Grove’. [6] [7] in 1613, the town was granted a royal charter from king James and got “London” prefix to reflect the financing of the construction of the London guilds. While the city is usually known colloquially as Derry, [8] [9] Londonderry is also common, and remains the legal name.

The old walled town lies on the western bank of the River Foyle, which is spanned by two bridges and a causeway. The city now covers both banks (Cityside to the west and Waterside to the east). The population of the city was 83,652 at the 2001 census, while Derry Urban Area had a population of 90,736. [10] The area is managed by Derry City and Strabane contains both Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport.

Derry is near the border with County Donegal, with which it has had a close connection to many centuries. The person traditionally regarded as the founder of the original Derry is Saint Colmcille, a holy man from Tír Chonaill, the old name for almost all modern County Donegal, including the west bank of the Foyle was a part before 1610. [11]

In 2013 it was Derry inaugural UK City culture, has been awarded the title in 2010. [12] [13]

name

Main article: Derry / Londonderry name dispute

Road signs in Ireland (County Donegal shown) use Derry and Irish Doire

According to the city’s Royal Charter of 10 April 1662, is the official name “Londonderry”. This was confirmed in a High Court decision in 2007 when Derry City Council sought guidance on how to accomplish a name change.[14] [15] The Council had changed its name from “Londonderry City Council” to “Derry City Council” in 1984, [16] legal cases searched asking whether this had also changed the name of the city. The decision of the court was that it was not but it was made clear that the correct procedure to do that was through a petition to the Privy Council. [17] Derry City Council then started this process and were involved in implementing the report on equality impact assessment (EQIA). [18 ] , first held a poll of district residents in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics and 77% of nationalists found the amendment acceptable, compared with 6% of Protestants and 8% of the unionists. [19] as was EQIA two consultative forum, and ordered public comment on whether the city should have its name changed to Derry. [20] a total of 12.136 comments were received, of which 3108 were broadly in favor of the proposal, and 9028, in contrast to it. [20] July 23 in 2015, the Council voted in favor of a motion to change the official name of the city of Derry and write to Mark H Durkan, Northern Ireland Environment Minister, to ask how the change would take place. [21]

Despite the official name, the city is more commonly called “Derry”, [8] [9]which is a Anglicisation of the Irish Daire or Doire , and can be translated as “oak -grove / oak-wood”. The name comes from the settlement’s earliest references Daire Calgaich ( “oak-grove Calgach”). [22] The name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the City of London guilds. [23] [24]

The name “Derry” preferred by nationalists and it is broadly used throughout Northern Ireland Catholic community, [25] , as well as that of Ireland, while many members prefer the “Londonderry”, [26] but in everyday conversation Derry is used by most Protestant residents of the city. [27] Linguist Kevin McCafferty asserts that “it is not, strictly speaking, the right to Northern Ireland Catholics call it Derry, while Protestants uses Londonderry form, although this pattern has become increasingly common locally since the mid-1980s when the council changed its name by dropping the prefix “. In McCafferty survey of language use in the city, “only a few interview all Protestants use the official form”. [28]

Aside from the name of Derry City Council, the city is usually [25] called Londonderry in official use in the UK. In Ireland, the city and county are almost always called Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation. [29] In April 2009, however, the Republic of Ireland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, Micheál Martin announced that Irish passports born it can record either Derry or Londonderry as their birthplace. [30] reasons, official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those in Northern Ireland to bear Londonderry (sometimes abbreviated to “L’Derry”), although some of them have been wiped out by reference to the London obscured. [31] usage varies between local organizations, with both names are used. Examples are the City of Derry Airport, City of Derry Rugby Club, Derry City FC and the Protestant Apprentice Boys of Derry, in contrast to Londonderry Port, Londonderry YMCA Rugby Club and the Londonderry Chamber of Commerce. [32] Most companies in the city of selecting local the name of the area as Penny Burn, Rosemount or “Foyle” from the river Foyle to avoid alienating the second society. Londonderry railway station is often called the Waterside railway station in the city but called Derry / Londonderry at other stations. The Council changed the name of the local government district covering the city of Derry 7 May 1984 therefore baptized Derry City Council.[33] This does not change the name of the city, but the city is coincident with the area, and by law the city council is also “Corporation of Londonderry” or more formally, the “Mayor, Aldermen and the citizens of the city of Londonderry”. [34] form “Londonderry” used for mail city of Royal mail, [28] but the use of Derry will still ensure delivery.

The city is also nicknamed the Maiden city due to its walls never broken despite besieged on three different occasions in the 17th century, the most notable is the siege of Derry in 1688-1689. [35] It is also nicknamed Stroke town through local programs Gerry Anderson, because of the “politically correct” use of the oblique notation Derry / Londonderry [25] (which term itself has been used by BBC Television [36] ). A new addition to the landscape has been the construction of several large stone pillars on the main roads into the city welcoming drivers, euphemistically that “the walled city”.

The name Derry is very popular in use throughout Ireland for the naming of places, and there are at least six cities that bears this name and at least a further 79 seats. The word Derry are usually part of the city name, such Derrybeg, Derryboy, Derrylea and Derrymore.

The names Derry and Derry are not limited to Ireland. There is a town called Derry is located right next to another town called Londonderry in New Hampshire in the United States. There are also Londonderrys in Yorkshire, England, iVermont, United States, Nova Scotia, Canada and in the northern and eastern Australia. Londonderry Island is located off Tierra del Fuego in Chile.

Derry is also a fictional town in Maine, USA, which is used in some Stephen King novels. [37]

ramparts

Derry is the only remaining fully intact walled city in Ireland and one of the finest examples of a walled city in Europe. [38] [39] [40] The walls form the largest monuments in state care in Northern Ireland and, as the last walled city will be built in Europe, stands as the most complete and spectacular. [41]

The walls were built 1613-1619 by The Honourable The Irish Society in defense of the early 17th century settlers from England and Scotland. The walls, which are about 1 mil (1.6 kilometers) in circumference and varying in height and width between 3.7 and 10.7 meters (12 and 35 feet), is completely intact and form a walkway around the inner city. They provide a unique walk to show the layout of the original town which still preserves its Renaissance-style town plan. The four original gates to the walled city’s Bishopsgate, Ferryquay Gate, Butcher Gate and Shipquay Gate. Another three gates were added later, Magazine Gate, Castle Gate and New Gate, which makes a total of seven gates. Historic buildings within the walls include a 1633 Gothic cathedral of St Columb, The Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall and courthouse.

It is one of the few cities in Europe that never saw its fortifications breached, withstanding several sieges including one in 1689 that lasted 105 days, hence the city’s nickname, The Maiden City. [42]

History

Main article: History of Derry

Early history

Derry is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Ireland. [43] The earliest historical references date to the 6th century when a monastery was founded there by St. Columba or Colmcille, a famous saint from what is now County Donegal, but for thousands of years before that people had lived nearby.

Before leaving Ireland to spread Christianity elsewhere, Colmcille founded a monastery in Derry (then called Doire Calgach ), on the west bank of the Foyle. According to oral and recorded history, the site was granted Colmcille by a local king. [44] The monastery then remained in the hands of the federation of Columban churches who regarded Colmcille as their spiritual mentor. Year 546 is often referred to as the date of the original settlement was founded. However, it is now accepted by historians that this was an incorrect date assigned by medieval chroniclers. [43] It is agreed to between the 6th century and 11th century, was Derry known primarily as a monastic settlement. [43]

The town became strategically important during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and came under frequent attack. During O’Doherty rebellion in 1608 it was attacked by Sir Cahir O’Doherty, Irish hövdingInishowen, which burned a large part of the town and killed the governor George Paulet. [45] The soldier and statesman Sir Henry Docwra made vigorous efforts to develop the city, earning the reputation as “the founder of Derry”; but he was accused of not preventing O’Doherty attack, and returned to England.

Plantage

What was the city of Derry was part of the relatively new County Donegal until 1610. [46] That year, the west bank of the future city were conducted by the English crown to the Honourable The Irish Society [46] and combined with County Coleraine, part of County Antrim and a large part of County Tyrone forming County Londonderry. Planters organized by London livery companies through The Honourable The Irish Society arrived in the 17th century as part of the Plantation of Ulster, and rebuilt the city with high walls to defend it from the Irish rebels who opposed the plantation. The aim was to solve the Ulster with a population supports the crown. [24] It was then that the name “Londonderry”.

This city was the first planned city in Ireland: it began in 1613, with walls, completed in 1619, at a cost of £ 10,757. [47] The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defense. The grid will subsequently much copied colonies of British North America. [48]The Charter initially defined the city that extends treirländska miles (about 6.1 km) from the center.

The modern city preserves the 17th century layout of four main streets radiating from a central diamond to four gateways – Bishopsgate, Ferryquay Gate, Shipquay Gate and Butcher’s Gate. The oldest preserved building was also constructed at this time: 1633 Plantation Gothic Cathedral St Columb.On the porch of the cathedral is a stone that records completed with the inscription: “. If stones could Speake, then London prayse to be heard, who built this church and Cittie from grounde ” [49]

17th-century upheavals

During the 1640s, the city suffered in the wars of the Three Kingdoms, which began with the Irish rebellion in 1641, when the Gaelic Irish insurgents made an unsuccessful attack on the city. In 1649 the city and its crew, who supported the Republican Parliament in London, besieged by Scottish Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I. Parliamentarians besieged Derry was relieved of a strange alliance of Roundhead troops under George Monck and the Irish Catholic General Owen Roe O’Neill. These temporary allies soon fight each other again, but after landing in Ireland in the New Model Army in 1649. The war in Ulster finally end when parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic Ulster army at the Battle of Scarrifholis, close to Letterkenny in County Donegal near the 1650th

During the Glorious Revolution, only Derry and nearby Enniskillen had a Protestant garrison in November 1688. An army of about 1,200 men, mostly “redshank ” (Highlanders), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, slowly organized (those listed on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry began. In April 1689 James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The king was rebuffed and the siege lasted until the end of July with the arrival of a relief vessel.

18th and 19th centuries

The town was built in the 18th century with many of its fine Georgian style houses still survive. The city’s first bridge across the River Foyle was built in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants setting out for North America. Some of these colonies founded by Derry and Londonderry in the state of New Hampshire.

Even during the 19th century, it became a destination for migrants fleeing areas harder hit by the Irish potato famine. [50] [51] One of the most notable lines were McCorkell course run by Wm. McCorkell & Co. Ltd. from 1778. [52]The McCorkell most famous ship was Minnehaha, who was known as the “Green Yacht from Derry”. [52]

The beginning of the 20th century

World War I

The city contributed over 5,000 men in the British Army from the Catholic and Protestant families.

Share

During the Irish War of Independence, the area was rocked by sectarian violence, partly prompted by the guerrilla war raging between the Irish Republican Army and British forces, but also affected by the economic and social pressures. In mid-1920 there were severe sectarian riots in the city. [54] [55] Many lives were lost and in addition many Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during this common concern. After a week of violence, a truce negotiated by local politicians on both the union and republican sides.

In 1921, after the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish division, became unexpectedly a “border town”, separated from a large part of their traditional economic hinterland in County Donegal.

WWII

During World War II, the city played an important role in the Battle of the Atlantic. [56] Ships of the Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and other allied navies were stationed in the city and the United States established a military base. Over 20,000 Royal Navy, 10000 Royal Canadian Navy, and 6,000 US Navy personnel stationed in the city during the war. [57] The establishment of the US presence in the city was the result of a secret agreement between the Americans and the British before the Americans entered the war. [58] [59] it was the first US naval base in Europe and the terminal for US convoys on their way to Europe.

The reason for such a high degree of military and naval activity was self-evident: Derry was Britain’s westernmost port; In fact, the city was the westernmost Allied port in Europe thus Derry was a key jumping-off, along with Glasgow and Liverpool, for freight convoys that ran between Europe and North America. The large number of military personnel in Derry significantly changed the character of the city, which in some off color to the local area, as well as some cosmopolitan and financial buoyancy in these years. Several airports were built in outlying areas of the city at this time, Maydown, Eglinton and Ballykelly. RAF Eglinton went on to become City of Derry Airport.

The city contributed large numbers of men to the war effort during the services, especially the 500 men in the 9th (Londonderry) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, called “Derry Boys”. This regiment served in North Africa, Sudan, Italy and mainland Britain. Many others served in the merchant participates in convoys that supplied Britain and Russia during the war.

The border location in the city, and the influx of trade from the military convoys allowed for significant trafficking to develop in the city.

At the end of World War II, eventually some 60 submarines of the German Kriegsmarine ended in the city’s port at Lisahally after their surrender. [60]The original rendition attended Admiral Sir Max Horton, Commander-in-Chief of the Western Approaches, and Sir Basil Brooke, the third Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. [58]

The end of the 20th century

1950s and 1960s

The city languished after World War II, with unemployment and stagnating development. A major campaign led by the University Committee for Derry, Northern Ireland other universities in the city, ended in failure.

Civil Rights Movement

Derry was a focal point for the emerging civil rights movement in Northern Ireland.

Bogside area, seen from the walls

Catholics discriminated against under Unionist government in Northern Ireland, both politically and economically. [61] [62] [63] [64] In the late 1960s, the city became a flashpoint of conflicts of institutional gerrymandering.Political scientist John Whyte explains that:

All allegations of gerrymandering, virtually all complaints on housing and regional policy, and a disproportionate share of the fees for public and private employment comes from this area. The area – which consisted of counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, Londonderry County Borough, and parts of County Londonderry and Armagh – had less than a quarter of the total population in Northern Ireland generated yet not nearly three quarters of the complaints of discrimination. ..The Union government must bear its share of responsibility. It puts through the original gerrymander supported so many of the subsequent irregularities, and then, despite repeated protests did nothing to stop these irregularities continue. The most serious accusation against Northern Ireland government that it was not directly responsible for the widespread discrimination, but that it allowed discrimination on such a scale over a substantial part of Northern Ireland. [65]

A civil rights demonstration in 1968 led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was banned by the government and blocking the use of force by the Royal Ulster Constabulary. [64] The events that followed the August 1969 Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the Bogside, when Catholic rioters battled police, leading to widespread civil disorder in Northern Ireland and is often the starting point as föroroligheterna.

On Sunday, January 30, 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the Bogside area. Another 13 were wounded and another person died later of his injuries. This event became known as Bloody Sunday.

troubles

Main article: Troubles in Derry

“Free Derry Corner” in the corner of the Lecky Road and Fahan Street in the Bogside. The slogan was first painted in January 1969 by John Casey.

The conflict that became known as the Troubles generally considered to have started in Derry with the Battle of the Bogside. The civil rights movement had also been very active in the city. In the early 1970s, the city was heavily militarized, and there was widespread unrest. Several districts of the city constructed barricades to control access and prevent government forces from entering.

Violence eased towards the end of the unrest in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney argues in “The Secret History of the IRA” that Republican leaders which negotiated a de facto ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not, made the city look less bloodshed at this time than Belfast or other resorts.

The city was visited by a killer whale in November 1977 at the height of the troubles; it was dubbed Dopey Dick thousands who came from miles around to see him. [66]

steering

The local council is the Derry City Council, which consists of five electoral areas: Cityside, Northland, Rural, Shantallow and the Waterside. Council 30 members are re-elected every four years. Starting with the 2011 election, 14socialdemokratiska and Labour Party (SDLP) members, ten Sinn Féin, five Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) represent the Council. [ Need to update ] mayor and deputy mayor are elected annually by council .

The municipality limits correspond to the Foyle constituency of the UK Parliament and the Foyle constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. In the European Parliament elections is part of the Northern Ireland constituency.

Arms and motto

The units on the city’s coat is a skeleton and a three-towered castle on a black field, with the boss or the top third of the screen showing the arms of the City of London: a red cross and sword on white. In the middle of the cross is a gold harp. The blazon of the arms are as follows:

Sobel, a human skeleton or sitting on a mossy stone properly and in dexter chief a castle triple-towered argent on a chief argent a cross gules also then a harp or, and in the first quarter a sword erect gules [67]

According to documents in the College of Arms in London and the Chief Herald of Ireland in Dublin, where the arms of the city was confirmed in 1613 by Daniel Molyneux, Ulster King of Arms. [43] The College of Arms document states that the original arms of the city of Derry where you picture of death (or skeleton) of a Moissy stone and sea Dexter pointing a castle and that the granting of a charter of incorporation and change the name of the city as Londonderry this year’s first mayor had requested that a “chief of London”. [68] [ 69]

Theories have been put forward to the meaning of “old” arms Derry, before adding the head bears the arms of the City of London:

  • A proposal has been made to the castle is related to an early 14-century castle near Green belongs to the Anglo-Norman Earl of Ulster Richard de Burgh. [43]
  • The most popular theory of the skeleton is that it’s like a Norman De Burgh knight who was starved to death in the castle dungeons in 1332 on the orders of her cousin above the Earl of Ulster. [43] Another explanation put forward was that it depicted Cahir O’Doherty (Sir Charles O’Dogherty), who was killed by Derry invested by the English army in 1608 during the days avGerrymandering and discrimination against the Catholic population in Derry, Derry Roman Catholics often used to claim the dark wit that the skeleton was a local waiting for help from the Council bureaucracy. [43]

1979 Londonderry City Council, as it was then called, commissioned a report into the city’s arms and insignia, as part of the design process for a heraldic emblem. The published report found that there was no basis for any of the popular explanations for the skeleton and that it was “purely symbolic and does not refer to any identifiable person”. [70]

The 1613 register of arms depicted a harp in the middle of the cross, but was omitted from later depictions of the city arms, and in the patent confirming arms to Londonderry Corporation in 1952. [71] In 2002, Derry City Council applied to the College of Arms to have the harp restored to the city arms and garters and Norroy & Ulster Kings of Arms accepted the 17th century certificate issuing letters patent in force in 2003. [67]

The motto attached to the coat of arms reads in Latin, “Vita Veritas, Victoria.” This translates to English as “Life, Truth Victory”. [43]

Council elected in 2014 to the city are:

name Part
Sandra Duffy Ourselves
Tony Hassan Ourselves
Elisha McCallion Ourselves
mickey Cooper Ourselves
Eric McGinley Ourselves
Kevin Campbell Ourselves
Patricia Logue Ourselves
Colly Kelly Ourselves
Christopher Jackson Ourselves
angela Dobbins SDLP
Brian Tierney SDLP
John Boyle SDLP
Shauna Cusack SDLP
Seán Carr SDLP
Gerard Diver SDLP
Martin Reilly SDLP
Dermot Quigley Independent
darren O’Reilly Independent
Gary Donnelly Independent
hilary McClintock DUP
Drew Thompson DUP
David Ramsey DUP
mary Hamilton uup

Geography

Derry is characterized by its distinctive hilly topography. [72] The River Foyle forms a deep valley that runs through town, making Londonderry a place of very steep streets and sudden, startling views. The original walled city of Londonderry lies on a hill on the western banks of the River Foyle. In the past, branched river and closed this wooded hill as an island; over the centuries, but the western branch of the river dried up and became a low-lying and marshy district, which is now called the Bogside. [73]

Today extends contemporary Derry far north and west of the city walls and east of the river. Half of the city west of the Foyle called Cityside and the area east called the Waterside. The Cityside and Waterside are connected by the Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge and a footbridge in the center of the city known as the Peace Bridge. The district also extends into the countryside to the southeast of the city.

As much town, but remains often characterized by extremely steep hills, which forms a large part of the terrain on both sides of the river. A notable exception to this is on the northeastern outskirts of the city, on the shores of Lough Foyle, where large expanses of sea and mudflats were recovered in the mid 19’s. Today, these countries Slob protected from the sea by miles of dykes and embankments. The area is an internationally important bird sanctuary, ranked among the top 30 wetland areas in the UK. [74]

Other important nature reserve located on Ness Country Park, [75], 10 miles (16 km) east of Derry; and at Prehen wood, [76] in the city’s southeastern suburbs.

Climate

Derry has, like most of Ireland, a temperate coastal climate [77] according to the Köppen climate classification system. The nearest official Met Office weather station that climate data are available are Carmoney, [78] just west of the city of Derry Airport and about 5 miles (8 km) northeast of downtown.But observations ceased in 2004 and the nearest weather station is currently Ballykelly, because of 12 miles (19 km) east northeast. [79] Typically 27 nights of the year will report an air frost in Ballykelly, and at least 1 mm rainfall will be reported at 170 days (average 1981-2010).

The lowest temperature recorded at Carmoney was -11.0 ° C (12.2 ° F) of 27 December 1995. [80]

demography

Derry Urban Area (DUA), including the city and neighboring settlements Culmore, new and Strathfoyle, classified as a city by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) since its population exceeds 75,000.On census day (27 March 2011) there were 105.066 people living in Derry Urban Area. Of these, 27% under 16 and 14% were aged 60 and over, 49% of the population were male and 51% were women; 75% were from a Catholic background and 23% (up three percent from 2001) were from a Protestant background. [82]

In mid-2006 population estimate for the wider Derry City Council area was 107,300. [83] Population growth in 2005/06 was driven by natural change, with net migration of about 100 people. [83]

The city was one of the few in Sweden to experience a population increase during the Irish potato famine immigrants who came to it from other, harder-hit areas. [50]

Protestant minority

Concerns have been raised by both communities across the increasingly fragmented nature of the city. There were about 17,000 Protestants on the west bank of the River Foyle, 1971. [84] The proportion decreased rapidly during the 1970s, [85] census in 2011 recorded 3,169 Protestants in the West Bank, compared to 54.976 Catholics, [86] and it is feared that the city can become permanently assigned. [87] [88]

However, the joint efforts made by the local community, church and political leaders from both traditions to remedy the problem. A conference bringing together key stakeholders and promote tolerance was held in October 2006.[89] The Rt Rev. Dr. Ken Good, the Church of Ireland Bishop of Derry and Raphoe, said he was happy living on the mountain peaks. “I feel a part of it. It is my city and I would encourage other Protestants to feel exactly the same, “he said. [89]

Support for Protestants in the region has been strong from the former SDLP Mayor Helen Quigley. Cllr Quigley has made integration and tolerance central themes in her mayoralty.Borgmästaren Helen Quigley said that it is time for “everyone to take a stand to stop the scourge of sectarian and other violence in the city.” [90]

Economist

History

The economy of the area significantly based on the textile industry until relatively recently. For many years, women were often the only employees who work in shirt factories while men predominantly in comparison had high unemployment. [91] This led to significant male emigration. [92] The history of the shirt do in the city goes back as far as 1831 and is said to have initiated by William Scott and his family who first exported shirts to Glasgow. [93] within 50 years, shirt making in the city was the most productive in the UK with garments that are exported worldwide. It was known so well that the industry got a mention in Das Kapital by Karl Marx, when discussing the factory system:

The shirt factory masters. Tille in Londonderry, which employs 1,000 workers in the factory itself, and 9,000 people scattered up and down the country and working in their own houses. [94]

The industry reached its peak in the 1920s and employs some 18,000 people.[43] In modern times, but the textile industry declined because of the most expensive Asian wages. [95]

A long-term foreign employer in the area is DuPont, which has been based on Maydown since 1958, the first European production facility. [96] Originally made of neoprene Maydown and then followed avHypalon. Recently, Lycra and Kevlar production units were active. [97] Thanks to a healthy global demand for Kevlar made at the plant, the plant recently completed a £ 40 million upgrade to expand its global Kevlar production. Du Pont has stated that the factors contributing to their continued commitment to Maydown is “low labor costs, excellent transport links and duty free, easy access to the UK and the European continent.”

foreign investment

Seagate production

Over the past 15 years there has been an effort to increase foreign investment in the city, more recently concentrating on digital industries.Currently, the three largest private employers are US firms. [98] Economic successes have included call centers and a major investment by Seagate, which has operated a plant in Spring Industrial Estate since 1993. Seagate currently employs over 1000 people, producing more than half of the company’s total requirements for hard disk read-write heads.

A controversial new employer in the area was Raytheon Systems Limited, a software division of the US defense contractor, established in Derry in 1999.[99] Although some of the locals welcomed the jobs increase, others in the area were opposed to the jobs provided by a company participates heavily in the arms trade. [100] after four years of protests from the Foyle Ethical Investment campaign, 2004 Derry City council passed a motion declaring the district an “a” No – Go “area for arms trade”, [101] and 2006 office was briefly occupied by anti-war protesters who became known as Raytheon ninth [102]in 2009, the company announced that it was renewing the lease when it expired in 2010 and was looking for a new location for their business. [103]

Major multinational employers in the region include First Source in India, DuPont, INVISTA, Stream International, Seagate Technology, Perfecseal, NTL, Raytheon and Northbrook Technology in USA, Arntz Belting and InVision Software in Germany, and homeloan handling of Britain. Great local business employers include Desmond, Northern Ireland’s largest privately owned companies, manufacturing and purchasing clothing, E & I Engineering, St.Brendans Irish Cream Liqueur and McCambridge Duffy, one of the largest bankruptcy practice in the UK. [104]

Although the city offers cheap labor by the standards of Western Europe, critics have noted that the contributions offered by the Northern Ireland Industrial Development Board has helped land jobs for the area that only lasts as long as the funding lasts. [105] This was reflected in questions to the Secretary of State Northern Ireland, Richard Needham, 1990. [106] it was noted that it costs £ 30,000 to create a job in an American company in Northern Ireland.

Critics of the investment decisions that affect the district often point to the decision to build a new university building near (mainly Protestant) Coleraine rather than developing the University of Ulster Magee Campus.Another important government decisions affecting the city was the decision to create the new city of Craigavon outside Belfast, which again was detrimental to the development of the city. Also in October 2005, it was perceived prejudice against the comparatively poor northwestern province, with a large public administration employment contract comes to Belfast.Mark Durkan, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) leader and Member of Parliament (MP) for Foyle was quoted in the Belfast Telegraph as saying:

In fact, there has been consistent under-investment in the North West and a reluctance of staff to see or support anything west of the Bann, except for interest rate increases, then they treat us equally.

In July 2005, the Irish Finance Minister, Brian Cowen that called for a joint task force driving economic growth in the border region. This would have implications for County Londonderry, Tyrone and Donegal across the border.

Act

Austins department store

The city is the Northwest’s premier shopping district, housing two large shopping malls along with many retail packed streets serve much of the greater region, as well as Tyrone and Donegal. While retail development in Letterkenny has reduced cross-border traffic from north County Donegal, [citation needed ] the weak British pound over the course of 2009, the border towns such as Derry attractive to buyers from south of the border. [107] [108]

The city center has two large shopping centers; Foyle Shopping Centre which has 45 shops and 1430 parking spaces, and Richmond Centre, which has 39 retail units. Kaj shopping center also serves the city side and there is also Lisnagelvin Shopping Centre in the Waterside. These centers, as well as local-owned enterprises, a large number of national and international stores.A new addition was the Crescent Link Retail Park is located in Waterside with many international retailers, including Homebase, Currys and PC World (stores combined), Carpet Right, Maplin, Argos Extra, Toys R Us, Halfords, DW Sports (formerly JJB Sports) pets at home, Next, Starbucks, McDonalds, Tesco Express and M & S simply food. During the short time the site has been in operation, it has quickly grown to become the second largest trading area in Northern Ireland (second only to Spruce Field in Lisburn). [109] Plans have also been approved for Derry first Asda store, which will lie on the retail park sharing a unit with Homebase. [110] Sainsbury also applied for planning permission for a store at Crescent Link, but Environment Minister Alex Attwood said no. [111]

Until March 2016, when it closed, the town was also home to the world’s oldest independent department store, Austin. Founded in 1830, Austin preceding Jenners of Edinburgh by 5 years, Harrods in London with 15 years and Macy’s in New York for 25 years. [112] The store’s five-story Edwardian building is located in the walled city in the area known as The Diamond.

Landmarks

Derry is renowned for its architecture. This can primarily be attributed to the formal planning of the historic walled city of Derry in the center of the modern city. This is centered on the diamond with a collection of late Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian buildings maintain the grid of the main thoroughfares (Shipquay Street, Ferryquay Street, Butcher Street and Bishop Street) to the City Gates. St Columb’s Cathedral does not follow the grid pattern is strengthening its civil status. The Church of Ireland Cathedral was the first Post-Reformation cathedral built an Anglican church. The construction of the Roman Catholic St Eugene’s Cathedral in the Bogside in the 19th century was another major architectural additions to the city. The latter padding buildings within the walls are of varying quality and in many cases was low quality hastily constructed remuneration for the 1970 bomb damaged buildings. [ Citation needed ] townscape Heritage Initiative has funded the restoration work to write listed buildings and other older structures.

In the three centuries since their construction, the city wall adapted to meet the needs of a changing city. The best example of this adaptation is the introduction of three additional ports – Castle Gate, New Gate and Magazine Gate – in the walls during the 19th century. Today, the fortifications form a continuous walk around the city center, complete with cannons, roads by mature trees and views of Derry. Historic buildings within the city walls include St. Augustine Church, which sits on the city wall near the site of the original monastic settlement; copper dome Austin stores, claiming that the oldest such store in the world; and the impressive Greek Revival Courthouse on Bishop Street. The red brick late Victorian Guildhall, also crowned by a copper dome stands just beyond Shipquay Gate and near the river front.

There are many museums and places of interest in and around the city, including the Foyle Valley Railway Centre, Amelia Earhart Centre and Wildlife Sanctuary, the Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall, Ballyoan Cemetery, The Bogside, many murals of the Bogside Artists, Derry Craft Village, Free Derry Corner , O’Doherty Tower (now home to some of the Tower Museum), Guildhall, Harbour Museum, Museum of Free Derry, Chapter House Museum, Work Museum, the Nerve Centre, St. Columb’s Park Leisure Centre, St Eugene’s Cathedral, Creggan Country Park, the Millennium Forum and Foyle and Craigavon bridges.

The city has seen a large increase in its economy in terms of tourism in recent years. [ Citation needed ] Cheap flights offered by budget airlines has attracted many people to visit the city. Tourism is mainly focused around the pubs, mainly those in Waterloo Street. [ Citation needed ] Other attractions include museums, a vibrant shopping and trips to the Giant’s Causeway, which is about 50 miles (80 km) away, but poorly connected by public transport.Lonely Planet called Londonderry, the fourth best city in the world to see in 2013. [113]

Future projects include the Walled City Signature Project, which aims to ensure that the city walls become a world leading tourist experience. [114] The Ilex Urban Regeneration Company is charged with delivering several landmark redevelopment. It has taken control of two former British army barracks in the center of the city. The Ebrington site is nearing completion and is linked to the center of the new Peace Bridge.

Transport

The transport network is built of a complex set of ancient and modern roads and railways throughout the city and county. The city’s road network also makes use of two bridges that cross the River Foyle, the Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge, the longest bridge in Ireland. Derry also serves as a major hub for travel throughout the nearby County Donegal.

Although it is the second city of Northern Ireland (and it is the second largest city in all of Ulster), road and rail links to other cities is below par for its position. Many business leaders argue that public investment in the city and the infrastructure has suffered lacking. Some have said that this is due to its peripheral border location, while others have cited a sectarian bias against the region west of the River Bann because of its high proportion of Catholics. [115] [116] There is no direct motorway link to Dublin or Belfast .Järnvägsförbindelsen Belfast has been downgraded over the years so that at present it is not a viable alternative to the roads for the industry to rely on.There are currently plans for a £ billion transport infrastructure investments in and around the area. [117] Planned upgrades to A5 Dublin route agreed part of the Good Friday Agreement and the St Andrews Talks fell through when the Government of the Republic of Ireland withdrew its funding cite the recent economic crisis. [118]

buses

Most public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by subsidiaries Translink. Originally the city’s internal bus network run by Ulsterbus, which still gives the city’s connections with other towns in Northern Ireland. The city bus is now run by Ulsterbus Foyle, [119] just as the Trans Metro now provides bus service in Belfast. The Ulsterbus Foyle network offers 13 routes throughout the city in suburban areas, excluding a Easibus link that connects to the Waterside and Drumahoe, [120] and a free Rail Link shuttle bus runs from Waterside railway station to the city center. All buses depart from Foyle Street bus station in the city center.

Long distance buses depart from Foyle Street bus station to destinations throughout Ireland. Buses operated by both Ulsterbus and Bus Eireann cross paths. Lough Swilly is driven earlier buses to Co. Donegal, but the company went into liquidation and is no longer in operation. There is a half-hourly service to Belfast every day, called the Maiden City Flyer, which is the Goldline Express flagship route. There are hourly services to Strabane, Omagh, Coleraine, Letterkenny and Buncrana, and up to twelve services a day to bring people to Dublin. There is a daily service to Sligo, Galway, Limerick and Shannon Airport.

air

Main article: City of Derry Airport

City of Derry Airport, Council-owned airport near Eglinton, has increased in recent years with new investments in the extension of the runway and the plan to build the terminal. [121] It is hoped that the new investment will increase the airport’s currently limited collection of domestic and international flights and reduce the annual contribution £ 3.5 million from the municipality.

The A2 Maydown to Eglinton, cafeteria airport has recently become a dual carriageway. [122] City of Derry Airport is the main regional airport for County Donegal, County Londonderry and West County Tyrone and Derry City itself.

The airport is served by Ryanair with scheduled flights to Birmingham International Airport, Glasgow Airport, Liverpool, [123] and London Stansted all year round with a summer schedule to Alicante and Faro.

railways

Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) has a single route from Londonderry Railway Station (also known as Waterside Station) at Waterside to Belfast Great Victoria Street through Coleraine, Ballymena, Ballymena, Antrim, Mossley West ochBelfast Central. The service, which had been allowed to deteriorate in the 1990s, has since been improved through increased investment.

In 2008, the Department of Regional Development announced plans to have traces reversed between Derry and Coleraine in 2013, adding a passing track to increase traffic capacity and increase the number of trains by introducing additional tvådieseldrivna units. [124] The £ 86 million plan will reduce travel time Belfast 30 minutes and allow commuter trains to arrive before 9:00 for the first time. [124] Many people still do not use the train because of over two hours, the slower the city-center to city center than 100 minutes Ulsterbus Goldline Express. [125]

railway history

Ireland networks in 1906

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city was served by four different railways between them linked the city with a large part of the province of Ulster, plus a port railway network that linked the other four lines. There was also a tram on the city side of the Foyle.

19th and 20th century growth

Derry first railway was Irish meter (5 ft 3 in (1600 mm)) Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway (L & S). Construction began in 1845 from a temporary station at Cow Market on the city side of the Foyle reached Strabane in 1847[126] and was extended from cow market to its permanent terminus at Foyle Street in 1850. [127] L & S reached Omagh in 1852, Enniskillen in 1854, [ 127] and was absorbed in the northern railway (Ireland) Good 1883. [128]

The Londonderry and Coleraine Railway (L & CR), also Irish gauge reached the city in 1852 and opened its terminus at Waterside. [127] The Belfast and northern counties järnvägsleasade line from 1861 and took over the 1871st

The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway opened between Farland Point Lough Swilly and a temporary terminus at Penny Burn in 1863. [127] In 1866, expanded from Penny Burn to its permanent terminus at the dry port. [127] L & LSR was Irish gauge until 1885, when it converted to 3 feet (914 mm) narrow gauge for by driving at Letterkenny Railway.

The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) linked drydock and Foyle Road station with a railway through the Middle East Quay in 1867, and linked this line with Water station by a railway of the new Carlisle Bridge in 1868. [127] The bridge was replaced in 1933 with the double-decker Craigavon Bridge, with LPHC railway on the lower deck.

In 1900, the 3-foot (914 mm) gauge Donegal Railway extended from Strabane to Derry, establishing a terminus at Victoria Road. This was next to Carlisle Bridge and had a cross with LPHC railway. [127] The LPHC line was changed to dual gauges that allow 3 feet (914 mm) gauge traffic between Donegal Railway and L & LSR as well as the Irish gauge traffic between GNR and B & NCR . In 1906, the North County Committee (NCC, the successor to the B & NCR) and GNR took joint Donegal railway, making the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC).

The British government subsidized both L & LSR and Donegal Railway to build long extensions in remote areas of County Donegal. In 1905 they served a large part of the county, [129] making Derry (and Strabane) an important railway junction for the county.

The City of Derry Tramways opened in 1897. [130] This was a standard gauge (1435 mm (4 ft 8 1 / two in)) line is served by trams and horse never electrified.[130] The tramway had only one line was 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) long, and ran along the city side of the Foyle alongside LPHC line on the side of the river. [131] it was closed in 1919. [130]

20th century decline

The partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the border with County Donegal for an international border. This change in trade patterns for the expense of rail and put border posts on each line to and from Derry except route NCCColeraine. [126] L & LSR crossed the border between Penny Burn and Bridge End CDRJC crossed just beyond Strabane, and GNR line crossed twice between Derry and Strabane. [126] Stops for customs controls severely delayed trains and disrupted the timing.

In the coming years customs agreement between the two modes GNR trains to and from Derry to pass through the state without control, unless they were scheduled to serve the local stations on the west bank of the Foyle, and for goods of all railways being transported between different parts of Free State pass Northern Ireland under customs bond. But continued local passenger and freight traffic to be delayed by customs investigations.

In the 1920s and 30s and again after World War II, the railways also face increasing road competition. L & LSR closed its line in 1953, followed by CDRJC 1954. [132] The Ulster Transport Authority took over NCC in 1949 and GNR lines in Northern Ireland in 1958. UTA also took over LPHC railway, which it closed in 1962. [133] in accordance with Benson report is sent to Northern Ireland in 1963, UTA closed the former GNR line to Derry in 1965.[132] [133] [134]

Since 1965, the former L & CR line has been Derry sole rail connection. As such it has implemented not only passenger services between Derry and Belfast but also Cie freight traffic with the help of Derry as a railhead for Donegal.

Road network

The road network has been historically under-investment and lacked good road links to both Belfast and Dublin for many years. [ Citation needed ] long ago, is the largest road investments in the Northwest history now (2010) is done with the construction of the “A2 Broad Maydown to City of Derry Airport dual development project [135] and the announcement of the “A6 Londonderry to Dungiven dual Ling Scheme” [136] which will help to reduce the journey time to Belfast. [137] the latter project provides a dual carriageway link between Northern Ireland’s two largest cities a step closer. The project will cost £ 320 million and is expected to close during in 2016.

In October 2006 the Irish government announced that it was investing 1 billion € in Northern Ireland, [138] and one of the planned projects will be “A5 Western Transport Corridor”, [139] complete upgrade of the A5 Derry – Omagh – Aughnacloy (- Dublin ) road, about 90 kilometers (56 miles) long, to the dual carriageway. standard [140]

It is not yet known if these two separate projects will join at any time, although there have been calls for some kind of connection between the two lines. In June 2008, Conor Murphy, Minister for Regional Development, announced that it will be a feasibility study to connect the A5 and A6. [117]Would it continue the system would likely run from Drumahoe to the south of Prehen along the south east of the city. [124 ]

Hav

Londonderry Port of Lisahally is Britain’s most westerly port and has capacity for 30,000 tons vessels. The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) announced record sales, record profits and record tonnage figures for the fiscal year ending March 2008. The figures are the result of a major program investment for the period 2000-2007 of about one million £ 22. The amount managed by LPHC increased almost 65% between 2000 and 2007, according to the latest [ when? ] Annual profit.

The port gave decisive Allied service in the longest campaign World War II, the Battle of the Atlantic, and saw the surrender of the German U-Boat fleet at Lisahally May 8, 1945. [141]

inland waterways

Tidal River Foyle is navigable from the coast at Derry to about 10 miles (16 km) inland. 1796, the Strabane Canal was opened, continue navigation 4 miles (6 km) south of Strabane .Kanalen closed 1962nd

Training

Derry is home to Magee campus of the University of Ulster, Magee College earlier. But Lockwood [142] to the 1960 decision to locate Northern Ireland’s other universities in Coleraine rather than Derry helped contribute to the formation of the civil rights movement that eventually led to the troubles.Derry city was closer associated with higher education, with Magee College already more than a century old at the time. [143] [144] In the mid-1980s, a half-hearted attempt was made to correct this mistake by forming Magee College as a campus of the University of Ulster, but this has not stifle calls for the establishment of an independent university in Derry that can grow to the full potential. [145] campus has never flourished, and currently has only 3,500 students out of a total Ulster University students at 27.000. Ironically, although Coleraine blamed by many in the city for “stealing the university, it has only 5,000 students, and the remaining 19,000 based in Belfast. [146]

The North West Regional College is also based in the city. In recent years it has grown to nearly 30,000 students. [147]

One of the two oldest high schools in Northern Ireland is located in Derry, Foyle and Londonderry College. It was founded in 1616 by Merchant Taylors and is still a popular choice. Other high schools include St. Columb’s College, Oakgrove Integrated College, St Cecilia’s College, St. Mary’s College, St.Joseph’s School for Boys, Lisneal College, Thornhill College, Lumen Christi College and St. Brigid College. There are also many schools.

sports

The Derry GAA team for the 2009 National League finals.

The city is home to sports clubs and teams. Both association football and Gaelic football is popular in the area.

Association football

In the context of football, the city’s most prominent clubs include Derry City who play in the National League in Ireland, the Institute of NIFL Championship ochOxford United Stars and Trojans, both Northern Ireland Intermediate League. In addition to these clubs, who all play in the national leagues, are other clubs based in the city. The local football league is controlled by the IFA’s northwestern Junior League, which includes many clubs from the city, such as BBOB (Boys Brigade Old Boys) and Lincoln Courts. The city’s second junior’s Derry and District League and the team from the city and surrounding areas to participate, including Don Bosco and Creggan Swifts. The Foyle Cupfotbollsturnering held annually in the city. It has attracted many famous teams in the past, including Werder Bremen, IFK Gothenburg and Ferencvaros.

Derry City tar på Paris Saint-Germain på Brandywell Stadium under 2006 UEFA-cupen

Gaelic football

In Gaelic football Derry GAA is the county team and play in the Gaelic Athletic Association’s National Football League, the Ulster Senior Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The field also throw teams in the same tournaments. There are many Gaelic games clubs in and around the city, such as Na Magha CLG, Steeltown GAC, Doire Colmcille CLG, Seán Dolan’s GAC, Na Piarsaigh CLG Doire Trasna and Slaughtmanus GAC.

Boxing

There are many boxing clubs, the most famous is The Ring Boxing Club , which is associated with Charlie Nash [148] and John Duddy, [149] among others.

Rugby Union

Rugby Union is also very popular in the city, with the City of Derry Rugby Club is not far from the city center. [150] City of Derry won both the Ulster Towns Cup and Ulster Junior Cup 2009. Londonderry YMCA RFC is another rugby club and its based in Drumahoe located just outside the city.

basketball

The city’s only basketball club is Northstar Basketball that have teams in basketball Northern Ireland senior and junior leagues. [151]

Cricket

Cricket is also a popular sport in the city, especially in the Waterside. The city is home to two cricket clubs, Brigade Cricket Club and Glendermott Cricket Club, who both play in the North West Senior League.

Golf

Golf is also a sport that is popular among many in the city. There are two golf clubs are in the city, City of Derry Golf Club and Foyle International Golf Centre.

Culture

In recent years, the city and the surrounding countryside has become famous for its artistic heritage, producing the Nobel laureate poet Seamus Heaney,[152] poet Seamus Deane, playwright Brian Friel, [153] writer and music critic Nik Cohn, artist Willie Doherty, socio-political commentator and activist Eamonn McCann [154] and the band the Undertones. The major political gable murals of the Bogside Artists, Free Derry Corner, the Foyle Film Festival, Derry walls, St. Eugene and St. Columb cathedral and the annual Halloween street carnival [155] are popular tourist attractions. In 2010 Derry named Britain’s tenth most musical ‘City by PRS for Music. [156] [156]

In May 2013 which Eternal Peace Flame monument was unveiled by Martin Luther King III and Presbyterian Minister Rev. David Latimer. The flame was lit by children from both traditions in the city and is one of only 15 such flames all over the world. [157] [158]

Media

Local papers Derry Journal (known as the Londonderry Journal to 1880) andLondonderry Sentinel reflect the shared history of the city: the Journal was founded in 1772 and is Ireland’s second oldest newspaper, [43] the Sentinelnewspaper was founded in 1829 when the new owner of the Journalembraced the Catholic Emancipation , and the editor left the magazine to set the Sentinel . There are many radio stations receivables: the main stations based in the city are BBC Radio Foyle [159] and the commercial station Q102.9. [160] There was a locally based television station, C9TV, one of only two local or “limited” TV services in Northern Ireland, which ceased broadcasting in 2007.

Nightlife

The city’s nightlife is focused primarily on the weekends, with several bars and clubs that provide “student nights” during the week. Waterloo Street and Strand Road provide the main venues. Waterloo Street, a steep street lined with both traditional and modern Irish pubs often have live rock and traditional music at night. The city is known for producing talented musicians and many bands perform in places around the city, such as the Small Town America duo, fighting with Wire and jetplane landing. A large number of other young local and indeed international bands perform at the Nerve Centre.

events

  • 2013 Derry became the first city to be designated UK Capital of Culture, has been awarded the title in July 2010. [12] [13]
  • Also in 2013 the city hosted Radio 1 Big Weekend [161] and the Lumiere festival. [162]
  • “Banks of the Foyle Hallowe’en Carnival” (known in Irish as Feile na Samhna) in Derry is a major tourism boost for the city. The carnival is promoted as the first and longest Halloween carnival in all of Ireland,[163] [164] It is called the biggest street party in Ireland, Derry Visitor & Convention Bureau with more than 30,000 macabre revelers take to the streets every year. [165]
  • In March, the host city of the Big Tickle Comedy Festival, 2006, Dara Ó Briain and Colin Murphy. In April, the city hosts the City of Derry Jazz and Big Band Festival and in November the Foyle Film Festival, the biggest film festival in Northern Ireland.
  • Every summer the town hosts Tomo-Dachi, Ireland’s largest anime convention, which in July 2006 was held at Magee College, University of Ulster. [166]
  • The Siege of Derry is celebrated annually by the fraternal organization the Apprentice Boys of Derry in the week-long Maiden City Festival.
  • Instinct Festival is an annual youth festival celebrates the Arts. It is held around Easter and has proven a success in recent years.
  • Celtronic is a major annual electronic dance festival held at locations around the city. 2007 Festival featured DJ Erol Alkan.
  • The Millennium Forum is the most important theater in the city, it has many applications every week.
  • On 9 December 2007 Derry into the Guinness Book of Records when 13,000 Santas gathered to break the world record beating the previous record held by Liverpool and Las Vegas. [167]
  • Winner of the 2005 Britain in Bloom competition (City category).Runner-up in 2009.

Notable people who were born or lived in Derry include:

  • Frederick Hervey, Bishop of Derry and 4th Earl of Bristol
  • Edward Leach, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • The Restoration playwright George Farquhar
  • Author Joyce Cary, Seamus Deane Jennifer Johnston and Nell McCafferty
  • Poet and Nobel Laureate Seamus Heaney
  • Social Democratic and Labour Party founder and Nobel Peace Prize winner John Hume
  • Scientists and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners William C. Campbell [170] [171]
  • Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness
  • Ireland national football team head coach Martin O’Neill
  • Everton player Darron Gibson
  • Actresses Amanda Burton and Roma Downey
  • Girls Aloud medlem Nadine Coyle
  • Neil Hannon singer of The Divine Comedy
  • Eurovision Song Contest winner and former politicians Fashion
  • The band undertones and their one-time singer Feargal Sharkey
  • Jimmy McShane of Baltimora
  • Triathlete Aileen Morrison
  • Tom McGuinness, Gaelic football [172]
  • Damian McGinty and Keith Harkin, vocalist with the group Celtic Thunder
  • John Park, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Daniel Quigley (World ISKA Professional Super Heaveyweight Kickboxning Champion) [173]
  • Miles Ryan, recipient of the Victoria Cross

See also

  • Ballynagalliagh
  • Institute FC
  • List of abbeys and priories in County Londonderry
  • List of cities and villages in Northern Ireland
  • Scouting i Nordirland

references

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Coleraine

Coleraine (/ k oʊ lr eɪ n /, from Irish Cúil Rathain , which means “corner of the ferns” [5] [fun ɾˠahɪnʲ]) is a large city and parish near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is 55 miles (88.5 km) northwest of Belfast and 30 miles (48.3 kilometers) east of Derry, both of which are connected by major roads and rail links. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens district.

Description

Coleraine had a population of 24.630 people in the 2011 census. Disposable income is well above average in Northern Ireland. North Coast (Coleraine and Limavady) area has the highest property prices in Northern Ireland, even higher than the rich South Belfast. [6] golf courses, countryside and leisure activities and attractions are to be found. It has an attractive city center, and a marina. Coleraine during the day is a busy city, but at night the city is relatively quiet, with a lot of nightlife in the area which is located in the nearby coastal cities Portrush and. Coleraine is also home to one of the largest Polish communities in Northern Ireland.

Coleraine is at the lowest bridging point of the River Bann, where the river is 90 meters wide. The square is called “The Diamond” and is the location of the town hall. Patrick’s Church of Ireland is nearby. The University of Ulster campus was built in the 1960s and has brought a theater space to the city in the form of Riverside Theatre.

Coleraine has been designated as an important growth area in Northern Ireland strategy development. Although the population of the town is just 25,000, Cole has a large catchment area. The city also has the advantage of being close to some of the most extraordinary landscapes in Europe. In 2002, Coleraine won the best-preserved city and Ulster in Bloom awards. In 2003 it was chosen to represent Northern Ireland in the prestigious Britain in Bloom competition. In 2010 SuperValu Best Kept Awards, Cole was named best preserved city in Northern Ireland, this is a prestigious award that commends cities across Northern Ireland for its work to improve the local environment.[7] [ citation needed ] It has its own local radio station: Q97.2FM

History

Coleraine has a long history of settlement. Mesolithic site at Mount Sandel, who is from around 5935 BC [8] are some of the earliest evidence of human settlement in Ireland. [9]

The Tripartite life of Saint Patrick’s records how the town got its name.When Patrick arrived in the neighborhood, he received with great honor and hospitality of the local governor Nadslua, who offered him a piece of land to build a church. The location was next to the River Bann and was overgrown with ferns, which were being burned by some boys to entertain themselves.This event led to the area known as Cúil Raithin ( “nook of ferns”), who later anglicized as Colrain , Colerain and Coleraine . It has been translated into Latin by Colgan as Secessus Filicis .

The city was one of the two urban communities developed by London companies in County Londonderry in the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. The slightly skewed street pattern of Coleraine city center is inherited from the early exercise in urban planning, along with traces of the lines in the levees that gave the plantation town with its defense. 1637 issued the Inspector General of Customs a report compiled from accounts customs due from each port and their “subsidiary streams.” Ulster end up on the list, Carrickfergus was first, followed avBangor, Donaghadee, and Strang.Carlingford and Coleraine each had £ 244 customs basis and had the same ranking. [10]

During the war, the two Kings (1689-1691) Coleraine was a center of Protestant opposition to the rule of James II. Richard Hamilton is the Irish army made an attempt to seize the city, but was rejected. The Protestants were forced to abandon the city shortly afterwards and pulled back to Derry.Later that year, after the unsuccessful siege of Derry, SirCharles Carney and his Jacobite garrison fled the city to get the news in advance of Percy Kirke guy’s strengths and landing at Carrickfergus by Marshal Schomberg.DeWilliamites controlled Coleraine for the rest of the war.

With some industrialization, the expansion of the river port, and the development of the railroad, the city expanded considerably during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Coleraine expanded steadily after World War II. The population doubled due to major industrial development on extensive suburban locations, the decision to place the New University of Ulster (now known as the University of Ulster) in the city, expansion of trade and the development of sports and leisure facilities.There has been a steady increase in the urban area from the mid-20’s compact city in less than 1¼ square miles (2 km²), to the current more spread town about 7 square miles (11 km²). During the Troubles in Northern Ireland 13 people were killed in or near Coleraine, ten of them in two separate car bomb explosions.

Since 1980, growth continued, but at a more modest pace. During the twenty years to 2001 the city’s population increased by 22% to about 25,000, but the growth rate decreased from 12% in 1980 to 8% in the 1990s. [11]

The troubles

Main article: unrest in Coleraine

Control

Coleraine was the headquarters of the former Coleraine Borough Council, before it merged in 2015 to form the Causeway Coast and Glens District Council, which now has its headquarters in the former Coleraine Borough Council headquarters.

City Council area along with adjoining district Limavady form the East Londonderry constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, although a part of the town is in County Antrim.

The Unionist controlled Coleraine Borough Council operates a rotational position of mayor / deputy mayor between the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), Democratic Unionist Party and the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP).

Tourism

Coleraine is the largest city in the world-famous Causeway Coast, which attracts more than three million visitors a year, spending more than £ 47 million. [12] The world famous Giant’s Causeway is one twenty-five minute bus ride away. The distillery village of Bushmills is well served by buses from the city and there is a narrow gauge steam train running in the summer of Bushmills to the Giant’s Causeway. The train ride takes about fifteen minutes from the city to the Causeway. Also north of Coleraine is the scenic coastal city of Port, with fine sandy beach and coastal promenader.Portrush is part of the city.

Northwest of Coleraine is the small village of Castle, with a beach that is essentially a continuation of the beach at Stewart, separated by the River Bann. Nearby is also the main beach at Benone Strand and Mussenden Temple, built by Frederick Augustus Hervey, an 18th century Anglican bishop on top of a precipitate cliff with views of County Donegal in one direction and Scotland in another. The National Trust managed Downhill forest was part of the bishop’s house, and though the castle itself is now a ruined garden is a wonderful place full of strange hidden lakes and wonderfully tended flower gardens.

Climate

As with the rest of the British Isles, Coleraine experience a maritime climate with cool summers and mild to cold winters. The nearest official Met Office weather station that online records are available at nearby Coleraine University, [13] about 1 mil north of downtown. But observations ceased some years ago and the closest current Met Office weather observation station is at Movanagher, about 12 miles to the south. Rain on Coleraine peaks typically over 100 mm in October. The driest month is May, with an average of less than 60 mm. [14] On average, 173 days a year to report at least 1 mm of rain, which range from 18 days in January to 11 days in June.

Tourist attractions

The eastern part of the city is characterized by Mount Proportion Forest, which includes Mount Sandel Fort, an old place that has been claimed as the oldest site of human settlement in Ireland. This wooden house dating from around 7000 BC discovered. [16] [17] The fort can be reached via Mount Percentage forest, closest to the entrance, the side near Coleraine Courthouse. There is another fort about 2 miles south of Mount Percentage near a small village called Loughan.

Notable people

  • Well-known people from Coleraine include actor James Nesbitt, actress Michelle Fairley, author Maggie O’Farrell, David Cunningham from the band The Flying Lizards, Ulster and Ireland Rugby Union player Andrew Trimble, the British Ladies Champion figure skating Jenna McCorkell, folk singer Damien O’Kane and 2012 British Olympic rower Alan Campbell, Peter Chambers, Richard Chambers and Richard Archibald.Goalkeeper Harry Gregg MBE, sometimes called the hero of the Munich air disaster, grew up in Coleraine. Dave McElfatrick, co-writer of the webcomic Cyanide and Happiness is a native of the city.
  • Coleraine was also the home of Bonar Law, the British Prime Minister for a brief period in the 1920s. He lived in the manse next 1st Coleraine Presbyterian Church on Abbey Street.
  • Ancestors James Knox Polk, 11th president of the United States, was among the first Ulster Scots settlers emigrating from Coleraine in 1680 to become a powerful political family in Mecklenburg County.
  • Suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams, lived in Coleraine (Mount Andel area) from 1911 to 1916 and participated in Coleraine Academical Institution. He was a general practitioner and worked in Eastbourne from 1922. He was indicted in 1957 for the murder of 2 patients but was acquitted. He was suspected of causing the death of 163 other patients.[18]
  • Davy Boyle, Caring Caretaker , caretakers in Coleraine Town Hall has for many years raised large amounts of money to charity. Each year he conducts a “sit” in December [19] and he has received an MBE for his efforts.
  • Speedy W. Moore, musicians, storytellers, fishermen, and award-winning journalist who received the MBE and saw his accomplishments as a columnist for The Coleraine Chronicle earn the reading of a special mood in the British House of Commons. [20]
  • Listed mathematical physicist Sir Thomas Ranken Lyle, a pioneer in X-ray technology in Australia and former Ireland international rugby union player.
  • Charles Frederick Williams, a well-known journalist and war correspondent.

Training

Coleraine has a variety of educational institutions at all levels.

Primary and secondary schools

The local schools include:

  • Saint Johns Primary School
  • Irish Society Primary School
  • Coleraine Academical Institution: Grammar School for Boys
  • Coleraine College
  • Saint Joseph Co-educational Catholic secondary school
  • Coleraine High School: Grammar School for Girls
  • DH Christie Memorial Primary School
  • Killowen Primary School
  • Loreto College Coleraine: Co-educational Catholic grammar school
  • Harpurs Hill Primary School
  • Millburn Primary School
  • Saint Malachy Primary School
  • North Coast Integrated College: Non-denominational
  • Macosquin Primary School

Tertiary

Coleraine is the site of a University of Ulster campus and houses the university’s administration buildings. It is the original campus of what was originally the New University of Ulster which merged with the former Ulster Polytechnic in Jordan just north of Belfast in the early 1980s to form today’s institution. It is noted as a world leading center for research in biomedical sciences [ citation needed ] .
The Causeway Institute is a College of Further and Higher Education based in Coleraine, with another campus in nearby Ballymoney.

Transport

Coleraine railway station was opened on December 4, 1855 and shares facilities with the city Ulsterbus bus depot. Passenger services are delivered via the Belfast-Derry railway along the scenic shores of Lough Foyle ochColeraine-Portrush railway branch line. Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements of the permanent way track and signaling to allow faster services.

The railway station was closed for freight 4 January 1965. [21]

Sport

Coleraine itself contains Cole Rugby Club, founded in 1921, Coleraine FC, founded in 1927 and currently in the IFA Premier and CLG Eoghan Rua established in 1957. Coleraine one of the hosting cities for the Milk Cup.Coleraine also makes part of the circuit for the North West 200, a series of motorcycle road races organized by Coleraine and District Motor Club.

Coleraine Bowling Club is a lawn bowls club situated at Lodge Road and was founded in 1903. Coleraine is one of the most successful teams in NIPBA and Irish bowling, with 64 titles on the list of awards. The Bannsiders have claimed two Irish Bowling Association Senior Challenge Cup victories in 1921 and 2013. Coleraine are also a number of international players and the Commonwealth Games representatives, mainly Victor Dallas and Roy Fulton.

Coleraine Cricket Club plays in the North West Senior League.

Within the local area, but not in Coleraine are a number of renowned golf courses including Castle Golf Club, Royal Portrush Golf Club Portstewart Golf Club.

Coleraine has a significant equestrian fraternity, with a number of clubs in the vicinity – of special interest is the RDA Coleraine (Riding for Disabled Association (Coleraine & District Group), which provides riding opportunities for people with physical and / or learning difficulties in their millions £ 1, 75 RDA Causeway Coast Arena on Castleroe (see website www.rdacoleraine.org). the new stadium financed by SportNI, Coleraine Borough Council, and by donations from the people in the area. the conditions for granting aid comprised of a first-class sports arena for the RDA, equestrian fraternity, and other sports activities. It is particularly important to develop Owls sports Club ( O pportunities W Without L IMIT s), which will coordinate the development of a wide range of sporting opportunities for people with physical and / or learning difficulties, and in many cases his siblings. to facilitate this process SportNI has funded the provision of a Sports Development Officer.

2011 Census

Coleraine classified as a large city (ie with population between 18,000 and 75,000 people). [22] The Census day (27 March 2011), there were 59.069 people living in Coleraine Borough (this figure includes other towns and villages in the city) . [23] Of these:

  • 22.3% were younger than 16 years, and 16.7% were aged 65 years and older
  • 47.7% of the population were male and 52.3% were women
  • 28% belong to or entered in the Catholic denomination and 65.3% belong to or have grown up in a Protestant and other Christian (including Christian related) denominations.
  • 3.9% of the population aged 16-74 were unemployed.

Coleraine international

Coleraine, like a city name occurs in other countries, such as Coleraine, Minnesota, USA. 1853 conducted a surveyor named Lindsay Clarke works in a township called Bryans Creek Crossing in Victoria, Australia. He was named the city of Coleraine. [24]

A wine from New Zealand, Te Mata Estate’s Coleraine Cabernet / Merlot, named after the city. [25]

The Zomba Action Project is a charity founded in 2003 under the leadership of Coleraine Borough Council to help the municipality of Zomba in southern Malawi, which aims to help some of the residents of the region to build a better life for themselves and their children. The region was chosen because of the historical links between the Presbyterian and Catholic churches and Malawi, which affects a number of specific local contacts.Donations have been used to finance computers, education, health and other projects. [26]

A street in Montreal, Canada named Coleraine in Pointe-Saint-Charles, who was once an Irish neighborhood.

“Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine”, a small municipality in the Appalachian region in the province of Quebec, Canada, is named after Saint Joseph, father of Jesus, and the town of Coleraine in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is part of the “Chaudière-Appalaches” region and the population is 2018 2009. It holds an Irish Heritage Festival annually.

Coleraine connected with the French town of La Roche-sur-Yon. [27]

See also

  • Cole cheddar
  • County Coleraine
  • List of cities in Northern Ireland
  • List of villages in Northern Ireland
  • List of civil parishes in County Londonderry
  • O’Cahan
  • University of Ulster

References

  1. Jump up ^ North / South Ministerial Council – 2003 Annual Report Ulster-Scots
  2. Jump up ^ North / South Ministerial Council – 2001 Annual Report Ulster-Scots
  3. Jump up ^ Ulster-Scots guide to Beaghmore stone circles – Ministry of Environment
  4. Jump up ^ Yeirly 2007 Tourism Ireland.
  5. Jump up ^ Flanaghan, Deirdre & Laurence, Irish place names , page 194. Gill & Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-7171-3396-6
  6. Jump up ^ University of Ulster Quarterly House Price Index report in cooperation with the Bank of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Housing Executive – March 2006
  7. Jump up ^ “Jottings from the Chairman | Open + Direct Insurance Best Kept Awards “. Www.niacbestkept.com. Pulled 11/25/2015.
  8. Jump up ^ States Yearbook 2007, Macmillan Publishing, 678 pages, edited by Barry Turner, ISBN 1-4039-9276-2 / ISBN 978-1-4039-9276-5
  9. Jump up ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Celtic Sea . eds. P.Saundry & C.Cleveland.Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and miljö.Washington DC.
  10. Jump up ^ O’Sullivan, Aidan; Breen, Colin (2007). Maritime Ireland. An archeology of coastal communities. Stroud: Tempus. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7524-2509-2.
  11. Jump Service Draft Northern Area Plan, Accessed 27 December 2006
  12. Jump up ^ “Investing in Coleraine”. Capital of the Causeway Coast.Archived from the original The 7 June 2007. Retrieved 14 September of 2007.
  13. Jump up ^ “Station locations”. Met Office.
  14. Jump up ^ “Coleraine Precipitation.” Met Office.
  15. Jump up ^ “Coleraine 1971-2000 average.” YR.NO. Hämtadskrevs 20 September 2011.
  16. Jump up ^ “Mount Sandel, Ireland”. About.com. Hämtad14 September of 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ “prehistory”. Causeway Coast and Glens Heritage Trust.Archived from the original at 22 September 2007. Fourteen Retrieved September of 2007.
  18. Hoppa upp^ Cullen, Pamela V. “A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files på Dr John Bodkin Adams”, London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  19. Jump up ^ Davy and his “Dreamcoat”! Coleraine Times website 18 November 2009 Retrieved 4 December 2009
  20. Jump up ^ Speedy Moore: He touched all of our lives Coleraine Times website August 5, 2008 Retrieved August 28, 2011
  21. Jump up ^ “Coleraine Station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad30 August of 2007.
  22. Jump up ^ http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/urbanreport.pdf NI Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Accessed 27 December 2006
  23. Jump up ^ Population of Census Day 2011: permanent residents by geographic area and gender P1a 2011 Census NISRA, Accessed August 17, 2013
  24. Hoppa upp^http://www.smh.com.au/news/Victoria/Coleraine/2005/02/17/1108500206358.html Accessed den 27 december 2006
  25. Jump up ^ “Te Mata – Cole CABERNET / MERLOT”. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  26. Jump up ^ “Zomba”. Coleraine Borough Council website. Coleraine Borough Council. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
  27. Jump up ^ “Twinning”. Complete France.

County Londonderry

County Londonderry , also known as County Derry (Irish: Contae Dhoire , Ulster Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie ), is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. Adjacent to the northwest shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 2074 km² (801 sq mi) and has a population of about 247,132. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as part of the historical province of Ulster.

Since 1981 it has become one of the four counties of Northern Ireland which has a Catholic majority (55.56% according to the 2001 census [4] ), with 57% of the Catholic population living in the Derry City Council. [4] The provincial flower is the purple saxifrage. [5]

name

The place name Derry is a Anglicisation of the old Irish Daire [6] (Modern Irish Doire [7] ), which means “oak grove” or “oak-wood”. [8]

As with the city, its name is subject to the name dispute Derry / Londonderry, the form “Londonderry” generally preferred by members and “Derry” by nationalists. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] The British authorities use the name “Londonderry”, while “Derry” used by Ireland.

History

Prehistoric

Mount Proportion located near Coleraine in County Londonderry is “perhaps the oldest recorded settlement in Ireland”. [14] [15]

County Coleraine and Plantation of Ulster

At an early period, what was the County Coleraine inhabited by O’Cahans, which was tributary of O’Neill. Towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of their territory seized by England, with the purpose of checking the power of O’Neill and was County Coleraine, named after the regional capital.

A brief description of the County Coleraine gives Harris’s Hibernica , and also from Captain Pynnar’s Survey of Escheated counties in Ulster, Anno 1618 : The County of Coleraine * otherwise called O’Cahan country is divided, as Tyrone by ballyboes and doth contain as appeareth by the survey, 547 ballyboes, or 34.187 acres, each ballyboe containing 60 acres or thereabouts. be united, consolidated and from here-forth forever be a whole county in themselves distinct and separate from all our counties anywhere within our Kingdom, Ireland and hereafter forever named stood and cried, County Londonderry. [16]

On 2 March 1613, James I granted a charter to The Honourable The Irish Society to carry out the planting of a new county. [16] The county was named Londonderry, a combination of London (referring to the Livery Companies in Irish Society) and Derry name since the the city). This Charter declared that “the City of Londonderry” and all that is in the new county:

This new county would include former County Coleraine which consisted of baronies of Tirkeeran, Coleraine, and Keenaght -and on behalf of The Irish Society following additional territory added: everyone except the southwest corner of the Barony of Loughinsholin, then part of County Tyrone, because it had enough wood for construction, northeastern freedoms of Coleraine, which was part of County Antrim and the city of Londonderry and its freedoms, and that was in County Donegal, so that they could control both banks of the river Foyle and river Bann. [ 16] [17] [18]

The Irish Society consisted of twelve main livery business in London, which in turn consisted of various guilds. While Irish society as a whole, got possession of the city of Londonderry and Coleraine, was the individual companies each issued approximately 3,210 acres throughout the county.These companies and locations of their headquarters were: [19] [20]

  • Clothworkers, based in Killowen and Clothworker Hall (today Articlave) in the barony of Coleraine
  • Drapers, based on Drapers Hall, later called Draperstown (today Moneymore) in the Barony of Loughinsholin. [21]
  • Fishmongers, based on Artikelly and Fishermonger Hall (today Ballykelly) in the barony of Keenaght
  • Goldsmiths, based on Goldsmith Hall (today’s new construction) in the barony of Tirkeeran
  • The Food, based on Grocer Hall, aka Muff (today Eglinton) in the barony of Tirkeeran
  • Haberdashers, based on Habberdasher Hall (today Bally) in the barony of Keenaght
  • Ironmonger, based on Ironmonger Hall (today townland of Agivey) in the barony of Coleraine
  • Peddlers, based on Mercer Hall (today townland of Movanagher) in the barony of Coleraine
  • Merchant Taylors, based at Merchant Taylors Hall (today Macosquin) in the barony of Coleraine
  • Salters, based on Salter Hall (today Magherafelt) and Salter Town in the barony of Loughinsholin
  • Skinner, based on Skinner’s Hall (today Dungiven) in the barony of Keenaght
  • Winegrowers, based on Vintner’s Hall, later called Vintner Town (today Bellaghy) in the barony of Loughinsholin

19th century

As a result of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, the city was independent from the county for administrative purposes, to become a separate county borough from 1899, the county town of County Londonderry, and the seat of Londonderry county until its abolition in 1973, moved to city Coleraine.

Demography

The highest point in the county is the top of Sawel Mountain (678 meters (2,224 ft)) on the border with County Tyrone. Sawel is part of the Sperrin Mountains, which dominate the southern part of the county. To the east and west, the land falls in Dalarna in Bann and Foyle rivers respectively; in southeastern touches county shore of Lough Neagh, the largest lake in Ireland; the northern part of the county is characterized by steep cliffs, sand dunes and stunning beaches of the Atlantic coast.

The county is home to a number of important buildings and landscapes, including the well-preserved 17th century city walls of Derry, the National Trust-owned Plantation estate in Spring, Mussenden Temple with its spectacular views of the Atlantic; the dikes, artificial coastlines and the designated bird sanctuary on the eastern shore of Lough Foyle; and visitor center at Bellaghy Bawn, near the childhood home of Nobel laureate Seamus Heaney. In the middle of the county’s old forests at Banagher and Ness Wood, where Burntollet flows over the highest waterfall in Northern Ireland.

sub

baronies

Main article: baronies Ireland

  • Cole
  • Keenaght
  • North East Liberties of Coleraine
  • North West Liberties of Londonderry
  • Loughinsholin
  • Tirkeeran

Helge

Main article: List of civil parishes in County Londonderry

townlands

Main article: List of townlands in County Londonderry

settlements

cities

(Population of 75,000 or more with a cathedral)

  • Derry

cities

(population of 18,000 or more and 75,000 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Cole

means towns

(population of 10,000 or more and 18,000 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Limavady

small towns

(population of 4,500 or more and 10,000 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Magherafelt
  • Stewart

intermediate regulations

(population of 2250 or more and in 4500 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Culmore (part of Derry city limits)
  • Dungiven
  • Eglinton
  • Maghera
  • New building (part of the Derry Urban Area)

villages

(population of 1,000 or more and for 2250 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Ballykelly
  • Bellaghy
  • Castle
  • Castle
  • claudy
  • Drapers
  • Garvagh
  • Grey Steel
  • Kilrea
  • Moneymore
  • Strathfoyle (part of Derry city limits)

Small villages and hamlets

(population of less than 1,000 at the 2001 census) [28]

  • Articlave
  • Ballerin
  • Ballymaguigan
  • Ballyronan
  • Clady
  • Culnady
  • Desert Martin
  • Perform
  • Drumsurn
  • Feeny
  • Glenullin
  • Gulla Duff
  • Lettershendoney
  • Macosquin
  • Ringsend
  • Swatragh
  • Tobermore
  • Upperlands

Administration

In 1973, the counties ceased to be a unit of administration in Northern Ireland, replaced by district. These suggestions were: Derry City Council, Limavady Borough Council, Magherafelt and, most of Coleraine Borough Council, and some of Cookstown. After reducing the number of municipalities in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Londonderry divided into three cross county: Causeway Coast and Glens, Derry and Strabane, and Mid-Ulster District.

railways

TransLink offers a Northern Ireland Railways service in the county, connecting Londonderry Waterfall Railway Station to Coleraine railway station (with a branch of Portrush in Coleraine-Portrush railway) onwards in County Antrim to Belfast Central Belfast Great Victoria Street in Belfast -Derry railway.

There is also the Foyle Valley Railway, a museum in Derry with some rolling stock from both the County Donegal Railway and Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway, and is located on the site of the former Londonderry Foyle Road Railway Station. The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway continued as a private bus companies based in the city but works primarily County Donegal, until it closed in 2014. Bus services now provided by Ulsterbus.

Training

State-funded education up to secondary school level is administered by

  • Western Education and Library Board: Derry, Limavady
  • North Eastern Education and Library Board: Coleraine, Magherafelt
  • Southern Education and Library Board: Cookstown

For Catholic grant-maintained schools, the administration of Derry diocese education department.

Two major centers of the University of Ulster are in the county, including its headquarters in Coleraine and Magee campus in Derry.

Sports

In Gaelic games, the GAA county of Derry is more or less coincides with the former administrative county of Londonderry, also teams from neighboring counties Tyrone, Donegal and Antrim has sometimes played in Derry competitions, and vice versa. The Derry team wear the colors red and white.There are many teams competing in up to five leagues and three championship. The County team has won an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship (in 1993) and five National League titles. Hurling is also widely played but is not as popular as football. [ Citation needed ] However, the county is now generally regarded as one of the best hurling sides in Ulster [citation needed ] and in 2006 won the Nicky Rackard Cup – the third level throw competition Ireland.

In conjunction football, NIFL Premiership has that serves as the top division, two teams in the county: Coleraine FC and Institute FC, with Limavady United FC, Moyola Park FC, Port FC ochTobermore United FC compete in NIFL Championship, which serves as the levels two and three . Derry City FC play in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland after leaving Northern Ireland structures in 1985, after having resigned from the Irish Football League at the height of the troubles due not allowed to play their home games at Brandy because of safety concerns from other clubs .

The Northern Ireland Milk Cup was founded in 1983 and is considered one of the most prestigious youth soccer tournaments in Europe and the world. [29] [30] [31] [32] The competition is based on Coleraine and involves several other towns and villages in the county – Limavady, Port and Castle – and in neighboring County Antrim – Ballycastle, Portrush, Ballymena and Broughshane. The event, held in the last week of July, has attracted teams from 56 countries around the world, including Europe, USA, Africa, Far East, South America, Middle East, Australia, Russia, New Zealand and Canada.Some of the biggest teams in the world has written, among other things, the Premier League giants Everton, Liverpool, Manchester United, Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur as well as top European teams, Feyenoord, FC Porto, FC Barcelona, Benfica, Bayern Munich and Dynamo Kiev.

In rugby union, the county is represented at a high level of Rainey Old Boys Rugby Club, Magherafelt who compete in the Ulster Senior League and the All Ireland Division Three. Limavady RFC, City of Derry Rugby Club, YMCA Londonderry and Coleraine Rugby Club competes in Ulster Qualifying League One.

Cricket is very popular in the North West of Ireland, with 11 of the 20 leading clubs in the North West Cricket Union is located in County Londonderry: Limavady, Eglinton, Glendermott, Brigade, Killymallaght, Ardmore, Coleraine, bonds Glen Drummond, Creevedonnell and The Nedd.

In rowing, Richard Archibald from Coleraine along with their Irish teammates qualified for the Beijing Olympics 2008, second in the lightweight four final in Poznan, which is eligible for the Beijing Olympics in 2008. Another Coleraine rower Alan Campbell is a World Cup gold medalist in the single sculls in 2006 .

Media

The county currently has four main radio stations:

  • BBC Radio Foyle
  • Q102.9
  • Q97.2
  • Six FM (in the southern part of the county)

See also

  • Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland (Derry)
  • List of places in County Londonderry
  • List of townlands in County Londonderry
  • List of civil parishes in County Londonderry
  • Lord Lieutenant of County Londonderry
  • High Sheriff of County Londonderry

references

  1. Jump up ^ Key Statistics Tables 2001 census combined Coleraine, Derry, Limavady and Magherafelt.
  2. Jump up ^ “Northern Ireland” (PDF). The Ministry of Defence (UK).Hämtad28 October of 2010.
  3. Jump up ^ Banagher and Boveagh churches Environment Ministry.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab 2001 Census Statistics
  5. Jump up ^ County flowers in Britain www.plantlife.org.uk
  6. Jump up ^ Delanoy, Werner; et al. (2007). Towards Dialogic Anglistics.LIT Verlag.s. 38. ISBN 978-3-8258-0549-4.
  7. Jump up ^ Dictionary of Irish Terms – Foclóir Téarmaíochta. focal.ie.Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  8. Jump up ^ Blackie, Christina (2010). Geographical Etymology. Marton Press. p. 61.ISBN 978-1-4455-8286-3.
  9. Jump up ^ Centre for European Policy Studies, accessed October 6, 2007
  10. Jump up ^ “The walled city of Experience”. Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Retrieved 4 September of 2008.
  11. Jump up ^ BBC News: Court to pronounce on the city name 7 April 2006
  12. Jump up ^ place names range lands in the High Court, BBC News
  13. Jump up ^ Derry City Council: Re application for judicial review [2007] NIHC 5 (QB)
  14. Jump up ^ AEP Collins (1983), “Excavations at Mount Sandel, Lower Site”, Ulster Journal of Archaeology Vol. 46 pp1-22. JSTOR preview.
  15. Jump up ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2011. Celtic Sea . Encyclopedia of Earth.Eds.P. Saundry & CJ Cleveland. National Council for Science and miljö.Washington DC
  16. ^ Jump up to: abc Notes on the place names of the parishes and townlands of County Londonderry , in 1925, Alfred Moore Munn, racing crown and peace in the City and County of Londonderry
  17. Jump up ^ a new history of Ireland, pp 111-112
  18. Jump up ^ Curl, James Stevens (2001). “The City of London and the Plantation of Ulster”. BBCi History line. Retrieved ten August of 2008.
  19. Jump up ^ Robinson, Philip (2000). The plantation of Ulster. Ulster Historical Foundation. ISBN 978-1-903688-00-7.
  20. Jump up ^ Walter Harris. “Hibernica: Some antient or places for Ireland” .Hämtad 30 June 2016.
  21. Jump up ^ place names NI – Moneymore
  22. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  23. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  24. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  25. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk (27 September 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  26. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  27. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  28. ^ Jump up to: abcdef “Statistical Classification of settlements”. NI Neighbourhood Information Service. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  29. Jump up ^ Newsletter.co.uk
  30. Jump up ^ NI Milk Cup Official Site
  31. Jump up ^ Manchester United’s official website
  32. Jump up ^ University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)

Belfast–Derry Railway Line

The  Belfast-Derry railway line  (called  Derry ~ Londonderry line  with NI Railways  [1]  ) runs from Belfast to Londonderry Derry in Northern Ireland.This line consists mainly of single track from just under Mossley West station up to Londonderry Waterside station with venues in Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Castle.

Current position

Services on Derry ~ Londonerry line runs on an alternating pattern to and from Belfast. The trains will change every hour between services from Great Victoria Street Londonderry Waterside (and vice versa), and a service from Great Victoria Street Coleraine, which then continues to Portrush via Coleraine-Portrush railway.

On weekdays, stations between Great Victoria Street, Coleraine every hour in both directions, with each outgoing trains alternating between a service to Londonderry Waterside, and a service to Portrush, except for some rush hour trains that stop at Coleraine. In the other direction, all the trains run every hour to Great Victoria Street, with the exception of a few late night and peak time services, that ends at Belfast Central. Stations between Coleraine and Londonderry Waterside served every hour in each direction.

On Saturdays, the service is still very much the same throughout the line during the week, except for a reduction in peak-time services.

On Sundays, all trains running between Great Victoria Street, Londonderry Waterside, except for the first and last service of the day, starting from or ending in Coleraine. Only seven trains go each way on Derry ~ Londonderry line on Sundays.  [2]

All passengers traveling to Portrush on the Derry-based services, or to Derry at Portrush-bound services, must change Coleraine Station.

previous activities

Before 2001 and the resumption of the Bleach Green Line, services operated via Crumlin, Glenavy, Ballinderry and Lisburn. The resumption of Bleach Green Line resulted in shorter travel between Belfast and Londonderry. A skeleton service continued on the Lisburn-Antrim line until 2003, when the line and its stations were closed. This section of railway is now used exclusively for driver training, for emergency diversions needed.

Recent history and future

In August 2011 it was planned to reduce services in Coleraine to Londonderry section to five services in each direction on weekdays, to facilitate safety improvement works in 2012. A reconstruction of the line was due to commence in April 2012, but the £ 75 million it was to be sold, was not tillgänglig.Detta resulted in opposition from supporters of the section who feared that the line would be permanently shut down.  [3]

In October 2011, after years of uncertainty, DRD Minister Danny Kennedy moved funds from the A5 dual development project upgrade railway projects, allowing for a three Phase upgrade, which began in July 2012.

Phase 1 saw the line near the 9 months to completely relay two sections (Coleraine Castle and Eglinton Londonderry) of the stretch, extend the life of the remaining portion by converting the current hit track continuous welded rail, eliminating the wet spots and essential bridge repairs. This ended March 24, 2013 and the new timetable changes have resulted in a morning train to reach Derry before 9:00 for the first time since Northern Ireland Railways took control of the network in the 1960s.

Phase 2 was due to begin in 2014/15, but is currently delayed, consisting of the introduction of a passing track and resignalling route. It will see the signal cabins Castle and Londonderry turn, centralize signaling in Coleraine, and deliver every hour between Derry and Belfast.  [4]

Phase 3 will include the entire relay tracks between Castle and Eglinton 2021 deliver half-hour services.  [5]

Other future plans for Londonderry line includes a reinstatement of the double line of Antrim Ballymena, doubling the track from Monkstown Templepatrick, and any transfers of the route terminal in Londonderry.

Railway Technology function

Coleraine is a bascule bridge for railway over navigable river Bann.  [6] Shortly after Castle station are two tunnels created during an event called the Big Blast in October 1845. Castle tunnel is 668 yards long and is the longest operating railway tunnel in Northern Ireland . After passing through a short opening train passes the shorter Downhill tunnel is 301 yards in length.  [7]

Signal

The signal on the line from Great Victoria Street to slaught level crossing (just south of Ballymena station) is controlled by the Belfast Central control terminal. From Ballymena, are signaling and level crossings controlled by Coleraine signal cabin. After trains depart Coleraine an electric train crew system works between Coleraine and Castle. This is when the driver receives a token to access the portion of the line. Castle has its own signal cabin, which controls the signaling from up to Ballykelly, where the driver hand symbol to the signal controller and allowed another to make it possible for trains to move on to Londonderry. Londonderry also has a signal control terminal that controls the signaling from Eglinton.De most of Belfast to Londonderry line is controlled by color light signals, but Castle station still has semaphore signals from the somersault-type typical of the NCC functions.

Rolling

After a full withdrawal of NIR NIR Class 80 and Class 450 trains, the line is now served by a combination of NIR NIR Class 3000 and Class 4000 diesel units.

References

  1. Jump up ^  “NI Railways Timetable – Derry Line, Winter 2012” (PDF).Translink. Be checked out three January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Railways (March 2013). “NIR Service 3 Timetable”. Translink. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Kennedy calls for more money for Londonderry rail link.”BBC News. August 25, 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Londonderry Line” Andy Milne Rail Staff May 2012.
  5. Jump up ^  “Derry railway upgrade on the right track.” Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ http://www.movablebridges.org.uk/BridgePage.asp?BridgeNumber=1100
  7. Jump up ^http://www.coastlinecastlerock.org/history/therailway02.php

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