CategoryCounty Limerick

Lough Gur

Lough Gur (Irish: Loch Gair ) is a lake in County Limerick, Ireland between the towns Herbert Town and Bruff. The lake forms a horseshoe shape at the base of Knockadoon Hill and some rugged elevated countryside. It is one of Ireland’s most important archaeological sites. People have lived near Lough Gur since about 3000 BC and there are many megalitiskalämningar there. [2]

Grange stone circle (the largest stone circle in Ireland) and a dolmen is located near the lake. [2] The remains of at least three Crannogs is present, and the remains of Stone Age houses have been dug (housing contours called “spectacles”). A number of ring forts in the area, with a hill fort overlooking the lake. Some are Irish national monuments. [2]

A visitor center is open beside Lough Gur, along with a car park and a picnic area. A gradual shore-line available at the visitor, with a shallow part of the lake reaches up to the maintained lawn. As a result, the area is often used for water sports, but motorized craft are prohibited on the lake. [2]

There is a castle, or tower house (closed to visitors) near the entrance to the parking lot. Named Bourchier Castle after Sir George Bourchier, the son of the second Earl of Bath, [2] it is on the neck of the peninsula around which the lake washes. There is another architecture dating from later times, with the ruins of an early Christian church by the road that leads down to the lake.At the far end of the lake are the ruins of a Norman castle, Black Castle , [2]which is accessed through a hillside walk along the east side of the lake. This is one of those is used during the Desmond Rebellion, and is probably the place where the Earl of Desmond secured his authority in 1573 after casting his English clothes and donning Irish clothes when he returned from London to Munster

The northern end of Lough Gur reach a maintained lawn of the visitor area at the lake. Grove jutting out into the water to hide the location of encrannog[2]

See also 

  • The early history Ireland
  • List of Loughs in Ireland

References 

  1. Jump up ^ The Eyto E, Irvine C (2007). “To assess the status of shallow lakes using an additive model size biomass spectra”. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 17 :. 724-736 doi: 10.1002 / aqc.801.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefg illustrated guide to Lough Gur , O’Kelly, MJ and O’Kelly, C. 1981. Published by Houston, Cork.

Hunt Museum

Hunt Museum ( Irish : Iarsmalann Hunt ) är en museum i staden Limerick , Irland . Hunt Museum har en personlig samling donerats av Hunt familjen , var det ursprungligen beläget i University of Limerick , innan den flyttades till sin nuvarande plats i georgiska Custom House 1997. Custom House ligger på Rutland Street på stranden av den floden Shannon vid sammanflödet med den Abbey River . Bland museer samlingen är verk av kända konstnärer och designers som Pablo Picasso , Jack B. Yeats , och Sybil Connolly samt distinkta historiska poster såsom O “Dea Mitre och Crozier.

History

As an antique dealer and adviser to collectors, John and Gertrude Hunt built a thriving business and also began to acquire pieces that reflected their own interests and curiosity rather than for commercial ändamål.Under the latter part of John’s life, they became increasingly aware of the extent of their collection and wanted it to remain intact. They began searching for a permanent home for their collection. Fortunately met Professor Patrick Doran of the National Institute of Higher Education (now the University of Limerick) and Dr. Edward Walsh, the Institute’s president, who agreed to house a significant part of the collection on a temporary basis. Hunt Museum opened in 1978 in a showroom with display, designed by architect Arthur Gibney.

During this period the Irish Government had declined the offer of the Hunt collection, so the requirement to find a suitable home owners to take responsibility for the artifacts became more acute. Hunt Museum Trust was founded in 1974 to keep the collection and property at Craggaunowen (a 16th-century four-storey tower house, typical of late medieval Ireland, purchased and restored by John and Gertrude Hunt) in trust on behalf of the people of Ireland. The trust established Hunt Museum Ltd, whose sole purpose was to establish a permanent home for the museum. Under the direction of Dr. Tony Ryan, the company provided the necessary energy to create the museum as we see it today. A public private partnership with the University of Limerick, Shannon Development, Limerick Corporation and the Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands, [2] connected to local business interests secured the historic 18th century former customs house in the city of Limerick with the means to restore and renovate building to international museum standards. The museum was inaugurated by Prime Minister John Bruton 14 February 1997. It was a moment of great celebration for everyone involved, but unfortunately neither John and Gertrude Hunt had lived to realize his dream. The museum stands as a monument to their enthusiasm, curiosity and generosity.

Custom House

Custom House is considered the most prominent 18th century building in Limerick and it is also quite unusual in comparison with other Georgian buildings in the city by the outside of the building is limestone instead of red brick. It is an elegant Palladian-style building designed by Italian architect, Davis Ducart in 1765. Both the “Captain’s Room” and “red stairs” are elegant examples of Georgian architecture in the building and are evidence of the optimism that the city experienced during the period of development and expansion in the late 18th century. Ducart also designed several other Palladian style buildings in Ireland, including Castle Cox Co. Kilkenny and Florence Court in Co. Fermanagh. Limerick Custom House was the administrative center of the Revenue Commissioners (including customs) in Limerick and it was also the home of the Customs Collector in the eighteenth century. In the 1840s, with the introduction of a new postal system a Penny Post Office was opened in the Custom House.

The Office of Public Works (OPW) undertook major restoration and renovation of the building to complete it in 1996. Custom House opened as the Hunt Museum, 14 February 1997. anniversary of the opening of the Hunt Museum celebrated annually as the “Open Day” with free admission, call , tours, seminars and other activities.

Collection

Hunt Museum holds about 2,500 different artifacts, both from Ireland and abroad. The oldest parts are from the Stone Age Ireland and ancient Egypt .The collection contains Antrim Cross (early 9th century cast bronze and enamel cross), dresses by Irish designer Sybil Connolly, drawings by Picasso and a bronze horse once thought to be a design by Leonardo da Vinci for a large monument, this disproved 2009. [3] part of the Hunt collection is also displayed at the nearby Craggaunowen in County Clare, which also greatly contributed to John and Gertrude Hunt. [4]

religious artifacts

John Hunt were very interested in early Christian art and artifacts, and he gathered them extensively. In his collection was hugely important medieval Christians pieces Antrim Cross, Cashel Bell and Hohenzollern Crucifix. And so the Hunt family’s private collection consisted of a large number of religious objects from rosaries to the statues of varying sizes from not only Ireland but from all over Europe. The museums Treasury Room “can accommodate a large number of these items and among the artifacts in this room are beautiful Arthur Cross and Arthur beaker.

prehistoric Ireland

Work in progress

jewelry

Work in progress

John Hunt Library

Work in progress

Temporary exhibition Gallery

Included in the plan to house hunting collection in the customs house was also an idea to a purpose built contemporary gallery space. It was completed as part of the renovation of the Custom House and is regularly used for temporary exhibitions accompanying the permanent collection.

Dispute

In December 2003, the Simon Wiesenthal Center argued in a letter to President Mary McAleese to the museum collection contained objects looted by the Nazis during World War II, even if the letter does not refer to any specific item in the collection. [5] [6] [7] The museum has denied claims. [8]

An inquiry headed by former Supreme Court judge Donal Barrington establishment of the museum, but its members resigned in February 2005, says that the museum funding made an independent investigation impossible, and ask for a more appropriate evaluation created. The Department of art available then € 150,000 in funding for a second investigation, led by former civil servant Seán Cromien, under the auspices of the Royal Irish Academy. The second investigation was due to present an interim report to the Royal Irish Academy in November 2005. This was submitted in February 2006. In October 2005, the museum has published a catalog of its exhibitions on the Internet, which provides complete information about all objects in its collection. In June 2006, the investigation, the final report, published on the Academy’s website.

Also in June 2006, a one-day conference was held on the theme of contested cultural property and museums: The Case of the Hunt Museum . This conference was a message from Shimon Samuels, who had sent the original letter to Mary McAleese question why he had not been invited to the seminar. Later, the mandate of the Hunt Museum Evaluation Group questioned, the Simon Wiesenthal Center believe that more emphasis should have been placed on investigating the alleged Nazi links in the Hunt family and the Hunt Museum Evaluation Group to believe that this was beyond their terms of reference, which could do with ancestry research. The Royal Irish Academy issued a press release responding to the message of the Simon Wiesenthal Center.

Resolution

A 2007 report [9] from the American expert Lynn Nicholas, published by the Royal Irish Academy after three years of investigation, called the Wiesenthal Center allegations “unprofessional in the extreme.”

Nicholas found that the Wiesenthal Center had misidentified the name in the letters.

“The name is used four times in a letter, is Buhl, not Buhrle, and described the person, an unreliable dealer who sells forgeries, certainly has no resemblance to the extremely rich collector and armaments manufacturer Emil Buhrle,” the report said. [9]

See also

  • Limerick City Gallery of Art
  • Limerick City Museum
  • List of museums in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ “collection”. The Hunt Museum.
  2. Jump up ^ “Irish Statute Book.” Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  3. Hoppa upp^ http://www.limerickcity.ie/media/Hunt068.pdf
  4. Hoppa upp^http://www.shannonheritage.com/Craggaunowen/TheLivingPastExperience/
  5. Jump up ^ Simon Wiesenthal Center claims.
  6. Jump up ^ Team probing ‘Nazi loot’ in the museum closed, The Sunday Times February 13, 2005.
  7. Jump up ^ Museum Announces Investigation of Nazi loot accusations,The Sunday Times October 9, 2005.
  8. Jump up ^ Hunt Museum exempt; Wiesenthal Center “Unprofessional”,AP September 28, 2007.
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab Lynn Nicholas, [1] and the Royal Irish Academy, 2007.

King John Castle (Limerick)

King John Castle (Irish: Caislean Luimnigh ) is a 13-century castle is located on Kings Island in Limerick, Ireland, next to the River Shannon. [1]Although the site dates back to 922 when the Vikings lived on the island, the castle itself was built on the orders of King Johan in 1200, one of the best preserved Norman castle in Europe, walls, towers and fortifications remain today and are of interest. [2] the remains of a Viking settlement discovered during archaeological excavations at the site in 1900. [3]

before the castle

The Viking Sea King, Thormodr Helgason, built the first permanent Viking stronghold on Inis Sibhtonn (Kings Island) in 922. He used the base to plunder the length påfloden Shannon from Lough Derg to Lough Ree, pillaging ecclesiastical settlements. In 937 Limerick Vikings clashed with Dublin on Lough Ree and were defeated. In 943 they were defeated again when the head of the local Dalcassian clan joined with Ceallachán, king of Munster and Limerick Vikings were forced to pay tribute to the clans. The power of the Vikings never recovered, and they fell to the level of a minor clan, but often play key parts in the endless power struggles of the next few centuries.

Early history

The arrival of the Anglo-Normans to the area in 1172 changed everything.Domhnall Mór Ó Briain burned the city to the ground in 1174 in an attempt to keep it from the hands of the new invaders. After he died in 1194, the Anglo-Normans finally captured the area in 1195 according to John, Lord of Ireland. In 1197 Limerick was given its first charter and its first mayor, Adam Sarvant. A castle, built on the orders of King John, and which bears his name, was completed around 1210.
The castle was built on the border of the River Shannon to protect the city from the Gaelic kingdoms of the west, and from all the rebellion of the Norman lords in the east and south. [ Citation needed ] During the general peace imposed by the Norman rule Limerick flourished as both a port and a trade center, partly because of the castle that serves as a watchdog on all cargo passing through the port of Limerick. [4] at this time, the city was divided into an area known as the “English town” at Kings Island, while another settlement, named “Irish town” had grown on the south bank of the river.Limerick city became so rich during this time King John set up a mint in the northwest corner of the castle, with pennies and half pennies from this time is to see in Limerick Museum today. [4] A 1574 document prepared for the Spanish ambassador testify to its wealth:

Limerick is stronger and more beautiful than all the other cities in Ireland, well walls with sturdy walls carved marble … There are no entrance except the stone bridges, one of the two that has 14 arches, and the other 8 … for the most part the houses are square stone of black marble and built in the shape of towers and fortresses. [ citation needed ]

Luke Gernon, an English-born judge and lives in Limerick, wrote an equally flattering view of the city in 1620:

“A lofty building of marble, in the high street, it is built from one port to another in a form colleges in Oxford, so magnificent that at my first entrance, it did surprise me.” [5]

Siege of Limerick

The walls of the castle was severely damaged in the 1642 Siege of Limerick, the first of five sieges of the city in the 17th century. 1642, the castle was occupied by Protestants fleeing Irish rebellion 1641och besieged by an Irish League of strength during Garret Barry. Barry had no siege artillery so he undermined the walls of King John castle by digging away their foundations.Those inside surrendered shortly before Barry collapsed walls. But such was the damage to the wall foundation as a part of them had pulled down afterwards.

2013 Rebuilding

Between 2011 and 2013, the castle underwent a massive transformation, with € 5.7 million spent to improve the facilities visitors of the castle. Among the improvements was a new visitor center, interactive exhibits with computer-generated animation and a cafe overlooking the courtyard and river. [6]

See also

  • King John of England
  • History of Limerick city
  • Limerick City Museum, just south

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Irish visitor attractions – King John Castle”. Heritage Ireland. Retrieved twelve October, 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ http://limerickslife.com/limerick-castle/
  3. Jump up ^ “800 years of history.” Discovery Ireland. Retrieved 13 October, 2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: ab “Castle History”. teachnet.ie. Retrieved 13 October, 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ Gernon, Luke A Discourse of Ireland in 1620, edited by CL Falkiner 1904
  6. Jump up ^ “King John Castle”. Shannon Heritage. Retrieved twelve October, 2013.

St Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick

St Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick , also known as Limerick Cathedral , is a cathedral of the Church of Ireland in Limerick, Ireland, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is in the ecclesiastical province of Dublin. Former Cathedral of the Diocese of Limerick, it is now one of three cathedrals in the United Dioceses of Limerick and Kill.

Ecclesiastical History

From the foundation of the Irish Reformation

Limerick Cathedral (St Mary’s) is dedicated to the Virgin Mary was founded in 1168 and is the oldest building in Limerick that are in everyday use. [1] It is the only complete uppsättningenmisericords left in Ireland. [2]

In 1111, the Synod of Ráth Breasail decided to “St. Mary’s Church” would be the Cathedral Church of the Diocese of Limerick. According to tradition Domnall Mór Ua Briain, the last king of Munster Founded the present cathedral on the site of his palace at Kings Island in 1168. [3] The palace was built on the site of the Viking meeting place, or “Thingmote” – the Vikings’ most western European stronghold. [1 ] This had been the center of government in the early Middle Ages Viking town. Parts of the castle can be incorporated into the current structure of the cathedral, especially the great west door, which tradition claims was the original main entrance to the Royal Palace. [4] West door is now used only on ceremonial occasions. [5] The bishops of Limerick for centuries knocked on the door and through it as part of his installation ceremony. According to tradition, during the many sieges of Limerick defenders of the city used the stones around the western door to sharpen their swords and arrows, and the marks they made in stone can be seen there today. [5]

The tower of St Mary’s Cathedral was added in the 14th century. It rises to 120 feet (36.58 meters).

From the Irish Reformation of the 19th century

There are five chandeliers, hanging from the ceiling. These only lit on special occasions. The larger three of the five were in Dublin and presented in 1759 by Limerick Corporation. [4] The bell tower has a peal of eight bells, six of which were presented by William Yorke, mayor of Limerick in 1673. An active team of bell ringing traveling the country to compete in other campanologists. [1] St. Mary’s got his organ in 1624, when bishop Bernard Adams donated a. It has been built over the centuries and last renovated in 1968 and 2005.

In 1620 the English-born Judge Luke Gernon, lives in Limerick, wrote a flattering description of the cathedral:

“Not great, but GRACEFUL, and the Bishop of Providence rather embellished in, and delightfully served with singing and agencies” . [6]

During the Irish Confederacy war, the cathedral was short in Catholic hands.The Roman Catholic Bishop Richard Arthur, buried in the Cathedral of 1646th

In 1651, after Oliver Cromwell’s forces captured Limerick, the cathedral was used as a stable by the Parliamentary army. This abuse was short-lived, but was a similar fate struck by some of the other great cathedrals during the Cromwellian campaign in Ireland. [5] The troops also removed the cathedral’s original 13 feet before the Reformation altar of the cathedral. Altar was only found in the 1960’s. It is the largest such altar in Ireland and Britain, carved from a single limestone block. [3] The altar is now no longer used for communion services, but is still in its historic place in what is now the chapel of the Virgin Mary.

In 1691, the cathedral suffered great damage, especially on the east end, over Williamite Siege of Limerick. After the Treaty of Limerick, William granted £ 1,000 towards repairs. There are cannonballs 1691 in Glentworth Chapel inside. [4]

From the 19’s to the 20’s

In 1968, the Irish government ordered two stamps to commemorate the cathedral’s 800 year anniversary. An image of one of the stamps shown above. In 1991 there was a major £ 2.5 million restoration program that ended in 1996 with the excavation and restoration of the floor and installation of underfloor heating. [1] Restoration continues today to a lesser extent.

From the 20th century to the 21st century

Today, the cathedral is still used for its original purpose as a place of worship and prayer for the people of Limerick. It is open to the public every day 8:30 to 5:30. After the retirement of Sir Maurice Very Rev’d June 24, 2012 announced Bishop Trevor Williams appointment of Rev’d Sandra Ann Pragnell as Dean of Limerick and Rector of Limerick City Parish. She is the first female dean of the cathedral and rector of the parish of Limerick. The cathedral grounds is UN Memorial Plaque with the names of all those Irish men who died while serving in UN peacekeepers. [7]

See also

  • Dean of Limerick, and Ardfert List of deans in Limerick (and Ardfert)

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd Harvey, Rev. Patrick and Moloney, Donal. A Guide to the Cathedral Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Limerick. Limerick. Print.
  2. Jump up ^ “St Mary’s Cathedral – Church of Ireland • churches”.Limerickslife.com. 07.23.2004. Pulled 01/12/2015.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab Talbot, very Rev. Maurice. Monument of St. Mary’s Cathedral. Print.
  4. ^ Jump up to: abc Mulvin, Linda. History of the Cathedral of St. Mary of Limerick.
  5. ^ Jump up to: abc “St. Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick | Church of Ireland “.Cathedral.limerick.anglican.org. Pulled 01/12/2015.
  6. Jump up ^ Gernon, Luke A Discourse of Ireland in 1620, edited by CL Falkiner 1904
  7. Jump up ^ “UN Memorial Garden, St Mary’s Cathedral, Limerick.”Limerickslife.com. Pulled 01/12/2015.

Limerick City

Limerick (/ l ɪ m ᵊ r ɪ k /; [5] Irish: Luimneach [l̪imʲɨnʲəx]) [6] is a city in County Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the city. The city lies on the River Shannon, in the historic core of the city is located on Kings Island, bounded by the River Shannon ochAbbey.Limerick is also the head of the Shannon estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 95,854 (2011 census), Limerick is the third most populous city in the state and fourth most populous city on the island of Ireland.

Geography and political subdivisions

There are 102.161 people living in Limerick City Metropolitan District. [3] On June 1, 2014 after the merger of Limerick City and County Council, a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed in the United council extended the city. Metropolitan District includes the city conurbation and extends outwards towards Patrick Castleconnell the west and the east. [7] City Metropolitan Area excludes, however, the suburbs are within County Clare.When included, this increases the overall city and the metropolitan area with a further 5,000 with a combined total population of 107,161. [8] Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork-Limerick-Galway corridor, which has a population of 1 million people. It is located in a strategic location on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city center. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area with rich pastures.Historically, much of the city’s industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland and it is especially known for Limerick Ham.

History

Main article: History of Limerick

Ancient and medieval history

Luimneach referred originally to the general area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh . The earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn , was the original name for Kings Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. The island was also called Inis an Ghaill Duibh , “The Dark (haired) Foreigner Island”. The name is recorded in the Viking sourcesHlymrekr .

The city is of 812 which is the earliest likely settlement; However, history suggests the presence of earlier settlements in the area surrounding the King’s Island, the island in the center. Antiquity map-maker, Ptolemy, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, is a place called “Regia” on the site of the King’s Island. History also records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt of 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to rename a Eóganachta King, Cart Hann fair. Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died 652, indicating that the city was a place of any note. In 812 sailed Vikings up Shannon and plundered the city, burned the monastery Mungret but had to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number. [9] The Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as king John castle and St Mary’s Cathedral. [10]

In the early Middle Ages, Limerick in the middle of the Kingdom of Thomond which corresponds to today’s Mid West region, however Kingdom includes North Kerry and parts of southern Offaly.En of the kingdom’s most notable kings was Brian Boru, ancestor of the O’Brien Clan of Dalcassians. Thomond word is synonymous with the region and is held in place names that Thomondgate, Thomond Bridge & Thomond Park.

Late Renaissance / Early Modern History

Limerick in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was often called the most beautiful town in Ireland. The English-born Judge Luke Gernon, lives in Limerick, wrote in 1620 that at his first sight of the city he had been amazed by its splendor: “tall buildings, marble, as well as the University of Oxford.”[11]

During the civil wars in the 17th century, the city played a pivotal role, besieged by Oliver Cromwell in 1651 and twice by the Williamites in the 1690s. The Treaty Limerickavslutade Williamite war in Ireland, which was fought between supporters of the Catholic King James II (Jacobites) and the Protestant King William of Orange (Williamites). Treaty offered tolerance to Catholicism and full legal rights to Catholics who swore an oath of allegiance to William and Mary. The Treaty was national significance because it certainly closer to British and Protestant dominance over Ireland.The articles of the Treaty which protect Catholic rights is not passed by the Protestant Irish Parliament rather updated penal laws against Catholics who had major consequences for Irish history. Reputedly treaty was signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular blocks of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal on Clancy Strand. Because of the Treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City. This turbulent period earned the city its motto: Urbs antiqua fuit studisque asperrima belli (an ancient city well studied in the art of war).

Fred times that followed the unrest in the late 17th century made it possible for the city to prosper through trade in the late 18th century. During this time established Limerick Port as one of Ireland’s major commercial ports exporting agricultural products from one of Ireland’s most fertile areas, the Golden Vale, the UK and the US. [12] This increase in trade and prosperity, especially among the city’s merchant class saw a rapid expansion of the city as Georgian Limerick began to take shape. This gave the city its current appearance, including the extensive terraced streets of fine Georgian townhouses that are left in the city center today. The Waterford and Limerick Railway linked the city to the Dublin-Cork railway line in 1848 ochWaterford 1853. The opening of a number of secondary railways in the subsequent decades developed Limerick as a regional center for communication. But the economic downturn in European conflicts in the French Revolution and Napoleonic eras, and after the Act of Union in 1800, and the effects of the Great Irish Famine of 1848 caused much of the 19th Century to be a more troubled period.

20th century history

The Limerick boycott was an economic boycott is against the tiny Jewish community for over two years during the first decade of the twentieth century. It was accompanied by a number of assaults, threats and stone throwing, which caused many Jews to leave the city. It initiated in 1904 by a Redemptorist priest, Father John Creagh.

During the Irish War of Independence, the Limerick Soviet was a self-proclaimed Soviet who were from 15 to 27 April 1919. A general strike organized by the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the British army’s declaration of a “Special Military Area” under the Defence of the Realm Act, which covered most of Limerick city and part of the county. During the strike a special strike committee set up to print their own money, control food prices and publish newspapers.

In the mid-20th century, Limerick characterized by economic stagnation and decline of many traditional industries closed or left the city. But there were some successes. In 1942 Shannon International Airport (located 20 km west of the city) is opened for the first time offer transatlantic flights. In 1959, Shannon Airport enabled the opening of the Shannon Free Zone, which attracted a large number of multinational companies to the region. A long campaign for a third-level educational institution should be placed in the city, finally bore fruit with the establishment of Nihe Limerick in 1969 which eventually became the University of Limerick, 1989.

Government and politics

The municipal area of Limerick city is under the jurisdiction of Limerick City and County Council. The Council has responsibility for local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing in the city. The Council comprises elected parish council with an appointed full-time president that city (and county) manager. Local elections are held every five years and council members annually elect a Cathaoirleach, or Chairman as the Chairman of the Council. The current Cathaoirleach Cllr Liam Galvin is from Newcastle West electoral district. [19] The 21 members of the Council of 3 electoral districts in the city region also elects a mayor to represent the city. Mayoral position is largely ceremonial and have much reduced responsibilities following the merger of the Limerick local authorities. Even the mayor is the city’s first citizen, the Council position is lower than the Cathaoirleach. The current mayor is Councillor Jerry O’Dea. [20] Formerly known mayors include TDs Donogh O’Malley, Stephen Coughlan, Michael Lipper, Jim Kemmy and Jan O’Sullivan. [21]

For most of its history; from 1197 when it won its first charter, Limerick City had its own local authority, Limerick Corporation, later known as the Limerick City Council. It was one of the oldest in Ireland and exceeded only in the age of the Dublin City Council. In October 2012 the Irish government published putting people First- action for effective municipal stated government policy of reform in all the key areas of local government in Ireland. Among the recommendations was a merger of Limerick City Council with Limerick County Council. The changes came into force on 1 June 2014, since the implementation of the Municipal Act Reform 2014. [22]

In the 1960s onwards the city had outgrown its limit considerably; however, city limits changed only slightly, but still never reflected the city’s total urban area. A limited extension limit on the city’s north side in 2008 extended the city limits of 1020 hectares increase the city’s area by almost 50% and increase the population by approximately 7000. [23] The former border, covering 2,086 hectares, demarcated in 1950. Newer suburbs Dooradoyle, Castletroy – including universities, Gouldavoher and Raheen was constantly given to Limerick County Council until the merger of the two authorities in June 2014. The municipal structure in Limerick caused a number of inefficiencies, most especially when it comes to planning. A number of neighborhoods in Westbury and Parteen north of the city controlled by Clare County Council.

After the merger of the two agencies in 2014, a new Metropolitan District of Limerick City was established that included the city urban area and also settlements near the town of Patricks and Castleconnell. Metropolitan districts returned 21 Councillors to Limerick City and County Council has a total of 40 Councillors returned from across Limerick city and county. [24]The Limerick City Metropolitan District is divided into three divisions or electoral areas; Limerick City East, North Limerick City and Limerick City South who chooses eight, six and seven Councillors, respectively [24] [25]

Fianna Fáil, the largest party of the British government with 13 seats, followed by Fine Gael 12, Sinn Féin has six, Anti-Austerity Alliance, Labour and Independents have three seats each. [26]

National Dail elections Limerick City, Limerick City constituency. From 2011, the constituency boundaries changed in accordance with the proposals of the Constituency Commission and the subsequent Electoral (Amendment) Act of 2009. Changed voice borders of Limerick East and West Limerick to Limerick City and Limerick. Limerick includes the city, suburban areas Castletroy and as far east as Castleconnell. It also includes part of South County Clare .The Limerick county constituency takes in most of the rest of the county. For European parliament elections Limerick is in South Ireland.

Climate

Limerick’s climate is classified as temperate oceanic (Köppen Cfb ). Met Éireann has a climatological weather station at Shannon Airport, 20 kilometers west of the town in County Clare. Shannon Airport registers an average of 977 millimeters of precipitation annually, most of which is rain.Limerick has a mild climate, with the average daily maximum in July 20 ° C (68 ° F) and the average daily minimum in January 3 ° C (37 ° F). The highest temperature recorded was 31.6 ° C (88.9 ° F) in 1995, and the lowest was -11.4 ° C (11.5 ° F) in 2010. Limerick is cloudiest city in the state, averaging only 1295 hours of sunshine per year, 3.5 hours of sunshine each day. There are on average 59 days of no sunshine recording, six days of thunderstorms, hail 19 days and 8 days of snow per year. Shannon Airport is located by the sea at a height of 14 meters, so the snow is less common at the station than in the city itself.

Culture

In 2014 became Limerick Ireland’s inaugural National City of Culture , with a wide range of artistic and cultural events that take place in various locations around the city throughout the year.

The Limerick City Gallery of Art Pery Square is the city’s premier venue for contemporary art exhibitions. It is home to a permanent collection of Irish art, showing works from the early 18th to the 20th century. The gallery houses the National Collection of Contemporary Drawing founded by artist Samuel Walsh in 1987. Limerick’s major contemporary art event is EVA International, Ireland Biennial of Contemporary Art. [28] EVA International (formerly EV + A – Exhibition of Visual + Art) is curated by a new guest curator every two years and includes modern art pieces by both international and Irish artists. In the middle of the exhibition is Limerick City Gallery of Art, but EVA generally use a number of other locations throughout the city, including public places.

Lime Tree Theatre officially opened at Mary Immaculate College campus on October 30, 2012. The modern space can host theater, music, comedy, traditional arts, schools, performances and conferences. [29]

The Belltable Arts Centre on O’Connell Street (in liquidation in February 2013) [30] hosts for local playwrights and drama. Mike Finn’s numerous plays have been successful, including Pigtown , set around a century of its history, and Shock and Awe , an energetic retelling of Homer’s Iliad. The University Concert Hall is located in the UL is a 1000 seat location and provides a great venue for national and international artists to visit the city. Limerick is also home to street theater companies, including “Umbrella”.

Limerick is also well catered for when it comes to literature. Limerick Writers’ Centre was founded in 2008 and is responsible for a wide range writing activities in the city. Limerick has long been known for its passion for art, culture and heritage and you only have to look at some of its natives, which include Pulitzer Prize winning author Frank McCourt; writer Kate O’Brien, Michael Curtin and recently Kevin Barry and Donal Ryan. Limerick poets have also contributed greatly to its literary heritage with Michael Hogan, Desmond O’Grady, John Liddy … the list goes on, proving that reading and writing is one of the most important creative activities that treaty city can be proud of.

Other active Limerick arts groups include Contact Studios, which offers individual studio spaces for visual artists; the Daghdha Dance Company, a contemporary dance company that has adopted a renovated church in John’s Square, adjacent to St. John’s Cathedral, the performance space); the Fresh Film Festival, held each spring, and includes films made by young people (7-18 years) from all over Sweden; Impact Theatre Company; Limerick Printmakers Studio and Gallery, which provides printmaking facilities, a place for exhibitions and events and a training program. Limerick Youth Theatre provides young people with an opening in acting and production. It caught the attention of the national media with their production of 2005,Romeo and Juliet , which made comparisons between the ongoing feud in the city with that of Montagu and the Capulets in the play.

The Irish Chamber Orchestra and the Irish World Music Centre are both based in the University of Limerick. The University has a thousand-seat state-of-the-art concert hall that often hosts visiting performers. The city has an active music scene, which has produced bands like The Cranberries guitarist Noel Hogan’s Mono Band, The Hitchers and many more. World-renowned electronic musician Richard D. James, better known as Aphex Twin, born in Limerick in 1971. The Limerick Art Gallery and the Art College cater for painting, sculpture and performance art of all styles.

Limerick is also home to comedians The Rubber Bandits, D’unbelievables (Pat Shortt and Jon Kenny) and Karl Spain. Dolan Warehouse on the Dock Road has two sites that specialize in live music; upstairs space that tends to accommodate comedians and folk and jazz acts and a much larger bin holds 400, which tends to organize more popular (usually rock) Act, both nationally and internationally. Dance music is catered for in Baker City that holds mainly local underground nights and Trinity Rooms that have regularly hosts big names like Hot Chip, Groove Armada, DJ Yoda and Jazzy Jeff alongside more groundbreaking names as Dan Le Sac, Christian Smith, and Missill .

The city is the setting for Frank McCourt’s memoir Angela’s Ashes and adaptation. Frank McCourt Museum is located in Frank’s old school on Hartsonge Street opened in 2011 and contains many artefacts from the book, there is also Frank’s ashes. [31] It is the setting for the contemporary coming-of-age drama, Cowboys & Angels and Robert Cunningham’s Somebody’s daughter] , who was shot in various locations around the city and had its premiere in king John’s Castle in July 2004. [ citation needed ]

A limerick is a type of humorous verse of five lines with a Aabba rhyme schemes: the poem’s connection with the city is unclear, but the name is generally considered to be a reference to the city of Limerick or County Limerick, [32] [33] at times especially to Maigue Poets, and may be derived from an earlier form of nonsense verse parlor game that traditionally included a chorus that included “will [or not] you come (up) to Limerick?” [34] the earliest known use of the name “Shannon” in this poem type is a 1880 reference, in Saint John, New Brunswick newspaper to a seemingly familiar melody. [35]

River is an annual summer festival held in Limerick. The festival began in 2004. 2014 Festival was held May 2 to 5, and had a record 80,000 visitors. [36] [37]

Media

Broadcasting

RTÉ lyric fm, a state-run classical music radio station and part of RTÉ, broadcasts nationally from studios in the city center. Limerick’s local radio station is Live 95FM, broadcasting from the “Radio House”, near the waterfront at Steamboat Quay. Spin South West, owned by Communicorp, shipments to County Kerry, Clare, Limerick, Tipperary and Laois southwest from its studios at landmarks in the Raheen Industrial Estate. Student radio station, Wired FM, broadcasts on 99.9FM from Mary Immaculate College.Wired FM also has studios in Limerick Institute of Technology. Limerick Regional Hospital has a radio station on 94.2FM, but this can be heard only in the hospital and the surrounding area. West Limerick 102 sent from Newcastle West. The national program, RTE radio studios in the city, which is regularly used for broadcasting from Limerick.

Print

Several local newspapers published in the city, including Limerick Post andThe Limerick Leader , periodicals include Limerick Event Guide , Business Limerick and Limerick now .

Tourist attractions

Main article: Architecture Limerick

Limerick City is a major tourist destination, just a 15-minute drive from Shannon Airport. Tourist attractions in the architectural and historical note at the center include Limerick City Museum, King John’s Castle (1212), St. Mary’s Cathedral (1168), the Hunt Museum, the University of Limerick, Georgian house and gardens, Treaty Stone. There are several seasonal tours (Angela’s Ashes walking tour of Limerick City, the historic walking tour and boat trips along the River Shannon).

The city center is divided between the traditional areas of “English Town” in the south end of Kungs Iceland, which include King John Castle; “Irish Town” which includes the older streets on the south shore; and the current economic center further south, called “Newtown Pery”. [38] Newtown Pery was built in the late 18th century before the Act of Union and, unusually for an Irish city and unique in Limerick, is laid out on a grid plan. The Limerick City Museum (formerly known as the Jim Kemmy Municipal Museum), located in Istabraq Hall, City Hall, Merchants Quay. It contains displayed on Limerick’s history and manufacture. [39]

The Georgian center of the city, with fine Georgian architecture in Newtown Pery, developed from the mid 18th century. This core contains O’Connell Street (George Street before Independence) from Cecil Street intersection running to the south-western part of the Crescent, and Southeast Pery Street including Glentworth Street and Barrington Street. Other architectural buildings of architectural note in the city’s St John’s Cathedral, designed by the notable Victorian architect Philip Charles Hardwick. St Mary’s Cathedral, at over 800 years old, is one of the oldest in Ireland. St. John’s Cathedral, whilst more modern, has been Ireland’s tallest spire at 94 m (308 ft). [40] One of Ireland’s most famous museums, the Hunt Museum, based in the historic 18th century former Custom House. The museum was established to house an internationally important collection of some 2,000 works of art and antiquities formed by John and Gertrude Hunt during their lifetimes. On display are the 9th century Antrim Cross, a sketch by Picasso and a bronze sculpture of a horse, said to be from a design by Leonardo da Vinci.

The largest park in Limerick is People’s Park, which opened in 1877 in memory of Richard Russell, a prominent local businessman. The park is dominated by Thomas Spring Rice Memorial (MP for the city from 1820 to 1832) and has a large collection of mature deciduous and evergreen trees.

Limerick city center has changed considerably with the construction of several modern high-rise at the beginning of the 2000s, in particular as part of the renovation of the former port area along Dock Road. Suburban areas, where the majority of the population now live, have grown out from the center along the main roads to Ennis (North Circular and Ennis Road areas / Caherdavin), Dublin (Castletroy and the University) and Cork (Ballinacurra / Dooradoyle / Raheen) .Förorts house is generally two-storey semi-detached homes for single families. These were built from the 1950s onwards in large estates by government projects and commercial development, but there are many examples of Edwardian and older 1930s suburban homes on the main suburban streets leading towards the city (North & South Circular, Ballinacurra Road, O O’Connell Avenue).

Currently tourism is growing, with over 1,000 new beds opened in the city in 2006 thanks to the opening of five new hotels. The city provides visitors with ‘Street Ambassadors’, people designated to help others around and make the stay enjoyable. Limerick City has a vibrant nightlife with many nightclubs and pubs that provide a range of drinking experiences from the warm and cozy to the cutting edge. Dolan Warehouse is a popular small concert hall that hosts many local, national and international folk, indie, jazz and rock acts. It is also an established place for traditional Irish music.

In County Limerick, Adare village and the Foynes Flying Boat Museum, about 35 km (22 miles / 30 minutes) from Limerick City along the scenic coastal route N69 from Limerick to Tralee, are also popular attractions.Bunratty Castle in Co. Clare is another local attraction of national significance. It is located 15.4 km north of the city. Limerick is known to be the antipodes to Campbell Island in New Zealand. [41]

Demography

Limerick is officially the third largest city in Ireland (after Dublin and Cork) with a population of 102.161 people according to the census in 2011 was carried out by the CSO. [3] The last census reported a large decrease in population in the central districts partly due to Limerick regeneration process was in these areas, the largest decrease was reported nationally and even emigration after the collapse of the local and national economy from 2008 onwards. [42] the population of Limerick Larger Urban Zone as defined in the EU is 162,413. [43] Limerick has a particular ethnic population, and a large immigrant groups, who saw particularly rapid growth during the Celtic tiger and the following decade. The Polish community is the second largest outside Dublin, with an estimated 10,000 lives and works in the city. Ireland’s first Polish bank opened in 2007. [44] The African community has established a number of churches, which now is part of the cultural makeup of the city.[45]

Limerick has a large stock of council housing. Prior to the merger of Limerick City and County Council 41% of all homes in the old Limerick City Council boundary was the municipality, which was the highest in Ireland.This figure, however, is no longer accurate, given the greater metropolitan district. [46]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Limerick

Limerick is in the heart of the region known as “the Midwest”. Also known as the “Shannon Region”, this is mainly an economic and social concepts. The region encompasses County Limerick, County Clare, North Tipperary, North West County Kerry and the south Offaly, with its focal point centered on Limerick and its environs within an 8 km (5 mi) radius.

The area is perhaps the most important economic region outside of Dublin and Cork. Its economic success has been driven in part by the University of Limerick, Limerick Institute of Technology, Shannon Airport in Co. Clare and Shannon Development (an economic development agency), whose predecessor was SFADCO (Shannon Free Airport Development Company), an economic agency that provided tax incentives for businesses locating in the area around Shannon Airport. From 2006 Shannon Development are mostly concerned with disposing of valuable industrial park properties.Limerick Chamber of Commerce, the voice of business in the region, is a thriving organization. Limerick Chamber will celebrate its bicentennial / bicentenary 2015.

Historically Limerick was an agricultural commodity based economy, because of its status as the first major harbor along the River Shannon. In the mid-18th century, Limerick Port grew to become one of Ireland’s main trading ports, exporting agricultural products from the most fertile areas of Ireland known as the Golden Vale, as well as produce from the surrounding counties. [12] The city was one of the main meat processing areas in Ireland, and industry included confectionery and flour production. The city was famous for its bacon industry but this went into decline in the mid-20th talet.Fiskeindustrin in Limerick, based on Clancy Strand opposite King John Castle and the nearby Coonagh, once employed hundreds of men. [47] The boat was common Gandelow which was also used as a little lighter (barge) to ferry goods to and from larger ships in the harbor. [48] in the 1920s, the construction of a dam at Ardnacrusha seriously affected the salmon farming and that, and the introduction of quotas, had in the 1950s caused the salmon to decline. [49] In 2006, most fishermen abandoned their driftnet licenses and industry can now be said to be dormant. [50]

In line with the changing economic landscape in Ireland, many multinational companies based in Limerick. Dell had its main European manufacturing facility at Raheen Business Park, but in January 2009, Dell announced it would close its Limerick computer factory and move production lines to Poland. [51] plant was the largest Dell factory outside the US and produced 30.000 to 60.000 units per day for export to the EMEA. Dell remains one of the largest employers in the Midwest with more than 1000 employees in service and support. [52] Analog Devices have their European manufacturing in Raheen, 3 km southwest of the city center. The site has more than 1,000 people. Johnson & Johnson subsidiary Vistakon (the world’s largest manufacturers of contact lenses) has a large facility in Castletroy in the Technological Park and also employs nearly 1,000 people. It is Vistakon single production outside the United States and one of the largest contact lens factories in the world. Cook Medical, the world’s largest privately held medical device company that employs more than 800 people in Limerick at the Technological Park.

The recent economic recession in Ireland has had a major impact on Limerick. The announcement in 2009 that Dell was moving production from Limerick to Poland has devastated the local economy. 1900 jobs disappeared at Dell and it is believed that for every job lost at Dell at least another 4-5 was at risk. The closure of the Dell plant amounted to 2% of Ireland’s GDP.[53] The decline in the construction industry has also cost many jobs that have stalled Limerick regeneration program that promised a massive investment in Limerick deprived neighborhoods. From 2012, unemployment has become a major problem all over the city with unemployment in the city of 28.6%, which is almost twice the national average. [46]

Retail

See also: Shopping in Limerick

The service industry is an important employer in the city. The Crescent Shopping Centre is the main shopping area of the city. It is in Dooradoyle about 3 km south of the center. It is the largest shopping center in Ireland (outside Dublin) and the largest in the province of Munster. It has over 90 shopping outlets along with restaurants and a 12-screen Omniplex Cinema.Regular bus services run from the center to the Crescent Shopping Centre.Stadskärnan also a large shopping district that includes a mixture of more traditional types of stores as well as some modern high street shops.Cruises Street is one of the main shopping streets. O’Connell Street, William Street, Bedford Row and Thomas Street) is also the most important retail streets. The city center has seen the great works of remodeling and pedestrian areas in recent years to improve their appearance. Work has been completed on pedestrianising Bedford Row, Thomas Street and parts of Catherine Street and widening walkways on William Street. Work will begin shortly on the pedestrianized O’Connell Street between William Street and Roches Street. It is hoped that the work will make the center more attractive to consumers and visitors who have seen some serious slowdown in the last decade as the retail offer in the center has consistently lagged behind the suburban shopping malls. The result has been a sharp drop in footfall in the city center, which in turn has resulted in the closure of many downtown retail businesses, which accelerated from the recession of 2008 and onwards.[ Citation needed ]

Retail parks and shopping centers

During the Celtic Tiger years, a number of shopping centers and retail parks opened in the suburbs of Limerick. The “Crescent Shopping Centre” expanded in the early 2000s to become one of the largest in Ireland. The “Jetland Shopping Centre” in Caherdavin opened in 2005. Its main anchor is Dunnes Stores. The Childers Road Retail Park and the Parkway Shopping Centre in the eastern part of the city also has a number of high street stores.Unfinished venues include Coonagh Cross retail development and Valley Parkway Shopping Centre on the Dublin Road. The Opera Centre was also a retail development in the city center but it is unlikely to go ahead.

The Milk Market

The Milk Market is on Cornmarket Row in the center sells locally produced food and products. The market is controlled by Limerick Market Trustees and is one of the oldest markets operated in the country. It is open on Friday, Saturday and Sunday with Saturday market serves as the flagship and is the most popular market. In 2010, work was carried out to rehabilitate the existing premises to an all – weather, year-round facility that is operated in an outdoor environment. Efforts to build a large canopy over the existing market premises and officially reopened in June 2010.

The Milk Market Project won the 2011 Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland (RIAI) Peoples Choice Award. ” Local architects Healy & Partners designed the project. Also involved were local civilians and designers Dennany Reidy Associates. [54]

Transport

Air

Shannon Airport is located 20 km west of the town in County Clare. It is one of Ireland’s main airports and is easily accessible from Limerick via the N18 dual carriageway and from other regions via the Limerick tunnel. It has regular flights to European and North American destinations. Airlines using the airport include Ryanair, Aer Lingus, United Airlines, American Airlines, Aer Lingus Regional and Delta Air Lines. There is no rail connection to the airport. Coonagh airfield, a few kilometers west of Caherdavin serves small private aircraft. Kerry and Cork airports are about 1 hour 30 minutes and 2 hours drive away, respectively. Kerry Airport is connected to Farranfore railway station, from the railway station Limerick travel via Limerick Junction and Mallow.

Bus

Public transport is provided by Bus Éireann, Ireland’s national bus operator.Routes City Service has been modified September 17, 2012 and is now following the bus timetables.:

  • 301 University Hospital Limerick – City Centre – Westbury (a 30 minute frequency)
  • 302 Caherdavin – City Centre (20 minute frequency)
  • 303 Pine View – City Centre – O’Malley Park (30 minute frequency)
  • 304 UL – City Centre – Raheen (15 minute frequency)
  • 305 Maria Park – City Centre – Lynwood Park (60 minutes Frequency)
  • 306 Brookfield – City Centre – Ballynanty (60 Minute Frequency)

Buses go to towns and villages in the county and to Shannon Airport. There are also a number of Intercity and international buses from Bus Eireann bus terminal adjacent Limerick Colbert Railway Station. These include the hours services to Dublin, Cork and Galway. Bus Eireann has also started “X51” Limerick to Galway Express traveling on the M18 in addition to the regular service. Buses run every 2 hours to Tralee and Killarney. There are also regular daily services to Waterford and Athlone, and a daily service to London via ferry from Rosslare Europort.

There are a number of private bus companies in operation, providing urban and intercity. Dublin Coach M7 provide express service which operates hourly from Arthur’s Quay to go to Dublin or Ennis. [55] JJ Kavanagh also provides services Dublin to Limerick and Shannon Airport also Arthurs Quay. Citylink run a number of services from Limerick to Galway and Cork and operate from Henry Street. Eurobus provide a regular service from William Street to University ochCastletroy via Childers Road.

Rail

Iarnród Éireann Limerick’s Colbert Station is the rail hub for the city and the Mid West Region with a number of intercity and commuter trains. Limerick railway station was opened on 28 August 1858 to replace a former temporary station 500 m east, which had operated from May 9, 1848. [56]

The following inter-city routes are available from Limerick Colbert Station:

  • Limerick to Dublin Heuston : 16 services daily including 4 direct connections. All remaining Dublin – Limerick services require passengers to switch to Dublin to Cork train anti ng Limerick Junction or Ballybrophy railway station.
  • Limerick Waterford : two services daily (but not on Sundays). The passengers have to change trains at Limerick Junction continue to Waterford with stations in Tipperary, Cahir, Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir.
  • Limerick to Galway : 5 services daily. This service will resume on March 29, 2010. [57]
  • Limerick Cork : Passengers can travel between Limerick and Cork through Limerick Junction. There is no direct service.
  • Limerick Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee : Passengers can travel between Limerick and Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee via Limerick Junction where trains go through to reach Mallow County Kerry.

There are 3 suburban / commuter services in Limerick Suburban Rail Network:

  • Limerick – Ennis entering Sixmilebridge
  • Limerick – Nenagh calling Castleconnell and Bird Hill (with some services continuing to Cloughjordan and Roscrea and connects to the Dublin-Cork railway at Ballybrophy.) Because of the speed limitations of this alternative Dublin – road limerick can take 60 minutes longer (with a change of Ballybrophy) than Limerick Junction than a more direct service.
  • Limerick – Limerick Junction & Thurles

There are also a number of disused railway lines, including Limerick to Foynes line was closed for freight in the early 2000s, has lost passenger service in the early 1960s, although the track is still on location.This is the last remaining part of the North Kerry line closed to passenger traffic in the early 1960s and for freight (other than Limerick – Foynes) in the mid-1970s, and has lifted the Ballingrane (näraRathkeale) and Tralee.

The Railway Procurement Agency has suggested that a tram system should be built in the city. [ Citation needed ]

Road

Limerick’s central location in the mid – west of Ireland offers many important national primary routes converge on the city. The M7 (Dublin), N / M18 (Galway, Ennis, Shannon), N / M20 (Cork), N21 (Tralee) and N24 (Waterford) roads all start / stop in or near the city. Road infrastructure has improved over the past decade with the completion of the southern ring road and the Limerick Tunnel bypass of the city and the M20 bypass the Dooradoyle and Raheen south of the city. Connections to other cities also improved with the completion of M7motorväg in December 2010, and continuing upgrades underway to N / M18 to Shannon, Ennis and Galway. A highway is also planned between Cork and Limerick.

waterways

Historically, the shipping industry has been key to the development of Limerick. Vikings established the city as a trading port sea. The city’s location on a great Irish river system, in Shannon, possible transport to the midlands in Ireland and further north and west. Of the 18th century with the opening of the duct systems throughout Ireland, Limerick Port established itself as Ireland’s main trading port on the western side of the country. This was made possible by the ease of access from facilitated by the opening of channels but most importantly the River Shannon. The opening of the Grand Canal in the 18th century gave further access to Dublin and eastern parts of the country. There are also a number of disused canals near the city, including Park Canal and the Passey – Errina Canal on the old Limerick navigation. Waterway transport Shannon was regularly used to transport goods from Limerick to Dublin and vice versa, but this mode of transport fell into decline in the 20th century. Originally Limerick port was located near the confluence of the Abbey and Shannon rivers at Kings Island. Today the port is located further downstream at Shannon with Dock Road and is run by Shannon Foynes Port Company, which operates all marine activities in the Shannon Estuary. There is a general port facility. Plans to close the door and move all operations to the depth of the plant further downstream in Foynes has been abandoned. The plans included a major renovation of the dock area.

Training

Limerick Institute of Technology

Limerick is an important center of higher education in Ireland.

Technical and continuing education in the city traces its beginning to the formation of the Limerick Athenaeum Society in 1852, marking the foundation of Limerick Institute of Technology. The association’s objectives include “promotion of literature, science, art and music.” [58]

Today Limerick is home to a number of higher education institutions, including the University of Limerick, Limerick Institute of Technology and Mary Immaculate College and has a student population of over 20,000. [59]

University of Limerick (UL), has a student population of over 13,000, and is about 5 km east of the city center in the suburb of Castletroy. It was noted that the National Institute for Higher Education (Nihe) in 1972, and in 1989 was the first university to be established since the founding of the state in 1922. It is notable for its programs in engineering, information technology, materials science, sports science, humanities, teacher training, social sciences and music. In 2007, the university opened a medical school. The Irish World Music Centre specializes in traditional music and dance, and UL is host to the Irish Chamber Orchestra. Campus include a 50m Olympic standard swimming complex, the first established in Ireland. [60] The University has one of the longest footbridges in Europe, called “The Living Bridge”, designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects of London. [61] [62] Thomond College of Education, Limerickvar a successful teacher training college for secondary level and integrated into the university, 1991.

Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT) has a student population of 7,000 and is a center for undergraduate and postgraduate studies in finance, technology, information technology, humanities, sciences and arts education. The main campus is located on Moylish Park, about 3 km northwest of the city center and the School of Art & Design is located on campus at Clare Street and Georges Quay. Additional facilities and outreach centers located on O’Connell Street, Ennis, Co. Clare and LIT has two campuses in Co. Tipperary, Thurles and LIT LIT Clonmel. These were former campus in Tipperary Institute, which merged with LIT in 2011. [63]

LIT was originally established in 1852 as a school of ornamental art. In the mid-1970s, was formed as Limerick College of Art, Commerce & Technology (interact) and achieved the appointment of a Regional Technical College (RTC) in 1993, and finally an Institute of Technology in 1997. The Institute has a strong sporting ethos, which is not surprising given its location adjacent to Thomond Park and the Gaelic Grounds. It has a strong focus on business incubators, operating in several corporate centers: The National Franchise Centre; Croom Community Enterprise Centre; Thurles Chamber Enterprise Centre (TCEC), The Hartnett Enterprise Acceleration Centre (HEAC). Two more centers Enterprise, Enterprise and Research Centre, Clonmel and Irish Fashion Incubator Limited (IFIL) will be added to its unique “Enterprise Ladder” in 2013. LIT is also home to the Millennium Theatre, a popular northside venue for exhibitions and concerts.

Mary Immaculate College is an education and arts college located just southwest of the city center. The emphasis is on the training of primary level teachers.

Griffith College Limerick (GCL) is a private college in Limerick. School was formed in 2006 when the Mid West Business Institute was acquired by Griffith College. School is full time and part time courses in accounting, business, law, engineering, computer and information technology and has a range of part-time courses.

Primary and secondary education in the city is organized in a similar way as the rest of Ireland. Limerick City Vocational Training Committee (CLVEC) provides training services to over 10,000 students in the city in secondary and further education levels. It also runs Gaelcholáiste Luimnigh, an all Irish school. The other major high schools in the city are Castletroy College, Crescent College comprehensive, St. Nessan’s and Villiers Church of Ireland school, all of which are co-educational. Ardscoil Ris, St. Clements Redemptorist College, CBS Sexton Street and St Munchin College are boys-only schools and Laurel Hill, presentation, Ard Scoil Mhuire and Scoil Carmel’s girls-only schools.

Sports

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastime in Limerick. The city and suburbs are also many tennis, athletics, cricket and golf clubs. The city is host to many major sporting events.Recent examples include the 2008 and 2009 Irish Open Golf Championships, the Irish 2010 Special Olympics, All-Ireland Corporate Games and the World Baton twirling championships. [64] Shannon has been appointed European sports for 2011 by the European Capitals of Sport Association (ACES). [65]the National Elite Swimming Club is based at the University of Limerick Arena.

basketball

Like the rest of Ireland, basketball was a very popular sport in Limerick in the 1970s and 1980s, with up to four divisions in men and women’s local leagues.It suffered from a decline in the 1990s, culminating in the complete closure of local league basketball in the city and surrounding areas. The most important clubs in the city was St. Colm’s and Marathon with St Colm’s in particular, has a long history in the national serierna.Det has been something of a revival of basketball in the city in recent years, particularly on minors level.

Limerick is currently represented in the national leagues of men’s UL Eagles team and the women’s UL Aughinish team. They both play their home matches at the 2500 capacity University Stadium at the University of Limerick. There are a number of other teams at school and club levels, including St Colm’s, Limerick Lakers, Taste of Europe, Celtic Limerick and Limerick Lions.

Cricket

Limerick Cricket Club is a member of the Munster Cricket Union and play in competitions organized by the Union. The club has previously provided players for the Ireland national cricket team.

Rowing

Three rowing clubs are in the city, namely the Shannon Rowing Club, St. Michaels Rowing Club and Athlunkard Boat Club. St. Michael member and Limerick native Sam Lynch won World Championship gold in the Men lightweight single skulls in Lucerne in 2001 to defend his title in order to take the gold again in Seville in 2002.

GAA sports

Ireland’s national sports of Hurling and Gaelic football is widely played in the city and its surrounding suburbs. While Limerick have not won the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship since 1973, reached the finals in 1974, 1980, 1994, 1996 and 2007 and is one of the four best teams in the game, in terms of All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship won. The county won successive All-Ireland Under-21 titles in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The county’s GAA teams show Sporting Limerick logo. Sporting Limerick is a non-commercial brand developed to “capture Limerick City & County unique sports culture and to promote their place one of Europe’s leading regions in the field performances, off-field facilities and its fantastic supporter base. “[66]

Na Piarsaigh is the only city club playing hurling on a higher level.Claughaun (Clochán), Monaleen (Moin a’Lín) and Mungret (Mungairit) competing in middle and old Christians (Sean-Chríostaithe), Milford (ATH a Mhuilinn) Saint Patrick (Naomh Pádraig) and Abbey Sars Fields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainistreach) compete at junior level.

Limerick won the first All-Ireland Senior Football Championship 1887 which is represented by the city Commercials club, and repeated the feat in 1896. Since then the game has lived mostly in the shadow of hurling, but a surge in 2000 saw the county win their first Munster Under-21 title and has since then reached three Munster senior finals. Monaleen (Moin a’Lín) is the only city club to play football at a higher quality. Saint Patrick (Naomh Pádraig), Claughaun (Cloghane), Mungret St Pauls (Mungairit Naomh Pol) and Na Piarsaigh are middle and Milford (ATH a Mhuilinn), Abbey Sars Fields (Sáirséalaigh na Mainstreach) and Ballinacurra Gaels (Gaeil Bhaile na Cora ) play at the junior level.

Thomond Park is home because avMunster Rugby

A number of secondary schools compete in the Dr. Harty Cup, which is the Munster Colleges Lung Mastership. Limerick CBS has won the cup on 10 occasions, including four in a row from 1964 to 1967 and later in 1993. The school also won the Dr. Croke Cup, the All-Ireland Colleges Hurling Championship on two occasions, in 1964 and 1966. Ardscoil Ris has won the championship twice, in 2010 and 2011, and St. Munchin College won it once, years 1922nd

Both the University of Limerick (UL) and Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT) has been successful in the Fitzgibbon Cup, the All-Ireland Hurling Championship Higher Education. UL first won the championship in 1989 and has won it four times in total. LIT two wins came in 2005 and 2007. Both colleges met in the final in 2011 with UL scoring an injury time goal to win.[67]

Limerick’s Gaelic Grounds (Pairc na nGael), on the Ennis Road, the county is the team’s home venue for both sports and has a current capacity of 49,000 for the reconstruction of 2004. 1961 hosting Ireland’s largest audience for a sporting event outside of Croke Park where over 61,000 paid to see Munster throw final between Tipperary and Cork. [68]

Golf

There are three golf clubs in conjunction with Limerick City. Limerick Golf Club was founded in 1891 and is located in Ballymena Clough, 5 km (3 mi) due south of the city center. Castletroy Golf Club was founded in 1937 and is located in the suburb of Castletroy in the southwestern part of the city.Rathbane Golf Club is based on Rathbane Golf Course, a municipal facility opened in 1998 in the southern outskirts of the city and operated under license for Limerick City Council. Both Limerick Castletroy and has had great success at national level in between the club competitions. Limerick has won the Irish Senior Cup, the blue riband event of Irish amateur golf, on four occasions and was the first Irish club to win the European Club Championship in 1980. [69] Castletroy has won the Irish Senior Cup once.

Limerick Golf Club hosted the JP McManus Invitational Pro Am, one of the largest pro-am events of its kind in the world. It has contributed over € 95 to local charities since its inception in 1990. [70] The event moved to larger Adare Golf Club in 2005, it had grown out of Ballyclough place. [71] Adare also played host to the Irish Open in 2007 and 2008.

Rugby

Rugby union is very popular in the city and is commonly played at all levels.Limerick is often called home Irish rugby. [72] [73] Since its inception in 1991 All-Ireland League has been dominated by Limerick City team with three clubs win the competition 13 times between them: Shannon (9); Garry (3) and Young Munster (1). With other leading clubs in the city’s old Crescent, Thomond and UL Bohemians. Richmond and St.Marys the city clubs playing in the junior leagues.

The city’s high schools compete in the Munster Senior and Junior Cups and a number of schools have enjoyed considerable success at both levels. The most successful rugby school in the town of Crescent College who has won the Senior Cup ten times, most recently in 2013, and the Junior Cup five times, most recently in 2010. The school is connected to Old Crescent RFC.St. Munchin’s has won the Senior Cup five times since 1968 and the Junior Cup three times. While Limerick CBS is better known for throwing success, won the Senior Cup on four occasions during the 1920s and 30s and the Junior Cup 1932. Ardscoil Ris has won the Junior Cup twice, in 2003 and 2005 and Castletroy College won both older and junior competitions in 2008.

All Munster European Heineken Cup matches played at Thomond Park Stadium, where the Munster team kept a record of being unbeaten in the Heineken Cup to 26 matches in succession until the 16-9 defeat of Leicester in January 2007. Munster have won the Heineken Cup twice. 2006 and 2008. the main ~~ POS = TRUNC street ~~ POS = hEAD COMP O’Connell Street was crowded for 2006 match [74] Munster quoted a famous 12-0 win against the New Zealand All Blacks in 1978 at Thomond Park. Munster are the only Irish team to have beaten the All Blacks, and nearly a second time when the teams met again in 2008, losing 18-16. Munster also defeated an Australian touring side at Thomond Park in 2010. [75]

Rugby League is also played in Limerick and the city is represented in the Conference of Munster Irish Elite Series to the Treaty City Titans, the most successful Irish club and 6 times Elite League champions and current Elite League champions Country Cowboys. A Limerick-based side is also planning to enter the Super League 2016 play matches from Thomond Park, it is also supposed to host the high-profile rugby league matches including the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, was an Academy also established to identify players to play Super League clubs . [76] [77]

Football

Football is very popular in the city and has more players than any other sport. The city is represented in the League of Ireland from Limerick FC. The club first entered the league in 1937 and has been ever since, although there have been a number of variants of the club. Their most successful period was from the 1960s to the 1980s, when they won two League of Ireland championship and two FAI Cup. The club played at The Market Field until the mid 1980s when they controversially moved to a new location. A period of declining fortunes and a nomadic life followed. [78] The club is currently playing in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the top tier of Irish football. Limerick FC returned to the market Field June 5, 2015 after the purchase of the stadium by the Limerick Enterprise Development Partnership (LEDP) from Bord na gCon, the Irish greyhound racing authority.The purchase was financed by a donation from the JP McManus Charitable Foundation. [79]

Horse racing

Limerick Racecourse is located 10 km outside the city on Greenmount, Patrick and keeps flat and National Hunt meetings during the year.

Boxing

Limerick has developed a world boxing champion, Andy Lee, the current WBO Middleweight Champion is from Limerick.

Energy

In 2013 there was a new energy strategy launched for the region Limerick and Clare. The project is a short-term 2020 renewable energy provides a reduction of 20% CO 2 emissions, while short-term measures are good for the long term goal of 100% renewable energy. The strategy was completed by the Danish Aalborg University. [80]

Pictures

  • King John Castle on the River Shannon.
  • Another view of King John Castle.
  • Sylvester O’Halloran Bridge.
  • A view along the quay in the city of Limerick.
  • The Treaty Stone on the banks of the River Shannon.
  • Another view of the Treaty Stone.
  • Maria Cathedral.
  • Limerick on the River Shannon, seen from the Episcopal Quay.
  • Limerick City and the River Shannon at sunset.
  • Cast iron sculpture avAntony Gormley located in the Central Plaza iUniversity of Limerick.

See also

  • List of Limerick people
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Limerick”. Limerick.com. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  2. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – (cont.) Population Classified by Table 6, the population of each province, county, city, urban, rural and selection division, in 2006 and 2011, p. 91
  3. ^ Jump up to: abc “Local Electoral Area Boundary Committee Report” (PDF). Boundarycommittee.ie. Dublin: Government of Ireland. 2003. ISBN 978-1-4064-2767-7. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ “This is Ireland” (PDF). Cso.ie.
  5. Jump up ^ “Limerick – Definition of limerick by Merriam-Webster.”Merriam-webster.com.
  6. Jump up ^ From loimeanach [l̪imʲənəx] means “bare marsh” or “bare land” applied originally part of the shore land of the Shannon immediately below the present city
  7. Jump up ^ “Census 2011 – Population Classified by Area (Table 5: Population of cities, commissioned by the county and size, 2006 and 2011)” (PDF). Cso.ie. Government of Ireland. 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  8. Jump up ^ “Limerick pin Heritage Project -Parteen-Meelick-Coonagh Parish”. Limerickdioceseheritage.org.
  9. Jump up ^ “History of Limerick”.
  10. Jump up ^ Hodkinson, Brian (2002). “Topography Pre-Norman Limerick”. North Munster Antiquarian Journal. 42 : 1-6.
  11. Jump up ^ Gernon, Luke A Discourse of Ireland in 1620, edited by CL Falkiner 1904
  12. ^ Jump up to: ab “Limerick Port”. Libraryireland.com.
  13. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  14. Jump up ^ “Census of record 1821 figures.” Cso.ie. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  15. Jump up ^ “Histpop.org”. Histpop.org. 2 April 2007. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  16. Jump up ^ NISRA. “Nisra.gov.uk”. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved twelve August of 2010.
  17. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  18. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  19. Jump up ^ “Cllr Liam Galvin was elected Mayor of Limerick City and County Council”. Limerickleader.ie.
  20. Jump up ^ “Jerry O’Dea elected new mayor of Limerick metropolitan districts”. Limerickleader.ie.
  21. Jump up ^ “List of the mayors and sheriffs in Limerick City – 1197-present”.
  22. Jump up ^ “local authorities”. Citizensinformation.ie.
  23. Jump up ^ “Limerick City Development Board – strategy for economic and social development” (PDF).
  24. ^ Jump up to: ab Statutory Instruments SI No 56 of 2014 the city and county of Limerick electoral areas and municipal Order 2014
  25. Jump up ^http://www.limerickcity.ie/YourCouncil/ElectedMembers/Elections23rdMay2014/ Archive June 25, 2014 vidWayback Machine.
  26. Jump up ^ “The Irish Times, Local election results for Limerick County Council”. The Irish Times.
  27. Jump up ^ From [1] by Met Éireann; see “Shannon Airport (Weather Observing Stations)”.
  28. Jump up ^ EVA International (exhibition of visual arts), Ireland.
  29. Jump up ^ “Lime Tree Theatre – Limerick Premier Live site”. Lime Tree Theatre.
  30. Jump up ^ Belltable Arts Centre goes into liquidation – RTÉ News.RTÉ.ie. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  31. Jump up ^ “About Us”. Frank McCourt Museum. In 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  32. Jump up ^ Loomis, 1963, pp. 153-157.
  33. Jump up ^ ‘youtube.com’. youtube.com. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  34. Jump up ^ The phrase “come to Limerick” is famous in American slang since the Civil War, as documented in historical Dictionary of American Slang and services on the American Dialect Society list. One possible derivation of the term, as suggested by Stephen Goranson on the ADS list, the Treaty of Limerick, which means “surrender”, “loose”, “get to the point.”
  35. Jump up ^ reported by Stephen Goranson on the ADS list and in comments at Oxford etymologist blog
  36. Jump up ^ “River 2-5 MAJ 2014”. Limerick.ie.
  37. Jump up ^ Kathryn Hayes (6 May 2014). “River attracts record numbers to Limerick City.” Limerick Independent.
  38. Jump up ^ “Limerick city street names beginning with N ‘. Limerick lives.
  39. Jump up ^ “LimerickCity.ie/CityMuseum”.
  40. Jump up ^ “Limerick pin site ‘.
  41. Jump up ^ “List of antipodes”.
  42. Jump up ^ “Census reveals Irish population now over 4.58m.” RTE News.30 June 2011.
  43. Jump up ^ “Database – Eurostat”. Europa.eu.
  44. Jump up ^ Limerick can get Polish bank – breakingnews.ie 7 December 2006
  45. Jump up ^ “CSO.ie – 2006 Census preliminary report – See” Limerick City, “” Meelick rural area “and” rural Limerick “” (PDF).
  46. ^ Jump up to: ab Hurley, David (July 2012 2). “Limerick estates, unemployment in hard.” Limerick Leader. Retrieved 27 maj2013.
  47. Jump up ^ Lysaght, W. (1968) ” The Abbey Letterman ” Treaty Press Ltd, Limerick.
  48. Jump up ^ McInerney, Jim (2005) ” The Gandelow: a Shannon Estuary fishing boat ” AK Ilen Company Ltd., ISBN 0-9547915-1-7
  49. Jump up ^ Mac Cárthaigh, Críostóir, Editor (2008) ” traditional boats in Ireland ” (http://www.tradboats.ie/ traditional boats in Ireland consortium) Collins Press, Cork, ISBN 9781905172399
  50. Jump up ^ Clare traditional boat and Currach Project 2008,http://www.clarelibrary.ie/eolas/coclare/heritage/pdfs/clare_traditional_boat_and_currach_project_2008.pdf
  51. Jump up ^ Sharrock, David (8 January 2009). “Dell delivers blow to Ireland with the closure.” The Times. London.
  52. Jump up ^ “50 new high-tech jobs for Dell Raheen factory.” Limerick Leader. March 30, 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  53. Jump up ^ “1900 jobs lost at Dell in Limerick”. RTE News. 8 January 2009.
  54. Jump up ^ “Milk Market wins RIAI award”. Dennany Reidy Associates.Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  55. Jump up ^ “M7 Express Bus Service from Ennis to Dublin via Limerick and Kildare – Dublin Coach”. Dublincoach.ie.
  56. Jump up ^ “Limerick station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 5 September of 2007.
  57. Jump up ^ Galway to Limerick Railway on track for 2007 westontrack.com
  58. Jump up ^ Lane Joynt, William, Proposal on the creation of a Limerick Athenaeum , 1853. George McKern & Sons, Limerick.
  59. Jump up ^ Mary Immaculate College . Education in Ireland. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  60. Jump up ^ University Arena , University of Limerick Foundation.Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  61. Jump up ^ “Arup wins prize for Living Bridge”. Irishconstruction.com.Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  62. Jump up ^ “LM085 Engineering in Civil Engineering”. University of Limerick. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  63. Jump up ^ TI future secure in the new merger with Limerick , Nationalist February 22, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  64. Jump up ^ “WBTF 2008 World Championships.”
  65. Jump up ^ Limerick European sport in 2011 , Shannon Development, October 15, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  66. Jump up ^ Sporting Limerick Facebook page. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  67. Jump up ^ UL come from behind to win the Fitzgibbon Cup , Sports News Ireland on 25 February 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  68. Jump up ^ Gaelic Grounds eSports manager . Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  69. Jump up ^ Cotter, Patrick J., A History of Limerick Golf Club, 1891 – 1991, 1991, Treaty of Trade.
  70. Jump up ^ JP McManus named Limerick Person of the Year in 2010 , The Irish Times on February 11, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  71. Jump up ^ tournament history , JP McManus Invitational Pro Am.Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  72. Jump up ^ Limerick Rugby Full Of Heroes, The Daily Telegraph , 24 May 2002. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  73. Jump up ^ Limerick ready to create the Legends, The Independent, May 27, 2000. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  74. Jump up ^ “Rugby”. Limerickslife.com. 20 May 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  75. Jump up ^ Munster beat Australia at Thomond Park, Limerick PostNovember 17, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  76. Jump up ^ “IRELAND AIM for Super League PAGE”. Sporting Life. On May 1, 2011. Archived from the original January 18, 2012.
  77. Jump up ^ “Limerick launches bid for Rugby League World Cup games.”Thescore.ie. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  78. Jump up ^ Dunne, Eoin, starting Limerick recovery taking shape , the Irish Independent, 26 January 2006. Retrieved March 8 201.
  79. Jump up ^ Limerick FC look set to return to the market Field , The Irish Times, 3 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March, 2011.
  80. Jump University’s catalog of publications

Castle Oliver

Castle Oliver (also Clonodfoy ) is a Victorian mock castle in the southern part of County Limerick, Ireland. Built for entertaining rather than for defense, it has a ballroom, salon, library, morning room, dining room and hall that has been hand-painted ceilings, decorated ornamental brackets, superbly executed glass windows and stencil work. The castle stands on massive terraces and a view over a large part of its former 20,000-acre (81 km2 ) property. The castle has been Ireland’s largest wine cellar, is said to hold about 55,000 bottles. From May to September 2014 was the Castle Oliver opened to the public in connection with “Limerick Capital of Culture” for house tours.

History

The countries where the castle stands was settled around 1658 by the captain. Robert Oliver, one of Oliver Cromwell’s soldiers. The present castle replaced the former Castle Oliver, who was a thousand yards to the southwest and was the birthplace of Eliza Oliver, mother of the notorious Lola Montez, who became lovers and favorite King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

Castleoliver east facade with the ballroom and dining room in the main block, staff wing and coach house on the right

 

The castle was for many years known as Clonodfoy, a contraction of an earlier Irish place names: Cloch a Otbhaidhigh, which means “stone structure Otway”, Otway is an Anglo-Norman surnames.

Capt. Robert Oliver descendant Richard Oliver married a Yorkshire heiress through which he inherited wealth and property in West Yorkshire, and moved to live in Parlington Hall near Wetherby, leaving Castleoliver to deteriorate in the hands of a bailiff. Their daughters, Mary and Elizabeth Isabella Oliver Gascoigne, both married members of the Trench family Woodlawn, Galway. The younger sister, Elizabeth, married Frederic Mason Trench, 2nd Baron Ashtown 1852. The sisters were very skilled craftsmen, designing and implementing both glass painting work and verre eglomise (back-painted glass panels) as ornate ballroom fireplace. A large part of their work has survived. The elder sister, Mary Isabella, was a very skilled wood turner published (under the male pseudonym), an authoritative book on the subject, “The Art of Wood-turning”, still a respected source of information on the subject.

The sisters commissioned the present castle in 1845. It was designed by York architect George Fowler Jones in Scottish Baronial style, built of local pink sandstone, mined in the yard. Fowler Jones had designed several important assignments for the sisters in northern England, including almshouses and kyrkor.Medan Mary Isabella and her husband made their home in the Yorkshire seat Gascoigne (Parlington Hall), Elizabeth and her husband occupied the Castle Oliver. The house later inherited by Elizabeth step-grandson, the Honourable William Cosby Trench.

The final member of the Trench family to live at Castle Oliver, wife Lynn Trench, sold the property to racer Billy Coleman in 1978. After that the castle changed hands several times, eventually becoming the property of a local bank, which broke up the remaining land, farm and lodges in separate parts.The castle itself failed to find a buyer and languished in disrepair, falling prey to vandals and thieves. It appeared in the book “Limit the Houses of Ireland”, published by the Irish Georgian Society.

In 1988 was bought by the late Damian Haughton, which according to the subsequent owner, put an end to most of the worst leaks in the roof. In 1998 was bought by Nicholas Browne, who continued the restoration and converted back to a livable dwelling. In 2006 passed to Declan and Emma Cormack, who finished high quality restoration and made the castle his home. In 2015 Cormacks sold it to an unnamed family from Melbourne, Australia to use as a home for “several months”. [1]

References

  1. Jump up ^ Sheridan, Anne. “€ 3m Limerick castle was sold to Australian investors.” Limerick Leader. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  • Castle Oliver and Oliver Gascoigne Nicholas Browne;
  • Burke guide till Irish Country Houses av Mark Bence-Jones ;
  • Ardpatrick by John Fleming

Adare Manor

Adare Manor is a mansion located on the banks of the River Maigue in the village of Adare, County Limerick, Ireland, the former seat of the Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl. The present house was built in the early 19th century, but retains some of the walls of the 17th-century structure. It is now Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort, a luxury resort hotel.

History

The first mention of a manor house in the country following the Norman invasion of Ireland. 1226, King Henry III gave a contribution to the Justiciary Ireland Geoffroi the Morreis (de Marisco) to hold an eight-day annual fair for the feast of St. James on his Adare Manor. [3]

The lands later was granted to the Earl of Kildare, members of the Welsh-Norman FitzGerald family who came to Ireland in 1169. In 1536, denhandling of attainder was passed against Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, whose lands, castles and mansions were forfeited to the Crown.

In a letter dated March 24, 1547, the boy King Edward VI granted the Earls of Desmond ‘estates and possessions, and Croom Adare, County Limerick, to keep for life. ” [4] The contribution was short-lived; the Desmond Rebellions took control of the land to St. Leger family. For the next century, countries have gone from 10 families: St. Leger, Zouch, gold, Rigges, Wallop, Norreis (Norris), Jephson., Evans, Ormesby (Ormsby), and then Quin [5]

Thady Quin, Esq. (1645-1726) in Gortfadda, County Leitrim, bought the group in 1669 and continued to add to the surrounding soil through 1702. He was the last land grant Adare, December 16, 1684 to hold the land for a thousand years “payment Gilbert Ormsby and his heirs rent of £ 230. ” [6] the earliest part of the first mansion was probably a public oblong towers, probably built by Thady Quin in the late 17th century. [3]

The deed transportation, February 23, 1721 transferred the following land to Thady eldest son, Valentine Quin:

The farm Adare extended north nearly to Shannon, and perceived a significant part of the parishes of Kildimo and Chapel Russell and the northwestern part of Adareplacera in the barony of Coshma, with part of Drehidtarsna and parts of Kilkeedy and Croom, located in the Barony Pubblebrien. The Manor of Tobernea was put in the southeastern part of the county, which covers the extreme southern part of the Barony of Coshma, with the adjacent part of Coshlea, and contained a considerable part of the parishes of Effin, Ballingarry and Kilbreedy Minor

– Caroline Wyndham-Quin, Countess of Dunraven, Monuments from Adare Manor, 1865

Valentine Quin was the grandfather of Valentine Richard Quin (1752-1824), the first Earl of Dunraven. Valentine Richard Quin, MP for Kilmallock (1799-1800), was created a Baronet of Great Britain in 1781 and was elevated to the peerage in 1800 as Baron Adare. He was taken to a Viscountcy 1816 Viscount Mount Earl and became Viscount Adare and the first Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl February 5 1822. He chose the title Dunraven honor of his daughter-in-law Caroline Wyndham, daughter and heiress of Thomas by Wyndham Dunraven Castle, which in 1810 had married his eldest son and heir, Henry Windham Quin.

Around 1785, the first Earl of Dunraven made significant changes in Adare Manor, raising more walls and switch the input from the south front to the northwest side. [7] In 1786, was described as “a very noble structure with fine and extensive demesnes. ” [8]

Valentine Richard Quin’s earldom lasted only two years; on his death in 1824 the title went to Windham Henry Quin, the second Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl. The new Earl, who suffers avgikt and confined indoors, remodeled their home, turning it from a classical Georgian mansion in a large Tudor Revival mansion. [9] To build the new mansion involved the reconstruction, expansion and subsequent demolition of the former 18 century mansion in the Quin family. [1] started in 1832, construction provided work for people from the surrounding villagers during the potato famine. [2]

Some of the old walls of the mansion was preserved and encased in the new work, including the north and south walls of the dining room, and the walls between hall and gallery. When the walls of the old tower was broken to form the door between the hall and gallery, a silver coin “of considerable antiquity” was discovered. [10] The design was still unfinished at the death of the second earl in 1850, after which the family consultant architect Philip Charles Hardwick, who ” with a lot of talent and they closed the southern and western fronts, for their own motives, after the general plan as intended by the late Earl, “the widow wrote. [11]

Even Lady Caroline claimed that the Adare Manor completely planned by her husband at first, [2] the first architectural plans for the house were made by James and George Richard Pain. The client dispensed with his services, however, around 1838, and Lord Dunraven continued with the design of the house itself with the help of English architect Lewis Cottingham Nock Almighty. The initial phase of construction was completed in the master mason, James Connolly, along with the other Earl of Dunraven and his wife, who incorporated their favorite buildings in the design. [1]

Augustus Pugin was hired in 1846 to design a portion of the interior features, including the great hall. The three-story Southern range and the tower with pyramidal roof, supplemented by the third Earl of Dunraven between 1850 and 1862, was built to the design of Philip Charles Hardwick. [1]

An inscription on the eastern front of the Adare Manor celebrates “James Connolly Adare, masons, faithful friend and servant of the Earl of Dunraven, from AD 1831 to his death in 1852.” [12]

The new mansion was built of large blocks of gray, red and brown limestone.On the battlements of the southern front, a verse from Psalm 127: 1 is etched in old English characters: “Except the Lord build the house: their labor but lost that build it.” Another verse “Love God onely,” “Honor and obey the Queen” and “Eschew evil and do good” is carved on the colonnade. [11]

At the time of Griffith’s Valuation 1868, the property was valued at only £ 130 (equivalent to £ 10,549 in 2015); 1906 buildings at Adare Manor was valued at just £ 182 (equivalent to £ 17,655 in 2015). [8]

subsequent reaction

Thady Wyndham-Quin, 7th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl (1939-2011), who was paralyzed by polio during a school, lived with his family in a nearby house called Kilgobbin House. Unable to bear the cost of maintaining the Adare Manor, he sold it and its contents in 1982 an investment consortium.In 1987 the house was bought by Thomas Kane Irish American from Florida.[13] It was then renovated and remodeled to become the Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort. [2]

On January 30, 2015 Adare Manor was bought by Limerick businessman JP McManus for an estimated 30 million €. McManus host pro-am golf event at Adare in 2005 and 2010. [14] On 28 and 29 January 2016 many of the hotels contents were sold at public auction. [15]

Design

The building is a calendar house, with 365 windows and 52 chimneys, among other design features. Along the top of the building an extract of Psalm 127: 1 is made of carved stone “Except the Lord build the house, then labor but lost that built it.”

Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort

The house is located on a 840 acre (3.4 km 2 ) property and now works as a five-star hotel, featuring Adare Golf Club, Lavender Cottage, townhouses and villas on the rest of the resort. Adare Manor was voted ‘Ireland’s Leading Hotel “at the World Travel Awards 2010, 2011 and 2012 and” World’s Leading Boutique Golf Resort “in 2012. [16] From the spring of 2016 the main hotel remains closed for renovation, but the villas are still in operation. [17]

Golf

Adare Golf Club, an 18-hole golf course designed by Robert Trent Jones Sr., was added to the resort in 1995 and was the site of the Irish Open in 2007 and 2008. It also played host to JP McManus Invitational Pro Am in 2005 and 2010.[18] McManus has confirmed Invitational Pro Am will return to Adare Manor in either 2016 or 2017. [19]

Adare Manor Golf Club, founded in 1900, is not part of the Adare Manor Resort.

Cricket

A cricket ground has been added to the mansion and became the home of Limerick Cricket Club, a club in Munster Cricket Union in 2011, therefore ended the nomadic nature of the club. The club has been remarkably successful in his first year playing in the ground.

In popular culture

Adare Manor and its grounds were used for the 1977 comedy The Last Remake of Beau Geste , starring Marty Feldman, Ann-Margret and Michael York. [20]

In 2010, Adare Manor served as judges houses for Sharon Osbourne and Louis Walsh on The X Factor . [21]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcde “National Inventory of Architectural Heritage: Adare Manor” .Institutionen of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcd “Fact Sheet”. Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort.
  3. ^ Jump up to: ab Wyndham-Quin, p. 137th
  4. Jump up ^ Wyndham-Quin, pp. 245-246.
  5. Jump up ^ Wyndham-Quin, p. 145.
  6. Jump up ^ Wyndham-Quin, p. 38.
  7. Jump up ^ Wyndham-Quin, p. 121st
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab “Landed estates database: Estate – Adare Manor”. NUI Galway. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  9. Jump up ^ “Adare Manor’s history.” Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort.Hämtad14 March 2015.
  10. Jump up ^ Wyndham-Quin, p. 147th
  11. ^ Jump up to: ab Wyndham-Quin, p. 7.
  12. Jump up ^ “Conolly, James.” Dictionary of Irish Architects.
  13. Jump up ^ Alan Cowell (20 June 1999). “Cash of the Irish speak in the palace.” The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  14. Jump up ^ Pamela Newenham (4 February 2015). “Adare Manor is sold to the businessman JP McManus.”. Irish Times. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  15. Jump up^ http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/pics-relics-of-ascendency-under-the-hammer-at-adare-manor-auction-378795.html
  16. Jump up ^ “Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort”. World Travel Awards.Hämtad14 March 2015.
  17. Jump up ^ “Temporary closure for renovation.” Adare Manor Hotel.Download Twelve April 2016.
  18. Jump up ^ “Golf Society brochure” (PDF). Adare Manor Hotel.Hämtad14 March 2015.
  19. Jump up ^ “JP McManus confirms returned Golf Pro-Am Adare Manor” .Limerickleader.ie.
  20. Jump up ^ Ireland Today Issues 879-941. Ireland today. 1976. p. 70th
  21. Jump up ^ “Beautiful Adare Manor shows it has the X Factor.” Limerick Leader. 28 August 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2015.

A Challenge

(/ ædeɪr /; Irish: Áth Dara , which means “ford of [] oak” [2] ) ( the Population 2454 (CSO, 2006) [1] is a town in County Limerick, Ireland.

General information

Adare origin is a settlement with a crossing point on the River Maigue. It is 16 km (10 mi) from Limerick city. Known as one of Ireland’s most beautiful villages, [3] Adare is designated as a heritage town by the Irish government.Because of the influence of the Fitzgerald family, a large part of the village formally planned.

Economy

Adare is a tourist destination and homestead, which gives insight into the history of the village, also hosts a number of craft shops. The city is also a popular wedding and conference venue. Adare has two 18-hole golf courses – the Adare Golf Club, which includes a driving range, which was the site of the 2007 and 2008 Irish Open, Adare Manor Golf Club and a pitch and putt course. Limerick also an equestrian center, Clonshire.

accommodation

The village has three hotels: the Adare Manor., The Dunraven Arms and east of the village on the way to Croom, Woodlands House Hotel [4]

Architecture

Tir Na Nog, an historic thatched cottage in Adare, here in 2013. Built as part of the Fitzgerald estate in 1835-1870, it was destroyed by a fire in June 2015.[5]

The main street combines typical Irish architecture with English-style buildings and infrastructure built specifically for Fitzgerald’s nest. Examples of the latter include architectural forms thatched cottages near the entrance to Adare Manor.

schools

There are four primary schools in Adare: St Joseph’s National School (Catholic boys), [6] Our Lady’s Abbey National School (Catholic girls), [7] St. Nicholas’ National School (Church of Ireland, mixed) [8] , and Shountrade National School (Catholic, mixed).

The village’s only high school, Adare CBS, was closed in 1973.

Transport

The main Limerick – Tralee road, the N21 passes through the village, which is heavy congestion. In late 2015 a corridor for the long-delayed bypass was chosen that adapts highway 21 north of the village as part of a new dual carriageway is planned to link the port Foynes to Limerick.

Adare is a stop on Bus Eireann’s Limerick-Tralee / Killarney bus and Dublin Coach Dublin-Tralee / Killarney service. Both run every hour.

The abandoned “Limerick-Foynes” railroad crossing half a mil to the northwestern part of the city. [9] Adare railway station was opened July 12, 1856 Limerick and Foynes rail companies, was closed to passengers on February 4, 1963 and freight 2 December 1974. The line Foynes continued to carry freight until it was mothballed in 2001 and has seen no trains since 7 May 2002 when the annual Irish Rail weeds pray train visited the line. The line, named the engineers siding, is still officially open to traffic. [10]

History

The ancient city lying on the eastern shore of Maigue near the ford (crossing point) from which the village takes its name. Because of the strategic importance of the river crossing Desmond Castle was built at the site, near the Ardshanbally (derived from Ard a tSeanbhaile – “high ground of the old city”), about half a mil from the modern city on the western side. Historically a market town in the Middle Ages, Adare boasted three monasteries. Because of the influence of the Earl of Dunraven, who built Adare Manor (now a luxury resort hotel) a strict plan that was out of town.

August Priory

August Priory was founded in 1316 by John FitzThomas FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare. Priory was suppressed in the reign of Henry VIII. In 1807, the church priory given to the local Church of Ireland parish as a parish church.[11] In 1814, the dining room ceiling and converted into a school. Between 1852 and 1854 there was a second restoration of the church are performed Caroline, Countess of Dunraven.

Franciscan Abbey

The Franciscan friary was founded in 1464 by Thomas Fitz-Maurice, 7th Earl of Kildare and his wife Joan and completed two years later. It is currently a ruin and is located inside the Adare Manor Golf Club. [11] Every Easter Sunday a dawn mass is celebrated in the monastery. [ Citation needed ]

Trinitarian Abbey

The Trinitarian Order established their only monastery in Ireland in Adare in 1230. [11] However, it is likely that the Trinitarian monks who came to Adare may have come from Scotland. The Abbey was restored in 1811 by the first Earl of Dunraven as a Catholic parish church.

Desmond Castle

A castle or fortress is said to have first been built by an ancient ring fort, through O’Donovans, rulers of the region in the late 12th century, and afterwards to have gone into the possession of the Kildare branch of the FitzGerald dynasty, which may be responsible for most of the residues of the present fortress (as occurred with Croom castle, also on Maigue). Desmond Castle, as it is popularly called, is on the north shore of Maigue. An extensive renovation has been going on at the castle since 1996 and supervised tours are offered during the summer months. This is one of a number of significant Desmond properties, which also includes the banquet hall in Newcastle West, another castle in Askeaton and near Castle Matrix Rathkeale, further west in County Limerick.

annalistic references

  • AI982.4 Tree Mag Adar was broken by Leth Cuinn.

Historic surname Adare

According to the census of Ireland in 1901 and 1911 some common surname include: Brennan, Carmody, Chawke, Hickey, McNamara, Kelly McMahon, Ryan Smith, Hogan, Lyons, O’Donnell, O’Regan, Switzerland, Fitzgerald Walsh.

Sports

  • Interesting faktaGaelic games, especially hurling, are popular in Adare.The Adare GAA club was formed in 1929. The senior hurling team has won the county championship in 2001, 2002, 2007 and 2008. In football, Adare has been less successful, but in 2002 Adare only narrowly lost the county title in the Limerick senior football.
  • The local football team is called Adare United AFC. They currently play at Deer Park Field, which lies just outside the Black Abbey Road in the village. Founded in 1937, Adare one of the oldest football clubs outside the city of Limerick. Adare United participating in Limerick Desmond Schoolboys / girls League at under 8, U10, U12, U14 and U16 age groups and in Limerick Desmond League Junior (adult) and youth level. 2006/07 season saw the club create its first women’s team, which competes in the Ladies Limerick Desmond League. In the 2009/10 season, the ladies were runners up in the League Cup, losing on penalties to Glin Rovers FC. The team was also Cup finalists the following year, this time in Desmond’s Cup but were beaten by FC Murroe. The Under 10 team was the Division 3 champion in the 2008/09 season and the Division 4 winners in 2010/11. During the eight-team completed a league and cup double in 2010 / 11.Junior team won promotion from Division Two in the season 08/09 and immediately gained promotion to the top division the following year. Adare Desmond won the Ladies Cup in the 2011/2012 season and was second in the league Div. 1st
  • The Irish Open golf championship was held there in 2007 and 2008. There are two 18-hole golf courses in the village: the Adare Golf Club which is due to the Adare Manor Hotel and Adare Manor Golf Club, which is a separate entity.
  • Limerick Cricket Club plays in the manor field complex south of the village.
  • The city also plays a role in West Limerick athletics scene, with the host Adare 10K run every February since 1994.
  • Adare was the national winner of the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in 1976. [12]
  • Cape Adare (Antarctica) was named after Viscount Adare by his friend Captain Ross in January 1841. [13]

Twin cities

  • Buchloe, Germany
  • Buckow, Germany [14]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007 Archives (PDF) from the original June 7, 2011.Taken 2011-06-14.
  2. Jump up ^ historical notes at the Adare by Thomas Edward Bridgett
  3. Jump up ^ Tour Shannon Region – Shannon Development
  4. Jump up ^ Fitzgerald’s Woodlands House Hotel
  5. Jump up ^ Woulfe, Jimmy (9 June 2015). “Thatcher’s grief at Adare house fires.” Irish Examiner. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  6. Jump up ^ Scoil Naomh Iosaf website
  7. Jump up ^ Our Lady Abbey website
  8. Jump up ^ St. Nicholas’ National School website
  9. Jump up ^ Industrial Heritage Ireland – Adare Station photographs
  10. Jump up ^ “Adare station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Archive (PDF) from the original September 26, 2007 is taken. 2007-09-08.
  11. ^ Jump up to: abc “History”, Adare Village
  12. Jump up ^ http://www.tidytowns.ie/interior.php?id=74&pid=2
  13. Jump up ^ Lonely Planet Travel Guide: Antarctica
  14. Jump up ^http://www.adarevillage.com/history_and_info/visitor_information

County Limerick

County Limerick (Irish: Contae Luimnigh ) is a municipality in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster, and is also a part of the Mid-West region.It is named after the city of Limerick. Limerick City and County Council is the local authority for the county. The county’s population at the 2011 census, 191,809 of which 95,894 live in the city of Limerick, the county seat.[1]

Geography and political subdivisions

Limerick borders four other County Kerry in the west, in the north Clare, Tipperary to the east and Cork in the south. It is the fifth largest of the six Munster counties in size, and the second largest by population. The River Shannon flows through the city of Limerick in the Atlantic Ocean on the northern part of the county. Below the town, the waterway known as the Shannon estuary. Because the estuary is shallow, the county’s main port several kilometers west of the city, in Foynes. Limerick City is the county seat and is Ireland’s third largest city. It also serves as a regional center for the greater Midwest region. Newcastle West, Abbeyfeale and Kilmallock are other important cities in the county.

Baronies

There are fourteen historical baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by the placenta Orders made since 2003, where the official Irish name baronies listed under “administrative units”.

  • Clan (County Limerick) – Clann Liam
  • Lower Connello – Conallaigh Lower
  • Connello Øvre – Conallaigh Superior
  • Coonagh – Coonagh
  • Coshlea – Cois Laoi
  • Coshma – Coshma
  • Glenquin – Glen en Choim
  • Kenry – Caonraí
  • Kilmallock – Kilmallock
  • North fri- – North Liberties
  • Owneybeg – Green Small
  • Pubblebrien – Pubblebrien
  • Snid – Seanaid
  • Smallcounty – En hand Press

Towns and Villages

  • Abbeyfeale – (Abbeyfeale)
  • Adare – (ATH Dara)
  • Apart – (Atháin)
  • Anglesboro – (Gleann na gCreabhar)
  • Annacotty – (ATH en Choite)
  • Ardagh – (Árdach)
  • Ardpatrick – (ARD Pádraig)
  • Ashford – (Ashford)
  • Askeaton – (Askeaton)
  • Athea – (ATH en Mountain)
  • Athlacca – (Athlacca)
  • Ballingaddy – (Baile en Thief)
  • Ballingarry – (Ballingarry)
  • Ballinvreena – (Baile in Bhrianaigh)
  • Ballyagran – (Ballyagran)
  • Ballybricken – (Baile Bricin)
  • Ballylanders – (Baile en Londraigh)
  • Ballyhahill – (Baile DHA Thuile)
  • Ballyneety – (Baile en Whitestown)
  • Ballyorgan – (Ballyorgan)
  • Ballysheedy – Baile Shioda
  • Ballysteen – (Home Stiabhana)
  • Banogue – (An Bhànóg)
  • Barna – (Bearna)
  • Barrigone – (Bairrgeoin)
  • Boher – (An Bothar)
  • Bohermore – (An Bothar Mhor)
  • Broadford – (Mouth en Dublin)
  • Bruff – (Bruff)
  • Bruree – (BRU RI)
  • Bulgaden – (Bulgaidín)
  • Caherconlish – (City of Lis)
  • Caherline – (Leinster City)
  • Cappagh – (An Cheapach)
  • Cappamore – (An Cheapach Mhor)
  • Carrigkerry – (Carrigkerry)
  • Castleconnell – (Caislean Uí Chonaill)
  • Castlemahon – (MAI Tantallon Castle) ‘(eller Mahoonagh – Tantallon Mayo)
  • Castle – (Baile en Castle)
  • Castletroy – (Port en Castletroy)
  • Clarina – (Clarina)
  • Clouncagh – (Cluain Cath)
  • Colmanswell – (Cluain Token)
  • Coolcappagh – (Coolcappagh)
  • Crecora – (Fragrant Championship)
  • Creeves – (tree)
  • Croagh – (An Chruach)
  • Croom – (bending)
  • Doon – (DUN Bleisce)
  • Dooradoyle – (Prediction en Blind)
  • Dromcolliher – (Drom Collachair)
  • Dromin – (An Droimín)
  • Dromtrasna – (An Drom Tarsna)
  • Dromkeen – (Drom Chaoin)
  • Effin – (Eimhin)
  • Elton – (Eiltiún)
  • Fedamore – (Feadamair)
  • Feenagh – (Fenagh)
  • Feohanagh – (Feothanach)
  • Foynes – (Fank)
  • Galbally – (Gallbhaile)
  • Garryspillane – (Garryvoe Spealáin)
  • Glenbrohane – (Glen Bhruacháin)
  • Glenroe – (An Gleann Rua)
  • Glin – (Gleann Chorbraí)
  • Granagh – (Greanach)
  • Grange – (Grange)
  • Herbertstown – (Baile Hiobaird)
  • Hospitals – (An tOspidéal)
  • Kilbeheny – (Kilbehenny)
  • Kilcolman – (Cill Chólmáin)
  • Kilcornan – (Cill Churnáin)
  • Kildimo – (Kildimo)
  • Kilfinane – (Cill Fhionáin)
  • Kilfinny – (Cill na Fíonaí)
  • Killeedy – (Cill IDE)
  • Kilmallock – (Kilmallock)
  • Kilmeedy – (Cell m’Íde)
  • Kilteely – (Kiltealy)
  • Knockadea – (Cnoc DE)
  • Knockaderry – (Cnoc a Doire)
  • Knockainey – (Cnoc aine)
  • Knocklong – (Knocklong)
  • Limerick – (Luimneach)
  • Lisnagry – (Lios na speechless)
  • Lough Gur – (Loch Un)
  • Loughill – (Leamhchoill)
  • Manister – (Abbey)
  • Martins – (Home Martin)
  • Meanus – (Meanus)
  • Monagea – (Moin Na NBE)
  • Monaleen – (moin in “LIN)
  • Montpelier – (Montpelier)
  • Mountcollins – (Collins Hill)
  • Mungret – (Mungairit)
  • Murroe – (Maigh Rua)
  • Newbridge – (Newbridge)
  • Newcastle West – (Newcastle West)
  • Nicker – (An Choinicéir)
  • Old Mill – (The tSeanmhuillean)
  • Old Pallas – (An tSeanphailís)
  • Oola – (Ulla)
  • Pallas – (Pallasgreen)
  • Pallaskenry – (Pallaskenry)
  • Patricks – (Patrickswell)
  • Raheen – (Raheen)
  • Raheenagh – (Raheenagh)
  • Rathkeale – (Ráth slender)
  • Rockhill – (Rock Hill)
  • Shanagolden – (Seanghualainn)
  • Strand – (An TRA)
  • Templeglantine – (Team en glens)
  • Tournafulla – (Tuar na Fola)

physical geography

One possible meaning for the county’s name in Irish ( Luimneach ) is “flat surface”; this statement is correct, because the soil is composed mostly of a fertile limestone plain. In addition, the county surrounded by mountains: the Slieve Felimsto northeast, Galtees) in the south-east, the Ballyhoura Mountains in the south, and Mullaghareirk mountains in southwest and west. The highest point in the county is located in the southeastern corner of Galtymore (919 m), which differs from Limerick County Tipperary. The county is not just an ordinary, its topography consists of hills and ridges. The eastern part of the county is part of the Golden Vale, who is well known for dairy products and consists of rolling low hills. This gives way to very flat land around the center of the county, with the exception of Knockfierna at 288 meters high. Towards the west, the Mullaghareirk Berg ( Mullach a Radhairc in Irish, means “Mountain of view”) pressure across the county offers sweeping views east across the county and west to County Kerry.

Volcanic rock found in several areas of the county, at Carrigogunnell on Knockfierna, and mainly Pallas / Kilteely in the east, which has been described as the most compact and for its size one of the most varied and complete carboniferous volcanic districts in either the United Kingdom and Ireland .

Tributaries of the Shannon River Basin is located in the county include rivers Mulkear, Loobagh, Maigue, Camogue, Morningstar, Deel and Feale.

History

Main article: History of Limerick
From the 4th to the 12th century, the ancient kingdom of Uí Fidgenti was about the same extent with what is now County Limerick, with some of the easternmost part of the domain Eóganacht Aine. After finally lost one of two century-long conflict with neighboring O’Brien Dal gCais, most of the leaders fled to County Kerry and soon thereafter County Cork. Their countries were almost immediately occupied by Fitzgerald and Norman families who permanently prevented their return. Ancestors both Michael Collins and the famous O’Connell of Derrynane was among those princes UI Fidgenti. The Nordic-Irish O’Donovans, descendants of the infamous Donnubán mac Cathail, was the leading family at the time and was responsible for konflikten.Man think people had established themselves in the Lough Gur area in the county as early as 3000 BC while the megalithic remains found at Duntryleague goes back further to 3500 BC. The arrival of the Celts around 400 BC led to the division of the county into petty kingdom or tuatha .

The exact ethnicity of UI Fidgenti lost to history and everything that is known for sure is that they were cousins of the equally shady Uí Liatháin of early British fame. Officially, both said to be related to Eóganachta but a variety of evidence suggests associations to Dáirine and Corcu Loígde, and thus far the infamous Ulaid of ancient Ulster. In any case, it is thought UI Fidgenti still make a significant contribution to the population in the central and western regions of County Limerick. Their capital was Dun Eochair, the great earthworks that still exists and can be found near the modern town of Bruree, on the River Maigue. Catherine Coll, mother tillÉamon de Valera, was born in Bruree and that’s where he was taken by her brother raised.

Christianity came to Limerick in the 5th century, and resulted in the establishment of important monasteries in Limerick, at Ardpatrick, Mungret and Kileedy. From this golden age in Ireland for Learning and Art (5th-9th centuries), one of Ireland’s greatest artefacts, The Ardagh Chalice, a masterpiece of metalwork, which was found in a west Limerick fort in 1868th

The arrival of the Vikings in the 9th century led to the establishment of the city on an island on the River Shannon in 922. death of Domnall Mór Ua Briain, King of Munster in 1194 resulted in the invading Normans taking control of Limerick, and in 1210, the County of Limerick was formally established. Over time, the Normans became “more Irish than the Irish themselves” as they say. The Tudors in England wanted to curb the power of these Gaelicised Norman rulers and centralize all power in their hands, so they established colonies of English in the county. This caused the leading Limerick Normans, The Geraldine, to revolt against English rule in 1569. This sparked a savage war in Munster called the Desmond Rebellions, when the province was wasted, and the confiscation of the great estates in Geraldine.

Patrick Sarsfield Dominant Jacobite general, Limerick weapons.

The county would further ravaged by war in the next century. After the Irish rebellion in 1641, the city of Limerick is in a siege by the Catholic General Garret Barry in 1642. The county is not fought over for most of the Irish League of war, of 1641-1653, which surely behind the front line of the Catholic League of Ireland. But it became a battleground during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649-1653. The invasion by the forces of Oliver Cromwell in the 1650s included a twelve month siege of the city by Cromwell’s New Model Army led by Henry Ireton. The city finally surrendered in October 1651. One of Cromwell’s generals, Hardress Waller was granted lands in Kilcornan Castle in County Limerick. During Williamite war in Ireland (1689-1691) the city was to endure another two sieges, one in 1690 and another in 1691st It was during the 1690 siege that the infamous destruction of Williamite weapons on Ballyneety, near the Pallas was conducted by General Patrick Sarsfield. The Catholic Irish, which covers the vast majority of the population, had eagerly supported the Jacobite cause, but the second siege of Limerick resulted in a loss to Williamites. Sarsfield managed to force Williamites to sign the Treaty Limerick, whose condition was satisfactory to the Irish. The Treaty was subsequently dishonored by the English and the city became known as the city of Broken Treaty.

On the 18th and 19th centuries saw a long period of persecution against the Catholic majority, many of which lived in poverty. Despite this repression, but the famous Maigue Poets strove to keep alive their ancient Gaelic poetry in cities like Croom and Bruree. The Great Famine of the 1840s set in motion the mass migration and a large decline in Irish as a spoken language in the county. This began to change around the beginning of the 20th century, changes in law from the British government made it possible for the farmers in the county to buy the land they had previously only had as tenants, paying high rent to absentee landlords.

Limerick saw much fighting during the War of 1919-1921 especially in the eastern part of the county. The subsequent Irish Civil War saw bitter fighting between the newly formed Irish Free State soldiers and IRA “Irregulars”, especially in the city (see the Irish Free State offensive).

Local governments and politics

Local government

The municipal area of Limerick are under the jurisdiction of Limerick City and County Council. The Council has responsibility for local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing in the city. The Council comprises elected parish council with an appointed full-time president who both city and county manager. Until June 2014 the county’s local government in the county was administered by two separate authorities, Limerick City Council and Limerick County Council. In October 2012 the Irish government published putting people First- action for effective municipal stated government policy of reform in all the key areas of local government in Ireland. Among the recommendations was a merger of Limerick City Council with Limerick County Council. The changes came into force on 1 June 2014.[8] Each municipality is ranked as the first level local administrative units NUTS 3 Mid-West region of Eurostat purposes.

Councillors

For the 2014 local elections, the city and county councils together so that the number of council seats was reduced to 40. The existing electoral districts or municipal districts are:

  • Adare Rathkeale – 6 Seats
  • Cappamore-Kilmallock – 7 Seats
  • Limerick City East – 8 Seats
  • Limerick City North – 6 Seats
  • Limerick City West – 7 Seats
  • Newcastle West – 6 Seats

constituencies

The county is part of the South constituency for the application of the EU elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Limerick City, [9] Shannon [10] and Kerry North-West Limerick. Along choose 10 deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.

Irish

There are 2,322 Irish speakers in County Limerick participating in six Gaelscoil (Irish language primary school) and three Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary schools). [11]

Culture

In 2014 became Limerick Ireland’s inaugural National City of Culture, with a wide range of artistic and cultural events that take place in various locations around the city. Limerick City Gallery of Art Pery Square is the city’s premier venue for contemporary art exhibitions. Theatres include Lime Tree Theatre, Mary I; University Concert Hall and Millennium Theatre, LIT everywhere in the city. Others include Friar Gate Kilmallock and Honey Fitz Lough Gur. The city has an active music scene, which has produced bands like The Cranberries. Limerick Art Gallery and the Art College cater for painting, sculpture and performance art of all styles. Limerick is also home to comedians The Rubber Bandits, D’unbelievables (Pat Shortt and Jon Kenny) and Karl Spain. Its most famous son is acting Richard Harris. The city is the setting for Frank McCourt memoir Angela’s Ashes and the film version.A limerick is a type of humorous verse of five lines with a Aabba rhyme schemes: the poem’s connection with the city is unclear, but the name is generally considered to be a reference to the city of Limerick or County Limerick, [33] [34] sometimes especially Maigue poets based in Croom and its surroundings, and may derive from an earlier form of nonsense verse parlor game that traditionally included a chorus that included “will [or not] you come (up) to Limerick? River is an annual summer festival held in Limerick. the festival began in 2004. Other festivals include the Knights of West Fest in Newcastle West, at Fleadh Feale Abbeyfeale and Ballyhoura International Walking Festival. is west of the county famous for its Irish music, song and dance, and is part of the Sliabh Luachra area of traditional Irish music along borders of County Cork, County Kerry and County Limerick]].

Tourist attractions

  • A challenge
  • Adare Manor
  • Castle Oliver
  • Clare Glens
  • Croom Castle
  • Curraghchase Forest Park
  • Foynes Flying Boat Museum
  • Clin-mouth Drive
  • Glenstal Abbey
  • King John slott
  • Lough Gur
  • Grange Stone Circle
  • Hunt Museum ]]

Transport

Rail

Central Station in Limerick called Colbert Station, named after West Limerick man Con Colbert who was executed after the Easter Rising of 1916. Limerick has three operational railway lines passing through it,

  • Limerick-Ballybrophy railway line that leads to North Tipperary stop at Castleconnell, Birdhill, Nenagh Cloughjordan and Roscrea
  • the line through Ennis County Clare continues to Galway as part of the western rail corridor
  • Limerick Junction line is the busiest line, connecting Limerick to Cork – Dublin Heuston line and the Limerick Junction – Clonmel – Waterford line.

In addition, a line leading to Foynes but the last revenue service was 2000.

Road & Bus

The M7 is the main road from Limerick to Dublin. The M / N20 connects the county of Cork. The road links the N21 Limerick to Tralee and travels through some of the main county towns Adare, Rathkeale]], Newcastle Westoch Abbeyfeale. The N / M18 road links the county to Ennis and Galway, while the N24 continues south east from Limerick to Waterford traveling through villages like Pallas and Oola. The N69, traveling a secondary road from Limerick city along the Shannon estuary by Clarina, Kildimo, Askeaton and Foynes and Glin continues to Listowel in County Kerry. It is the main road that connects the port of Foynes to Limerick city, but there are plans to upgrade this road to motorway status. The county’s regional / national bus hub is located next to Colbert Station and connects most parts of the city and county.

Air

No commercial airports are located in county Limerick and needs of the region served by Shannon Airport only 25 km away in County Clare which has many flights to Europe and North America. But some in the southern part of the county can also use Kerry Airport and Cork Airport which is also within an hour’s drive. Coonagh Aerodrome is located just outside the city near the border Clare used for light recreational boats. Foynes, a village in the western part of the county, had a unique role in the development of aviation. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, land-based aircraft lacked sufficient flying range for Atlantic crossings. Foynes was the last stop on the eastern shore of the floatplane. As a result, Foynes would become one of the major civilian airports in Europe during World War II. Surveying flights for the flying boat operations were made by Charles Lindbergh in 1933 and a terminal started in 1935. [2] the first transatlantic fermentation flight operated on July 5, 1937 a Pan Am Sikorsky S-42 services from Botwood, Newfoundland and Labrador Bay of Exploits and BOAC short Empire service from Foynes with successful transit of twelve and fifteen and a quarter hours, respectively. Services to New York, Southampton, Montreal, Poole and Lisbon followed the first non-stop New York service works June 22, 1942 25 hours 40 minutes. All this changed after the construction and opening in 1942 by Shannon Airport on flat marshland on the northern shore of the estuary. Foynes Flying-boat station was closed in 1946.

Hav

Originally Limerick port was located near the confluence of the Abbey and Shannon rivers at Kings Island. Today the port is located further downstream at Shannon with Dock Road and is run by Shannon Foynes Port Company (SFPC) that drives all marine activities in the Shannon Estuary. There is a general port facility. Plans to close the door and move all operations to the depth of the plant further downstream in Foynes has been abandoned. The plans included a major renovation of the dock area. Foynes is the main commercial deep port. SFPC is the second largest port facility in Ireland, handling over 10 million tonnes of cargo annually through the six terminals currently in operation.

Sport

Limerick is widely considered to be the Irish “spiritual” home Rugby Union,[12] , which is very popular in the county, particularly around the city of Limerick, which boasts many of Ireland’s most famous All-Ireland League teams; Garryowen, Shannon, Old Crescent, Young Munster is among the most prominent. Limerick Thomond Park is the home of Munster Rugby team, which enjoys the enthusiastic and often fanatical support throughout the county.

In the county, but it is the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) has the upper hand. Hurling is particularly strong in the east, center and south of Limerick.Limerick GAA play their home games at the Gaelic Grounds in Limerick City.They have vunnitAll-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship seven times, the last in 1973. The county has also won 19 Munster Championships last in 2013, and 11 National Hurling Leagues, the last success coming in 1997. Limerick Senior Hurling Championship is also one of the strongest club championship in the country . Historically dominated by two clubs, Ahane and Patrick. Clubs from the county has won the Munster Senior Club Championship six times, but has yet to win an All-Ireland Championship.

The other sport GAA Gaelic football is more popular in west Limerick, particularly along the Shannon estuary west of Askeaton and along the border Kerry. There are also football strongholds in the southeast part of the county and on the eastern outskirts of the city. Even one of the strongest teams in the country during the early years of the GAA, the game was in the county overshadowed by hurling throughout the 20th century and its last success in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the Sam Maguire trophy, was in 1896. But Limerick footballers seen a reversal of fortunes in recent years and contested another Munster Senior Football Championship finals in 2003 and 2004.

Limerick FC plays in the FAI Premier Division, the first tier of Irish football.The club have won the Premier Division twice in 1960 and 1980. They have also won the FAI Cup twice in 1971 and 1982. They currently play iMarkets Field.

The city also has one of Ireland 2:50 meter (55 km) swimming pools, at the University of Limerick Sports Arena, as well as one of Ireland’s best basketball teams, UL Eagles. The team plays in the Irish Premier League.Their home is also on the world class on campus.

Limerick is also the hometown of WBO world middleweight boxing Andy Lee, who defeated Matt Korobov December 13, 2014, Las Vegas. He became the first Irishman to win a world title on American soil since 1934th

Media

Broadcasting

RTÉ Lyric FM, a state-owned classical music radio station and part of RTÉ, broadcasts nationally from studios in Limerick city center. Limerick’s local radio station is Live 95FM, broadcasting from the “Radio House”, near the waterfront at Steamboat Quay. Spin South West, owned by Communicorp, shipments to County Kerry, Clare, Limerick, Tipperary and Laois southwest from its studios at landmarks in the Raheen Industrial Estate. West Limerick 102 sent from Newcastle West and is a community station for the western part of the county. The national program, RTE radio studios in the city, which is regularly used for broadcasting from Limerick.

Print

The two main newspapers that serve the city and county is the Limerick Leader and free newspaper Limerick Post. Limerick Leader writes three different versions: City, County and West Limerick. Limerick Chronicle is owned by the Leader and is primarily a city paper. Weekly Observer serve the western half of the county, while Vale Star covers the South Limerick and north Cork.

TV

Irish TV, a local television station, covers Limerick stories with their programs Limerick County issues that go out once a week.

Anthem

The song “Limerick you’re a lady” is traditionally associated with the county.It is often heard at sporting fixtures involving the county. [13] Seán South from Garryowen is another popular Limerick song and tells the story of the death of Limerick IRA member Sean South, who was killed during an attack on a Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks in County Fermanagh in 1957.

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Limerick)
  • High Sheriff of County Limerick
  • High Sheriff of Limerick City
  • Wild Atlantic Way

References

  1. Jump up ^ Central Bureau of Statistics Census 2011, “Population classified by area”, Table 1 Population in each province, county and city in real and percentage change, 2006 and 2011
  2. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  3. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  4. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  5. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  6. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  7. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  8. Jump up ^ “local authorities”. Citizensinformation.ie.
  9. Jump up ^ “Report on Dáil and European Parliament constituencies in 2007” (PDF). Constituency Commission. October 23, 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  10. Jump up ^ “Electoral (Amendment) Act 2009: Schedule”. Irish Statute Book database. Hämtadskrevs 29 September of 2010.
  11. Hoppa upp ^ “Irish Medium Education in Ireland in Pale, 2010-2011” (PDF) (på iriska). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Hämtat 9 januari 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ “Rugby, Limerick”. Virtual.
  13. Hoppa upp^ http://www.limerick.gaa.ie/limericksongs.html

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