CategoryCounty Laois

Dunamase

Dunamase eller The Rock of Dunamase ( Irish : Dún MASC [1] “fortet MASC”) är en klippa i townland Park eller Dunamase i County Laois . [1]Berget, 46 meter (151 fot) över en platt slätt, har ruinerna av Dunamase slott , en defensiv fäste anor från tidigt Hiberno-Norman period med utsikt över till Slieve Bloom bergen . Det är nära N80 vägen mellan städernaPortlaoise och Stradbally .

History

Archaeological excavations in the 1990s showed that the Rock first settled in the 9th century when an ancient fort or Dun was constructed on the site. The first known settlement on the mountain was Dun Masc Masc or Fort, an early Christian settlement was sacked in 842 by the Vikings. In 845 the Vikings in Dublin attacked the place and the abbot of Terryglass, Aed son of Dub dá Chrích, was killed there. [2] There is no clear evidence for the 10-11 century occupation.

The castle was built in the second half of the 12th century.

When the Normans arrived in Ireland in the late 12th century, became the most important Dunamase Hiberno-Norman fortification in Laois. It was Dunamase where Diarmuid MacMurrough, king of Leinster, took wife O’Rourke, King of Breifne after kidnapping her. Take the help of the O’Connor clan, the O’Connor and O’Rourke drove MacMurrough from Dunamase and he fled Irland.MacMurrough gave Dunamase and his daughter Aoife in marriage to Norman conqueror Strongbow in 1170 as part of a deal to enlist his help to regain their land. It is said that the first great Norman invasion of Ireland followed then when Strongbow together MacMurrough host of men, to attack and recover MacMurrogh chips.

Later, with the Marriage of Strongbow and Aoife daughter and heir, Isabel, passed the castle in the hands of the Marshal family. William Marshal, who later became the Regent of England in the minority of Henry III, had five sons, all of whom succeeded him in turn and died without problems. So in 1247 Marshal William lands were divided between five daughters. Dunamase fell to Eva Marshal, and then to his daughter, Maud, who was married to Roger Mortimer. The castle remained in Mortimer hands until 1330 when another Roger Mortimer was executed for treason. At the time the Mortimer family rehabilitated the castle seems to have gone out of the area under Norman control. It seems to have become a devastating scale of the 1350th

But by the 16th century was part of the land owned by O’More family, and it is so memorialised in a poem the 19th century, Transplanted , by William O’Neill:

But in vain I wait and listen for Rory Og’s death, and in the corridors of Dunamase a Saxon rules instead, and o’er his fruit acre stranger is now lord since Cuchorb a proud O’Moore kept the department.
After transplantation of O ‘More’ to Kerry, played his castle no part in the Cromwellian wars. The insulted 1650 to prevent its use. In the later 18th century, Sir John Parnell began building a banquet in ruins and this work included the medieval architectural details taken from other places in the area.

References

  • Hodkinson, Brian (2003). “A summary of the recent work on the Rock of Dunamase, Co. Laois “. At Kenyon, John R.; O’Conor, Kieran. The medieval castle in Ireland and Wales. Dublin. Four Courts Press ISBN 9,781,851,827,268th
  • Hodkinson, BJ (2003). “Sources for the history Dunamase castle”. Laois Heritage Society Journal (1).

The Slieve Bloom Mountains

The Slieve Bloom Mountains ( Sliabh Bladhma in Irish) is a mountain range in Ireland. They rise from the central plain of Ireland to a height of 527 meters. Although not very high, they are extensive with local standards. The highest points are Arderin (527 m) at the south end of the range and Baunreaghcong (511 m) at the end of Ridge of Capard.

Slieve Bloom mountains stretching from near Roscrea in the southwest to rosenallis in northwestern forms a link between County Laois and County Offaly. Access to the mountains and the most popular attractions is easiest by taking Exit 18 off M7 for Mountmellick and after R422 for rosenallis, Clonaslee, Cadamstown and Kinnitty. There are three roads that cross the mountain. Clonaslee From here it is very easy to follow the mountain road over the “Cut” to Mountrath. Kinnitty take the road from the center of the village opposite the Catholic Church by Longford church Glendine Gap Near Ard Erin the highest point of the mountain. For some great views turn left onto the R440 towards Kinnitty one of the small villages nestled at the foot of the mountains.

Looped hiking trails have been developed in 6 trail heads in the Slieve Blooms, Glenbarrow, Clonaslee, Cadamstown, Kinnitty, Glenafelly Forest Car Park and Glen Monicknew.Vandringsleder are color coded green light, moderate blue and red hardest. The 84 km Slieve Bloom way color-coded yellow can be accessed from any of these trailheads. In Cadamstown take time to go Silver River Eco Trail.

Glenbarrow waterfall is only a few miles from rosenallis. Some scenic looped walks will take you to the falls and up the ridge of Capard. There is a significant population of red grouse in the mountains.

Slieve Bloom, along with the Massif Central in France, are the oldest mountains in Europe; they were once also the highest at 3,700m. Weathering has reduced them to 527. On a clear day you can see the highlights of the four ancient provinces of Ireland.

History

According to the Bodleian Dinnshenchas got mountains given their name as such:

“Bladma or blood, the son of Cu, son of Cass Clothmín killed the cowherd of Bregmael, the blacksmith of Cuirche, son Snithe, King of Hui Fuatta Then he went into his little boat until he got on Ross Bladma -. Ross .. n-Air, “Wood in the Slaughter,” was the name of the first From there he went to the mountain Therefore, “Sliab Bladma” . (Bladma’s Mountain) Where the poet said:

Blood, the son of Cu, son of Cass Clothmín, killed Cowherd fair Bregmael, blacksmith in Cuirche mother, son Snithe: He set up at Ross Tire ind air.

Or it is blood, son of Breogan, who died there; and from him the mountain Bladma appointed. [1]

The mountains formed the northern border of the kingdom Osraige, and later Upper Ossory.

highest score

The following table shows the 10 highest major mountain peaks in the Slieve Bloom Mountains, each with a topographic height of at least 406 meters (1332 feet).

Rang mountain top Elevation
1 Arderin 527 m (1,729 ft)
2 Stillbrook Hill 514 m (1,686 ft)
3 Baunreaghcong 511 m (1,677 ft)
4 Wolftrap Mountain 487 m (1,598 ft)
5 Barcam 484 m (1,588 ft)
6 Hill of Capard 483 m (1.585 ft)
7 Carroll Hill 482 m (1,581 ft)
8 Farbreague 430 m (1,410 ft)
9 Castleconor 407 m (1,335 ft)
10 Garraunbaun 406 m (1332 ft)

References

  1. Hoppa upp^ http://www.ucd.ie/tlh/trans/ws.fl.3.001.t.text.html

Castle Durrow

Castle Durrow is a 18th century house in Durrow, Ireland. The house was built in the pre-Palladian design and formal gardens that were popular in the 18th century and is considered one of the finest country houses in Laois. [Citation needed ]

History

The house was built between 1712-1716 by Colonel William Flower (lfrom 1733 Baron Castle Durrow) as a family home. In 1751 William’s son Henry was first created Viscount Ashbrook, even in the Irish peerage and the title is still preserved, kept by his direct heir, Michael flower, eleventh Viscount Ashbrook (b. 1935).

Flower family retained ownership of the estate until 1922, when they were forced to sell up and return to England. It was purchased by a Mr. Maher Freshford, Co. Kilkenny primarily interested in the farm’s timber volume.Eventually took the Land Commission over the field portion of the property and the Forestry Department took over the woodland.

After standing empty for some years the house was transformed in 1929 to a school (St. Fintan college and monastery) and in 1998 was bought by Peter and Shelly Stokes, and rebuilt as luxury Castle Hotel.

See also

  • Durrow

References

  1. History Castle Durrow
  2. Irland Blue Book , www.irelands-blue-book.ie den 9 januari, 2006 hämtas 9 Januari 2006.

County Laois

County Laois (/ l I ʃ / Leesh Irish: Contae Laoise ) is a municipality in Ireland.It is part of the Midlands Region and is also located in the province of Leinster, and was formerly known as Queen County . The modern county got its name from Loígis, a medieval kingdom.

Laois County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county is 80,559 according to the census 2011-20% higher than it was in the 2006 census, which is the highest rate of population growth in the country.

History

prehistoric

The first people in Laois were bands of hunters and gatherers who passed through the county about 8500 years ago. They hunted in the forests that covered Laois and fished in the rivers, gathering nuts and berries to supplement their diet.

Next came Ireland’s first farmers. These people in the Neolithic period (4000-2500 BC), cleared forests and planted crops. Their burial mounds left in Clonaslee and Cuffsborough.

Starting around 2500 BC, the people of the Bronze Age lived in Laois. They produced weapons, tools and golden objects. Visitors to the county can see a stone circle they left on Monamonry, as well as the remains of their ancient castles on Clopook and Monelly. Skirk near Borris-in-Ossory, a Bronze Age standing stone and ring forts. The body of Cashel Mananger that ritual killings took place around 2000 BC.

The next step is known as the pre-Christian Celtic Iron Age. For the first time iron appeared in Ireland, as factions fought bloody battles for control of the country. Bally Davis archaeologists have discovered the ring mounds that are from that time period.

The County name derives from Loígis, whose modern county is only a part.In the 11th century, adopted its dynastic rulers named Ua / O Mordha. They claimed descent from a member of the Red Branch Knights

By the first century AD, the western third of Laois was part of the Kingdom of Ossory. The eastern part roughly divided into seven parts, ruled by the seven SEPTS of Loígis: O’More (O’Moore), O’Lalor, O’Doran, O’Dowling, O’Devoy (O’Deevy) O ‘ kelly and McEvoy.

the introduction of Christianity

When Ireland kristn, holy men and women founded religious communities in Loígis. St. Ciarán of Saighir (called “The Elder” to distinguish him from the younger St. Ciarán of Clonmacnoise) founded his monastery abode in western Slieve Bloom mountains as the first Bishop of Ossory, said before St.Patrick. His mother Liadán had an early monastery nearby on what is now Killyon. Between 550 and 600, St. Canice founded Aghaboe Abbey and St.Mochua founded a religious community in Timahoe. An early Christian community lived on or Dun Masc Masc’s fast, Rock of Dunamase.

The Synod of Rathbreasail who established the Irish pins held near Mountrath in 1111, the church moved away from his monastery base. As religious orders have strong ties to Rome replaced the older faiths, wooden house in the early Christian churches in Laois gave way to stone monastery.The Augustinians and the Dominicans established themselves in Aghaboe Abbey, while the Cistercians took over an older religious communities in Abbeyleix.

Norman Invasion

The Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-1171 affected Laois as it was part of the kingdom of Leinster. In Laois, fortress on the Rock of Dunamase was part of the dowry of the Irish princess Aoife, who was given in marriage in 1170 to Norman warriors Strongbow. Advancing Norman asked the county from wooden tower built atop mounds, called Mottes. They also built stone fortresses, such as Lea Castle, just outside Port. Several of the county’s towns were first established as Norman boroughs, including Castle Durrow and Timahoe.

From 1175 until about 1325, Normans controlled the best land in the county, while the Gaelic community retreated to the swamps, forests and the Slieve Bloom mountains. The early 14’s saw a Gaelic revival, as chiefs Loígis caused the Normans to retreat. The Dempsey grabbed Lea Castle, while Dunamase came into the ownership of O’Mores. Examples of tower husbyggdes of Irish Mac Giolla Phádraig chiefs are in Ballaghmore and Cullahill castle, both decorated with Sheela na gigs.

In 1548, the English seized the lands of O’Mores and built the “Campa” known as Fort Leix today Portlaoise.

County status

A church in Emo

Loígis was the subject of two Plantations or colonisations a mixture of Scottish and English settlers. The first occurred in 1556, when Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex completed O’Moore clan and tried to replace them with Scottish and English settlers. But this only led to a protracted guerilla war in the county and left a small Scottish and English community clustered around garrisons. There was a more successful plantation in the county in the 17th century, which expanded the existing Scottish and English settlement with more landowners and tenants from both Scotland and England. Neither plantation was fully successful because of the lack of tenants and because of continuous raids and attacks from O’Moores.Det was shired 1556 Queen Mary Queen County , which includes countries in Leix (Loígis), Slewmarge, Irry, and the part of Glimnaliry on the south side of the river Barrow. [7] Laois received its present Irish language name following the Irish war of Independence. Laois also sometimes spelled “Leix”. Portlaoise (previously Maryborough ) is the county seat.

1659, a group of Quakers settled in Mountmellick, while a group of Huguenots were given refuge in Port in 1666 after their service to William of Orange in Williamite war in Ireland.

What followed was a period of relative calm. Anglo-Irish landowners attached land and built fine houses, including Durrow Castle, Heywood House and Emo Court. In 1836, a branch of the Grand Canal stretched to Mountmellick, further stimulate industry in this city.

The great famine of 1845-49 devastated the county. The county workhouses could not cope with the number of poor people seeking protection. At the time the almshouse was opened in Donaghmore in 1853, many of the poorest had emigrated or died.

The county was formerly known as Queen County (Irish: Contae na Banríona ) to its informal name changed on the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. The county’s name was earlier spelled Laoighis and Leix .Despite the county’s name is maintained by the Laois Local Government Act 2001, no legislation ever adopted after independence explicitly to change the name of the Queen’s County, the name formally under the Local Government Act 1898 which continued to have legal effect. When land is sold in the county relevant title deeds are still updated as in Queen’s County .

Geography and political subdivisions

Laois is the 23rd largest of Ireland’s 32 counties in area and also the 23 th largest in terms of population. [8] It is the seventh largest Leinster’s 12 counties in size and the tenth largest in terms of population. The county is landlocked and unique, does not border any other counties that touch the coast. This is known as to be twice trapped. It is therefore considered to be “the most inland county in Ireland.”

Baronies

There are nine baronies in the county:

  • Ballyadams
  • Cullinagh
  • Maryborough East
  • Maryborough West
  • Portnehinch
  • Slievemargue
  • Stradbally
  • Tinnehinch
  • upper Ossory

Towns and Villages

  • Abbeyleix
  • Aghaboe
  • arles
  • Ballacolla
  • Ballaghmore
  • Ballickmoyler
  • Ballinakill
  • Ballybrittas
  • Ballybrophy
  • Ballyhide
  • Ballyfin
  • Ballylynan
  • Derryfore
  • Barrowhouse
  • Borris-in-Ossory
  • Camross
  • Castle
  • Clonaslee
  • Coolrain
  • Cullohill
  • Donaghmore
  • Durrow
  • emo
  • Errill
  • The Heath
  • James
  • Killeshin
  • Mountmellick
  • Mountrath
  • New city
  • Portarlington
  • portlaoise
  • Rathdowney
  • Rosenallis
  • Shanahoe
  • Stradbally
  • Swan
  • Timahoe
  • Vicarstown

Climate

For climatological information visit: durrow.ie [9] for the averages and extremes.

The weather station at the eastern Durrow was formed in May 2008. The equipment used is a Davis Vantage Pro II, which measures temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and air pressure. This data is transmitted every 2 seconds to a website where data are freely available. The station also reports that the Irish Weather Network showing live weather data from similar stations around Ireland.

In addition, a Met Éireann climatological station (number: 472) were installed in September 2010 and the data collected is sent to the head office in Glasnevin, Dublin on a monthly basis. The climatological station measures rainfall in a manual gauge, soil temperature at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth, air temperature, including wet bulb, daily maximum and minimum daily temperatures. The climatological station is a project that is meant to last for thirty years, and gather climate profile and Durrow Laois in general.

local authorities

Main article: Laois County Council

Local affairs are managed by Laois County Council selects 25 members. To the choice is divided local electoral areas: Borris-in-Ossory – Mountmellick municipal (6), Portlaoise municipal (7), Graiguecullen- Port municipal district (6). Laois historically supported Fianna Fáil party in Irish elections.But in the last local and national elections were a sharp swing to Fine Gael and Sinn Féin. Because of the larger municipal reform implemented by Minister Phil Hogan municipalities in Mountmellick and Portlaoise now abolished. Moreover, there are now 19 seats in the new Laois afford 3 electoral areas: Portlaoise – Abbeyleix (7 seats), Borris-in-Ossory – Mountmellick (6 seats) and Portarlington – Graigecullen (6 seats). The results of the 2014 local elections was 7 Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael 6, 2 Sinn Féin, a job, and 3 Independents. Labour’s success in Portlaoise is remarkable because it was their first victory in the city for 50 years. Laois is in the new three seater Laois constituency for elections to Dáil Éireann.

2009 Irish local elections [10]
Laois County Council
Part seats Change
Fine Gael 12 + 3
Fianna Fail 8 – 3
Ourselves 1 =
Labour party 1 =
Independent 3 =

Tourist attractions

  • Slieve Bloom Mountains
  • Rock of Dunamase
  • Heritage House, Abbeyleix
  • Emo Court
  • Castle Durrow
  • Timahoe Round Tower
  • Stradbally House
  • Mountmellick Quaker Museum
  • Ballyfin House
  • Roundwood House
  • Dunamaise Arts Centre, Portlaoise
  • Portlaoise Leisure Centre
  • 18-hole golf courses include: Abbeyleix Road, Portlaoise; Heritage in Killenard; The Heath; Abbeyleix and Rathdowney.

While County Laois has a mix of castles, mansions, fortresses and ancient structures that are now in ruins but is still worth a visit. [11]

demography

The population of County Laois is expanding rapidly, given its easy commute to employment centers in Kildare and Dublin and affordable housing in pleasant surroundings. Laois population growth during the period 2002-2006 (14%) has been stronger than the national average (8.2%), [12] as follows: [13]

  • 2002 … 58774
  • 2006 … 67012 … + 14,01%
  • 2011 … 80559

economy

Over 1,500 people [ citation needed ] work in the industrial sector in the county.Industrial parks located in Portlaoise, Port and Mountmellick. The county receives EU funds that are part of the cluster of three regions (Border, Midland and Western), colloquially known as the “BMW”, eligible for special funding support.

Agriculture occupies about 70% of the land area in the county (1200 km 2 or 460 sq mi). Agriculture’s share in the earnings of “BMW” the region has declined considerably over the past decade, and only represented about 3.9% of annual income (GVA) in 2005 Statistics Sweden. [14] There are over 230,000 cattle [ citation needed ] in the county – three for each person. The remaining area is vast stretches of bog and Slieve Bloom mountains, partially covered by coniferous forest.

railways

Iarnród Éireann train services along the Dublin-Cork line connecting the county between Heuston Station and Cork, Limerick, traveling through the county, with railway stations at Portarlington, Portlaoise and Ballybrophy.From Portarlington trains running on the Dublin-Galway / Westport / Ballina line to Athlone and Galway, Westport and Ballina. From Ballybrophy trains run on the line Ballybrophy Nenagh and Limerick directly.

road transport

The M7 road runs through County Laois. This is one of the busiest roads in Ireland connects Dublin and Limerick and acts as a trunk road for M8 linking Cork to Dublin. M8 joins M7 south of Portlaoise. Road infrastructure has improved greatly in the county over the past decade. Most major inter-urban routes through the Laois has now been upgraded to motorway standard. All the major traffic bottlenecks in Laois Mountrath somAbbeyleix and have passed since the opening of the M7 / M8 tolled motorway project in May 2010. Both cities have large line bottlenecks for motorists especially Abbeyleix where delays of up to 30 minutes or more were common.

Bus Eireann offers regular line bus service in the county. The Dublin to Limerick service runs every hour through the towns and villages on the old N7 road (now R445), while the Dublin to Cork inter city bus service runs every hour through the towns in the county.

People

  • John George Adair (1823-1885), the builder of Glenveagh Castle and financier of the JA Ranch in the Texas Panhandle.
  • Darina Allen (1953-), TV-kock.
  • John Barrett (1753-1821), vice Provost, Trinity College, 1807-1821.
  • Sir Jonah Barrington (1760-1834).
  • Elizabeth Barton Barton Family, Straffan and Lisduff
  • Claire Byrne (1976-), TV presenter / news anchor, best known for co-presenting RTÉ’s The Daily Show
  • Tony Byrne, a former professional footballer who played for Ireland.
  • William Cosby , guvernör i New York 1732-1736.
  • Evelyn Cusack With Éireann Meteorology
  • William Dargan (1799-1867), responsible for the Industrial Exhibition, 1853rd
  • Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-1972), British Poet-Laureate, 1967-1972.
  • Dr Daniel Delany (1747-1814), biskop i Kildare och Leighlin.
  • Eileen Dunne (1958-), TV nyhetsuppläsare.
  • Denis Dynon, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Oliver J. Flanagan (1920-1987), Minister of Defence, 1976-1977.
  • Stephen Hunt (1981-), professional footballer playing for Wolverhampton Wanderers and Ireland.
  • James Fintan Lalor (1807-1849), Young Irelander.
  • Peter Lalor (1827-1889), leader of the Eureka Stockade rebellion miners, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.
  • James Macauley (1889-1945), former Ireland international soccer player.
  • Dr. Bartholomew Mosse (1712-1759), grundare, Rotunda Maternity Hospital, Dublin.
  • Valentine O’Hara (1875-1945), author and authority on Russia and the Baltics.
  • Kevin O’Higgins (1892-1927), Irish Free State Attorney General.
  • Bernard O’Shea, comedian, best known for his roles on RTÉ’s Republic of Telly .
  • Brian Rigney, former Ireland rugby international.
  • Robin Roe (1928-2010), 19 times capped Irish rugby international who also played for the British and Irish Lions.
  • She. William Russell Grace (1832-1904), mayor of New York, 1880-1885.
  • John Shaw (1773-1823), US Naval Officer.
  • Robert Sheehan (1988-), actor best known for playing Nathan Young on the E4 comedy drama Misfits .
  • Kivas Tully (1820-1905), arkitekt, Trinity College, Toronto, Custom House och Bank of Montreal.
  • Zach Tuohy (1989-), professional Australian football, currently playing for the Carlton Football Club.

Sport

See also: Laois GAA

Laois has a strong tradition of Gaelic games, enjoying success both Gaelic football and hurling. Laois is one of the few municipalities to contest an All-Ireland final in both Gaelic football and hurling. Recently Laois has been more successful than football Hurler. Laois minors have had great success over the past two decades, and Laois senior footballers reached the Leinster final in 2003 (victory), 2004, and 2005. Laois hurlers currently competes in the Liam MacCarthy Cup, a competition reserved for the premiere cast County while footballers compete Sam Maguire Cup. Laois play home games at O’Moore Park, the county’s largest sports stadium that is often used to throw the championship game because of its central location.

In rugby, Portlaoise RFC and Port RFC compete in Division 2A in the Leinster League.

Twin Towns

County Laois participating in the Twin Towns program and has a relationship with the following municipalities:

Arlington, Massachusetts , United States

Carleton Place, Ontario , Kanada (2008) [15]

Coulounieix-Chamiers , Frankrike (1996)

Franklin, Tennessee , USA (2008) [15]

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Laois)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Lord Lieutenant of Queen’s County
  • High Sheriff of Queen’s County

References

  1. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^ histpop.org
  4. Jump up ^ nisranew.nisra.gov.uk
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ “A measure by the King and Queen’s Majesties and Heires and successor of the Queen, to entituled to the countries of Leix, Slewmarge, Irry, Glimnaliry and Offaily, and to make the same countries Shire Grounds.”; Phil. & March, 1556 C.2
  8. Jump up ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186-191.
  9. Hoppa upp^ http://www.durrow.ie/visitors-guide/weather/
  10. Jump up ^ “Elections Ireland: 2009 local elections – Electoral Area Details”. Electionsireland.org.
  11. Hoppa upp^ http://beautifulstay.holiday/Castles-in-Laois
  12. Jump up ^ “demography” (PDF). Offaly County Council Development Plan 2009-2015. Taken 2008-06-28.
  13. Jump up ^ “Draft Stradbally Town Plan” (PDF). Laois County Council.Pulled 06/29/2008.
  14. Jump up ^ http://www.cso.ie
  15. ^ Jump up to: ab “Sister Cities of Franklin.” Sistercitiestn.org. Retrieved twelve October 2014.

© 2017 victoriasway.eu

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑