CategoryCounty Kerry

Valentia Island

Valentia Island (Irish: Dairbhre ) is one of Ireland’s most westerly points outside the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry. It is linked to the mainland by the Maurice O’Neill Memorial bridge at Portmagee. A car ferry also depart from Reenard Point to the Knights, the island’s main settlement, from April to October. A second, smaller village called Chapel is at about the midpoint of the island, three kilometers (1.9 miles) from the bridge. The resident population of the island is 665 (from 2011 CSO Census)[2] , and the island is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) long and nearly three kilometers (2 miles) wide.

History

Telegraph Field, Valentia Island: Foilhommerum is the site of the first permanent communication link between Europe, as America. In October 2002, for a memorial to mark the laying of the transatlantic cable to your heart’s content, Newfoundland unveiled atop Foilhommerum Cliff. Made of Valentia slate and designed by local sculptor Alan Ryan Hall, [3] the memorial highlights the importance of the site to telegraph communications with North America from 1857 onwards and to accurately link the longitude measurements in North America at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich in 1866.

Valentia was the eastern terminus [4] of the first commercially viable transatlantic telegraph cable. The first attempt in 1857 [5] to land a cable from Ballycarbery Beach on the mainland just east of Valentia Island ended in disappointment. After the subsequent failure of cables landed on the Knights in 1858 and Foilhommerum Bay in 1865, [6] the great effort finally resulted in commercially viable transatlantic telegraph messages from Foilhommerum Bay to your heart’s content, Newfoundland 1866. transatlantic telegraph cables operated from Valentia Island for a hundred-year , ending with Western Union International end its cable business in 1966.

Prior to the transatlantic telegraph, US longitude measurements had a 2800 foot (850 m) uncertainty with respect to the European longitude. Because of the importance of accurate longitudes for safe navigation, the US Coast Survey mounted an expedition in 1866 to link the longitude longitudes in the US exactly to the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. Benjamin Gouldoch his partner in Mosman reached Valentia 2 October 1866 they built a temporary longitude observatory next to the Cable Station Foilhommerum to support synchronized longitude observations with the heart’s desire, Newfoundland.After many rainy and cloudy days, the first transatlantic longitude signals exchanged between Foilhommerum and dryers on October 24, 1866.

In 1993 discovered a shallow geology student fossil tetrapod tracks (51 ° 55’51 “N 10 ° 20’38” W), footprints in the mud preserved in Devonian rocks on the north coast of the island. Around 385 million years ago, a primitive vertebrate passed along a muddy shoreline in the equatorial swampland that is now southwestern Ireland and left prints on the wet concrete. The prints were preserved by silt overlying them, and converted to rock of all time. The Valentia Island tracks are among the oldest signs of vertebrate life on land. [Citation needed ]

Tourist attractions

Valentia Harbour from the north shore of Valentia Island (Photo taken at the top of the Catholic cemetery at Kylemore)

The combined features and history of the island makes it an attractive tourist destination, easily accessible from the popular Ring of Kerry route.

  • Geokaun Mountain and Fogher Cliffs: the highest mountain on Valentia Island and sea cliffs (180 m) 600 feet on its northern face.
  • On the northeast of the island stands Glanleam House amongst subtropical gardens. Protected by shelter from the Atlantic storms and never touched by frost, these gardens provide the mildest microclimate in Ireland. From 1830’s, Sir Peter George Fitzgerald, 19 Kerry Knight (1808-1880), [7] planted these gardens and stocked them with a unique collection of rare and tender plants from the southern hemisphere, which is normally grown in greenhouses Ireland. The gardens are laid out in a naturalistic style of a series of walks. There are plants from South America, Australia, New Zealand (the tallest tree ferns in Europe), Chile and Japan. The gardens are memorialized in a selected golden variegated Luma apiculata “Glanleam gold” which originated as a sport in the garden. The gardens are open to the public.
  • Slate quarry reopened in 1998 provided slate for the British Houses of Parliament. [8]
  • The island also hosts a heritage center [9] , which tells the history of geology, human, natural and industrial history of the island, with exhibits on the cable station, marine radio station and sValentia RNLI lifeboat station.
  • Telegraph Field (or Longitude Field) is the site of the first permanent communication link between Europe and North America transatlantic telegraph cables operated from Valentia Island from 1866. [6]
  • Dolmen Rock, western slope of Mt.Geokaun
  • Balleyhearney House, Balleyhearney East. “Famine Era” hospital adjacent to the Knight’s Wood.
  • Rare snowy day, Main Road, Valentia Island sees the Knights, Valentia Harbour, Cahirciveen
  • Part of the view from the top of Mt. Geokaun ( “yo-Kawn”). Valentia Harbour, Cahirciveen is in the background
  • Part of the view from the top of Mt. Geokaun ( “yo-Kawn”). Valentia Harbour and the letter is in the background
  • View from Culloo Rock.Dingle Peninsula, Dingle Bay and the north shore of Valentia Island (including Folger rocks) are in the background.
  • Bray Head views looking west with the Skellig Islands in the distance
  • View of the Port Channel looking south-east from Bray Head

Weather station location and climate

The Valentia Island weather station located 51 ° 56 ’23 “N, 10 ° 14’40” W and is 25 meters (82 feet) above sea level. It is one of the 22 coastal weather stations whose reports are transmitted as part of the BBC shipping forecast.Valentia Observatory is part of Met Éireann, Irish meteorological service.The observatory was established in August 1868. Valentia island is on average the wettest weather station in Ireland. The monthly averages of sunshine and rainfall are based on 2010 statistics are around average except for July, which received only 40% of its normal sunshine hours and 219% of its normal rainfall. Valentia island also has a station NAVTEX transmissions.Valentia Island is located on the eastern edge of the Atlantic Ocean.Although it is on the same latitude as St. Anthony in Newfoundland on the opposite side of the Atlantic, it has much milder winters thanks to the moderating effect of the prevailing west or southwest winds, and the effects of the warming Gulf Stream current. Snow and frost are rare, and because of this island can support many kinds of subtropical plants.

Sport

Valentia Young Islanders GAA is the local Gaelic Athletic Association club.

Valentia is a popular fishing spot, and Valentia water keeps the Irish records for conger eel, sea bream, sea bream and lesser spotted dogfish. [ Citation needed ]

Notable people

Valentia was considered home to Mug Ruith, a powerful blind druid in Irish mythology.

The O’Sullivan, headed by O’Sullivan Beare, owned much of Valentia until the 17’s. [10]

Noted naturalist Jane Maude Delap lived and worked in the Knights, performs important research in the marine life around Valentia and identify many new species. [11]

Valentia is home to former Gaelic footballer Mick O’Connell and the birthplace of John J “Sceilig” O’Kelly, leader of Sinn Fein from 1926th

Gaelic footballers Provides O’Driscoll was born in Valentia Island.

The American solo mountain climber Michael Reardon died July 13, 2007 at the Fogher Cliffs Valentia Island when he was swept out to sea after a successful climb.

Gerald Spring Rice, 6th Baron Monteagle of Brandon was raised on the island, as well as many other members of the Spring Rice family. [12]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • islands portal
  • List of RNLI stations

References

  1. Jump up ^ Charles Knight. The English Cyclopaedia: geography. Pulled 10/26/2015.
  2. Jump up ^ Electoral Division Valencia (CSO Area Code ED 19025).Census of Ireland 2011 (Report). 1 – Population Classified by Area.Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Valencia.
  3. Jump up ^ Alan Ryan Hall.
  4. Hoppa upp^ The Atlantic Cable , Smithsonian Institution , USA.
  5. Jump up ^ John R. Isaac, 1857 – Laying the Atlantic Telegraph Cable from Ship to Shore, History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications.
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b The Telegraph Field.
  7. Jump up ^ Fitzgerald (Knights of Kerry) paper (MIC / 639 and T / 3075), the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, UK.
  8. Jump up ^ http://www.cromane.net/valentia.htm
  9. Jump up ^ Valentia Heritage Centre website. [ Where? ]
  10. Hoppa upp^ Toby Barnard, ” O’Sullivan Beare, Philip (bc1590, d. I eller efter 1634), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004
  11. Jump up ^ Mulvihill, Mary (2003). Ingenious Ireland: A County-by-County Exploration of Mysteries and Marvels of the ingenious Irish.Dublin: Simon and Schuster. pp. 397-398. ISSN 0684020947th Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  12. Hoppa upp^The Guards Magazine , kapten Lord Monteagle av Brandon ” http://guardsmagazine.com/obits_lordmonteagle.html

Tralee

Tralee (/ tr æ. I L /; Irish: TRA LI (formerly Traigh LI) , which means “string of Lee (river)”) is the county town in County Kerry in southwest Ireland. The city is located on the north side of the neck of the Dingle Peninsula, and is the largest town in County Kerry. The town’s population including suburbs was 23,693 as of the 2011 census, making it the seventh largest city, and 13 th largest urban area in Ireland. [2] Tralee is well known for the Rose of Tralee International Festival which has been held annually in August since 1959.

History

Located at the confluence of some small rivers and adjacent to marshy ground at the head of Tralee Bay Tralee is located at the foot of a very old road that leads south across the Slieve Mish Mountains. On this old track is a large boulder sometimes called Scotia grave, said the burial place of an Egyptian Pharaoh’s daughter.

Anglo-Normans founded the city in the 13th century, which became a stronghold of the Earls of Desmond, who built a castle. John Fitz-Thomas FitzGerald founded the monastery of the Dominican order and was buried there in 1260. [3] The medieval town was burned in 1580 in retaliation förDesmond revolt against Elizabeth.

Elizabeth In 1587, Tralee granted to Edward Denny, and it was recognized in 1613 by Royal Charter. Sir Edward was the first of Denny to settle in Tralee;Denny does not occupy the castle of the Earls of Desmond until 1627. Sir Edward’s son, Arthur Denny, in whose life the city charter was granted by King James, which includes the right to elect two MPs. The third English settlers, another Sir Edward, married Ruth Roper, whose father Thomas Roper was lease holder of the Herbert estate centered on Castle. This Sir Edward was a royalist. He fought for the king in the war in 1641. He died in 1646, before the triumph of Oliver Cromwell, the issues in the UK and Ireland.

He granted “the circuit Abbey” to the company established under the Charter, in exchange for fees in the city clerk. His son Arthur Denny married Ellen Barry, the grandson of Richard Boyle. . They later held many land titles in West Kerry and also claimed the property in Tralee Sir Edward Denny, 4th Baronet was a remarkable landlord at the time: during the time of the great famine, he maintained rentals to suit their tenants, while other landowners increased them. He was a notable Plymouth Brother.

The modern layout of Tralee was created in the 19th century. Denny Street, a wide Georgian street was completed in 1826 on the site of the old castle. A monument in memory of the 1798 uprising, plus uprisings in 1803, 1848 och1867 – a statue of a Pikeman – stands in Denny Street. First presented in 1905, was the original Pikeman until the Irish War of Independence. In 1921, Black and Tans drew it from its pedestal and destroyed it. In June 1939 a replacement Pikeman installed, created by renowned sculptor Albert Power Dublin and was unveiled by Maud Gonne. [4]

Tralee Courthouse was designed by Sir Richard Morrison and built in 1835. It is a monument of two cannons commemorating the Kerrymen who died in the Crimean War (1854-1856) and the Indian Uprising (1857). Bally barracks was the depot of the Royal Munster Fusiliers. [5]

 

The Tralee Ship Canal was built to accommodate larger ships in Tralee, because the current quay in Blennerville was becoming blocked due to siltation. The House approved a first-team by the Parliament in June 1829 for the channel, with work starting in 1832. Problems with financing meant that the canal was not completed until 1846 when it was opened. The channel was 2 miles long with a new canal basin was built in Tralee, and sluice gates and a wooden swing bridge constructed in Blennerville. But not long after the canal opened also began to suffer from siltation.

By the 1880s, Fenit Harbour was built as a deep-water port; it does not suffer from siltation. A railway line was constructed between the port and Tralee to carry cargo and freight from ships moored there. The canal fell into disuse and neglect, and finally shut down in the middle of the 20th century. After the restoration of Blennerville Windmill in the early 1990s, the local authorities planned restoration of the channel for use as a tourist attraction.In 1999, the Office of Public Works (OPW) started a restoration project of the canal at a cost of IR £ 650.000.Området canal basin then rebuilt apartment blocks were built as part of a proposed port. The towpath along the canal was upgraded and now used by people as a nice amenity as part of the Dingle Way. [6] [7] [8]

Dominican Holy Cross Church was designed by the Irish Gothic Revival architect George Ashlin 1866 and built by the 1871st

The war years

Tralee saw much violence during the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War of 1919-1923. In November 1920 Black and Tans besieged Tralee in revenge for the IRA abduction and killing of two Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men. The Tans closed all the businesses in the city and did not let any food for a week. They burned several houses and all businesses connected with Irish Republican Army (IRA) activists. During the week, they shot dead three local people. The events caused a huge international outcry that the press reported that almost starvation conditions prevailing in Tralee by the end of the week.

The Ashe Memorial Hall was built in 1928 at the end of Denny Street, is dedicated to the memory of Thomas Ashe, an Irish volunteer officer in the Easter Rising of 1916. The building is built of local sandstone. It is the headquarters förKerry County Council and Tralee Urban council; Both have now moved to other premises. Since 1992, it has housed the Kerry County Museum, which includes a reconstruction of Tralee in 1450, prior kolonisering.I August 1922 during the Irish Civil War, Irish Free State troops landed at nearby Fenit and took Tralee from his garrison Anti-Treaty. Nine pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty three soldiers were killed in the fighting in the city before the anti-Treaty forces withdrew. Republicans continued a guerrilla campaign in the surroundings. In March, 1923 the Free State troops nine anti-Treaty IRA prisoners from the prison in Tralee and blew them up with a landminai near Ballyseedy.

Climate

The climate in Tralee, like the rest of Ireland, which is classified as a maritime temperate climate ( Cfb ) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Met Éireann has a climatological weather station on Valentia Island, 50 km southwest of the city. It is mild and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of extreme temperatures. The hottest months of the year is July, August and September with temperatures around 17-18 degrees Celsius. Tralee is rain throughout the year, and the wettest months are October, November, December and January.

local authorities

Tralee had a city council of twelve members until the 2014 local elections was held on 23 May 2014. These elections were held after the changes made by the Municipal Reform Act 2014. The law abolished local and introduced municipal districts. County Kerry were divided into four municipal districts, which is identical to the local election areas (LEA) used for selection of advised. The municipality Tralee has 9 seats on the Kerry County Council with the following Council back after the local elections in 2014.

Council members from the 2014 elections
Local area Electoral name name
tralee Toiréasa Ferris Ourselves
Pa Daly Ourselves
norma Foley Fianna Fail
Terry O’Brien Labour party
jim Finucane Fine Gael
Pat McCarthy Fine Gael
Thomas McEllistrim Fianna Fail
Graham Spring Labour party
Sam Locke Independent

Tourist attractions

Tralee is a tourist destination and has seen some 55 million € of tourism investments in recent years.

The city has developed a range of attractions.

  • Kerry County Museum: incorporate the theme park ‘Kerry: The Kingdom’ and an exhibit which depicts life in medieval Geraldine Tralee.
  • Siamsa Tire: Ireland National Folk Theatre, which offers traditional music and plays in Irish.
  • Blennerville Windmill: located about 2 km outside the city, Ireland’s largest working windmill.
  • Tralee Aquadome: A large indoor water leisure complex with a miniature golf course.
  • Ballyseedy Wood: Located 2 km outside Tralee off the N21. It consists of 32 hectares of forest dating from the 16th century where Kerry County Council has developed public entrances on the north and south of wood with parking spaces and 4 km of gravel road winding roads. Ash, oak and beech is part of the wood are a number of ruins and folllies, dating from the 17th century, with the River Lee (Tralee from which derives its name) forming forests northern border. [14] [15]
  • Tralee Town Park : Tralee har en stadspark som ligger i centrum (mittemot Kerry County Museum) med en rosenträdgård som omfattar över 5000 rosor i olika sorter. Parken är platsen för den årliga Féile na mBláth / Tralee Garden Festival -. Fri midsommarhelgen festival omfattande trädgårds demonstrationer, blomsterarrangemang, trädgård turer, musikaliska och choral händelser bland andra aktiviteter, som anordnas av Tralee Town Council [16]

The Basin, Tralee Ship Canal

  • Tralee Bay Wetlands and natural reserve: Tralee Bay nature reserve is an area of great international importance. It covers about 2500 hectares (8000 acres) and extends from Tralee town westwards to Fenit Harbour and Cloghane, covering Tralee Bay, Brandon Bay and Magharees peninsula. It contains extensive mudflats on the eastern side, the beaches of Derrymore Island, dunes and lagoons in Magharees peninsula. Both the River Lee and Brandon (Owenmore) estuaries have large expanses of protected tidal flats, often rimmed with salt marsh vegetation. Wetlands Centre which opened in 2012 is designed as a microcosm of the wild nature reserve where visitors are introduced to the fresh and saltwater miljöer.Besökare can go on a safari boat ride through the recreated reeds and freshwater canals in the center. [17]
  • Tralee Ship Canal: Opened in 1846, this two-mil-long canal connecting the Tralee to Tralee Bay where it passes through the Blennerville Windmill. Dingle Way runs along the towpath of the canal.
  • Dingle Way (Irish: Sli Chorca Dhuibhne) A 162 km (101 mil) long marked National Trail which begins and ends in Tralee and usually within eight days.

Rose of Tralee

See also: Rose of Tralee (festival) and Rose of Tralee (vocals)

Rose of Tralee festival is an international event that is celebrated among Irish communities worldwide. The festival, which is held annually in August since 1959, takes its inspiration from a nineteenth century ballad of the same name about a woman named Mary, who because of their beauty called The Rose of Tralee. The competition, broadcast over two nights by RTÉ is one of the highest watched show on Irish TV with over a million people watching.

To celebrate the Rose of Tralee tradition, the Rose Garden in Tralee Town Park home to a life-size bronze statue of the original Rose of Tralee Mary O’Connor and author of the Rose of Tralee ballad William Pembroke Mulchinock sculpted by an Irish sculptor Jeanne Rynhart ( unveiled in 2009[18] ), as well as Rose Wall of Honour – a series of glass panels that will contain the name of each Rose who has participated in the festival since 1959 (unveiled in 2013 on the 55th anniversary of the Rose of Tralee International Festival). Both statues commissioned by Tralee Town Council.

archaeological sites

  • Casement Fort: an old Ring Fort where Roger Casement was hiding when arrested.
  • Sheela na Gig: now in the Christian Round Tower at Rattoo, Ballyduff, a few kilometers north of Tralee.
  • Monument to Saint Brendan the Navigator at Fenit: with reproductions of ancient Irish structures.
  • Caherconree: Iron Age Fort overlooking Tralee Bay

In addition to the above, a large number of archaeological sites around Tralee and throughout the county of Kerry, in particular ring forts, listed for preservation in the Kerry County Development Plan 2009-15. [19]

Media

  • The city has two local weeklies, the Kerryman and Kerry eye while Tralee Outlook and Tralee advertisers are also published every week.
  • The city has a commercial radio station, Radio Kerry, which started operations in 1990. Spin South West also has a studio on Castle Street, which opened in 2016
  • The city has a daily online news service, traleetoday.ie

Transport

Road

Tralee is served by National primary and secondary roads and local roads. A 13.5 km bypass Tralee consisting of dual and single carriageway was opened August 16, 2013. It connects four of the five main routes – the N21, N22, N69 and N70 -. Which ends in Tralee [20] [21]

N21 / N69 Tralee Bypass

National primary routes:

  • east / northeast to Limerick
  • Southeast Killarney and Cork

National secondary roads:

  • north to Listowel, Tarbert, Foynes and Limerick
  • southwest Killorglin, Ring of Kerry on the Iveragh Peninsula and Kenmare
  • west to Dingle

Regional roads:

  • north / northwest Tarbert via Ardfert, Ballyheigue, Ballybunion and Ballylongford
  • north to Abbeydorney (it links up with R551 to Ballybunion)
  • west to Fenit Harbour

Buss

The bus station in Tralee is a regional hub for Bus Eireann, which provide services to Dublin, Limerick, Galway, Cork, Killarney and Dingle. The existing bus station was opened on February 26, 2007. [22]

Several local lines radiate from Tralee and a number of them have had their frequency increased in recent years. local roads and 285 (Kerry Airport via Castle).

Rail

A train to Killarney railway station, Cork and Dublin Heuston operated by the national railway operator Iarnród Éireann. Tralee railway station was opened July 18 1859. [23]

There are connecting trains at Limerick Junction Clonmel train station and Waterford and Limerick, and the line to Ennis, Athenry, Oranmore and Galway.

The Tralee and Dingle Light Railway was once one of Europe’s most Western Railway when it opened March 31, 1891 connects Tralee and Dingle by train along the Dingle Peninsula before closing in June 1953. In 1993, a 3 km long stretch was opened as a preserved line between Aquadome Tralee and Blennerville Windmill. From 2013 this railway is no longer in operation. A train used to drive to Fenit Harbour from Tralee before closing in June 1978. Currently has restored a part of this railway as a walk / cycle way in Tralee town and it is hoped in the future that this will extend out to Fenit in line with the Great Southern Trail is in West Limerick.

Air

Kerry Airport, located 20 km from Tralee in Farranfore, providing air services to Dublin, London Luton, London Stansted, Frankfurt Hahn and seasonal, Alicante and Faro. Connecting trains run from Farranfore railway station to Tralee.

Hav

The local port for Tralee is Fenit, about 10 km west of the city on the north side of the estuary. Catering for ships of up to 17,000 tons, the port is a picturesque mixed-use harbor with fishing boats and a thriving marina (136 berths).

Healthcare

  • Kerry General Hospital: Opened in 1984 is the third largest acute hospitals in the Health Service Executive South Region. It serves as the largest hospital in County Kerry and also serves people in parts of the northern West Cork and Limerick.
  • Bon Secours Hospital: Founded in 1921 it is a private hospital owned by the Bon Secours Catholic sisters who provides health care to privately insured patients. It is part of denBonSecours Health System, the largest private hospital network in Ireland.

Training

Like all parts of Ireland, most schools at all levels in Tralee are managed and owned by the churches. Tralee Educate Together School is multidenominational, and neither owned nor managed by any church. At the secondary level, most schools are explicitly Catholic in ethos, except Gaelcholáiste Chiarraí.

primary level

  • CBS (CBS), Clounalour (Roman Catholic)
  • Gaelscoil Casement, Success Ronan (iriska – katolik)
  • Holy Family, Balloonagh (Roman Catholic)
  • Presentation Primary School (Sacred Heart), Castle Street (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Ita’s and St Joseph’s, Balloonagh (special needs – Catholic)
  • St Johns, Ashe Street (Church of Ireland)
  • St Johns, Balloonagh (Roman Catholic)
  • St Mary, Moyderwell (Roman Catholic)
  • Tralee Educate Together, Killeen (non-denominational)

secondary education

  • Brookfield College, Mona Valley (non-denominational)
  • Kerry secondary, Moyderwell (iriska)
  • Mercy Secondary School, Mounthawk (Roman Catholic)
  • Presentation Secondary School, Castle Street (Roman Catholic)
  • St. Ita’s and St Joseph’s, Balloonagh (special needs – Catholic)
  • Maria CBS (The Green) (Roman Catholic)
  • Coláiste Gleann LI Post Primary School (formellt Tralee Community College), Clash

third level

  • Institute of Technology, Tralee (ITT or IT Tralee) is the main third level institution in County Kerry. It was founded in 1977 as the Regional Technology, Tralee but got its present name in 1997. It has an enrollment of approximately 3,500 students in fields such as business, computers, science, technology and health. The Institute has two campuses- North Campus (opens in Dromtacker 2001) and south campus (opened in Clash 1977) which is about 2.4 km (1.5 mi) from each other.
  • Kerry College of Further Education (KCFE) is the premier provider of further education programs in Kerry. School offers a range of Level 5 and Level 6 programs on the NFQ.

Sport

Gaelic Athletic Association

  • Austin Stack Park is the most important Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) stadium in Tralee. The ground is named after Austin Stack, an Irish revolutionary and All-Ireland winning captain Kerry Gaelic football in 1904. It is located in the center of Tralee. It hosts many Kerry GAA home games, mostly football league matches and both league and championship hurling. The County Championship football and hurling finals are normally held here.
  • Austin Stacks GAA club based at the top of the mountain and is known for players like Mikey Sheehy, Ger Power, John O’Keeffe and Kieran Donaghy.
  • John Mitchels GAA club based in Boherbee and Camp Area in Tralee.
  • Kerins O’Rahilly’s GAA club based in Beach Road area of the city.
  • Na Gaeil GAA club based in the Oakpark area of Tralee.
  • St Patricks, Blennerville is a GAA club is located 1 km outside of Tralee but has one player catchment area in the city.
  • Tralee Parnell is a GAA club promoting underage hurling in Tralee.
  • Tralee IT GAA är GAA laget i Institute of Technology, Tralee .
  • Fitzgerald-Jones Handball Club is based at the Sports Complex in Tralee.
  • Tralee Mitchels and Tralee Celtic is previously GAA clubs.

Athletics

  • Tralee Harriers Athletics Club
  • Tralee Triathlon Club was formed in 1999.

Football

  • The Kerry District League is based in Mount Hawk Park, Tralee
  • Tralee Dynamos is Tralee chief football club, playing in the Kerry District League.
  • St. Brendan’s Park FC also play in the Kerry District League.
  • Spa Road FC
  • FC classic
  • CSKA Tralee
  • Shankill Athletic
  • Balloonagh FC
  • Tralee Athletic
  • valley Wanderers
  • Tralee Celtic
  • Mitchels Avenue
  • Strand Road FC

Rugby

  • Tralee Rugby Football Club ground in Ballyard.

Tennis

  • Tralee Tennis Club is based at Dan Spring Road.

Badminton

  • County Badminton Club meets in the Presentation High School gym.

Cricket

  • County Kerry Cricket Club

Greyhound Racing

  • Tralee Greyhound Racing har en arena på Brewery Road.

Biking

  • Chain Gang Cycling Club is a Tralee-based cycling club was founded in 2008.
  • Tralee Bicycle Club established in 1992.
  • Tralee Cycling Club, the oldest of the four was founded in 1953.
  • Kingdom Cycling Club

Basket

  • St. Brendan’s Basketball playing in the national leagues.
  • Tralee Imperial
  • Tralee tigers

Golf

  • Tralee Golf Club is based in Barrow and Arnold Palmer designed course is consistently voted one of the best links in the world.

Pitch and putt

  • Tralee Pitch och Putt Club ligger på Collis Sandes House i Killeen.

Rowing, sailing and swimming

  • Kingdom Swimming Club bygger på Sports Complex i Tralee.
  • Tralee Bay Sailing Club baserad i Fenit .
  • Tralee Rowing Club was founded in 2004 and is located in the basin.
  • Tralee Bay Swimming Club baserad i Fenit.

Notable people

Notes Tralee persons include:

  • (Saint) Brendan, monasteries saint and navigator
  • Danny Barnes, rugby player for Newcastle Falcons
  • Joe Barrett, footballer
  • Denis Behan. footballer
  • Daniel Bohan, footballer
  • Leonard Boyle, priest and scientist
  • Bryan Cooper , jockey
  • Billy Dennehy, soccer player
  • Darren Dennehy, soccer player
  • Kieran Donaghy, football
  • Ultan Dillane, rugby player for Connacht and Ireland
  • Michael Dwyer , journalist
  • Mike Finn, former Gaelic and Australian Rules football
  • Robert D. FitzGerald, surveyors, botanists
  • Rea Garvey, lead singer of Reamonn
  • Shane Guthrie, footballer
  • Christie Hennessy , singer / songwriter
  • Richard Johnson, president of the Irish High Court
  • Tracey K, musician
  • Barry John Keane, footballer
  • Richard Kelliher, recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Joan Kennelly, photographer and founder of Kerry’s eye [24]
  • Padraig Kennelly, founder and editor of Kerry’s eye [24]
  • Joe Keohane, footballer
  • William Kirby, footballer
  • John Joseph Lee, an Irish historian and former senator
  • Gareth Mannix, sound engineer / producer
  • David Moran, footballer
  • Maurice Moynihan, Governor of Central Bank
  • Albert Ghearbhuigh not, poet
  • David O’Callaghan, footballer
  • Sean O’Callaghan, the Provisional IRA member
  • Graham O’Connell, footballer
  • Denis O’Donnell, businessman
  • Patrick Denis O’Donnell, military / historian (and known locally as Paddy, or PD)
  • Dan O’Keeffe, footballer
  • John O’Keeffe, footballer
  • Arthur O’Leary, composer and pianist
  • Aisling O’Sullivan, actor
  • John O’Sullivan, rugbyspelare
  • Provides Power, footballer
  • Declan Quill, footballer
  • Micheál Quirke, footballer
  • Boyle Roche, politician
  • Eric Roche, finger guitar
  • Billy Sheehan, footballer
  • Mikey Sheehy, footballer
  • Dan Spring, politicians, footballers and rugby players
  • Dick Spring, politicians, footballers and rugby players
  • Austin Stack, revolutionary and footballer
  • Barry John Walsh, footballer
  • Tommy Walsh, footballer

Twin

See also: List of twin town in Ireland

Tralee is twinned with the following places:

  • Westlake , Ohio , USA [25]

Gallery

  • Dominick Street, Tralee
  • Ashe Memorial Hall
  • tralee Courthouse
  • Dominikanska Church of Holy Cross
  • Tralee from the International Space Station

See also

  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Kerry)
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Banna Strand
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Tralee (UK parlamentvalkretsen)

References

  1. Jump up ^ Census 2011 – Population Classified by Table 6, the population of each province, county, city, urban, rural and selection division, in 2006 and 2011, p.97
  2. Jump up ^ “Legal Tralee Town results”. Central Bureau of Statistics .2011.
  3. Jump up ^ genealogical and family history of northern New York
  4. Hoppa up^ http://www.historyireland.com/18th-19th-century-history/the-pikeman-of-tralee-a-tale-of-continuity-and-change/
  5. Jump up ^ Harris, Major Henry Edward David (1968). The Irish regiments in the First World War. Mercier Press. pp. 216-217 (Annex II).
  6. Hoppa upp^ http://www.focuskerry.com/james/canal.html
  7. Hoppa up^ http://www.askaboutireland.ie/learning-zone/primary-students/looking-at-places/kerry/kerry-transport/tralee-ship-canal/
  8. Jump up ^ http://debates.oireachtas.ie/dail/1999/01/27/00439.asp
  9. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  10. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  11. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  12. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  13. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  14. Hoppa upp^ http://www.ballygarryhouse.com/ballyseedy-wood.html
  15. Hoppa up^ http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/greening-communities/going-greener/biodiversity/biodiversity-woodland-dev/
  16. Jump up ^ http://townmaps.ie/tralee.html
  17. Hoppa upp^ http://www.traleebaywetlands.org/about.html
  18. Hoppa upp^http://www.independent.ie/regionals/kerryman/news/unveiling-of-statue-at-town-park-27386239.html
  19. Jump up ^ “Kerry County Council – County Development Plan 2009-2015”. Kerry County Council.
  20. Hoppa upp^http://www.kerrycoco.ie/en/allservices/roads/n22traleebypass/thefile,7358,en.pdf
  21. Hoppa upp^ http://www.dttas.ie/press-releases/2013/varadkar-welcomes-opening-%E2%82%AC97m-tralee-bypass
  22. Hoppa upp^ http://www.transport.ie/viewitem.asp?id=8863&lang=ENG&loc=2137
  23. Jump up ^ “Tralee station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 4 September of 2007.
  24. ^ Jump up to: ab Lucey, Anne (23 May 2011). “Former editor of” Kerry Eyes “die”. The Irish Times. Be checked out three June 2011.
  25. Jump up ^ “Tralee twins with Westlake, Ohio -“. The town of Tralee.

Skellig Michael

Skellig Michael (Irish: Sceilig Mhichil ), also called the large Skellig (Irish:Sceilig Mhor ), is the larger of the two Skellig Islands, 11.6 km (7.2 mi) west of the Iveragh Peninsula igrevskapet Kerry. Ireland [2] A Christian monastery was founded on the island sometime between the 6th and 8th century and remained continuously occupied until it was abandoned in the late 12th talet.Resterna of the monastery, and most of the island, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site 1996. [2]

History

Pre-monastiska

Skellig Michael was uninhabited before the monastery was founded. [2]Folklore claims that Ir, son mil Espáine, was buried on the island, and a text from the 8th or 9th century claim that Duagh, King of West Munster, fled to ” Scellecc “after a dispute with Kings of Cashel, although it is not known whether the events actually occurred. [3]

Monastiska

The monastery date of foundation is not known. [3] The first definite reference to the monastery activity on the island is a record of death “Suibhini of Skelig” dating from the 8th century; However, Saint Fionán allegedly founded the monastery in the 6th century.

Kloster location on the island is on a terraced shelf 600 feet (180 meters) above sea level, and develops between the sixth and eighth centuries. It contains six beehive cells, tvåOratories well as a number of stone crosses and plates. It also includes a later medieval church. The cells and oratories are all dry corbel-built construction. A carefully designed system of collection and treatment of water in cisterns developed. It has been estimated that no more than twelve monks and an abbot lived here at one time. [4] The State Hermitage Museum is at the southern tip.

The diet of the monks who live in the North Atlantic islands were somewhat different than those who lived on the mainland. With less arable land to grow grain, vegetable gardens became an important part of monastic life. Of necessity, fish and meat and eggs of birds nesting on the islands became staples. [5]

The “Annals of Inisfallen” play a Viking attack in 823. The place was dedicated to St Michael with at least 1044 (when the dead “Aedh of Scelic-Mhichí” record). [1] [3] However, this commitment may have occurred as early as 950, around which time a new church was added to the monastery (typically done to celebrate an inauguration) called St. Michael’s church. [2]

The monastery remained continuously occupied until the 12th or 13th century. [2] During this time, the climate around the Skellig Michael became colder and more prone to storms, and this, together with changes in the structure of the Irish Church, announced the community to abandon island and move to the abbey in Ballinskelligs. [3]

Post-monastiska

Skellig Michael remained in the possession of the Catholic Canons Regular, until the dissolution of Ballinskelligs monastery during the Protestant Reformation of Elizabeth I in 1578. [2] [6] The ownership was then transferred to the Butler family with whom it stayed until the early 1820s when the Corporation for to maintain and improve the port of Dublin (the predecessor to the Commission of Irish Lights) bought the island from the John Butler Waterville in an expropriation. [3] [6], the Corporation constructed two lighthouses on the Atlantic side of the island, and their living quarters, all of which ended 1826th [1] the Office of Public Works took the remains of the monastery of guardianship in 1880, and repaired some collapsed structures, before buying the island (with the exception of lighthouses and associated structures) from the Commission of Irish Lights. [1] [2] [3]

World Heritage listing

Skellig Michael was made a World Heritage site in 1996, at the 20th session of the World Heritage Committee in Merida, Mexico. [7] After being nominated to be October 28, 1995, an evaluation of the site of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (an advisory body world Heritage ~~ POS = TRUNC), recommended that the island be enrolled on the basis of criteria (iii) and (iv) ivärldsarvslistan eligibility criteria, relating to the cultural importance of a website. [6] the Committee approved this recommendation, describes Skellig Michael of ” exceptional universal value “and a” unique example of an early religious settlement “, while noting the site’s conservation as a result of its” unique environment “, and its ability to illustrate” that no other place can the extreme Christian monasteries characterizes large parts of North Africa, the Middle East and Europe. ” [7]

Services and activities

Every year 13 boat licenses granted to tour operators [ citation needed ] that run tours to the Skellig Michael in the summer season (May to October, inclusive), weather permitting. For safety reasons, because the steps up to the monastery is rocky, steep and old, climbing is not allowed under very wet or windy weather. There are diving sites immediately around the mountain.[8]

popular culture

  • The acclaimed 1969 BBC documentary Civilization: a personal view by Kenneth Clark featured a short segment on the use of Skellig Michael in the first episode.
  • Skellig Michael is with the second episode of the BBC documentary series A History of Christianity .
  • The island served as a place for the final scene in Heart of Glass by Werner Herzog.
  • The island served as a filming location for the final scene of Star Wars: The Force wakes . [9] [10] It was also used for the next film in the series,Star Wars: Episode VIII . [11] This caused concern [12] because of the importance of the site as a special protection [13] for its colonies of puffins, Manx Shearwater and storm petrel.
  • Skellig Michael is a great influence on the fictional Skellige in the award-winning series The Witcher , which has similar landmarks and the islands, and the inhabitants of which share a culture and accent with that of the Gaels. [ Citation needed ]

See also

  • Ireland portal
  • medieval portal
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Kerry)
  • List of World Heritage in Ireland

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: abcd Edward Bourke; Alan R. Hayden; . Ann Lynch “Skellig Michael Co. Kerry: Monastery and South Peak “(PDF). Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to: abcdefgh United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). “Skellig Michael.” UNESCO. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  3. ^ Jump up to: abcdef Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht.”Skellig Michael: Historical Background”. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  4. Jump up ^ “Skellig” pin Kerry
  5. Hoppa upp^ Horn, Walter, Jenny Vit Marshall, och Grellan D. RourkeThe Forgotten Hermitage av Skellig Michael , Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0520064102
  6. ^ Jump up to: abc International Council on Monuments and Sites (October 1996). “The World Heritage List: Skellig Michael” (PDF).International Council on Monuments and Sites. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  7. ^ Jump up to: ab World Heritage Committee. (10 March 1997), “Convention on the World Cultural and Natural Heritage” (PDF). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. pp. 68thRetrieved 31 May 2012.
  8. Jump up ^ “Diving around Skellig Michael” Ballinskelligs Water , http: //www.skelligboats.com/diving.htm, accessed October 27, 2010
  9. Jump up ^ O’Sullivan, Majella (29 July 2014). “And … Action! New ‘Star Wars’ movie recording starts at Skellig Michael. ” Irish Independent.Independent News & Media. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  10. Jump up ^ Gettell, Oliver (4 January 2016). “JJ Abrams can not believe he did shoot at Skellig Michael.” Entertainment Weekly . Taken six januari2016.
  11. Jump up ^ Breznican, Anthony (9 September 2015). “Updated: Star Wars: Episode VIII will shoot in Ireland this month.” Entertainment Weekly . (Entertainment Weekly). Collect nine July september2015.
  12. Jump up ^ Siggins, Lorna (13 February 2016). “Concerns about the” incidents “in the” Star Wars “filming on Skellig Michael.” IrishTimes.com. Irish Times .Hämtad February 15, 2016.
  13. Jump up ^ “National Parks and Wildlife Service.” National Parks & Wildlife Service .

The Skellig Islands

The Skellig Islands (Irish: Na Scealaga ), once known as “Skellocks,” are two small, steep and rocky islands located about 13 km west of Bolus Head on the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The larger of the two isSkellig Michael (also known as Great Skellig ) and together with Little Skellig, is at the center of a 364 hectare (900 acre) Important Bird Area established by BirdWatch Ireland in 2000. [1] Skellig Michael is also known for an early Christian monastery that is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Little Skellig

Main article: Little Skellig

The smaller of the two islands is Little Skellig ( Sceilg Bheag in Irish). [2] (grid reference V268618) It is closed to the public, and as is Ireland’s largest gannet ( Morus anus ) colony with almost 30 thousand pairs, it is also one of the world’s largest, and is of international importance. [3] the island is 134 meters high and is about 1.5 kilometers east-northeast of Skellig Michael.

Skellig Michael

Main article: Skellig Michael

Also known as Great Skellig ( Sceilg Mhichil in Irish [4] ), this is the larger of the two islands, with two peaks rising to over 230 meters above sea level.With a sixth century Christian monastery perched at 160 meters above sea level on a ledge near the top of the lower peak, Great Skellig is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

BirdWatch Ireland were concerned that the Irish government must shoot at a seabird sanctuary without the third party’s consent. During the 2014 nesting season, kittiwakes were chicks in nests swept into the sea by the downdraft from a helicopter and devoured by seagulls. [5] [6]

Wildlife

Both of the Skellig islands are known for their seabird colonies, and together comprise one of the most important seabird sites in Ireland, both for the population size and the diversity of species. Among nesting birds are storm petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ), gannets, fulmars ( Fulmarus glacialis ), the Manx Shearwater ( Puffinus Puffinus ), kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla ) guillemots ( Uria aalge ), Razorbill ( Alca torda ) and puffin ( Fratercula arctica ) ( with 4000 or more puffins on Great Skellig only). chough (pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax ) and Peregrine ( Falco peregrinus ) can also be seen.

The surrounding waters are rich in wildlife with many gray seal ( Halichoerus grypus ). Basking shark ( Cetorhinus maximus ), minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ), Dolphins (Delphinidae), beaked whales and leatherback turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) have also been recorded. The islands have many interesting recreational diving sites because of the clear water, an abundance of sea life, underwater cliffs down to 60 meters (200 feet).

Gallery

  • SE landing on Great Skellig
  • Skellig Michael
  • Little Skellig
  • Little Skellig seen frånSkellig Michael
  • The beehive-style huts on Skellig Michael

popular culture

Skellig Islands prominently in a sequence at the end of 1976 the German filmHerz aus Glas ( Heart of Glass ) by Werner Herzog.

Irish group Clannad wrote a song “Skellig” for their 1987 album Sirius .

Canadian singer / songwriter Loreena McKennitt wrote the song “Skellig” for her 1997 album, The Book of Secrets.

The title character in 1998 children’s book Skellig by David Almond is named after islands.

Tristan Jones, in his sailing / travel novel ICE! , Writes about a visit to the Skellig Islands route from England to North America in 1961. [7]

The final scene in Star Wars: The Force wakes shot at Skellig in July 2014 with additional recording is done in September 2015. The remains of Skellig Michael monastery appears in the film, which corresponds to an old Jedi.Temple [8] [9]

Skellig Islands has also inspired Skellige Archipelago in The Witcher novels and video games.

The Japanese manga Berserk mention the Skellig Islands where the fictional kingdom of fairies, Elfhelm located.

1969 BBC television documentary, ‘Civilisation: a personal view from Kenneth Clark “(episode 1) Skellig Michael and its monastery as an example of how, during the Dark Ages” [For] over a hundred years, Western Christianity survived by clinging to places like this. ”

References

  1. Jump up ^ BirdWatch Ireland. “The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig” .Birdlife International. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  2. Jump up ^ logainm.ie
  3. Jump up ^ “Little Skellig, Co. Kerry.” BirdWatch Ireland. Hämtad19 September 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ logainm.ie
  5. Jump up ^ Star Wars: Habitats Directive “infringed” on Skellig Michael , The Irish Times, 17 December 2015
  6. Jump up ^ “Jedi threat to seabirds.” New Scientist. 227 (3039): 7. 19 September 2015.
  7. Jump up ^ “ICE” by Tristan Jones ISBN 0-7592-0772-0
  8. Jump up ^ O’Sullivan, Majella (29 July 2014). “And … Action! New ‘Star Wars’ movie recording starts at Skellig Michael. ” .Independent Irish Independent News & Media. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  9. Jump up ^ “BirdWatch Ireland have great concern about the Star Wars film on Skellig Michael.” BirdWatch Ireland. 8 September 2015.Hämtadnitton September 2015.

Daniel O’Connell

Daniel O’Connell ( Irish : Dónall Ó Conaill , 6 aug 1775 – 15 Maj 1847), ofta kallad The Liberator [1] eller den Emancipator , [2] var en irländsk politisk ledare under första halvan av 19-talet. Han kämpade för katolska frigörelse -inklusive rätten för katoliker att sitta i Westminster parlamentet , förnekade i över 100 år-och avskaffandet av Act of Union som kombinerade Storbritannien och Irland .

early life

O’Connell was born on Carhan near Cahersiveen, County Kerry, the O’Connells of Derrynane once a wealthy Roman Catholic family, who had been deprived of their lands. Among his uncles, Daniel Charles, Count O’Connell, an officer in the Irish Brigade in the French army. A famous aunt was Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill, while Sir James O’Connell, 1st Baronet, was his younger brother. Under the patronage of his wealthy bachelor uncle, Maurice “Hunting Cap” O’Connell, he studied at Douai in France and was adopted as a lawyer tillLincolns Inn in 1794, transferring to Dublin’s King’s Inns two years later. In his early years, he became familiar with the pro-democracy groups of the time and undertook to bring equal rights and religious tolerance to his own country. [3]

While in Dublin studying for the law, was O’Connell in his uncle Maurice instructions not to engage in any militia activity. NärWolfe Tone’s French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay in December 1796, O’Connell found himself in a dilemma. Politics was the cause of his unsettlement. [4] Dennis Gwynn in hisDaniel O’Connell: The Irish Liberator suggest unsettlement was because he was enrolled as a volunteer to defend the government, but the government was intensifying its persecution of the Catholic population he was one. [4] he wanted to get into parliament, but every contribution that Catholics had been led to predict, two years earlier, was now flatly veto. [4]

As a law student O’Connell was aware of their own talents, but the higher ranks of the Bar was closed for him. He read the Jockey Club as an image of the ruling class in England and was persuaded by that, “Vice reigns triumphant in the English court on this day. The spirit of freedom shrinks to protect property from attacks by French innovators. The corrupt higher order tremble for their wicked pleasures. ” [4]

O’Connell studies at the time had concentrated on the legal and political history of Ireland, and the debates in the Historical Society relevant items of governments, and from this he would stop, according to one of his biographers “in Ireland throughout government policy was to suppress the people and for maintaining domination by a privileged and corrupt minority.” [4]

On January 3, 1797 in an atmosphere of alarm over the French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay, he wrote to his uncle says he was the last of his colleagues to join the volunteer corps and “to be young, active, healthy and the only thing he could offer no reasonable excuse. [5] Later that month, for the benefit of convenience, he joined the lawyer’s Artillery Corps. [6]

On 19 May 1798 O’Connell was called to the Irish Bar and became a lawyer.Four days later, the United Irishmen staged their rebellion was put down by the British with great blodspillan.O’Connell did not support the uprising; he believed that the Irish would have to assert themselves politically rather than by force.

He went on the Munster circuit, and for over a decade, he went into a fairly quiet period of private law practice in the south of Ireland. [3] He is said to have the highest income of any Irish lawyer but because of the natural extravagance and a growing family , usually in debt his brother remarked caustically that Daniel was in debt all his life from seventeen years ålder.Även if he was ultimately inherit Derrynane from his uncle Maurice, the old man lived to be almost 100 and the Daniels legacy not cover their liabilities.

He also condemned Robert Emmet’s rebellion of 1803 Emmet, a Protestant, he wrote: “. A man who coolly could prepare so much bloodshed, so many murders and such horrors of all kinds have ceased to be an object of compassion. ” [7]

Despite his opposition to the use of violence, he was willing to defend those accused of political crimes, especially if he suspected that they had been falsely accused, as iDoneraile conspiracy trials in 1829, his last notable court appearance. He was noted for his fearlessness in court: if he thought poorly of a judge (which was very often the case), he had undoubtedly make this clear. Most famous perhaps was his reply to Baron McClelland, who had said that a lawyer he would never have taken the course O’Connell had adopted: O’Connell said McClelland had never been his model as a lawyer, nor would he take directions. from him as a judge [8] He did not lack the ambition to become a judge for yourself: in particular, he was attracted by the position of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, but even if he was offered it more than once, finally refused.

Campaign for Catholic emancipation

O’Connell returned to politics in the 1810s. In 1811 he founded the Catholic Board, who fought for Catholic emancipation, that is, the ability of Irish Catholics to become MPs. In 1823 he founded the Catholic Association, which included other aims to better Irish Catholics, such as: electoral reform, reform of the Church of Ireland., Tenants’ rights and economic development [9]

The association is funded by membership dues of one penny per month, a minimum amount designed to attract Catholic peasants. Subscription was very successful, and the association took up a large amount of money in its first year. The money was used to campaign for Catholic emancipation, especially finance pro-liberation of parliament (MPs) who represent the British House of Commons. [10]

Members of the association were subject to prosecution under an eighteenth-century law, and the Crown moved to suppress the compound through a series of prosecutions, with mixed success. O’Connell often briefed for the defense, and showed extraordinary force in pleading the rights of Catholics to argue for emancipation. He clashed repeatedly with William Saurin, the Attorney General for Ireland and the most influential figure in the Dublin administration and political differences between the two men driven by a bitter personal antipathy. [11]

In 1815 a serious event in his life occurred. Dublin Corporation was considered a stronghold of the Protestant Ascendancy and O’Connell, in a 1815 speech referred to it as a “beggarly company”. [12] Its members and leaders were outraged and because O’Connell would not apologize, a of their number, the noted DUELLIST John D’Esterre, challenged him. The duel had filled Dublin Castle (from which the British government administered Ireland) with eager excitement at the prospect that O’Connell would be killed. They regarded O’Connell as “worse than a public nuisance”, and would have welcomed any prospect of seeing him off at this point. [13]

O’Connell met D’Esterre and mortally wounded him (he was shot in the hip, the ball then accommodation in the stomach), in a duel in Oughterard, County Kildare. His conscience was bitterly hurt by the fact that not only had he killed a man, but he had left his family nearly destitute. [14]

O’Connell offered to “share their income” with D’Esterre’s widow, but she declined; However, she agreed to accept a compensation for his daughter, who O’Connell regularly paid for more than thirty years until his death. The memory of the duel haunted him for the rest of his life, and he refused ever to fight another, are prepared to risk accusations of cowardice rather than kill again. [13]

As part of his campaign for Catholic Emancipation, O’Connell created the Catholic Association in 1823; This organization acted as a pressure group against the British government in order to achieve liberation. The Catholic Fair, which was formed in 1824 by O’Connell and the Catholic Church collected funds O’Connell could help to finance the Catholic Association in its push for emancipation. Official opinion gradually turn toward liberation, as evidenced by the dismissal of William Saurin, the Attorney General and a bigoted opponent of religious tolerance, which is O’Connell called “our mortal enemy.”

O’Connell stood in a by-election to the British House of Commons in 1828 for County Clare for a seat vacated by William Vesey Fitzgerald, another supporter of the Catholic Association.

After O’Connell won the election, he was unable to take their place as members of parliament had to take the Oath of Supremacy, which was incompatible with Catholicism. The Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington, and Interior Minister SirRobert Peel, although they opposed the Catholic participation in parliament, saw that denying O’Connell his seat would cause outrage and could lead to another rebellion or insurrection in Ireland, which was about 85% Catholic . [15]

Peel and Wellington managed to convince George IV that Catholic emancipation and the rights of Catholics and Presbyterians and members of all other than the established Christian religions Church of Ireland to sit in parliament needed to be established; using Whigs, it became law 1829th

However, the emancipation of the law is not made retroactive, which means that O’Connell had either to seek re-election or try to take oath of supremacy. When O’Connell tried of 15 May to take place without taking oath of supremacy, [16] Solicitor General Nicholas Conyngham Tindal moved his seat declared vacant and ordered another election; O’Connell was elected unanimously July 30, 1829. [17]

He took his place when Parliament resumed in February 1830 when Henry Charles Howard, 13, the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Surrey, has already become the first Catholic to have taken advantage of the Emancipation Act and sit in Parliament. [18] [19]

“Wellington is the King of England”, King George IV once complained, “O’Connell is king of Ireland, and I’m just dean of Windsor.” Regal chaff expressed admiration for O’Connell at the height of his career.

The Catholic liberation campaign led by O’Connell served as a precedent and model for the emancipation of British Jews, the subsequent Act Jews Relief 1858 allowing Jewish MPs to omit the words of the oath of allegiance “and I make this statement on the true faith of a Christian” . [20]

tithe War

Ironically, considering O’Connell’s commitment to peaceful methods of political agitation, [21] his greatest political achievement ushered in a period of violence in Ireland. There was an obligation for those who work in the country to support the established church ( ie , the United Church of England and Ireland) through payments called tithing. The fact that the vast majority of those working the land in Ireland was Catholic or Presbyterian tenants, supporting what was a minority religion in this island (but not in the UK as a whole), had caused tensions for some time. [22]

In December 1830, he and several others tried to hold a meeting of an association or assemblages in violation of the orders of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but the charter expired in connection with the judgment and the prosecution ended the judiciary. [23]

Initially peaceful campaign for non-payment turned violent in 1831 when the newly formed Irish Constabulary were used to seize property in lieu of payment will result in the tenth War of 1831-1836.

Also in contrast to the use of force, O’Connell successfully defended participants in the Battle of Carrickshock and all the accused were acquitted.Yet William O’Connell rejected Sharman Crawford’s call for the complete abolition of the tenth year, 1838, because he felt that he could embarrass the Whigs (the Lichfield House Compact secured an alliance between Whigs, radicals and Irish MPs in 1835). [22]

In 1841 Daniel O’Connell became the first Catholic mayor of Dublin since the reign of James II, who had been the last Catholic monarch of England, Ireland and Scotland. [3]

Campaign for the repeal of the Union

After Catholic Emancipation was achieved, O’Connell campaign for the repeal of the Act of Union, which in 1801 had merged parliamentary Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland to bildaFörenade Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. To push for repeal, O’Connell set up the Repeal Association. He argued for the re-creation of an independent Kingdom of Ireland to govern itself, with Queen Victoria, Queen of Ireland.

To promote this, he held a series of “Monster Meetings” during a large part of Ireland outside the Protestant and Unionist-dominated province of Ulster. [24]The so-called because each attended by around 100,000 people. These meetings concerned the British government and the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, banned one such proposed monster meeting at Clontarf, County Dublin, just outside Dublin in 1843. This move was made after the biggest monster held at Tara.

Tara was of great importance for the Irish population as it was the historic seat of högkung. Clontarf was symbolic because of its connection with the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, when the Irish king Brian Boru defeated his rival Maelmordha, although Brian himself died during the battle. Despite pleas from his supporters, O’Connell refused to defy the authorities and he was called off the meeting because he was unwilling to risk bloodshed and had no other. [3] He was arrested on charges of conspiracy and sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of £ 2000, although he was released after three months, the House of Lords, which overturned the judgment and severely criticized the unfair trial. After having deprived himself of his most potent weapon, the monster meeting, O’Connell with his health failing had no plan and discord broke out in the Repeal Association. [3]

Legacy

O’Connell died of softening of the brain (cerebral softening) in 1847 in Genoa, Italy, while on a pilgrimage to Rome at the age of 71, his time in prison had seriously weakened him, and the terrible cold weather he endured on his journey was probably the last battle. According to his last wishes, his heart was buried in Rome (in Sant’Agata dei Goti, when the chapel of the Irish College), and the rest of his body in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin, during a round tower. His sons are buried in its crypt.

On August 6, 1875 Charles Herbert Mackintosh won gold and silver medals offered by the St. Patrick’s Society during O’Connell centenary of Major’s Hill Park in Ottawa, Ontario for a prize poem entitled The Irish Liberator . [25]

O’Connell’s philosophy and career have inspired leaders across the world, including Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) and Martin Luther King (1929-1968).He was told by William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863) “You have done more for your nation than any man since Washington ever done.” William Gladstone (1809-1898) described him as “the greatest popular leader the world has ever seen. “Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) wrote that” Napoleon and O’Connell were the only big men 19th century had ever seen. “Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné (1794-1872) wrote that” the only man as Luther in the power he brought was O’Connell. “William Grenville (1759-1834) wrote that” history will speak of him as one of the most remarkable men that ever lived.”O’Connell met, befriended, and became a great source of inspiration for Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) a former American slave who became a very influential leaders of the abolitionist movement, a social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. [26] [27] O ‘ Connell attacks against slavery made with his usual force, and often gave great offense, particularly in the US, he called George Washington a hypocrite, and challenged to a duel by Andrew Stevenson, the American minister, he was reported to have called a slave breeders.

But the founder of the Irish Labour Party and executed Easter Rising leader James Connolly, devoted a chapter in his 1910 book “Labour in Irish History” entitled “A chapter of horrors. Daniel O’Connell and the working class “in which he criticized O’Connell parliamentary record, accusing him of siding consistently with the interests of the propertied classes in the UK. [28] And Patrick Pearse, Connolly, sister leaders of the Easter Rising, wrote:” The leaders in Ireland almost always left people in the critical moment (…) O’Connell flinched before the cannon at Clontarf “but adding” I do not blame these men .. you or I could have done the same, it’s a terrible responsibility, founded on a man, that the bidding cannon speak and grape pour “. [29]

In O’Connell lifetime goals for his Repeal Association -An independent Kingdom of Ireland governing itself but to keep the British monarch as its head of state-proved too radical for the British government of the time to receive, and brought over O ‘Connell persecution and oppression.

O’Connell is known in Ireland as “The Liberator” or “The Great Emancipator” for his success in achieving Catholic Emancipation. O’Connell admired Latin American liberator Simón Bolívar, and one of his sons, Morgan O’Connell, was a volunteer officer in Bolívar’s army in 1820, aged 15. [30] The main street in the center of Dublin, previously called Sackville Street, renamed O’Connell Street in his honor in the early 20th century after the irish free state came into being. [31] his statue (made by sculptor John Henry Foley, who also designed the sculptures of the Albert Memorial in London) stands at one end of the street , with a statue of Charles Stewart Parnell at the other end. [32]

The main street in Limerick is also named after O’Connell, also with a statue at the end (in the middle of the Crescent). O’Connell Street is also in Ennis, Sligo, Athlone, Kilkee, Clonmel ochWaterford.

There is a statue that honors O’Connell outside St Patrick’s Cathedral in Melbourne, Australia, which until the 1950s, the Archdiocese of Melbourne was almost entirely composed of Irish immigrants and Australians of Irish descent. [33] There is a museum in memory him in Derrynane House, near the village of Derrynane, County Kerry, who once owned by his family. [34] He was a member of the literary Association of the Friends of Poland as well. [35]

Family

In 1802, O’Connell married his third cousin, Mary O’Connell. It was a love marriage, and to persevere in it was an act of great courage, because Daniel’s uncle Maurice was upset (as Mary had no fortune) and for a time threatened to destroy them. [36] They had four daughters (three survivors ), Ellen (1805-1883), Catherine (1808), Elizabeth (1810), and Richard (1815), and four sons.The sons- Maurice (1803), Morgan (1804), John (1810), and Daniel (1816) -All sat in Parliament. The marriage was happy and Mary’s death in 1837 was a blow from which her husband never fully recovered. He was a devoted father;O’Faolain suggest that despite his broad acquaintance he had few close friends and therefore the family circle meant a lot to him. [37]

Connection with the licensed trade

O’Connell assisted her younger son, Daniel, junior, to acquire Phoenix Brewery in James Street, Dublin, 1831. [38] The brewery produced a brand known as “O’Connell’s Ale” and enjoyed some popularity. By 1832, O’Connell was forced to conclude that he would not be a political patron of the brewing trade or his son’s company until he was no longer a Member of Parliament, especially because O’Connell and Arthur Guinness was political enemies.Guinness was “moderate” liberal candidate, O’Connell was “radical” liberal candidate. The rivalry caused tens Irish companies to boycott Guinness in 1841 Repeal election. It was at this time that the Guinness was accused of supporting the “Orange” system, and its beer was known as the “Protestant porter”. When O’Connell family left was bridged rights to “O’Connell Dublin Ale” sold to John D’Arcy. The brewing business proved unsuccessful however, and after some years was taken over by the chief, John Brennan, while Daniel junior embraced a political career. Brennan changed the name back to Phoenix Brewery but continued to brew and sell O’Connell’s Ale. When the Phoenix Brewery was effectively closed after being absorbed in the Guinness complex in 1909, was the brewing of O’Connell’s Ale conducted by John D’Arcy and Son Ltd at the Anchor Brewery in Usher Street. In 1926 D’Arcy ceased trading and the firm of Watkins, Jameson and Pim worn on the bridge until they succumbed to the pressure of trying to compete with Guinness. [39] [40]

Daniel junior was chairman of the licensed trade association for the period and provided significant and valuable support to Daniel O’Connell in his public life. Some time later there was an altercation and O’Connell turned his back on the association and became a strong advocate of temperance.During the period, Fr. Mathew is total abstinence crusade many temperance meetings held, the most notable being a huge rally held in St. Patrick’s Day, 1841. Daniel O’Connell was a guest of honor at another such rally held at the rotunda hospital. [40] [41]

Comments to liberation

O’Connell is on the left edge of the painting of the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention. [42] Move the cursor to identify him or click on the icon to enlarge

Michael Doheny, in his The Felon Track , says that a lot of character liberation has adopted an ” exaggerated and false cover story ” and that it is wrong to call it liberation. He agreed that it was neither the first nor the last or even the most important of the concessions have the right to the name of liberation, and no one remembered the men whose efforts ” wrung from the reluctant spirit of a much darker time the right to live, to worship , to enjoy the property, and exercising the franchise . ” [43] Doheny said that the penalties for” criminal laws “had long been abolished and barbaric code had been compressed in the cold and sluggish exclusivity and yet Mr. O’Connell monopolized all of its notoriety. [43] the position that John Mitchel, also one of the leading members of the Young Ireland movement, in his “Jail Journal,”[44] was that there were two distinct movements in Ireland during this period, which awaken the people, was a Catholic relief Agitation (led by O’Connell), who were both open and legal, the other was the secret society known as the ribbon and white-boy movements. [45] first proposed the inclusion of professional and distinguished Catholics to Parliament and honor of the profession, all under British law the other, originating in an utter horror and defiance of British law, considered nothing less than a social, and ultimately, a political revolution. [45] According to Mitchel, for fear that the latter, UK with a “very ill grace gave to the first.” Mitchel agree that Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington said they brought in this action, in order to avoid civil war; but says that “no British statesman ever tell the official truth, or assign any act its real motive.” [45] Their real motive was, according to Mitchel, to buy into the British interests, landed and educated Catholics, these “respectable Catholics” would then be satisfied, and “become West Brits” from that day. [45]

Political commitment and programs

“Daniel O’Connell: The Champion of Liberty” poster published iPennsylvania, 1847

A critic of violent insurrection in Ireland , O’Connell once said that “the altar of freedom falters when it tough only with blood” and even as late as 1841, O’Connell had whipped his MPs in line to hold the “Opium War” going In China. Territories at the time had proposed a motion of censure on the war, and O’Connell had to call on their MPs to support the Whig government. As a result of this intervention, the Government was saved. [46]

Politically, he focused on parliamentary and populist methods to force change and made regular declarations of their loyalty to the British crown.He often warned British establishment that if they do not reform the governance of Ireland, the Irish would start listening to “counsel of violent men.” Successive British governments continued to ignore this advice, long after his death, although he managed to get out of sheer force and power of the Catholic peasants and priests much of what he wanted, ie , eliminating disability Catholics; ensure the legally elected Catholics could serve their constituencies in the British Parliament (until the Irish Parliament was restored); and amending allegiance to remove clauses offensive to Catholics who could then take the oath in good conscience. [3]

Although a native speaker of Irish, O’Connell encouraged Irish people to learn English better themselves. [3] Although he is best known for the campaign for Catholic emancipation; He also supported similar efforts for Irish Jews. At his insistence, in 1846, the British law “The Judaismo” which prescribed a special dress for Jews, was repealed. O’Connell said :. “Ireland has debts on your old race, is the only country that I know of unsullied by any act of persecution of the Jews” [47]

O’Connell citat

  • “The altar of freedom falters when it tough only with blood” [Written in his Journal, Dec. 1796 and one of O’Connell’s most famous quotes.Quoted by O’Ferrall, F., Daniel O’Connell , Dublin, 1981, p.12]
  • “Gentlemen, you may soon have the option to live as slaves or die as free men” (speaking in Mallow)
  • “Oh my God, what a brute you get when ignorant and oppressed. Oh Freedom! What horrors are committed in thy name! May every virtuous revolutionary remember the horrors of Wexford ‘! [Written in his Journal, January 2, 1799, with reference to the latest 1798 Rebellion.Quoted from Vol I, p. 205 of O’Neill Daunt, WJ, personal memories of the late Daniel O’Connell , MP, 2 vols, London, 1848.]
  • “My days-flowers of my youth and the prime of my manhood-has been obscured by the boredom of slavery. In this land of my birth-in the land of my fathers-I is destroyed without fault as a stranger and an outcast. “[July 1812, aged 37, to reflect on the failure to ensure equal rights or Catholic Emancipation of Catholics in Ireland. Quoted from Vol I, p.185 O’Connell, J. (ed.), The Life and Speeches of Daniel O’Connell , 2 Vols, Dublin, 1846)]
  • “How cruel the penal laws that exclude me from a fair trial with the men that I consider so much my subordinates …”. [O’Connell correspondence, Letter No. 700, Vol II]
  • “… I want to make the whole of Europe and America knows it-I want to make England feel her weakness, she refuses to give justice we [Irish]-demand restoration of our national parliaments …”. [Speech at a “monster” meeting in Drogheda, June 1843]
  • “It is an utter ignorance of and indifference to the sufferings and hardship … What care they for us, provided we be submissive, paying taxes, providing recruits for the army and navy and bless champion who either despise or oppress or combine both? Apathy that exists Ireland respects is worse than the national antipathy they carry us. ” [Letter to TM Ray, 1839, in English attitudes towards Ireland (O’Connell correspondence, Vol VI, Letter No. 2588)]
  • “No one knows better than you do that the dominance of England is the only and blighting curse in this country. It is mara sitting on our energy, stops the pulsation of the heart of the nation and leave Ireland not gay vitality but horrid convulsions a troubled dream “. [Letter to Bishop Doyle, 1831 (O’Connell correspondence, Vol IV, Letter No. 1860)]
  • “The principle of my political life … is that all ameliorations and improvements in the political institutions may be obtained by persevering in a completely peaceful and legal course, and can not be obtained by force or if they could be obtained by force such funds to create more evil than cure, and leave the country worse than they found it. “[Writing in The Nation magazine 18 November 1843]
  • “No man was ever a good soldier, but the man who goes into battle determined to conquer, or not to come back from the battlefield (cheers). No other principle makes a good soldier. “O’Connell recalls spirited actions of Irish soldiers in Wellington’s army, at Monster meeting Mullaghmast. [48] [49]
  • “The poor old Duke [Wellington] What should I say about him? To be sure that he was born in Ireland, but to be born in a stable does not make a man a horse. ” Shaw Authenticated report of the Irish State Trials(1844), p. 93
  • “Every religion is good every religion is true to him in good care and conscience believe it.” (As a defender in R. v Magee (1813), calls for religious tolerance.) [50]
  • “Ireland is too poor for a bad team.” (In response to the Poor Law of 1839 sets up the workhouses.) [51]

See also

  • Ireland’s history (1801-1922)
  • Irish nobility
  • List of people on stamps of Ireland
  • Daniel O’Connell Heritage Summer School

Footnotes

  1. Jump up ^ “O’Connell, Daniel – Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City area.” Irish-society.org.
  2. Jump up ^ A Brief History of Ireland
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e f g. Boylan, Henry (1998) A Dictionary of Irish Biography (3rd ed.). Dublin: Gill och MacMillan. s. 306. ISBN 0-7171-2945-4 .
  4. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c d e Dennis Gywnn, Daniel O’Connell Den irländska Liberator , Hutchinson & Co. Ltd pg 71
  5. Jump up ^ O’Connell correspondence, Vol I, Letter No. 24a
  6. Hoppa upp^ O’Ferrall, F., Daniel O’Connell, Dublin , 1981, s. 12
  7. Jump up ^ O’Connell correspondence, Vol I, Letter 97
  8. Jump up ^ O’Faolain, Sean King of the Beggars- a life of Daniel O’Connell in 1936 Alan Figgis reissue p.97
  9. Jump up ^ Britain and the Irish question 1798-1922 , Paul Adelmann, Robert Pearce, Hodder Murray, London, ISBN 0-340-88901-2 .pg 33
  10. Jump up ^ Geoghegan, Patrick M. King Dan Gill and Macmillan 2008 Dublin p.168
  11. Jump up ^ O’Faolain pp.151-179
  12. Jump up ^ Solingen, John Gideon (1841). The history of duels: including, the stories of the most remarkable personal meetings that have taken place from the earliest period to the present, Volume second R. Bentley. p. 215.
  13. ^ Jump up to: ab Dennis Gywnn, Daniel O’Connell, the Irish Liberator , Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. pp 138-145
  14. Jump up ^ Geoghegan King Dan P155
  15. Jump up ^ Oliver MacDonagh, The Life of Daniel O’Connell in 1991
  16. Jump up ^ “This day, the 15th May in history jew”. Cleveland Jewish News.
  17. Jump up ^ History of Parliament 1820-1832 Vol VI, pp. 535-6.
  18. Jump up ^ History of Parliament 1820-1832 Vol Ip. 253rd
  19. Jump up ^ “The Grail Chapter Eight”. Deskeenan.com.
  20. Jump up ^ “Jews Relief Act 1858”. Legislation.gov.uk.
  21. Hoppa upp^ “Catholic Encyclopedia: Daniel O’Connell” . Newadvent.org .
  22. ^ Jump up to: ab Stewart, Jay Brown (2001). The national churches in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1801-1846. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 20-45. ISBN 0-19-924235-6.
  23. Jump up ^ State Trials (New Series) II, 629
  24. Jump up ^ “in favor of the repeal of the Union by Daniel O’Connell.Ireland (1775-1902). Vol. WE. Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The world’s most famous Orations “. Www.bartleby.com. Pulled 03/18/2016.
  25. Hoppa upp^Canadian Illustrated News 28 08 1875 vol.XII, nej. 9, 136 Library & Archives Kanada 3682 Canadian Illustrated News
  26. Jump up ^ Douglass, Frederick (1882). The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass: From 1817 to 1882. p. 205. Eight Retrieved December 2010.
  27. Jump up ^ Chaffin, Tom (25 February 2011). “Frederick Douglass Irish freedom.” The New York Times. Taken 26 februari2011.
  28. Jump up ^ James Connolly. “James Connolly: Labour in Irish History – Chapter 12”. Marxists.org.
  29. Jump up ^ Seán Cronin, our own red blood, the Irish Freedom Press, New York, 1966, pg.15
  30. Hoppa upp^Brian McGinn (November 1991). “Venezuelas irländska arv” . Irish America Magazine (New York) Vol. VII, nr XI. Hämtad 18 april 2007 .
  31. Jump up ^ Sheehan, Sean; Levy, Patricia (2001). Dublin’s Guide: travel guide. Footprint handbooks. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-900949-98-9.
  32. Jump up ^ Bennett, Douglas (2005). Encyclopedia of Dublin. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-7171-3684-1.
  33. Jump up ^ O’Farrell, Patrick (1977). The Catholic Church and the community in Australia. Thomas Nelson (Australia), West Melbourne.
  34. Jump up ^ “Derrynane House.” Derrynane House. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  35. Jump up ^ Marchlewicz K: Pro-Polish Loby in the lower house and upper house during the 1830s and 1840s. Przeglad Historyczny (Historical Review): 2005, vol: 96, number: 1 pages: 61-76
  36. Jump up ^ Geoghegan King Dan pp.94-7
  37. Jump up ^ O’Faolain p.87
  38. Hoppa upp^Irish Whiskey: En 1000-årig tradition , Malachy Magee, O’Brien Press, Dublin, ISBN 0-86278-228-7 . pg 68-74.
  39. Jump up ^ T. Halpin: The story of the Irish brewing industry, 1988
  40. ^ Jump up to: ab History of Brewing in Dublin
  41. Hoppa upp^ St Martin Magazine (ISSN 1393-1008) i juni 2003 St Martin apostolaten, Dublin
  42. Jump up ^ Association Convention, 1840 Anti-Slavery, Benjamin Haydon, 1841, National Portrait Gallery, NPG599, Given by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1880
  43. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b Michael Doheny s Den Felon Track , MH Gill & Son, Ltd., 1951, sid 2-4
  44. Jump up ^ John Mitchel’s Jail Journal which first aired as a series in his first New York newspaper The Citizen , from January 14, 1854 and August 19th 1854. The book referenced is an exact reproduction of Jail Journal , as it first seemed.
  45. ^ Jump up to: abcd John Mitchel, Prison Journal, or five years in British jails , MH Gill & Son, Ltd., 1914, pp XXXIV-XXXVI.
  46. Jump up ^ Charles Gavan Duffy: Conversations With Carlyle (1892), with Introduction, Stray thoughts on Young Ireland , Brendan Clifford, Athol Books, Belfast, ISBN 0-85034-114-0 .pg 17 & 21
  47. Jump up ^ Jewish Ireland
  48. Jump up ^ Envoi, Taking Leave Roy Foster , Brendan Clifford and Julianne Herlihy, Aubane Historical Society, Cork.pg 16
  49. Jump up ^ Allen, Edward Archibald; William Schuyler (1901). David Josiah Brewer, ed. The world’s best orations: from the earliest period to the present. 8 . FP Kaiser. p. 3,101th Retrieved March 23 of 2010.
  50. Jump up ^ O’Faolain p.163
  51. Jump up ^ Angus McIntyre, “The Liberator Daniel O’Connell and the Irish Party 1830-1847”. Published London, 1965, pp. 211-18.

References

  • Fergus O’Ferrall, Daniel O’Connell (Gill irländska liv serien), Gill & MacMillan, Dublin, 1981.
  • Seán O’Faoláin , King of the Beggars: Ett liv i Daniel O’Connell , 1938.
  • Maurice R. O’Connell, korrespondens Daniel O’Connell (8 vol), Dublin, 1972-1980.
  • Oliver MacDonagh, O’Connell: Livet av Daniel O’Connell 1775-18471991.
  • J. O’Connell, red., Livet och Tal av Daniel O’Connell (2 vol), Dublin, 1846.
  • Sister Mary Francis Cusask, Life of Daniel O’Connell, the Liberator: His Times – political, social and religious. New York: D. & J. Sadlier & Co.1,872th
  • h-net.org

Cahersiveen

Cahersiveen [7] [8] (Irish: Cahersiveen , som betyder “Little Sophie’s STens Ringfort”) -alternate stavningar Cahirsiveen , Cahirciveen ellerCaherciveen -On en stop in Regionen Skellig Kerry, County Kerry, Irland.Det ligger på och är floden Fertha of Staden in Iveragh halvön viktigaste.Nara Cahersiveen Valentia Island och är är av ansluten till denirländska vägnätet N70 VAG. Den har på en befolkning 1294 (CSO 2006).

The Catholic Church in the city is the only one in Ireland named for a layman, Daniel O’Connell. It is located on the slopes of Beentee. [8] It also includes a utrangeradeRoyal Irish Constabulary barracks, now a heritage center, which according to legend was built from plans for a British barracks in India who got mixed up (a very common myth that occur in many Irish garrison towns).

Cahersiveen was where the first shots of the Fenian Rising kicked in in 1867.

schools

The towns of primary school Scoil Saidbhín opened in September 2015. This school is an amalgamation of Scoil Mhuire, boys school and St.Joseph’s Convent, girls’ primary school. There are four primary schools in total in the parish Cahersiveen, including schools in the outskirts of the city: Aghatubrid National School, Coars National School, and Foilmore National School. The Aghatubrid school was founded in 1964 and has about 88 students.

Cola ice tea Na Sceilge is co-ed school is located in Cahersiveen. Over 530 students attend Coláiste Na Sceilge. Students from around the Iveragh attend school. For students who are interested in speaking their mother tongue is a t-Aonad LAN Ghaeilge. It is an all Irish-speaking class for the first to third year students, where students do all their learning through Irish. In 2012/2013 there were 26 students enrolled in a t-Aonad LAN Ghaeilge. The school’s website is http://colaistenasceilge.ie/ You can find a list of the schools and their contact details at Coláiste Na Sceilge website.

People

  • Thomas O’Brien Butler, composer of the opera Muirgheis
  • Cornelius Casey, American football player
  • Sigerson Clifford, author and poet
  • Maurice Fitzgerald, football
  • Fionán Lynch , TD
  • John Robert Monsell, children’s book illustrator and author
  • John Murphy, founder of a construction contractor firm
  • Daniel O’Connell, 19th century Irish politician and champion of Catholic Emancipation and Repeal of the 1801 Act of Union
  • John O’Donoghue Previous TD
  • Hugh O’Flaherty, Monseigneur called Vatican scarlet pimpernel
  • Jack O’Shea, footballer
  • John O’Shea, CEO of GOAL humanitarian organization
  • Patrick O’Sullivan, railway author and historian.
  • Bernard O’Connor, footballer

Gallery

  • Gate på New Street
  • Cahersiveen barracks
  • Cahersiveen Main Street
  • Caherciveen, Main Street / O’Connell Street
  • Cahersiveen, O’Connell Street
  • Cahersiveen West Main Street

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Cahirciveen railway station

References

  1. Jump up ^ “Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area” (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 reports. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. April 2007. Taken 2011-06-14.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  4. Jump up ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  8. ^ Jump up to: ab Ordnance Survey Ireland – Online map viewer

The Ring of Kerry

The Ring of Kerry (Irish: Mórchuaird Chiarraí ) is a 179 km long circular tourist route in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. Clockwise from Killarney follow the N71 to Kenmare, then N70 runtIveragh peninsula Killorglin – pass Sneem, Waterville, Cahersiveen and Glenbeigh – before returning to Killarney via the N72.

Popular points include Muckross House (near Killarney), Staigue stone fort and Derrynane House, home of Daniel O’Connell. Just south of Killarney, Ross Castle, Lough Leane, ochLadies View (panoramic viewpoint), all located in Killarney National Park, are major attractions located along the Ring. A more complete list of the major attractions along the Ring of Kerry include: Gap of Dunloe, Bog Village, Kerry Woollen Mills, Rossbeigh Beach, Cahersiveen Heritage Centre, Derrynane House, Skellig Experience, Staigue Fort, Kenmare Lace, Moll Gap, Ladies View, Torc Waterfall, Muckross House, the Blue Pool, Ross Castle, Ogham stones, St Mary’s Cathedral, Muckross Abbey, Franciscan Friary, Kellegy Church, O’Connell Memorial Church, Sneem Church and Cemetery, Skellig Michael beehive cells and stone pillars marking an important tomb . [1]

There is also an established walking path named The Kerry Way, which takes its own path, and a signposted Ring of Kerry cycling path which uses older quieter roads where possible. Kerry Way roughly follows the scenic driving route of the Ring of Kerry.

There are many variations of the route taking St. Finian’s Bay and Valentia Island which the official driving ring misses (the official cycling route takes in Valentia Island). Like the beaches, it also offers the Gap of Dunloe, Bog Village, Derrynane House, the Skellig Experience, Valentia Island, Molls Gap, Torc Waterfall, Muckross House and Ross Castle.

“The Ring” is a popular day trip and numerous bus companies offer circuits during the summer months. As the narrow roads make it difficult for tour buses that pass all the tour buses run in a clockwise (or counterclockwise) direction, traveling via Killorglin first. Some recommend that motorists traveling in the opposite direction, going first to Kenmare to avoid delays caused by tour buses. Other advise traveling counterclockwise to avoid passing buses. In 2008, satellite navigation systems were blamed for directing bus drivers clockwise around the route. [2]

References

  1. Jump up ^ Ring of Kerry
  2. Jump up ^ Sat-navs send Kerry bus driver lost

MacGillycuddy’s Reeks

MacGillycuddy’s Reeks (Irish: Na Cruacha Dubha , meaning “black bars”) are a mountain range in County Kerry, Ireland. Stretching over 19 km (12 mi), it contains the highest peaks in Ireland and the only peaks on the island which is over 1000 meters (3300 feet). The maximum of these is Carrauntoohil (1038 m), followed by Beenkeragh (1010 m) and Caher (1001 m). The range also includes many other Hewitt (peaks over 2,000 feet). The mountains, part of the Armorican Highlands, are of glacial -carved Devonian sandstone and is påIveragh Peninsula near the Lakes of Killarney.

The name of the area goes to the 18th century. It is derived from the family or clan name Mac Giolla Mochuda (anglicised MacGillycuddy) is September 1 of O’Sullivan’s. The clan chief, the McGillycuddy Reeks, owned land in this part of Munster for a long time before, and continued to do so until to the end of the 20th century. The word reek is a Irish English version of the English word rick , means a staple.

“MacGillycuddy stinks” is also the name of a song of Warren Zevon album My Ride is here . [1] The song is on the Iveragh Peninsula and also mentions “Killarney shore” and Innisfallen .It was co-written by the Ulster poet Paul Muldoon.

List of peaks

# Top Other names Height
1 Corran Tuathail Carrauntoohil 1,038m [2]
2 Sheep sentenced Beenkeragh, Benkeeragh 1,010m [3]
3 City Deal Caher 1,001m [4]
4 Hill tapeworm Knocknapeasta 988 [5]
5 West city Caher West 975 [6]
6 Maolan BUI 973 [7]
7 The Bones Carrauntoohil tand, Knockoughter 959 [8]
8 Hill en Chuillin 958 [9]
9 In Gunna Mór The Big Gun, Lackagarrin, Foilnabreachaun 939 [10]
10 steel Mhor 932 [11]
11 Hill en Kilcullen East Hill en Kilcullen East 926 [12]
12 Hill West womb Knockbrinnea West 854 [13]
13 Top Stump River 851 [14]
14 Screig Mhor Skregmore 848 million[15]
15 Womb Hill East Knocnbrinnea East 847 [16]
16 Wave Hill 845 [17]
17 Lower hill 747 [18]
18 Hill en Bhráca 731 [19]
19 Hill dTarbh 655 [20]
20 Stumpa in tSaimh /
Stuimpín in Daimh
Hag tooth
Stumpeenadaff
650m [21]
21 hill Breasail Brassel 575 [22]
22 Little Screig Skregbeg 573 [23]
23 Binn Bhan 461 [24]
24 Black sentenced 452m [25]
25 Red sentenced Beendarrig, Bendarrig 451 [26]
26 Struicín Strickeen 440m [27]
27 hill Mosaic Knockbrack 425 [28]

See also

  • List of mountains in Ireland
  • List of Irish counties with the highest point

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Billboard May 25, 2002
  2. Jump up ^ mountainviews

The Iveragh Peninsula

The Iveragh Peninsula (Irish: Uibh Ráthach ) is located in County Kerry in Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in southwestern Ireland. A mountain range, the Macgillycuddy stinks, located in the center of the peninsula.Carrauntoohil, its highest mountain, is also the highest peak in Ireland.

The cities on the peninsula include Killorglin, Cahersiveen, Ballinskelligs, Portmagee, Waterville, Waterville, Sneem and Kenmare.

The Ring of Kerry, a popular tourist trail, circles the coastline and the Skellig Ring, beginning and ending at Killarney, just east of the peninsula.

Valentia Island is located off the northwestern tip of the peninsula. It is connected with the peninsula by a bridge at Port village, but it can also be reached by ferry from Renard Point on the mainland and the Knights of the island.

The Skellig Islands, located about 12 kilometers (7.5 statute miles or 6.4 nautical miles) off the west coast and is known for its monastery buildings and birdlife.

Kerry Geopark is a community initiative on the Iveragh Peninsula which aims to promote Geotourism in this area of high geological importance. Some of the interest features are Kenmare Bay (a drowned river valley or ria), signs of past glaciation and volcanic activity and 400 million year old fossil tetrapod tracks.

See also

  • Corcu Duibne
  • Dingle Peninsula
  • Beara Peninsula
  • Valentia Harbour Railway Station

further reading

  • John Crowley och John Sheehan. Iveragh halvön: En kultur Atlas of the Ring of Kerry, 2009 . Cork University Press . ISBN  978-1-85918-430-1 .

Ross Castle

Ross Castle (Irish: Caislean an Rois ) is a 15th century tower house and stay on the edge of Lough Leane, in Killarney National Park, County Kerry. Ireland[1] It is the ancestral home of the O’Donoghue clan, [2] although it is better known for its association with the Brownes of Killarney who owned the castle until recently.

The castle is run by the Office of Public Works, [2] and is open to the public seasonally with guided tours. [3]

History

Ross Castle was built in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the O’Donoghues Mor (Ross), though ownership changed hands during the Second Desmond Rebellions of the 1580s tillMacCarthy mother. He then leased the castle and lands to Sir Valentine Browne, ancestor of the Earls of Kenmare. The castle was among the last to surrender to Oliver Cromwell’s Roundhead During the Irish League of war, [4] and only removed when the artillery was taken by boat through the River Laune. Lord Muskerry (MacCarty) held the castle against General Ludlow who marched to Ross with 4,000 foot soldiers and 200 horse; However, it was the water that he attacked the stronghold. The Irish had a prophecy that Ross could never be taken until a warship could swim in the lake, incredible views. The sight of the ships’ unnerved spectators and the castle soon enter.

At the end of the wars, the Brownes were able to demonstrate that their heir was too young to have participated in the uprising, and they retained countries. By about 1688 they had constructed a building near the castle, but their connection to James II of England allowed them to exile. The castle became a military installation, which remained so until the early 19th century. The Brownes not return to live at Ross but built Kenmare House near Killarney.

There is a legend that O’Donoghue jumped or was sucked out of the window of the big house on top of the castle and disappeared in the water in the lake along with his horse, his table and his library. It is said that O’Donoghue now lives in a large palace at the bottom of the lake where he keeps an eye on everything that he sees.

Defensive characteristics

basic structure

The castle is typical of fasteners Irish chieftains that were built during the Middle Ages. The tower houses had square bartizans at diagonally opposite corners and a thick end. The tower was initially surrounded by a square Bawn defended by round corner towers at each end. [3]

The structure is stacked and mortared stone with thick walls and provides five internal stories plus roof.

The front entrance

The front entrance was a small hall is secured by an iron grill or “yett” on the outer wall. The yett can be closed from the inside by a chain which can then be secured even if the door was stängd.Detta room provided little side access holes and a “murder hole” over which allowed the defenders to attack someone in the room.

The front door, on the inside of the hall, was constructed of two layers of Irish oak, a layer 90 degrees to the other with boards riveted together. If the door was a single layer of wood fibers in a single direction, it would have been possible to divide the door. The second cross-layer is prevented. The door opened inward and was supported by two heavy beams mounted in the stone structure.

Windows

Windows on the lower levels were thin vertical slits prevents entry into the structure but allows people inside to aim and fire arrow or weapon against attackers. The windows on the upper levels was greater to let in light. It was felt that the attacker would be able to scale the heights as larger windows were secure.

Staircase

The spiral staircase, located in the left front corner, built in a clockwise direction. Attackers, rising up would have his sword in his right hand and would be hindered by the middle structure of the stairs. Defenders, down, would have their swords swinging at the outer part of the staircase gives them an advantage.

In addition, the stairs were uneven height to throw away an attacker charging by disturbing its course.

Machicolation

Machicolations was stone structures at the top of the castle projecting from the wall with a hole in the floor. There are two at Ross Castle, one of the front door and another on the rear wall. The front would allow defenders to drop the stones or boiling oil on attackers at the front door, the only entrance to the castle.

Parapet

The railing on the roof level “crenellated” give up, “merlons” ups and downs, “crenels”, allowing defenders to hide behind merlons while shooting arrows or guns through the crenels.

Inner room

The first floor was used for storage.

The second floor was a living place for the house attendants and guards.Straw was spread on the floor to sleep on. It was typical no furniture.

The third floor was for preparation and living and eating space for the house attendants and guards.

The fourth floor was the sleeping and living space for the governor and his family. The fourth floor had a vaulted stone ceiling supports a stone floor in the fifth story, compared with wood beam floors in the lower stories.

The fifth floor was the large room where the governor and entertained. This room was also the last refuge which had a stone floor as a fire break from the fire in the lower floors.

Gallery

  • Sketch of Ross Castle, 1830
  • Ross Castle at dusk in 2012
  • Ross Castle

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ “Ross Castle page (Killarney National Park site).” National Parks & Wildlife Service. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Killarney Ross Castle reopened for the tourist season.”Independent News & Media. 30 November 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b“Heritage Irland – South-West – Ross Castle” . OPW (National Monument och National Historic Properties) . Hämtad sexton maj 2014 .
  4. Jump up ^ “” Ross Castle “- Gulliver is introduced.” Retrieved May 16, 2014.

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