CategoryCounty Cork

University College Cork

University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork  (  UCC )  [2]  (Irish:  Coláiste na hOllscoile Corcaigh  ) is a  constituent university  of the National University of Ireland .Universitetet located in Cork.

The University was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges in Belfast, Cork and Galway.  [3]  It became University College, Cork, under the law Irish universities by 1908. University Act in 1997 was named the university as the National University of Ireland, Cork, and a ministerial decree of 1998, was named the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork,  [4]  although there continues to be almost universally known as University College Cork.

Among other rankings and honors, received the university named Irish University of the Year by  the Sunday Times  on four occasions; latest 2015/2016.  [5]  In 2015, the UCC was also named as the most successful universities of the European Commission-funded U-Multirank, which is based on getting the highest number of “A”, (21 of 28 points) among a field of 1200 to some universities.  [6] the  UCC also became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy conservation in 2011.

Dr. Michael B. Murphy has been the president of the university since February 2007.  [7]

History

“Long Hall” and the bell tower of the UCC quadrangle

Queen’s College, Cork, founded by the provisions of an act that enabled Queen Victoria to provide new schools for the “Advancement of Learning in Ireland”. According to the authority of this Act, the three schools in Belfast, Cork and Galway were incorporated on December 30 1845. The college opened in 1849 with 23 professors and 181 students and a year later became part of the Queen’s University of Ireland.

The original site chosen for the college was appropriate because it is believed to have been related to the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close to Gill Abbey Rock and mill attached to the monastery is believed to have stood on the shore of the southern channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds. This compound is also reflected in the College’s motto “Where Finbarr taught Let Munster Learn” which is also the motto of the University.

The site, adjacent to the Abbey Gill, overlooked the valley of the River Lee. It was bought for £ 2,560 in 1846.  citation needed  ]  The Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane (1792-1871) and Benjamin Woodward (1816-1861).

Queen’s College Cork officially opened its doors in 1849. In the coming years, “College” acquired a reputation for excellence in various fields, including mathematics, medicine and the humanities.  Citation needed  ]  Additional buildings were added later, including the medical / Windle Construction .

In the following century, the Irish Universities Act (1908) formed the National University of Ireland, which is composed of three constituent colleges of Dublin, Cork and Galway, and the University was given the status of a college  College, Cork  . Universities Act, 1997, made the college a constituent University of the National University and made the inaugural university a university for all purposes except the award of diplomas which remains the sole responsibility of the National University.

Today

Today the university has over 18,000 students, of which there are over 12,000 undergraduate degree candidates.  [1]  The student base is supported by 2747 employees, of which 762 are teachers. There are 1153 non academic staff and 832 researchers.  [1]

The university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with the highest research income in the state.  [8]  The university’s internal research reputation spans all their faculties where it offers over 120 degree and professional programs through seven schools and 27 departments. The university had seven faculties in Arts and Celtic Studies, Commerce, Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Law, Medicine and Science. In recent years,  ? When  ]  the university has been restructured so that it now has four colleges: Arts, Celtic Studies and Social Sciences; Business and Law;Medicine and health; and science, technology and food science.

UCC is home to the Irish Institute of Chinese Studies, which enables students to study Chinese culture and language through art and commerce. The department won the European Award for Languages, 2008.  [9]

The number of students, over 18,000 in 2012, increased significantly from the end of the 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus through the acquisition of adjacent land and buildings. The expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O’Rahilly building at the end of 1990, Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences center, the extended Áras na MacLéinn  (Devere Hall), the Lewis Glucksman Gallery 2004 Experience UCC  (Visitors’ Centre) and an extension the  Boole Library  – named after the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed algebra that would later make computer programming possible.The university also closed Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the western route as well as major renovations to the Tyndall Institute buildings at Lee Maltings Complex.

The University has a number of related companies including: Cytrea,  [10]  , which is involved in pharmaceutical formulations, Firecomms,  [11]  an ICT company focusing on optical communications; Digestive Health  [12]  a biotechnology healthcare companies; Biosensia  [13]  which is developing integrated microsystems analytical chips, Sensl developer of low light sensors and imaging systems; Luxcel  [14] involved in the development of probes and sensors for the pharmaceutical and food industries; and Optical Metrology Innovations  [15]  , which develops laser metrology systems.

The college was involved in some controversy in 2006 when an academic, Professor Des Clarke argued that the university authorities were guilty of financial mismanagement, and called for a full independent inquiry into governance. The subsequent investigation found that there was no evidence of financial mismanagement.

Also in 2006, the university reopened Observatory Crawford, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the University of Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed and built the observatory astronomical instruments for the structure. The university paid for an extensive restoration and conservation program of the building and the three main telescope, Equatorial, and Sidereostatic Transit Circle telescope.  [16]

In October 2008, the governing body of the University announced that the UCC would be the first institution in Ireland to use embryonic stem cells in research.  [17]

In November 2009, the UCC many buildings damaged by unprecedented floods.  [18]  The floods also affected other parts of Cork city, with many students evacuated from the accommodation. College authorities postponed academic activities for a week,  [18]  and announced that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. A great scene of the injury was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, the main auditorium will require a complete rebuild just a few months after the opening of classes.  [19]

From 2015, the university has planned a number of celebrated designer of the mathematician, philosopher and logician George Boole -. UCC’s first professor of mathematics  [20] [21]

University College Cork has been ranked by several assessment bodies, including as “Irish University of the Year” by  the Sunday Times  2003, 2005, 2011 and 2016,  [5]  and was named a runner-up in the 2015 edition.  [22]  In 2015, the UCC also named as the most successful universities of the European Commission-funded U-Multirank system, based on a large number of “a” points (21 of 28 points) among a field of 1,200 to take part universities. [6]  also 2015CWTS Leiden Ranking placed UCC 1 in Ireland, 16 in Europe and 52 th globally from a field of 750 universities.  [23]  the 2011 QS world University Rankings awarded a 5 stars to UCC,  [24]  and ranked the university among the top 2% of universities worldwide. UCC was ranked 230 th in the 2014 QS World University Rankings.  [25]  13 of its subject matter presented in the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2015 (an increase from 10 disciplines 2014), including pharmacies and Pharmacology disciplines, as noted by state 50 in the world.  [26]  the Universitas Indonesia (UI) Green Metric world University rankings assigned UCC a second in the world ranking for the second year in a row in 2015 for its efforts in the area of sustainability, with 360 universities from 62 countries are ranked in total.  [27]

UCC has also been known for its digital and social media presence, including for “Best Social Media Engagement” category at the 2014 Social Media Awards,  [28]  and as a finalist for “Best use of social media by a governmental body” and ” best non-profit / Organization Twitter account “2015 Social Media Awards.  [28]  A former finalist in 2013 and 2014 Web Awards, the UCC also did the 2015 finals in two categories,  [29]  the” most influential Irish website ever “and the” best education and the third level website “. University College Cork was the first site in Ireland in 1991  [29]  (only the ninth website in the world at the time), serving transcriptions of Irish historical and literary documents for CELT project converted from SGML to HTML.

College of Medicine and Health

Medicine, art, and law were the three founding faculties when Queen College Cork opened its doors to students in 1849. The medical buildings was built in stages between 1860 and 1880, and faculty quickly gained a reputation for the quality of its students. The first two women to graduate in medicine in Ireland did it in 1898 (this was notable because it was more than 20 years before women were allowed to sit for medicine at the University of Oxford). [30]  UCC School of Medicine is part of the College of Medicine and Health, and is based on the Brookfield Health Sciences Centre on the main campus of UCC and is connected with the 880-bed University College Cork Teaching Hospital, the largest medical center in Ireland. UCC School of Pharmacy is based in Cavanagh Pharmacy Building.  [30]

Research

According to UCC Strategic plan 2009-2012, [31] UCC aims to improve research and innovation. In 2009, the university was ranked in the top 3% of universities worldwide for research. [32]

UCC’s published research strategy proposed to create “Centres of Excellence” for “world-class research,” where researchers and research would be given “freedom and flexibility to pursue their research.” [31] research UCC covers a range of areas including: nanoelectronics Tyndall Institute; Food and Health with digestive Pharmabiotic Centre, [33] NutraMara, [34] food for Health Ireland Research Centre, [35] and cereals Science Cork [36] (Food Research at UCC ranks 4th in the world), [ citation needed ] Environmental ~~ POS = TRUNC environmental ~~ POS = TRUNC [37] (with biodiversity research, aquaculture, energy efficiency and offshore energy); and Business Information Systems.[38]

The Sunday Times ‘ Good University Guide 2015 “, put the UCC at the top of its rankings for” research income per academic “. [22]

Knowledge transfer

Innovation and knowledge driven by the UCC’s Office of Technology Transfer, [39] an office at the university dedicated to commercializing aspects of UCC’s research and connect researchers with industry. Recent spin-outs from college include pharmaceutical company Glantreo, [40] Luxcel Biosciences, [41] Digestive Health, Biosensia, Firecoms, Gourmet Marine, Keelvar, Lee Oncology, and Sensl. [42]

Student life and societies

University College Cork has over 80 active communities [43] and 50 different sports clubs. [44] [45] There are academic, charity, creative, gaming / roleplaying, political, religious and social communities and clubs that include field sports, martial arts, water sports as well as outdoor and indoor team and individual sports. UCC clubs are sponsored by Bank of Ireland, with UCC Skull and Cross as the mascot for all UCC sports teams. 100 students received scholarships in 26 different sports in 2010. [44]

The regular activities of the UCC communities include charity work; with over 100,000 € annually by the surgeon Noonan society, € 10,000 raised by the war games and role-playing Society (warps) through its international gaming convention WARPCON, € 10,000 raised by UCC Law Society of Cambodia orphanage and UCC Pharmacy Society supports Cork Hospital Kids Club Club ~ ~ POS = HEAD COMP each year with a number of events. [46]UCC communities also sometimes attract high-profile speakers like Robert Fisk, who directs the Law Society, Nick Leeson [46] and Senator David Norris, who was 2009/2010 honorary president of the UCC Philosophical Society. [47]

The UCC Student Union (UCCSU) serves as a representative body of 17,000 students UCC. Each student is automatically a member by a student fee.

A Chuallacht

A Chuallacht (Irish pronunciation: [a xuɐl̪ˠaxt̪ˠ], which means “Lord”) is UCC’s Irish language and culture society. Founded in 1912, the society’s stated aim of promoting the Irish language on campus and around Cork. Included in the calendar of events is a Chuallacht “Chultúir Seachtain na hÉireann” (Irish Cultural Week), an annual festival held in October. Among the events held during the week’s competitions, debates, parades, games and Irish ball, “BAL na Gaeilge ‘, with guests that have included Des Bishop, Seán og Ó hAilpín, Micheal Ó Muircheartaigh, and Seán Bán Breathnach. [ Citation needed ] society was awarded Glor na nGael Irish society of the Year Award in 2009 and 2010, and the best cross-border society in 2013. [ citation needed ]

student Housing

Students UCC occupying a variety of different types of accommodation, with some choosing to live with the family while others live in rented accommodation. UCC’s campus housing company manages more than 1,000 beds in several apartment complexes within 1.5 km from the UCC campus,[48] and provides a search service for students seeking private accommodation near the UCC. [49]

International students

The largest number of 2,400 international students at UCC in 2010 came from the US, followed by China, France and Malaysia. [50] UCC participating in the Erasmus program with 439 students visiting UCC 2009-2010. [50] 201 UCC students studied at institutions in the United States, China and Europe during the same period. [50]

UCC was rated highly in the International Student Barometer Report 2008. [51]This study surveyed 67,000 international students at 84 institutions, and implemented by the International Insight Group. [51] The report considered that 98% of UCC’s international students (who participated in the survey) said they had “Expert lecturers”. And over 90% of these students said they had “good teacher”. [51] In the three categories of the survey, “sports facilities”, “social institutions” and “University associations”, UCC was in the top three of the 84 schools that participated in the survey. UCC’s International Education Office received a 93% customer satisfaction and UCC’s IT support is given a 92% customer satisfaction. [51]

Alumni

Notable alumni of the University includes students from various disciplines.

George Boole (not an alumnus) was the first professor of mathematics at UCC. He developed the Boolean algebra that would later make computer programming possible. [52]

In art and literature, [53] alumni include: author Seán Ó Faoláin, short story writer Daniel Corkery, composer Seán Ó Riada, writers, academics and critics Robert Anthony Welch, actress Fiona Shaw, novelist William Wall, poets Paul Durcan, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill Trevor Joyce, Thomas McCarthy and Greg Delanty, comedian Des Bishop, and journalists Brendan O’Connor and Eoghan Harris. [54] Starring Cillian Murphy and BBC presenter Graham Norton both UCC attended but did not graduate. [55] [56]

From the business community, alumni include: Kerry Group’s Denis Brosnan, Kingfisher plc, former CEO Gerry Murphy, former director of CRH Anthony Barry, and the current president, Myles Lee. [57]

In medicine alumni include: Sir Edwin John Butler, Charles Donovan, Sir Bertram Windle, Dr. Paul Whelton, President Loyola University Health System, Dr. Barry O’Donnell, former president of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland; Dr. Colm Quigley, president of the Medical Council of Ireland, Dr. Pixie McKenna, doctors and TV presenter and Dr. Eamonn MM Quigley, president of the World Gastroenterology Organization, and vice president of the American College of Gastroenterology. [58] In physics, the alumni included: Professor Richard Milner of the Laboratory of Nuclear Science at MIT, Professor Margaret Murnane of the University of Colorado, Professor Patrick G . O’Shea of the University of Maryland, and Professor Séamus Davis of Cornell. [59]

Politicians and officials who attended UCC, include former Taoiseach Jack Lynch, leader of Fianna Fáil and former Foreign Minister Micheál Martin, [60]the Supreme Court Justice Liam McKechnie and High Court Judge Bryan MacMahon. [61]

In sport, rugby coach Declan Kidney, [62] Gaelic football player Séamus Moynihan, Maurice Fitzgerald and Billy Morgan, hurlers Pat Heffernan, Joe Deane, James “Cha” Fitzpatrick and Ray Cummins, rugby player Moss Keane, Ronan O’Gara and Donnacha Ryan and Olympian Lizzie Lee have all attended UCC. [63]

See also

  • Education in Ireland
  • List of Irish organizations with royal patronage
  • List of Universities in Ireland
  • UCC GAA
  • UCC Student
  • Intel Outstanding Researchers Award

References

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  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC News> UCC leads international rankings …”.UCC.ie. Hämtad14 September 2015.
  7. Jump up ^ “UCC Biography-” President Biography “- February 2007”.Ucc.ie. 02.01.2007. Hämtas2015 / 09/14.
  8. Jump up ^ Higher Education R & D Survey 2006 (PDF) (Report).Ireland’s national policy advisory body for enterprise and science – Forfás.Page 3
  9. Jump up ^ UCC.ie – IICs wins European Award for Languages [ dead link ]
  10. Jump up ^ cytrea.ie
  11. Jump up ^ “Firecomms – Fiber Optic Solutions and optical transceivers.”Firecomms.com.
  12. Jump up ^ “Digestive Health • Home.” Alimentaryhealth.ie.
  13. Jump up ^ “Biosensia – cutting edge care in vitro diagnostics”.Nanocomms.com. Hämtas2012 / 11 / 28th
  14. Jump up ^ “Luxcel Biosciences website”. Luxcel.
  15. Jump up ^ omi.eu.com
  16. Jump up ^ UCC.ie – Crawford Observatory reopens at University College Cork [ dead link ]
  17. Jump up ^ “UCC gives go-ahead for embryonic stem cell research – 10 October 2008”. Irish Times.2008 / 10/10. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  18. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC welcomes 18,000 back after closure – 1 December 2009”. Irish Times.2009 / 12 / 12th Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  19. Jump up ^ “UCC.ie – revised report on Major Flood Damage” (PDF).Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  20. Jump up ^ “Two hundred of the mathematician George Boole be celebrated.” Irish Times. Irish times .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  21. Jump up ^ “If George Boole”. George Boole. UCC. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  22. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC News> Press releases> UCC thrives in University Guide”. UCC.ie .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  23. Jump up ^ “UCC News> UCC stands out in the global ranking.” UCC.ie.Hämtad14 September 2015.
  24. Jump up ^ “UCC Press release -” Ireland’s first five-star university “- September 2011” .Ucc.ie. 2011-09-05. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  25. Jump up ^ “University College Cork QS Ranking and Statistics”. Top University. Top Universities .Hämtad 14 September 2015.
  26. Jump up ^ “QS Top 50 of Pharmacy and Pharmacology”. University College Cork. UCC.
  27. Jump up ^ “UCC News> Green thumbs up for UCC”. UCC.ie. Hämtad14 September 2015.
  28. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC among leading social media influencers.” UCC.UCC. Hämtad21 October 2015.
  29. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC make the final of the Web Awards 2015”. UCC. UCC.Retrieved 21 August oktober2015.
  30. ^ Jump up to: ab “UCC School of Medicine’s history.” Ucc.ie. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  31. ^ Jump up to: ab UCC.ie strategic plan 2009-2012 pg20-22
  32. Jump up ^ Times Higher Education Supplement ranking of universities 2009 – rank 207 of 9000Arkiv January 31, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. Jump up ^ “APC website”. APC.ucc.ie.
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  37. Jump up ^ “University College Cork (UCC): Environmental Institute.”Eri.ucc.ie. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  38. Jump up ^ “Business Information Systems – Research and Development”. Archived from originaletden 22 January 2010.
  39. Jump up ^ Insight Multimedia. “Office of Technology Transfer.” Ucc.ie.Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  40. Jump up ^ “Glantreo Ireland”. Glantreo.com. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  41. Jump up ^ “Luxcel Biosciences – Company”. Archived from the original February 1, 2010.
  42. Jump up ^ Insight Multimedia. “Organizational Overview – Office of Technology Transfer” .Techtransfer.ucc.ie. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  43. Jump up ^ “information societies”. Collegeroad.ie. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
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  47. Jump up ^ “UCC Philosoph”. UCC Philosoph. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  48. Jump up ^ “Students get a lesson in the rental market.” Evening Echo.June 23, 2015.
  49. Jump up ^ “Finding accommodation”. Accommodation.ucc.ie. Pulled 06/13/2016.
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  56. Jump up ^ – 00:57 (02.05.2004). “BBC Radio 4 – Actual – Desert Island Discs -Graham Norton” .Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
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  63. Jump up ^ UCC.ie – Alumni – Who’s been here? – Sports Archive September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

Mouth of Flower

Michael Collins

On August 22.1922, during the Irish Civil War, Michael Collins, chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the national army, was killed in an ambush here by anti-Treaty IRA forces while traveling in convoy towards Bandon. The ambush was planned on a farm in Béal na Bláth near The Diamond Bar.  [2] The  commemoration is held on the nearest Sunday to the anniversary of his death. A memorial stands at the site of the shooting of a local road 1 km south of the village which was a dirt road when Collins was shot. A small white cross marks the spot where he fell.

Name

The original version of the village’s name has been obscured by the passage of time. The spelling  Béal na Bláth  (translated as “mouth of the flowers / flowers”) is widely used, but this does not spell the placename spoken by the last native Irish language in the area (which survived until the 1940s). This version of the name, and the associated translation, probably arose from folk etymology among other speakers.  [3]

A proposed reconstruction of the original name is  Béal Átha na Bláiche  , which means “mouth of the ford of the core”, by analogy with a similar place name in County Limerick; Another version is attested in the literature is Béal na Bláth  (Anglicized as  Bealnablath  ) that can either mean “mouth flower” or “mouth of buttermilk.”  [3]  As of 2012, believes the Irish placental Commission  Béal na BLA  to be the most accurate version of the original placename. The meaning of “blah” is unclear in this context, but it can mean “green” or “lawn”.  [1]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b placental Database of Ireland. Accessed August 16, 2012
  2. Jump up ^ Hopkinson, Michael. 1988. Green to Green: the Irish Civil War. The 177th
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b Ó hÚrdail, Roibeard (1999), “The Place Name Béal na blah”, Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society,  104 : 111-116

Michael Collins (Irish Leader)

Michael Collins (Irish: Micheal Ó Coileáin, [2] [3] October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922) was a soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the fight for Irish independence in the early 20th century. Collins was an Irish revolutionary leader, politician, Minister of Finance, Director, and Teachta Dala (TD) for Cork South in the first Dáil in 1919, Adjutant General, Head förunderrättelsetjänsten, and Director of the organization and arms supplies to the IRA, President of the Irish Republican Brotherhood from November 1920 until his death, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Subsequently, he was both president of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the national army. [1]Collins was shot and killed in an ambush in August 1922 during the Irish Civil War.

early years

Born in Sam’s Cross, near Clonakilty, County Cork, Collins was the third son and youngest of eight children. Most biographies gives his date of birth as October 16, 1890, but his tombstone quote 12 October 1890 cited in a British intelligence report as “brainy,” Collins family was part of an ancient clan, scattered across the county Cork. They had Republican connections that can be traced back to the 1798 uprising. [4]

Collins’s father, Michael John (1816-1897), was a farmer by profession. A mathematician in his spare time, he had been a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) movement. The elder Collins was 60 [5] years old when he married Mary Anne O’Brien, then 23, [6] in 1876. [7] The marriage was apparently happy. They raised eight children on a 90-acre (36 hectare) farm called Woodfield, Collins held as tenants in several generations.

On his deathbed, his father (who was the seventh son of a seventh son) predicted that his daughter Helena (one of Michael’s older sisters) would become a nun. She was later known as Sister Mary Celestine, based in Whitby. [8] He then turned to the family and told them to take care of Michael, because “One day he will be a great man. He will do great work for Ireland. “Michael was six years old when his father died. [9]

Michael Collins at age 8 with his family.

Collins was a bright and precocious child with a fiery temper and a passionate sense of Irish nationalism. He named a local blacksmith, James Santry, and his principal at Lisavaird National School, Denis Lyons, as the first nationalists to personally inspire his “pride Irishness.” Lyon was a member of the IRB, while Santry family had participated in, and forged weapons the uprising in 1798, 1848 and 1867. [4] [10]

There are a number of anecdotal explanations for the rise of his nickname, “The Big Fellow”. The most authoritative comes from his family, that he was so called by them while still a child. It had been a term of endearment for his youngest brother, who was always keen to take on tasks beyond his years. It was probably already down by a teenager, long before he emerged as a political or military leaders. [11]

At the age of thirteen he boarded in Clonakilty National School. During the week he stayed with his sister Margaret Collins O’Driscoll and her husband Patrick O’Driscoll, while the weekends, he returned to the family farm.Patrick O’Driscoll founded the newspaper the West Cork People and Collins helped with general reporting job and prepare questions about the newspaper. [12]

Collins, a young recruit.

After leaving school at fifteen took Collins British personnel survey in Cork in February 1906, [13] and subsequently employed by the Royal Mail. [14] In 1906, he moved home to his older sister Hannie (Johanna) in London, where he became a messenger at the London firm of stockbrokers, Horne and Company. [13] While living in London, he studied law at Kings College London. [15] he joined the London GAA and through this, the IRB. Sam Maguire, a Republican from Dunmanway, County Cork, introduced the 19-year-old Collins into the IRB. [16] In 1915, he moved to Guaranty Trust Company of New York, where he stayed until he returned to Ireland the following year [17] to go part-time Craig curtains & Co. , an accounting firm in Dawson Street, Dublin. [18]

Easter Rising

The struggle for Greenland, along with labor unrest, led to the formation in 1913 of two major nationalist paramilitary groups that would start the Easter Rising: the Irish National Army founded by James Connolly and the Irish Transport and General Workers Union (ITGWU), to protect strikers from Dublin Metropolitan Police during the 1913 Dublin Lockout. The Irish Volunteers was created in the same year by the IRB and other nationalists in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers (UVF), a loyalist Ulster subordinated body to resist Home Rule by force.

Organizer of significant intelligence Collins had become highly respected in the IRB. This led to his appointment as financial advisor to Count Plunkett, father of one of the Easter Rising’s organizers, Joseph Plunkett. Collins took part in the preparations arms and drilling troops for rebellion.

The Rising would be Collins’s first appearance in the national events. When it began on Easter Monday in 1916, Collins served as Plunkett aide-de-camp at the uprising’s headquarters in the General Post Office (GPO) in Dublin.There he fought with Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and other members of the Rising leadership. The Rising is generally acknowledged to have been a military disaster, but the rebels achieved their goal to keep their positions for the minimum time necessary to justify claims for independence according to international criteria. [19]

Caught Irish soldiers in Stafford Gaol following the failed Easter Rising.Collins is fifth from the right with an “x” over his head.

Was arrested along with thousands of other participants, Collins was later imprisoned at Frongoch internment camp in Wales.

Collins first started to emerge as a key figure in the vacuum created by the 1916 executions of leadership. He began to hatch plans for “next time” before the prison ship left Dublin. [20]

On Frongoch he was one of the organizers of a program of protest and lack of cooperation with the authorities, similar to that later carried out by the IRA interned 1980s. The camp proved to be an excellent opportunity for networking with physical strength Republicans from across the country, where he became a key organizer. [21] [22]

While some celebrated the fact that a rising had happened at all believing in Pearse’s theory of “blood sacrifice” (that is to say that the deaths of the Rising leaders would inspire others), Collins railed against the military mistakes made, such as the seizure of indefensible and very vulnerable positions such as St. Stephen’s Green, which was impossible to escape from and difficult to leverera.Folkstorm put pressure on the British government to end the detention insertion. In December 1916 the Frongoch prisoners sent home.

1917-1918

Before his death, Tom Clarke, the first signatory of the 1916 notice and generally considered Rising main organizer, had appointed his wife Kathleen (Daly) Clarke as official caretaker Rising public sector, in the event that management can not survive. In June 1916, Mrs. Clarke sent out the first after the Rising communiqué to the IRB, declares Rising to be just the beginning and control the nationalists to prepare for “the next battle.” Shortly after his release Mrs. Clarke appointed Collins secretary of the national support and volunteers Dependents Fund (NAVDF ) and then on to him confidential organizational information and contacts that she had held in trust for the independence movement.

Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith

Collins became one of the leading figures in the rising independence movement tip of Arthur Griffith, editor / publisher of the most important nationalist magazine United Irishman, (which Collins had read avidly as a boy.) [21] Griffiths organization Sinn Féin was founded in 1905 as a umbrella organization to unite all the different factions within the nationalist movement.

According to Griffiths politics, Collins and other advocates of “physical force” approach to the independence gained in cooperation with non-violent Sinn Féin, while agree to disagree with Griffiths moderate ideas of a dual monarchy solution based on the Hungarian model. [23] the British government and traditional Irish media had mistakenly blame Sinn Féin Rising. This attracted Ascending participants to join the organization to take advantage of the reputation of such a British propaganda had permeated the organization. By October 1917 Collins had risen to become a member of the executive of Sinn Féin and director of organization for the Irish Volunteers.Éamon de Valera, another veteran of 1916, accounted for the presidency of Sinn Fein to Griffith, who stepped aside and supported de Valera presidency.[23]

First Dáil

Members of the First Dáil
First row from left to right: Laurence Ginnell, Michael Collins, Cathal Brugha, Arthur Griffith, Éamon de Valera, Count Plunkett, Eoin MacNeill, WT Cosgrave, Kevin O’Higgins (third row, right)

In the 1918 general election, Sinn Fein swept the polls in large parts of Ireland, with many seats uncontested, and formed an overwhelming parliamentary majority in Ireland. Like many leading representatives of Sinn Féin Collins was elected an MP (Cork South) with the right to sit in the British House of Commons in London. Unlike its competitors in the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), Sinn Féin MPs had announced that they would not take their seats in Westminster, but instead would set up an Irish Parliament in Dublin. [24]

Before the new body’s first meeting, Collins, tipped off by his network of spies, warned his colleagues plan to arrest all members of the night raids. De Valera and others ignored warnings on the argument that, if the arrests happened, they would constitute a propaganda coup. The intelligence proved correct, and de Valera, along with Sinn Féin MPs who followed his advice, were arrested; Collins and other circumvented captivating.

The new parliament, called Dáil Éireann (meaning “Assembly of Ireland”, see First Dáil) met in the Mansion House, Dublin in January 1919. In de Valera’s absence, Cathal Brugha valdesPríomh Aire ( “first” or “Prime” Minister but often translated as “President of Dáil Éireann). The following April Collins constructed de Valera escape from Lincoln Prison in England, after which Brugha was replaced by de Valera.

No state gave diplomatic recognition to the Republic in 1919, despite persistent lobbying in Washington by de Valera and prominent Irish-Americans and at the Paris Peace Conference. In January 1919, the Dáil ratified the Irish Republican Army’s (IRA) claims to be the army of the Irish Republic. IRA had begun a military campaign coincidentally on the same day as the first Dáil sitting with Soloheadbeg ambushes and IRA’s respect for the authority of the Dáil was very conditional. (The Irish Volunteers became known as the IRA because their inmates insertion of Frongach. Until the Civil War, the two terms are used interchangeably.)

Minister of Finance

Michael Collins as finance minister.

In 1919, already busy Collins yet another responsibility when de Valera appointed him Aireacht (ministry) as Minister of Finance. [25] Most of the ministries existed only on paper or as one or two people working in a room of a private house, with given the circumstances of a brutal war in which the ministers risked being arrested or killed by the Royal Irish Constabulary, the British army, the Black and Tans or assistants at a moment’s notice.

Despite this, Collins managed to produce a Finance Ministry that was able to organize a large bond issue in the form of a “National Loan” to fund the new Irish Republic. [26] According to Batt O’Connor, Dáil loans raised almost £ 400,000, of which £ 25,000 was in gold . The loan, which was declared illegal by the British, was lodged in individual bank accounts managers. The gold held under the floor of the O’Connor house until 1922. [27] The Russian Republic, in the middle of its own civil war, ordered Ludwig Martens, head of the Soviet Bureau in New York to get a “national loan” from the Irish Republic through Harry Boland , offers some jewels as collateral. Jewel remained in a Dublin safe, forgotten by all sides, until the 1930s, when they were found by chance.

The war

The Irish War of Independence in fact started the day on which the first Dáil took office on January 21, 1919. At this time, an ambush party IRA volunteers from 3rd Tipperary Brigade including Séamus Robinson, Dan Breen, Seán Treacy and Seán Hogan, Attacke a pair of Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) men who Eskorte a party gelignite to a quarry in Soloheadbeg, County Tipperary.The two police officers were shot to death during surgery. This ambush is considered the first action in the Irish War of Independence. [28] The commitment had no prior authorization from the emerging government. But Collins in the Dáil discussion of the event implicitly accepted responsibility on behalf of the IRB. The legislator support for the armed struggle soon after became official. [21] [29]

Harry Boland ( left ), Michael Collins ( middle ), and Éamon de Valera ( right ).

From the time Collins filled a number of roles in addition to their legislative duties. That summer he was elected chairman of the IRB (and therefore, the doctrine of this organization, de jure President of the Irish Republic). In September he was made head of intelligence for the Irish Republican Army, which now had the task of conducting an armed campaign, as the official army of the Irish nation. With Cathal Brugha as defense minister, was Collins, director of the organization and the Adjutant General of the volunteers.

Collins had spent much of this period to help organize the volunteers as an effective military force, particularly concentrating on driving RIC isolated barracks and seizing their weapons. In the early 20th century, in fact, the main representation of the British state in large parts of rural Munster and Connaught, and with their withdrawal, felt able to establish their own institutions that permanently armed police force Republicans. In turn, but the retreat of RIC drove the British against the more radical and violent reactions: while alienating the already weak support for British rule in the population but also increase the military pressure on the volunteers.

Collins was determined to avoid the massive destruction, military and civilian losses to only symbolic victories that had characterized the 1916 Rising. Instead, he directed a guerilla war against the British, suddenly attacking then just as quickly withdraw minimize losses and maximize efficiency. [30] [31]

When the war began in earnest, de Valera traveled to the US for a long speaking tour to raise funds for the outlawed republican government. It was in publicity for this tour de Valera (who had been Príomh Aire TD) was first called “President”. Although financially successful, serious political conflict followed in the wake of Valera which threatened unity Irish-American support for the rebels. Some members of the IRB also opposed to the use of the presidential title because their organization Constitution had a different definition of the title. [21] [23] [32]

Back in Ireland, Collins organized the “National Loan”, organized IRA effectively led government, and managed to arms smuggling. Local guerillas received supplies, education and had virtually a free hand to develop the war in their own region. These were the “flying columns” that constituted the bulk of the war the grass roots in the southwest. Collins, Dick McKee and regional commander Dan Breen and Tom Barry supervised tactics and general strategi.Det were also regional organizers, such as Ernie O’Malley and Liam matures, who reported directly to Collins at St Ita’s secret basement GHQ in central Dublin. [ 33] They were supported by a large intelligence network of men and women in all walks of life that reached deep into the British administration in Ireland. [34] [35]

Collins inspects a soldier.

It was at this time that Collins created a special unit called the murder squad specifically to kill British agents and informers. Collins criticized this tactic, but refers to the universal wartime practice performing enemy spies who were, in his words, “hunting victims of execution.” Campaign for Irish independence, even non-violence, is still directed both prosecution under British law is punishable by death and also of extrajudicial killings such as that of Tomas MacCurtain, nationalist Mayor of Cork city.

In 1920, the British offered a reward of £ 10,000 (equivalent to GB £ 300,000 / € 360,000 in 2010) for information leading to the capture or death of Collins.He and the national forces continued to avoid capture and implemented blow to British forces, often operating safe house near government buildings, as Vaughan’s and a city.

The crown responded with escalation of the war, with the import of special forces, such as the “Utilities”, the “Black and Tans”, the “Cairo Gang” and others. Officially or unofficially, many of these groups had a free hand to impose a reign of terror, shooting Irish people indiscriminately, invading homes, looting and burning. [21] [36]

In 1920, after the Westminster prominent messages that had the Irish rebels on the run, Collins and his squad killed several British secret agents in a series of coordinated raids. In retaliation, members of the Royal Irish Constabulary went to Croke Park, where a GAA football match took place between Dublin and Tipperary. The police opened fire on the crowd and as a result, killed twelve and injured sixty. This event became known as Bloody Sunday. A stampede of panicked British agents sought shelter in Dublin Castle the next day. About the same time Tom Barry 3rd Cork Brigade no prisoners in a bitter struggle with the British forces in Kilmichael. In many regions, the RIC and other crown forces were all but limited to the strongest barracks in the larger cities of the countryside was increasing insurgent control. [37] [38]

These Republican victories would have been impossible without the broad support of the Irish population, which included all levels of society, reaching deep into the British administration in Ireland. This pattern of guerrilla success against sophisticated imperialist powers would be repeated around the world in the early 20th century. [39]

At the time of the ceasefire in July 1921 a major operation was allegedly planning to carry out all the British secret agent in Dublin, while a larger ambush covers eighty officers and men were also scheduled to Templeglantine, County Limerick. [21] [40]

The peace

In 1921, General Macready, commander of the British forces in Ireland, reported to his government that the Empire’s only hope to keep Ireland the laws of war, including the withdrawal of “all normal life”. [41]

Political considerations about Westminster global foreign policy ruled out this option: Irish-American public opinion was important that US support for British agendas in Asia. At home, had Britain’s efforts on a military solution already given rise to a powerful peace movement, demanded an end to the slaughter in Ireland. Prominent voices calling for negotiations included Labour, the London Times and other leading journals, members of the upper house, the English Catholics, and famous writers such as George Bernard Shaw. [42] [43]

Yet it was not the British government began negotiations. Individual English activists, including clerics, made private overtures that reached Arthur Griffith. Griffith expressed his welcome for dialogue. The British MP Brigadier Cockerill sent an open letter to Prime Minister Lloyd George, which was printed in the Times describes how a peace conference with the Irish should be organized. The Pope made an urgent public appeal for negotiating an end to the violence. Whether Lloyd George welcomed such advisers, he could no longer hold out against the tide. [21]

In July, Lloyd George government offered a ceasefire. Arrangements were made for a conference between the British Government and the leaders of the yet-unknown Republic.

There is still considerable disagreement about the two sides’ ability to have engaged in conflict for much longer. Collins said Hamar Greenwood after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty: “You had us dead tired, we could not have lasted another three weeks when we were told by the offer of a ceasefire, we were surprised, we thought you must have gone mad …”. [44 ] But he said for the record that “there will be no compromise and no negotiations with any British government until Ireland is recognized as an independent republic.the same bet that would get us the Dominion Lands makes us a republic. ” [45]at no time had the Dáil or IRA asked for a conference or a truce. [46]

Dáil as a whole was less uncompromising. It decided to move on to a peace conference, but was found in the initial stages as a completely independent republic would not be on the table and that the loss of some northeastern counties were granted. [47]

Many of the rebel forces on the ground first heard about peace when it was announced in the newspapers and this gave rise to the first cracks in the nationalist entity, which would have serious consequences later. They felt that they had not been included in the consultation on its terms. [48] [49]

De Valera was widely recognized as the most skillful negotiator at Dáil government side and he participated in the initial parlays, agreed basis for the talks could begin. The first meetings were held in strict secrecy shortly after the Customs House battle, with Andrew Cope represents the Dublin Castle British authorities. Later they traveled Valera to London for the first official contact with Lloyd George. The two met one-on-one in a private meeting, work has never been revealed. [21] [50]

During this peace period, de Valera sued for official designation as President of the Irish Republic and received from the Dáil in August 1921. [51] Not long after the government was forced to choose the delegation would travel to London Peace Conference and negotiate an agreement . In an extraordinary departure from his usual role, de Valera adamantly declined to participate, insisting instead that Collins would take his place there, along with Arthur Griffith. [52] [53]

Collins steadfastly resisted this appointment, protesting that he was “a soldier, not a politician” and that his exposure to the London authorities would reduce its effectiveness as a guerrilla leader should hostilities resume.(He had kept his public visibility to a minimum during the war, up to this time the British were still very few reliable photographs of him.) [54]

Cabinet seven split on the issue, with de Valera casting the deciding vote.Many of Collins associates warned him not to go, that he was being set up as a political scapegoat. After intense soul-searching and all night consultations with his most trusted advisers, he decided to participate “in the spirit of a soldier obeying orders.” In private correspondence he foresaw the disaster ahead: “Let them make a scapegoat or whatever they want about me Someone must go..”

Anglo-Irish Treaty

Collins London as delegate to the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations.

The Irish delegates to London where, when de Valera’s insistence, designated as “authorized”, meaning that they had the right to sign an agreement on behalf of Dáil government. The Treaty would then be subject to approval by a vote of the whole Dáil.

The majority of the Irish Treaty delegates, including Arthur Griffith (leader), Robert Barton and Eamonn Duggan (with Robert Erskine Childers as Secretary General of the Delegation) set up headquarters at 22 His place in Knightsbridge October 11, 1921 and resided there until the conclusion of the negotiations in December . Collins shared fourth at 15 Cadogan Gardens with the delegation publicity department, secretary Diarmuid O’Hegarty, Joseph McGrath, as well as significant intelligence and bodyguard personnel including Liam Tobin, Tom Cullen, Ned Broy, Emmet Dalton and Joseph Dolan of the squad. [55]

The British side was represented by PM Lloyd George, Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill and FE Smith, among others. Two months of hard quarrel followed. The Irish delegation made frequent crossings back to Dublin to make progress reports and discuss with their colleagues Dail. But Collins, in his correspondence and subsequent Dáil debates, delegates expressed frustration at not being able to get clear instructions on whether they should accept the terms offered and sign the treaty. [21] [56]

In November, the London peace talks still underway, Collins attended a large meeting of regional IRA commander on Parnell Place in Dublin. In a private meeting, he informed Liam Deasy, Florence O’Donoghue and Liam Lynch that “there must be no compromise in the ongoing negotiations in London.There was no question of our getting all the demands we made. “He was designed by Lynch does not take this in the full assembly. After a review of recent events, Deasy later doubted the wisdom of that advice. [57]

The negotiations eventually led to the Anglo-Irish Agreement signed on 6 December 1921. The agreement provides for a Dominion status “Irish Free State” whose relationship with the Commonwealth would be modeled after Canada. This was a compromise, midway between an independent republic and a province of the empire.

The deal essentially emptied the Treaty of Limerick in 1688 and repealed the Act of Union by recognizing the native Irish regulator’s independence.During a bicameral executive authority would remain with the king but exercised by an Irish government elected by Dáil Éireann as a “lower house”.British forces would depart Free State right away and replaced by an Irish army. Together with an independent judiciary Treaty granted a level of internal independence that far exceeded any of Greenland, which had been sought by Charles Stewart Parnell and his Irish parliamentary party successor, John Redmond and John Dillon.

It was agreed that counties with a large union population, concentrated in a relatively small area in eastern Ulster, would have a chance to opt out of the Free State and remain under the crown. An Irish Boundary Commission was set up to draw a line (which eventually came to include a six county region.) Inclusion in the Free State would be subject to a vote of the majority population in each county. Collins waited more than four counties would join the northeastern statelet, which makes it economically un-viable, and that this would facilitate the reunification of all 32 counties in the foreseeable future. [58]

Although it fell short of the republic that he’d struggled to create noted Collins to the Treaty offered Ireland “freedom to achieve freedom.” It offered mainly a chance to take the gun from Irish politics and to seek more independence through a native government and legislature Township. [59] Yet he knew parts of the Treaty would cause controversy in Ireland. By signing the Treaty, Birkenhead remarked, “I may have signed my political death warrant tonight.” Collins replied, “I may have signed my actual death sentence”. [40]

Treaty debates

This remark encapsulated his recognition that the treaty was a compromise that would be vulnerable to accusations of “sell-out” from the purist Republicans. It did not identify fully independent republic that Collins himself had shortly before called as a non-negotiable condition. The “physical force Republicans” who constituted the bulk of the army who had fought the British to a draw would be reluctant to accept dominion status within the British Empire, or an oath of allegiance to the king mentioned.Also controversial was the British retention of Treaty Ports on the south coast of Ireland for the Royal Navy. These factors reduced Irish sovereignty and threatened to let the British involvement in Ireland’s foreign policy.

Collins and Griffith were well aware of these issues and strove tenaciously against British resistance, to achieve language that is acceptable to all constituents. They managed to get an oath to the Irish Free State, with a subsidiary oath of allegiance to the king, rather than to the king unilaterally.

It is now widely believed that had the nationalist leadership united behind the Treaty, there would have been no split in the army who shed civil war.But immediately the delegation’s return from London, de Valera led a loud indictment of the delegates, which he called “traitors”.

This is despite the fact that de Valera, the Nationalists’ most suitable negotiator, who had refused exhausting grounds of Collins, Griffith and others to lead the London negotiations in person, had been fully informed of the process every step. He had also refused Delegates constant requests for instruction, and in fact had been the focus of the initial decision to start negotiations without the possibility of an independent republic on the table.[21] [60]

However, there is still a school of thought that believes the Valera protests have been reasonable and motivated by deep moral objections and that looks Collins in a negative light, have irresponsibly signed away the nation’s interests because of incompetence or a self-serving agenda. The controversy Treaty share the entire nationalist movement. Sinn Féin, the Dáil, the IRB and the army split into pro- and anti-Treaty factions. Supreme Council of the IRB had been informed in detail about every aspect of the negotiations on the Treaty and had approved many of its provisions, and they voted unanimously to approve the treaty only notable exception of Liam Lynch, later the COS of the anti-Treaty IRA. [61]

Dáil debated the Treaty bitterly for ten days until it was approved by a vote of 64 to 57. [62] After losing the vote, de Valera announced its intention to withdraw its participation from the Dáil and urged all deputies who had voted against the Treaty follow him. A large number made it official sharing government. This set the stage for civil war.

A large part of the Irish Republican Army opposed the Treaty. Some followed the political leadership of the anti-Treaty TDs, others were acting on their own beliefs, with more or less equal suspicion of politicians in general. Anti-Treaty IRA units began to seize the building and take other guerrilla actions against the Provisional Government. On April 14, 1922 a group of 200 anti-Treaty IRA men occupied the Four Courts in Dublin according to Rory O’Connor, a hero of the Revolutionary War. The four courts was the center of the Irish court system, originally under the British and then the Free State.Collins is charged by his Free State colleagues to put down the rebels, however, he resisted firing on former comrades and averted a shooting war during this period. [63] [64]

While the country was on the edge of civil war, have regular meetings are conducted among the different factions from January to June 1922. In these discussions nationalists strove to solve the problem without armed conflict.Collins and his close associates, TD Harry Boland was among those who worked desperately to heal the rift. [21] [65]

To promote the military unit, Collins and IRB established an “army reunification committee”, including delegates from pro- and anti-Treaty factions. The still secret Irish Republican Brotherhood continued to meet, to promote dialogue between the pro- and anti-Treaty IRA officers. The IRB’s stormy debates on the subject, Collins held out the constitution of the new Free State as a possible solution. Collins then in the process of co-writing this document, and strive to make it a republican constitution contained provisions that would allow the anti-Treaty TD to take their places in good conscience, with no oath of the Crown. [66]

Northern Ireland

After the treaty was signed loyalist conservative combined to bring a violent campaign against the Irish nationalist revolt in northeastern counties comprising Northern Ireland. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was created at this time, along with the infamous “Specials”: a. Power amateurs and retired soldiers, as some have claimed was given free rein to terrorize and kill Catholics [67] [68]

In Northern Ireland, there were constant violations of the ceasefire by “unauthorized loyalist paramilitaries”. The predominantly Protestant, unionists government in Northern Ireland support policies which discriminated against Catholics, which, together with violence against Catholics, led many to suggest the presence of an agenda with an Anglo-dominance to push the domestic Irish descent from the northeast county. [21] [69]

While London stepping up pressure on the provisional government to take aggressive military action against anti-Treaty units in the south.

In March, Collins, Sir James Craig, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, in London. They signed an agreement declaring peace in the north that promised cooperation between Catholics and Protestants in the police and security, a generous budget to restore Catholics to homes that had been destroyed, and many other measures. [70]

The day after the agreement was announced, violence erupted again. A police officer was shot dead in Belfast and in retaliation, the police in Catholic homes nearby and residents shot in their beds, including children.There was no response to Collins demands for an investigation. He and his cabinet warned that they would consider the contract broken Craig acted. [71]

In its constant correspondence with Churchill over violence in the north, Collins protested repeatedly that such breaches of the peace threatened to annul the Treaty of all. [72] The prospect of an extension of the war with England was imminent. The outlook was real enough to June 3, 1922 Churchill presented to the Committee of Imperial Defence plans “to protect Ulster from the invasion of the South”. [73]

Throughout the first months of 1922, Collins has been sending IRA units to the border and sending arms and money to the northern units IRA. Collins went with other IRB and IRA leadership to develop secret plans to launch a clandestine guerrilla war in the northeast. Some British arms had been handed over to the interim government in Dublin was presented by Collins to IRA units in the north. In May-June 1922 Collins and the IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch organized an offensive, including both pro- and anti-Treaty IRA units along the border area. Because of this, most northern IRA units supported Collins and 524 individual volunteers came south to join the national army in the Irish Civil War.

Collins, supported by Griffith and Government, held up a “three-step strategy for public, political and military pressure” relating to northern abuse. [21]Negotiations with the London and Belfast governments continued with many promises and broken along the lines of the March 1922 agreement.Within a few days after a public commitment from Dublin not to send troops to the northeast, Churchill sent 1000 British soldiers in a village called Pettigo that straddled the border between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. The troops shelled the village and shot at Free State soldiers and killed three. On June 5, a group of B-Specials sprayed Mater Hospital in Belfast with machine gun fire. Collins demands a full, joint investigation was flatly refused by Churchill. [74]

Amidst all this, the civil war in the south erupted and put Collins plans for northern parked. He was killed before he was able to pursue them further.

provisional Government

Michael Collins turns to an audience iCork on Saint Patrick’s Day, 1922nd

De Valera resigned the presidency and sought re-election but Arthur Griffith replaced him after a close vote on January 9, 1922. Griffith chose as his title “President of Dáil Éireann” (rather than “president” as de Valera had favored.)[75]

Dáil government still had no legal status in British constitutional law. The provisions of the Treaty requires the formation of a new government that would be recognized by Westminster related to Free State dominion which had been introduced by the Treaty.

Despite the resignation of a large part of the Dáil, the Provisional Government (Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann) was the new Free State formed with Arthur Griffith as President of Dáil and Michael Collins, chairman of the interim government cabinet (effectively the prime minister). Collins also retained its position as finance minister. [76]

In the British legal theory Collins was now a dime appointed Prime Minister of the Commonwealth government, installed under the royal prerogative. To be installed, he had to formally meet the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Viscount FitzAlan head of the British administration in Ireland. The Republican view of the meeting is that Collins met FitzAlan to accept the surrender of Dublin Castle, the official seat of the British government in Ireland. After having surrendered, FitzAlan still in place as viceroy until December 1922.

The Provisional Government’s first duty was to create a constitution for the Free State. This was done by Collins and a team of lawyers. The result of their work was the Irish Constitution in 1922. [77] Although revised in 1930, the current Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann [78] ) is roughly Collins work.

Collins drew up a republican constitution, but reject the Treaty would include nothing about the British king. His goal was that the Constitution would make it possible to participate in the Dáil by aberrant TDs who opposed the Treaty and refused to take any oath mention the crown.

The Treaty was the Free State is obliged to present its new constitution Westminster for approval. In doing so, in June 1922, Collins and Griffith found Lloyd George decided to veto the provisions that they had fashioned to prevent civil war. [79]

These meetings with Lloyd George and Churchill was bitterly disputed.Collins, albeit less diplomatic than Griffith, de Valera had no less penetrating understanding of policy issues. He complained that he was being manipulated to “make Churchill’s dirty work” of a potential civil war with their own former soldiers. [80] [81]

Val pact

Negotiations to prevent civil war resulted, inter alia, “The Army Documents” published in May 1922, signed by an equal number of pro- and anti-Treaty IRA officers including Collins, Dan Breen and Gearóid O’Sullivan. This manifesto declared that “closing of ranks around is necessary” to prevent “the greatest disaster in Irish history.” It called for new elections, to be followed by the reunion of the government and the army, whatever the outcome.

In this spirit and with the organizing efforts of the moderates on both sides Collins-de Valera “pact” was created. This pact agreed to new elections to Dáil would be held with each candidate running as expressly pro- or anti-Treaty and that, regardless of which side obtained a majority the two factions would join to form a coalition government of national unity.

A referendum on the Treaty also planned but it never took place. Valentina Pact on June 16, 1922 therefore includes the best quantitative data on the Irish public in direct response to the Treaty. The results were the pro-Treaty 58 seats, the anti-Treaty 35, the Labour Party 17, independent 7, Farmers Party 7, plus 4 active from Trinity College. [82]

The assassination of Sir Henry Wilson

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Six days after the election of the Pact, Sir Henry Wilson was murdered June 22, 1922 in broad daylight on the stairs in his London home of a couple of London IRA men. A British army field marshal, Wilson had recently resigned his commission and been an MP for Northern Ireland. He had a long history as one of the top British leaders oppose Collins in the Irish conflict. At the time, Wilson had served as military adviser to the Northern Ireland government led avJames Craig, in which role he was considered responsible for the B Specials and other sources of loyalist violence in the north.

The order to shoot Wilson has been attributed to Irish leaders including Collins and Rory O’Connor, but with questionable authority. Although undoubtedly killed by two IRA men-who were captured and confessed-no one has ever taken responsibility for ordering the shooting. While Wilson had really been a potential target for Collins’ Squad “during the war of independence, all outstanding orders had summarily canceled when these forces stood down at the peace. O’Connor explicitly denied any involvement, as did the IRB on behalf of Collins and Arthur Griffith on behalf of the Provisional Government. No direct explanation seems to have been made on the subject by Collins during the two months he survived Wilson.

The debate on Collins commitment continued in the 1950s, when a number of statements and rebuttals on the subject were published in journals. These can be printed with the addition of Rex Taylor’s 1961 book, assassination, death, Sir Henry Wilson and tragedy in Ireland . The participants in the discussion was Joe Dolan, Florence O’Donoghue, Denis P. Kelleher, Patrick O’Sullivan and others. [83] [84]

civil War

Main article: Irish Civil War

Michael Collins gave the order to bomb the four courts with artillery shells in an attempt to remove Anti-treaty IRA. This would be the beginning of denirländska Civil War.

Death Sir Henry Wilson caused a furor in London. Powerful conservative voices who opposed any deal with the Irish rebels drowned out the moderates, with calls for a violent reaction. Under this pressure, Churchill issued an ultimatum demanding that the interim government quit the anti-Treaty occupation of the Four Courts or before a full-scale military invasion.[85]

A few days later, the anti-Treaty IRA men kidnapped JJ “Ginger” O’Connell, a Free State general. These two developments led to the Provisional Government June 27, 1922 for serving notice of the Four Courts garrison to surrender the building at night or face military action “at once”. [86]

Collins’ position in this conflict was really extraordinary. “A majority might” of the army he led the war was now ranged against the Free State, which he represented. In addition, the force of will of the voters, he had to lead had been reorganized since the peace. Formed by a core of pro-Treaty IRA men, it had evolved into a more formal, structured, uniformed national army that was armed and funded by the UK. Many of the new members were World War I veterans and others who had not fought on the Nationalist side before. It was now ten times greater than the force that had won independence, but populated with former British Army personnel. Collins deeply mixed feelings about this situation is recorded in his private and official correspondence. [87] [88] [88] [89] [90] [91]

Michael Collins, as Commander-in-Chief of deirländska national forces.

Artillery was submitted to Mulcahy and the Free State Army by the British in anticipation of a siege. Emmet Dalton, a former British officer Irish origin who was now a senior Free State captain and close associate of Collins, was placed in charge of it.

There is no definite record of who gave the order to begin shelling the Four Courts. Historians have simply assumed that it was Collins. There is only anecdotal evidence of how and when the ultimatum was served on the anti-Treaty garrison, if sufficient time were the four Courts men to surrender, or whether the shelling began rash while Garrison was read out his arms to leave the building. Further studies remains at this most critical event of 1922, which actually started the civil war in earnest. [91] [92]

Fierce fighting broke out in Dublin between the anti-Treaty IRA and the Free State troops. A large part of O’Connell Street suffered severe damage, were Gresham Hotel burned and Four Courts is reduced to a ruin. Still under the direction of Collins, Free State quickly took control of the capital. In July 1922 anti-Treaty forces held much of the southern province of Munster and several other parts of the country. At the height of his success administered the local authorities and the police in large areas. [93] Collins, Richard Mulcahy and Eoin O’Duffy decided on a series of seaborne landings in the Republican held areas, which again took Munster and the West in July August.

Also in July, Collins dedicate his title as President of the Provisional Government to become Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. [94]There is controversy about this change, especially considering the upcoming events: what, if anything, it said about his relationship with the government;what role, if any, change in government may have played in it; what context had any tragedy that followed. [91] [92]

Civil War peace initiative

There is much to suggest that Collins trip to Cork in August 1922 was made to meet Republican leaders in order to end the war. [95] [96] [97] In this case, it would explain a lot that remains mysterious journey .

The question of his participation in peace talks is debated by historians. It has ramifications for opposing political views about him and especially for his death. If this was a peace mission, it was without any record of official interference and sanctions from the Provisional Government Cabinet. But this is not necessarily in harmony with the general character of the peace negotiations in wartime. The first contacts with British negotiators had been “a dead secret,” even from many of his colleagues. [98] It was not unknown for Collins to make bold, controversial move at its own initiative. Private and personal correspondence shows that it was less than perfect confidence and friendliness between Collins and some members of the Dáil. There was considerable friction between the ministers of war and the treatment of anti-Treaty fighters. [99]

A remarkable number of meetings that included leading figures on both sides took place in Cork on 21 to 22 August 1922. [100] In Cork City, hit neutral IRA men Seán Collins O’Hegarty and Florence O’Donoghue in order to contact the anti-Treaty IRA leader Tom Barry and Tom Hales to propose a truce.Lateral anti-Treaty had called a large gathering of officers at Béal na Bláth, a remote crossroads, with the end of the war on the agenda. [101]

Michael Collins and Richard Mulcahy påArthur Griffith’s funeral, a few days before Collins own death.

De Valera was there, and his assistant reported that a meeting between him and Collins were planned. People’s Rights Association, a local initiative in Cork City had been mediating a discussion of terms between the interim government and the anti-Treaty side for a few weeks. [21] [102]

Fred Conditions were described in Collins correspondence and diary.Republicans would have to “accept the people’s verdict” on the Treaty but may then “go home without their weapons. We do not ask any surrender of their principles. “This suggests that Collins favored a policy of amnesty, without penalties. It is alleged that the anti-Treaty veterans of the Revolutionary War may be offered a choice to take their place either in the Free State army, the civil service, or even in covert operations against the para-militaries in the north. [103]

This is significant given the draconian policies, including execution without trial, sought by the Free State government following the death of Collins and Arthur Griffith within days of each other. The deaths of Collins and Griffith marked the end of the Free State efforts to reunify the victory of the War of Independence strengths through a negotiated settlement. [104]

Death

Michael Collins’s body is in the hospital after he was shot to death at Béal na Bláth.

Collins’s death remain a mystery for a number of reasons. The only witnesses were the Free State Army members of his convoy ambushes and anti-Treaty. Since all these, the participants get their accounts not to be objective. No two witness match and many are contradictory. [105] There is no complete list of the persons involved and none of the witnesses were ever questioned by authorities. Their accounts have been passed down through newspapers, cinemas, private documents and personal contacts. One version suggests Collins was to meet De Valera and discuss ways to end the conflict. [Citation needed ]

The rest of this section shows only those facts most generally agree.Although some of these disputed in some sources.

In August 1922 appeared the Civil War to liquidate. Free State had regained control over most of the country and Collins made frequent trips to inspect the areas recently recovered from the anti-Treaty forces. [106]

Collins grave, Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin

His plan to travel to his native Cork August 20 was considered particularly dangerous and he steadfastly advised against it by several trusted employees.County Cork was an IRA stronghold, much of it still held by anti-Treaty forces. But he seemed determined to make the journey without delay. He had fended of a number of attempts on his life in the previous weeks and had admitted more than once, in private conversation, that the civil war could end his life at any time. On several occasions, Collins assured his advisors “they will not shoot me in my own county,” or words to that effect.

On August 22, 1922 Collins indicated from Cork City on a meandering tour of West Cork. He passed first through Macroom then took Bandon road via Crooks. This led to Béal na Bláth an isolated crossroads. There ended up at a local pub, now known as The Diamond Bar, [107] to ask a question about a man who was standing in the intersection. The man turned out to be an anti-Treaty vaktpost.Han and an associate are recognized Collins in the back of the open car. [108]

As a result, it was an ambush through a column anti-Treaty at this time, on the chance that the convoy can come through again on his return. [109]

Between 07:30 and 08:00, Collins convoy approached Béal na Bláth for the second time. Since most of the ambush party had dispersed and gone for the day, leaving only five or six men on stage. Two were disarming a mine in the road, while three in a laneway with a view of them as a cover. A dray wagon, located across the street, remained at the far end of the ambush site.

Shot exchanged. Collins, who suffered a head wound, was the only fatality.Almost every detail of what happened in doubt due to conflicting reports from participants and other deficiencies in the record.

A copy of Crossley Tender Collins convoy on the day of his death in a replica of the road where it happened on display at the Michael Collins Centre, Clonakilty [110]

Some of the details most contentious among the witnesses are: the shooting started, what kind of fire convoy came under where ambushes “first shots hit where Collins was and what he did when he was hit, if anyone else was hurt, if the armored car’s machine gun were fully functional throughout the procedure, which moved Collins’s body, which was nearby when Collins fell.

Many questions have been raised regarding the handling of Collins remains immediately after his death. Among them are excessively long convoy took to cover the twenty miles back to Cork City, who searched his clothes, and what became of the document, he was known to have carried on his person (as his field diary, which did not appear up until decades later).

The medical evidence is also missing. There is imperfect records about which doctors examined the body; if an autopsy was performed, and if so, by whom; which hospital his body was transferred to, and why; and, most importantly, what was the exact number and nature of their injuries.

Author on the subject such as J. Feehan and SM Sigerson has demanded a full forensic examination of Collins’s remains to try to solve at least some of these controversies about its end. [111] [112]

Aftermath

Sean Collins behind the coffin of his brother Michael.

Collins’s body was transported by sea from Cork to Dublin. He lay in state for three days in Dublin City Hall where tens of thousands of mourners filed past his coffin to pay their respects, including the many British soldiers departing Ireland who had fought against him. His funeral mass took place at Dublin’s Pro Cathedral where a number of foreign and Irish dignitaries were present.Some 500,000 people attended his funeral, nearly a fifth of the country’s population at the time. [21]

No official inquiry ever undertaken in Collins’s death and therefore there is no official version of what happened, nor are there any authoritative, detailed contemporary records. [113]

Funeral of Michael Collins in the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin (contemporary newspaper’s depiction of the state funeral)

In this vacuum is independent investigations, and conspiracy theorists put forward a number of suspects have been carried out or ordered his death, including an anti-Treaty sharpshooter, members of his own escort, the British intelligence, or de Valera himself.

De Valera allegedly stated in 1966, “It is my considered opinion that in due course, history will record the greatness of Michael Collins ,. And it will be recorded at my expense ” [114]

A number of books have been devoted entirely to the study of Collins’s death (in chronological order): The day Michael was shot by Meda Ryan, shooting of Michael Collins: Murder or accident by John M. Feehan, the dark secret of Béal na Bláth by Patrick Twohig and murder of Michael Collins: What happened at Béal na Bláth? SM Sigerson.

Personal life

Collins on his bike.

Collins elderly father inspired his love and respect for older people. His mother, who had spent his youth to take care of their own invalid mother and raise their own brothers and sisters, was a strong influence. The entire management of the Collins estate fell to her that her husband succumbed to old age and died. In a society that honored hospitality prime virtue, Mrs. Collins was eulogized as “a hostess in ten thousand.” Her five daughters avowedly doted on his youngest brother. [9] [21]

Collins home the spirit of self-sacrifice, welcome and inclusion later turned the key in its ability to unite people of all genders and walks of life and orchestrate them in an effective, enthusiastic, cooperative force for Irish self-determination. [115] Collins revolution was also a family affair. He continued to work in close collaboration with his brothers throughout the struggle for independence and cousins Nancy O’Brien, one of his most important mole in the British administration. [21]

He was very much a “man’s man”, fond of rough housing and outdoor sports.After winning a local wrestling championship, while a boy, he is said to have made a pastime to challenge larger, older opponents, with frequent success.A very fit, active man throughout life, in the most stressful times, he continued to enjoy wrestling as a form of relaxation and valued friendship that provided opportunities to share athletic pursuits. [21]

Intense hard working, Collins could be abrasive, demanding and sometimes inconsiderate of those around him. But he often apologized for his own temperament, with gestures such as confectionery and other small gifts, sometimes delivered with great personal risk in Dublin wartime environment. [116] [117]

Unlike some of his political opponents, he is characterized by many close personal friends in the movement. It has been rightly said that while some were devoted to “the idea of Ireland”, Collins was a person whose patriotism was rooted in the love and respect of the people of Ireland around him.Among his famous last words, the last entry in his pocket diary, written in the trip that ended his life, “The people are brilliant.” [118] [119] [120]

His personal warmth and charm combined with an uncanny ability to create confidence in a wide range of people. No other Irish leaders of the time, matched his remarkable ability to recruit people of all kinds to movement, gaining their trust and loyalty, refining capacity and unite them in a coordinated effort which was the maximum value to the cause. [121]

Collins was a complex man whose character abounded in contradictions.The Minister of Finance and the auditor before the war occupation, he seems never to have exercised personal gain; indeed sometimes during the war all but hemlösa.Medan clearly fond of command and keen to take responsibility, he had a similar appetite for input and advice from people at all levels of the organization, which led to the comment that “he took advice from his driver . ” [122] Although acknowledged by friends and foes as” head center “of the movement, he chose constantly a title only briefly actual head of state; becomes president of the provisional government after the resignation of half the Dáil forced him to do it. While his official and personal correspondence register their anxious care for the wishes of the rebels in need, during the war, he showed no hesitation to order the death of opponents who threatened nationalist life. [123]

Surely a man of fierce pride, his pride is tempered by a sense of humor that included a strong sense of the absurdity of their situation. [124] Although the mastermind behind a secret military, he remained a public figure. When the official head of the Free State government, he continued to work in the IRA’s secret operations. He could bold, decisive action on its own initiative, which caused friction with his colleagues, his falling out with Cathal Brugha, for example; but at critical times, he may also bow to the majority who were deeply disadvantageous and dangerous to their interests (such as his appointment to the Treaty negotiating team.)

These can be contradictions in his character. But they are also contradictions unique position he held, in a time of social unrest, when the usual parameters and paradigms of society is in a state of change.

Relationships with women

Kitty Kiernan

Formative role of many strong, competent, loving women around him until a man who deeply respected women and thrived on the female companion of all ages. It is also manifested in sensitive, nurturing care to those he was responsible for. His appointment as aide-de-camp to the 1916 Rising organizer Joseph Plunkett, whose chronic health problems was a challenge to his presence at the GPO HQ, is a sign of these properties. Both his official correspondence, and countless personal memoirs record empathy and sensitivity in his personal account of the needs and hardships volunteers and their families. [21]

Collins lifetime coincides exactly with a period of aggressive, mass agitation for women’s rights. The women’s suffrage movement in Ireland was often closely associated with the campaign for Irish independence. Many proponents belonged to both camps. Full suffrage for women was enshrined in the 1916 notice, the legal foundation documents of the Republic of Ireland. This was the political climate Collins grew up and flourished. But he remained one of the few speakers of the time used the language gender inclusive in their speech and explicitly recognized women’s contributions and problems on a regular basis there. [125] [126]

Collins pioneer in the independence movement, Charles Stewart Parnell, was defeated by a sexual scandal. Collins detractors have sometimes tried to raise similar issues. He is reported to have sowed some wild oats during his teenage career in London [127] (albeit while living under the roof of an older sister) but no scandal about his sexual life has ever been substantiated.

Collins intimate relationship seems to have been no less healthy, powerful and well executed than other aspects of his life. His relationships with women were affectionate and gave no evidence either inexperience, excess or aberration. [128] [129]

At the same time, he said that never have been without female companionship. He carried on relationships and written correspondence with a number of women like Susan Killeen and “Dilly” Dicker, who also worked with him in positions of great trust in the struggle for independence.Their correspondence shows that they remained on friendly terms until the end of his life.

In 1921-1922, he became engaged to Kitty Kiernan and made plans for a normal family life after the war. 241 letters in their extensive correspondence survive. These are an important record not only of their intimacy, but also of his daily life. [130]

The letters detail his exhausting schedule during simultaneous national crisis and also document the challenges facing the couple to find time together under the circumstances. That way they do it is quite doubtful that he could have also paid great attention to additional links. Allegations of the deal (s) with English society women at the same time are unfounded, and filled with suspected political connotations. The related Hazel Lavery derives mainly to the lady herself, and not supported by evidence. [131]

Commemoration

Memorial cross at Béal na Bláth.

An annual memorial ceremony takes place every year in August at the ambush site at Béal na Bláth, County Cork, organized by Béal na Bláth brandsorted Committee. In 2009, former President of Ireland, Mary Robinson gave the oration. In 2010, Finance Minister Brian Lenihan, Jnr became the first Fianna Fáil person to give the oration. 2012 on the 90th anniversary of the death of Collins, the Prime Minister Enda Kenny gave the oration, the first serving head of government to do so.

There is also a memorial ceremony in Glasnevin cemetery at Collins’s grave on the anniversary of his death.

The Irish central bank released the gold and silver commemorative coins August 15, 2012, which is a portrait of Michael Collins designed by Thomas Ryan, based on a photograph taken not long before his death. [132]

Legacy

Love Ireland by John Lavery.

Collins bequeathed to posterity the subject of extensive writing: essays, speeches and writings, articles and official documents in which he skisse plans for Ireland’s economic and cultural revival, and an extensive correspondence, both public and personal. Elections have been published inThe Road to Freedom (Mercier, 1968) and Michael Collins in his own words(Gill & Macmillan, 1997). In the 1960s, Prime Minister Seán Lemass, himself a veteran of the 1916 Rising and the war, the credit Collins ideas that form the basis for his success in revitalizing the Irish economy.

societies

Collins 22 Society was founded in 2002 is an international organization to keep the name and legacy of Michael Collins in living memory. Patron of the Society is Ireland’s former Justice Minister Nora Owen and TD, grand-niece of Michael Collins.

In popular culture

Movies

Bust of Michael Collins at Merrion Square Park, Dublin, Ireland.

1936 The film beloved enemy is a fictional account of Collins lives. Unlike the real Michael Collins, the fictional “Dennis Riordan” (played by Brian Aherne) is shot, but recovers. Hang Up Your Brightest Colours , a British documentary by Kenneth Griffith, made for ITV in 1973, but refused transmission. It was finally screened by the BBC in Wales in 1993 and the UK the following year.

1969, Dominic Behan wrote an episode of the British TV series Play today entitled “Michael Collins. The play dealt Collins attempt to take the gun out of Irish politics and took the perspective Republican arguments. At the time of writing the script, the troubles had just begun in Northern Ireland and BBC were reluctant to broadcast production. An appeal by the author of David Attenborough (head of programming for the BBC at the time) resulted in the play finally sent; Attenborough considered the requirements of freedom of expression can not be compromised in the cause of political considerations.

An Irish documentary made by Colm Connolly for RTÉ Television in 1989 called The Shadow of Béal na Bláth covered Collins dead. A made for TV movie, The Treaty , was produced in 1991 and played Brendan Gleeson as Collins and Ian Bannen as David Lloyd George. In 2007 RTÉ produced a documentary titled Get Collins , intelligence war that took place in Dublin.[133] [134]

Collins was the subject of director Neil Jordan’s 1996 film Michael Collinswith Liam Neeson in the title role. Collins great-GRANDNEPHEW, Aengus O’Malley, played a student in a scene filmed in Marsh library.

In 2005 Cork Opera House commissioned a musical drama about Collins. [135]“Michael Collins” by Brian Flynn had a successful run in 2009, Cork Opera House and later at the Olympia Theatre in Dublin.

Infamous assassinations , a 2007 British documentary television series, devoted his third episode of the death of Collins.

songs

Wax figure of Michael Collins at the National Wax Museum Plus, Dublin, Ireland.

Irish-American folk rock band Black 47 recorded a song titled “The Big Fellah” which was the first track on their 1994 album Home of the Brave . The details Collins’s career, from the Easter Rising to his death at Béal na Bláth.Irish folk band the Wolfe Tones recorded a song titled “Michael Collins” Collins life and death, even if it starts when he was about 16 and took a job in London. Celtic metal band Cruachan recorded a song also titled “Michael Collins” on their 2004 album Pagan dealt with his role in the Civil War, the Treaty and his eventual death. Also a song by Johnny McEvoy, simply named “Michael”, depicts Collins’s death and sadness surrounding his funeral.

The poem “laughing boy” by Brendan Behan lamenting the death of Collins was translated into Greek in 1961 by Vasilis Rotas. In October the same year, Mikis Theodorakis composed the song “To γελαστό παιδί” ( “The Laughing Boy”) by Rota’s “translation. The song was recorded by Maria Farantouri 1966 album “Ένας όμηρος” ( “The hostage”) and became an instant success. It was the soundtrack to the film Z (1969). “Laughing Boy” became the song of protest against the dictatorship in Greece (1967-1974) and is so far one of the most popular songs in the Greek popular culture.

Play

Mary Kenny wrote a play Allegiance , a meeting between Winston Churchill and Michael Collins. The play was adapted for the stage in 2006 for the Edinburgh Festival Fringe with Mel Smith plays Winston Churchill and Michael Fassbender, a very large GRANDNEPHEW by Michael Collins, Michael Collins plays. [136] [137]

Game

Collins appears as president and dictator of Ireland in the alternate history game modification “Kaiserreich: Legacy of Weltrieg” for Darkest Hour: A Hearts of Iron Game .

See also

  • F. Digby Hardy
  • Families in the Oireachtas
  • List of members of the Oireachtas imprisoned during the Irish revolutionary period
  • List of people on stamps of Ireland

References

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  112. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  113. Jump up ^ Feehan, John M “recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident” Cork, Mercier 1981
  114. Jump up ^ Dolan, Anne (2006). In memory of the Irish Civil War: History and Memory, 1923-2000. Studies in the social and cultural history of modern warfare. 13 . Cambridge University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-521-02698-7.
  115. Jump up ^ Osborne, Chrissy “Michael Collins himself” Cork, Mercier 2003
  116. Jump up ^ O’Broin, Leon “Michael Collins” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1980
  117. Jump up ^ Michael Collins personal correspondence
  118. Jump up ^ Michael Collins field diary, August 22, 1922
  119. Jump up ^ Barry, Tom “Guerrilla Days in Ireland” Dublin, Irish Press 1949
  120. Jump up ^ O’Connor, Batt “With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence” in 1929
  121. Jump up ^ Osborne, Chrissy “Michael Collins himself” Cork, Mercier 2003
  122. Jump up ^ Neligan, David “The Spy in the castle” London, Prendeville Publishing 1999
  123. Jump up ^ Collins, Michael (Costello, Francis J., ed.) “Michael Collins, in his own words,” Dublin, Gill & Macmillan, 1997
  124. Jump up ^ Michael Collins personal correspondence
  125. Jump up ^ McCoole, Sinead “no ordinary women: Irish women activists in the revolutionary years 1900-1923” Dublin, O’Brien Press 2008
  126. Jump up ^ Collins, Michael (Costello, Francis J., ed.) “Michael Collins, in his own words,” Dublin, Gill & Macmillan, 1997
  127. Jump up ^ Coogan, Tim Pat, Michael Collins
  128. Jump up ^ Ryan, MEDA “Michael Collins and the women in his life” Cork, Mercier Press 1996
  129. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  130. Jump up ^ O’Bróin, Leon “in haste: the letters of Michael Collins and Kitty Kiernan” Dublin, Gill & MacMillan 1996
  131. Jump up ^ Sigerson, SM “The assassination of Michael Collins 😕 What happened at Béal na Bláth “Kindle Direct Publishing 2013
  132. Jump up ^ CoinUpdate.com
  133. Jump up ^ RTE.ie, “Get Collins”
  134. Jump up ^ IMDb.com, “Get Collins”
  135. Jump up ^ Cork Opera House
  136. Jump up ^ Interview with Fassbender
  137. Jump up ^ OnstageScotland “Allegiance”

Bibliography

  • Llewellyn, Morgan (2001). In 1921. Thomas Doherty Press.
  • Beaslai, Piaras (1926). Michael Collins and The Making of New Ireland.Dublin Phoenix.
  • Bradford, Martin J. (2003). “The Charity of Silence”. AuthorHouse.Historical / fictional account of the life and times of Michael Collins.ISBN 1-4107-0641-9.
  • Collins, Michael (1922). The road to freedom. Dublin: Talbot Press.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1990). Michael Collins: A Biography.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (2002). Michael Collins: The man who made Ireland.Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29511-1.
  • Deasy, Liam (1992). Brother against brother. Mercier.
  • Doherty, Gabriel (1998). Michael Collins and The Making of the Irish State. Mercier.
  • Dwyer, T. Ryle (1999). Big Fellow, Longfellow: A joint biography of Collins and De Valera. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 0-7171-4084-9.
  • Dwyer, T. Ryle (2005). The squad and intelligence operations by Michael Collins. Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-469-5.
  • Feehan, John M. (1981). The recording of Michael Collins: Murder or accident? . Mercier.
  • Feeney, Brian (2002). Sinn Féin: A hundred turbulent years. O’Brien Press.
  • . Hart, Peter (2007) Mick: The Real Michael Collins. Penguin.
  • McDonnell, Kathleen Keyes (1972). “There is a bridge in Bandon: a personal account of the Irish War of Independence”. Cork and Dublin.
  • Mackay, James (1997). Michael Collins: A Life. Mainstream Publishing.ISBN 1-85158-857-4.
  • Neligan, David (1999). The spy in the castle. Prendeville Publishing Ltd.
  • Neeson, Eoin (1968). The Life and Death of Michael Collins. Cork.
  • O’Broin, Leon (1983). In great haste: The letters of Michael Collins and Kitty Kiernan. Gill and MacMillan.
  • O’Connor, Batt (1929). With Michael Collins in the fight for Irish independence. London: Peter Davies.
  • O’Connor, Frank (1965). The Big Fellow Michael Collins and the Irish Revolution. Clonmore & Reynolds.
  • O’Donoghue, Florence (1954). No other law. Irish Press.
  • O’Donoghue, Florence (2006). Florence and Josephine O’Donoghue Irish revolution. Irish Academic Press.
  • Osborne, Chrissy (2003). Michael Collins himself. Mercier.
  • Regan, John M. (2012). “The” Bandon Valley Massacre “as a historical problem.” History 97th
  • Sigerson, SM (2013). The assassination of Michael Collins: What happened at Béal na Bláth? . Kindle Direct Publishing.
  • Stewart, Anthony Terence Quincey (1997). Michael Collins: The Secret File. The University of Michigan. ISBN 0-85640-614-7.
  • Talbot, Hayden (1923). Michael Collins own history. London: Hutchinson.
  • Taylor, Rex (1958). Michael Collins. Hutchinson.
  • Young, Calton (1968). Ireland Civil War. London.

Kinsale

Kinsale (/ k ɪ ns eɪ l /; Irish: Cionn tSáile ) is a historic port and fishing village in County Cork, Ireland, which also has significant military history. Located about 25 km south of Cork Cityvid coast near the Old Head of Kinsale, it sits at the mouth of the River Bandon and has a population of 2257, [ citation needed ] , which increases significantly during the summer months when the tourist season is at its peak and when the boating fraternity arrives in large amount.Kinsale in Cork South-West (Dáil Éireann) constituency, which has five seats.

Kinsale is a popular holiday resort for Irish and foreign tourists. [1] Leisure activities include sailing, sea fishing and golf. The city also has several art galleries and a school in English. The city is compact with a quaint air antiquity in the narrow streets. There is a large marina close to the center.

The city is known for its restaurants, and has an annual “Gourmet Festival”.Chef Keith Floyd was a former resident of Kinsale. [2]

The cities of Community School has been awarded “Best school in Ireland” twice. [ Citation needed ]

Prominent historical buildings in the city include St. Multose Church (Church of Ireland) in 1190, John the Baptist (Catholic) in 1839, the market house c. 1600 and the so-called French Prison (or Desmond Castle – see the Earls of Desmond, prominent in the history of Munster) in c. 1500. Charles Fort, a partially restored star fort in 1677, is near Summercove. See also http://www.kinsale.ie/category/things-to-do/historical-kinsale/

On 8 October 2005, Kinsale Ireland second Fairtrade Town of Clonakilty is the first.

History

1333, under a charter granted by King Edward III of England, the Corporation was Kinsale established to implement the local authorities in the city. [7] The company existed for over 500 years until the passing of municipal corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 when the municipalities in Kinsale was transferred to the town Commissioners who had been in the city since 1828. the town Commission became Kinsale Council under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Kinsale town Council existed until 2014, when this layer of the municipalities were abolished in Ireland as part of measures to reduce Ireland budget deficits as a result of the financial crisis 2008-2010 (see Post-2008 Irish economic downturn). There were two members of the Irish house before its abolition in 1800.

Kinsale had important links with Spain. In 1518 Archduke Ferdinand, later Emperor Ferdinand I, paid an unscheduled visit to the city, when one of his staff wrote a remarkable due to its inhabitants. In 1601 a Spanish military expedition – the last of Armada – landed in Kinsale. As a result of the Battle of Kinsale took place at the end of nine years of war in which the English forces led by Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy defeated a rebel Irish force, led by Prince Hugh Roe O’Donnell and Hugh O’Neill, who was allied with the forces of the Spanish Empire of Philip III of Spain and Portugal. [8] After this battle Flight of the Earls occurred where a number of the native Irish aristocrats, including the Earls of Tyrone and Tir Conaill, abandoned his country and fled to the European mainland. Shortly after the battle, James Fort was built to protect the harbor.

In 1649 Prince Rupert of the Rhine explained Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland on St. Multose Church in Kinsale at the hearing of the execution of Charles I in London by the Honourable forces during the English Civil War (see also http: // bcw- project.org/military / third-civil-war / Prince Rupert-voyages / Kinsale ~~ V about Prince Rupert and his fleet of Kinsale).

Charles Fort, located at Summer Cove and dating from 1677 in the reign of Charles II, is a bastion -Fort which guards the entrance to Kinsale Harbor. It was built to protect the area and especially the port from the use of the French and Spanish in the event of a landing in Ireland. James Fort, which dates from the reign of James I, is on the other side of the bay, the castle peninsula. An underwater chain used to be strung between the two forts over the harbor mouth during times of war to rush the enemy shipping by tore the bottoms of the incoming ships.

1690, James II of England (James VII of Scotland) and Ireland resigned to France from Kinsale, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne by William III of England (also governor William III of the House of Orange-Nassau) efterärorika Revolution (or Revolution of 1688 ) in England against the background of the war involving France under Louis XIV.

From 1694 Kinsale served as a supply base for the Royal Navy ship in the South of Ireland, and a number of warehouses were built; it was limited to smaller vessels, however, because of the sandbar at the mouth of the river. [9] The English privateer Captain Woodes Roger mentions Kinsale in the memoirs of his 1708 expedition; In particular, he mentions a couple of blocks called “the Sovereigne’s Bollacks”. He does not mention if it is a local name or application of the maritime community. [10] Kinsale’s marina importance declined after the Royal Navy moved its provisioning center from Kinsale to Cork Harbour in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars between France First Empire.

When the RMS Lusitania was sunk by a U-boat in the German Empire May 7, 1915 during the First World War, some of the bodies and survivors were transferred to Kinsale and the subsequent inquest on the bodies recovered was held in the city’s courthouse. [11] A statue in the harbor in memory of effort. Lusitania Memorial is Casement Square Cobh, east of Cork city.

Transport

Bus Eireann provides Kinsale main means of public transport. Buses run regularly from Kinsale to Cork City, with most of these stops at Cork Airport on the way. Kinsale and Bandon connected by public transport with a bus provided by the East Cork rural transport.

Transition movement

Kinsale is the first Transition Town in Ireland. It is a community-based group, supported by Kinsale Town Council. It looks for sustainable solutions to the challenges of peak oil and climate change. Public meetings are held the third Thursday of each month. It has taken a lot of guidance from the Kinsale Energy Descent Action Plan 2021, which has given rise to additional transition movement worldwide. [12]

Sports and community groups

The Saile sports and leisure center is located opposite the Kinsale Community School overlooking the Bandon River. The Saile Sports & Community Centre Project is an initiative of KRD Community Association, a nonprofit athletic body composed of local activists committed to improving the lives of residents in Kinsale and its surroundings. [13]

Phase 1 includes four x 5-a-side all-weather places, tennis court, basketball court and community garden opened by President Mary McAleese in October 2010.

Phase two will be the Sport and Community Centre. This will include an indoor sports / community center, locker rooms and community meeting room with a kitchenette.

Kinsale Yacht Club (KYC) opened in 1950 and today has become a lively sailing club with events for all ages of sailors and social activities throughout the year. Junior sailing includes Optimists, Lasers and 420s. There squib, International Dragon and A-Class catamarans and Cruiser three classes (class I, II and III). [14]

Kinsale Rugby Football Club recently celebrated its 25th anniversary. [15] It has a strong minor system [ citation needed ] , a women’s team and competitive squad of players in both the first and second junior male team. [ Citation needed ]

Kinsale GAA club plays in Carrigdhoun division of Cork GAA. [16] They won the Cork County Intermediate Football Championship 2011, the first time since 1915.

Kinsale Badminton [17] club affiliated with Badminton Ireland is based in St. Multose Hall Kinsale. It caters to both adults and young players and teams in Cork county leagues and cups.

Kinsale branch of the Red Cross has been around since 1939 and is staffed by volunteers, who are present at local events and activities – including the annual Kinsale Sevens by the Sea. Rugby event [18] The office has two ambulances that are housed in a purpose-built building in Church Lane and staffed by trained volunteers.

Kinsale regularly does well in the Irish Tidy Towns competition and was the overall winner of the 1986th

Entertainment

Kinsale hosts an annual jazz festival, which takes place during the last weekend of October. Many pubs and hotels in the city hosting concerts with jazz and blues groups throughout the weekend, including Monday (which is a holiday in Ireland). [19] [20]

Government and politics

The city is governed by nine member Kinsale Town Council. As of the 2009 elections, the Council had two members each from the Fianna Fáil (center right), Fine Gael (center right), and the Workers Party (center left) and a member of Sinn Fein (left side), the Green Party (center left) and a independent . The current mayor is Tony Cierans (Labour). The town is part of the Bandon constituency of Cork County Council and is part of the Cork South-West constituency for Dáil elections.

Twin towns – Sister cities

Kinsale is twinned with:

  • Newport, Rhode Island, United States [21]
  • Mumbles, Wales, United Kingdom [22]
  • Portofino, Italy
  • Antibes, France

Development

The largest planned development of 2.9 hectares, close to the historic center is restarted Convent Garden schemes promoted by Cumnor Construction since the early 2000s (Cork County Council planning application 04/53026 see http://www.pleanala.ie/casenum /211819.htm). This means a combination of conversion of austere gray rendered concrete former St. Joseph’s convent of the Sisters of Mercy on the Ramparts Lane in 79 apartments and build on the land 94 new build houses, with 295 car spaces, according to Bord Pleanála inspectors report in 2005. After several years of inactivity, work to build more of the new units was resumed in 2015, after a planning site communication of December 2014. [23] See also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oc- Ud3TvygE, a YouTube presentation system, http://www.jca.ie/pages/architecture/residential/projects/convent_garden.htmlav developer and construction company.

During a period in 2007-9, an approximately 18,000 square meters of hotel, apartment and retail development promoted by Fuschia Investments Limited, a company linked to the Howard Holdings plc for prominent place near the tourist office between Pier Road and Long Quay (planning register reference number: 04/53030) – see http://www.clowater.eu/?portfolio=kinsale-harbour-lodge-cork. Scott Tallon Walker Architects carried out a design study for the development <http://www.stwarchitects.com /project-information.php?p=04098&t=i>.But by 2011 the place had returned to its use as a surface parking lot. The potential system now seems to be controlled by Clowater Asset Management Limited, Cork.

People from or in connection with Kinsale

  • Jack Barrett (1910-1979), All-Ireland winning hurler; Born in Kinsale
  • Margaret Barrington (1896-1982), writer and journalist; lived in Kinsale
  • Anne Bonny (1702-1782), female pirate; born near Kinsale
  • Edward Bowen (1780-1866), Canadian judges and lawyers; Born in Kinsale
  • Sister Mary Francis (Joanna Bridgeman) (1813-1888), a nun and nursing pioneer; lived in Kinsale
  • Paddy Collins (1903-1995), All-Ireland winning Hurler; Born in Kinsale
  • Patrick Cotter O’Brien (1760-1806), checked the first man to have reached over eight feet in height; Born in Kinsale
  • John Duncan Craig (1830-1909), poet and Church of Ireland clergyman;lived in Kinsale
  • Ray Cummins (1948-present), All-Ireland winning Hurler; lives in Kinsale
  • Achilles Daunt (1832-1878), Church of Ireland clergyman; Born in Kinsale
  • Moira Deady (1922-2010), actor; lived in Kinsale
  • James Dennis, 1st Baron Tracton (1721-1782), Irish judges and politicians; born near Kinsale
  • Eileen Desmond (1932-2005), TD, Senator and State Council; Born in Kinsale
  • Conor Fallon (1939-2007), sculptor and son Padraic; lived in Kinsale
  • Padraic Fallon (1905-1974), poet; lived in Kinsale
  • John William Fenton (1828-1890), musician; Born in Kinsale
  • Keith Floyd (1943-2009), President; lived near Kinsale
  • John FOLLIOT (1691-1762), British army officer; Deputy Governor in Kinsale
  • Robert Gibbings (1889-1958), artist and writer; lived in Kinsale
  • Sister Mary Scholastica (Geraldine Gibbons) (c. 1817-1901), the founder of the Sisters of the Good Samaritan, born in Kinsale
  • John Handcock (1755-1786), British army officer; Deputy Governor in Kinsale
  • Aidan Higgins (1927-2015), poet; lived in Kinsale
  • Ron Holland (1947-present), yacht designer; lives in Kinsale
  • Thomas Johnson (1872-1963), the first leader of the Irish Labour Party in Dáil Éireann, lived in Kinsale
  • Ciara judges, Emer Hickey, and Sophie Healy-Thow (1998 -) All at the age of 16 -. 2014 Grand Prix Winner of the Google Science Fair, the first ever major prize winners from a lower age group [24]
  • John-Edward Kelly (1840-1884), Protestant nationalist and Fenian; Born in Kinsale
  • Reef. Patrick MacSwiney (1885-1940), Catholic lecturer in Kinsale 1927-1940, founder of Kinsale Museum, vocational school, Development Association, Fisheries Association, the National Monuments Committee, Kinsale Historical Society
  • Derek Mahon (1941-present), Northern Irish poet; lives in Kinsale
  • Mortimer and Timothy McCarthy (c 1878-1967 and 1888-1917.), Antarctic explorers on Scott’s 1911 expedition; Born in Kinsale
  • Peter McDermott (1918-2011), All-Ireland winning footballer County Meath; born near Kinsale
  • Cormac Ó Cadhlaigh (1884-1960), Celticist; Born in Kinsale
  • Arthur O’Connor (1763-1852), President of the United Irishmen and a general in Napoleon’s armies; lived near Kinsale
  • Desmond O’Grady (1935-2014), poet; lives in Kinsale
  • John Fergus O’Hea (c 1838-1922.); political cartoonist aka “Spex”; Born in Kinsale
  • Timothy O’Keeffe (1926-1994), publisher who worked with Flann O’Brien; Born in Kinsale
  • Eamonn O’Neill (1882-1954) Kinsale businessman and politician
  • Gervais Parker (1695-1750), British army officer; Governor in Kinsale
  • William Penn (1644-1718), the founder of Pennsylvania, was clerk of the Admiralty Court in Kinsale
  • Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), poet and playwright; lived in Kinsale
  • Sir Robert South (1635-1702), diplomat, Secretary of State for Ireland and President of the Royal Society, was born near Kinsale
  • John Sullivan (1830-1884), recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Joseph Ward (1832-1872), British soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross; Born in Kinsale
  • Finbar Wright (1957-present), tenor; born near Kinsale
  • Nancy Wynne-Jones (1922-2006), painter; lived in Kinsale

Gallery

  • on the quay
  • port
  • Market House (around 1600)

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of RNLI stations
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Kinsale (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Old Head of Kinsale

References

  1. Jump up ^ “On Census Day, April 23, 2006”. Ireland News: Top Story.Irish Times. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009. Irish Times, July 1, 2008
  2. Jump up ^ Davenport, F.; Charlotte, Beech; Downs, T; Hannigan, D;Parnell, F; Wilson, N (2006). Lonely Planet Ireland. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74059-968-3.
  3. Jump up ^ “Online Historical Population Reports website.” University of Essex. In 2007. Taken 28/04/2014.
  4. Jump up ^ “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. 2010-09-27. Pulled 04/28/2014.
  5. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  6. Jump up ^ Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. 37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468 -0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  7. Jump up ^ addition to the first report …: Southern, Midland, Western and Southern … – Great Britain. Commission of the municipal companies in Ireland. Google Books. Pulled 04/28/2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “Kinsale then and now.” West Cork Travel. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  9. Jump up ^ Coad, Jonathan (2013). Support for Fleet Engineering and Architecture of the Royal Navy bases 1700-1914. Swindon, UK: English Heritage.
  10. Jump up ^ “Privateer: Life aboard a British privateer in the time of Queen Anne 1708-1711”.
  11. Jump up ^ “Kinsale”. Eircom. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  12. Jump up ^ Lawrence, Felicity (7 April 2007). “Article on transitional movement.” London: The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  13. Jump up ^ “Saile Sport and leisure”. Saile sport and leisure. Retrieved 29 October, 2013.
  14. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Yacht Club.” Retrieved 29 October, 2013.
  15. Jump up ^ “Kinsale RFC”. Kinsale RFC. January 18, 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ “Kinsale GAA Club ‘. Kinsale GAA. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  17. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Badminton Club ‘. Pulled nine September 2012.
  18. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Red Cross – About us”. Kinsale Red Cross. Archived from the original January 16, 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  19. Jump up ^ “Something for the weekend – Kinsale”. The Independent.October 22, 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  20. Jump up ^ “Kinsale Jazz Festival”. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  21. Jump up ^ “Useful Links for Visitors: Sister Cities”. City of Newport.Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  22. Jump up ^ “The Mumbles Reporter”. Themumblesbook.co.uk. February 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  23. Jump up ^ “Kinsale monasteries systems reduced to 96 homes.” Irish Examiner. 23 April 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  24. Jump up ^ http://www.thejournal.ie/irish-scientists-cork-1656039-Sep2014/
  25. Jump up ^ Hiram Morgan, Ireland 1518: Archduke Ferdinand visit to Kinsale and Dürer Connection (Cork, 2016)

Mizen Head

Mizen Head (Irish: Carn Uí Neid ), located on the end of a peninsula in the district of Carbery in County Cork, Ireland. It is one of the extreme points on the island of Ireland and is a major tourist attraction, known for its dramatic rocky landscape. One of the main transatlantic shipping lanes pass close to the south, and the Mizen Head was for many sailors, the first (or last) view of Europa.Spetsen on the peninsula is almost an island, cut off by a deep gorge, now spanned by a bridge; This gives access to an old signaling station, a weather station and a lighthouse. The signal station, once permanently manned, is now a museum housing displays relating to the site’s strategic importance to transatlantic shipping and communications, including pioneering efforts of Guglielmo Marconi. The “99 steps”, which was included in the original access road has been supplemented by a series of paths and viewing platforms, and a full range of visitor facilities available at the entrance to the site. The villages of Ballydehob, Crookhaven, Goleen, Schull and located on the peninsula in the east.

Mizen Head is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland; nearby Brow Head holds that title. Nevertheless, geography books long measured the length of Ireland “from Fair Head to Mizen Head” [1] or “from Malin Head to Mizen Head. [2]

Content

[Hide]

  • 1See also
  • 2Hänvisar to
  • 3Källor
  • 4Externa links

See also 

  • Malin to Miz
  • Carbery’s Hundred Isles
  • Wild Atlantic Way

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Robert Johnson, the competitive Geography (1877), p. 170
  2. Jump up ^ William Hughes and John Williams, “A Class-Book of Modern Geography” (1885), p. 78

Youghal

Trading in Youghal varied considerably. In 1753 no imported corn, flour, salt or flour in Youghal from March to November of the same year. In 1754, exports were 65 quarters of beans. 1755 saw the export of 214 quarters of barley and 70 quarters of beans. Exports in 1756 were 450 quarters of barley, 45 barrels of oatmeal and imports were 6 barrels of beer. In 1757, exports were 495 quarters of oats, 20 barrels of oatmeal and imports were 11.25 barrels of beer. Works had begun at this time to improve navigation on the Blackwater (1755) and a petition had been sent to the Parliament to open routes from Lismore, Cappoquin and Youghal Clogheen.

In 1762, a French privateer six ships near the port. The commander landed 24 passengers on the island of Bally and took the rest with him as recruits for the Colonel Owens regiment. The cutter Expedition was sent in pursuit, but did not come up with them. By 1780 wool combine the operations are conducted with great spirit in Youghal, where the Annals [ citation needed ] tell “great fortunes were realized.” Exports from Youghal was extensive in 1781, with more than oats exported from any other port in Ireland. Nealson Quay was built and launched the following year. Grattan Street was opened along the quay that had embanked.

In 1833, nine vessels and 440 colliers into the harbor. In 1834 there were 250 fishing boats in the harbor employs 2,500 men. The salmon was plentiful and sold for 1½d per pound weight. After many years of discussion and feasibility testing, the steamer Star started operating on the Blackwater in June 1843. It was hoped to open Blackwater would reduce trade costs by Lismore, Fermoy, Mallow and Mitchelstown. On an objection by the Duke of Devonshire – who owned dam at Lismore – and a few other men, the river was not open outside of Lismore, and so steamer service ceased in 1850. The following year Youghal Fisheries District had 574 registered vessels employing 2,786 men. This was a decrease of 112 boats and 532 men since in 1845.

From the 18th century onwards, Youghal suffered much the same fate as near Ardmore as ships became larger, they could not enter in Youghal Harbour because of a shallow sandbar at its mouth.

A cross-river passenger ferry went from Youghal to the opposite side of the harbor. The ferry capsized September 30, 1876 and 14 people died. 1882 decision of the House of Lords established claims to the Duke of Devonshire to exclusive fishing rights to the River Blackwater and Youghal Bay out to Capel Island. Duke’s claim was based on a grant awarded to Sir Walter Raleigh Elizabeth I, which he sold shortly thereafter to the Boyle family.

In the 1950s, most of the exterior shots of the “New Bedford” in John Huston’s film adaptation of Moby Dick was filmed in Youghal, like New Bedford itself had changed too much in the intervening century to be used for this purpose.

21st Century

Youghal was previously a strong manufacturing town, but Ireland’s economic success since the mid-1990s, largely bypassing the city and the infrastructure deficit is a major obstacle to its growth. [5] In April 2011 it was reported that all the city’s major factories had closed during the last decade, at least 2,000 people unemployed and the unemployment rate is approaching 20% were young people who leave in search of work and workers commuting long distances from Youghal to Cork and Waterford. [6]with revenues and service jobs away from the city center shops. [7]

The focus of the volunteers, companies and statutory bodies in the city were put into promoting Youghal as a tourist destination, with emphasis on the three sandy Blue Flag beaches, its history and its natural resources, [5] which makes it a beloved place for family holidays.

Youghal declared Cork’s tidiest town in 2011 IBAL anti-litter league (run in conjunction with the Ministry of the Environment) and the 7th cleanest city in Ireland. [8]

Government and politics

The city is governed by nine members Youghal Town Council. As of the 2009 elections, the Council had three members from Fianna Fáil, two each from Sinn Féin and Fine Gael and one each from the Labour Party and the Green Party. The current mayor is Eoin Coyne from Fianna Fáil. The city is part of Midleton constituency of Cork County Council and is part of the Cork East constituency for Dáil elections.

Notable people

Walter Raleigh, Mayor of Youghal, avNicholas Hilliard, c.1585.

  • Sir Walter Raleigh was the mayor of Youghal in 1588 and 1599 and lived at Myrtle Grove, Warden’s residence in the Collegiate Church. “As part of a group of entrepreneurial soldiers and administrators to form the new British government in Munster. These men arrive in Ireland at a time when the English royal administration reasserting its power in Munster efterdesmondupproren. A great sea change took place with the exchange of the Gaelic dominion economy with a market-style English economy. ” [9]
  • Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, 1st Viscount Dungarvan, 1st Baron Boyle of Youghal, Lord High Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland (but only known as the Great Earl of Cork). (1566-1643) “Boyle is closely associated with the history of Youghal, buy the city as part of its acquisition of Munster estate of Sir Walter Raleigh” [9] had a substantial residence at Youghal, known today as “The College”, near St Mary’s Collegiate Church.
  • The Countess of Desmond (died 1604), who lived nearby Finisk Castle is said to have fallen to her death at the age of 140, while the harvest cherries from a tree. She is said to be buried with her husband in a Franciscan Friary in Youghal.
  • Florence Newton (fl. 1661) was an alleged witch, known as the “Witch of Youghal.” Her study is described as one of the most important examples of Irish witch trials.
  • William Cooke Taylor (16 April 1800 – 12 September 1849), writer, journalist, historian and anti-Corn Law propagandist. Born in Youghal, died at 20 Herbert Street, Dublin.
  • Abraham Dowdney (1841-1886), a US Representative from New York, as well as an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War was born in Youghal.
  • William Spotswood Green (1847-1919), naturalist.
  • Journalist Claud Cockburn and his wife Patricia, artist, conchologist and travelers, lived in Raleigh house in the city, Myrtle Grove, for many years. He described Youghal memorably as “standing on a slight angle to the universe.”
  • The author William Trevor spent part of his early years in Youghal, and presented the city in his novel Memories from Youghal .
  • In 1954, director John Huston filmed part of Moby Dick which, with the city which is in New Bedford. A pub in the town bears the name of the movie. [10]
  • Eddie O’Sullivan was Ireland rugby coach in December 2001, replacing Warren Gatland and resigned in March 2008. He had previously coached Connacht, and was involved in the American Eagles coaching set up medGeorge Hook in the early 1990s, and returned as Head Coach in 2008.
  • Christy Cooney was appointed Chairman of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in in 2009.
  • Davy Russell – National Hunt racing jockey.
  • Will Hanafin – journalist, radio personality.

Tourism

Youghal adjoins a number of fine beaches, including the famous 5km long beach west of the city. In 2011 Youghal three beaches, Front Beach, Clay Castle and Redbarn, awarded blue flags for water cleanliness and availability of facilities. [11] Ballyvergan Marsh, the largest freshwater coastal marshes in County Cork who hold important plant and bird species, extends along the Clay Castle Beach and on to Redbarn Beach.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Youghal a popular seaside resort, with thousands taking the train to the beach. Many tourists are attracted by its historic buildings and nature. The city is rich in history and was once one of the busiest ports in the country, even more important than Cork and Dublin at once. With the closure of the railway in the 1970s (see Irish railway history), Youghal went into a period of decline, exacerbated by the difficulties that its textile industry. Since the 1990s, with the help of favorable property tax relief, there has been a significant re-investment and construction to restore Youghal facilities and popularity.

Amenities in Youghal include an 18 hole golf course, lighted tennis courts, GAA locations, football fields, 18-hole short course, rugby seats, greyhound racing, indoor family entertainment center with bowling, laser and a soft play area for children, squash and badminton courts, a leisure center with pool , gym, art galleries, a snooker club, a birdwatching hide on Ballyvergan Marsh, and a museum.

According to an A to Z Youghal: history and people Eochaill , Sir Arthur Conan Doyle vacationed in Youghal with his wife and created the character of Inspector Youghal of the CID The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone. [12]

Transport

  • Cork Airport is the nearest airport in the region and is located 54 km from Youghal.
  • Bus Eireann operate a regular service from Youghal to Cork and Cork to Youghal (timetable on Bus Eireann – Youghal – Cork – Youghal timetable)
  • Youghal railway station opened on 1 May 1860 and closed to passenger 4 February 1963 for goods August 30, 1982. [13]

Training

Youghal International College is located in Youghal.

Photo Gallery

  • Tynte castle
  • Youghal Town Walls
  • Myrtle Grove
  • Clock Gate from Barry Lane
  • St Marys Collegiate Church
  • Collegiate Church behind
  • Water Gate, also known as Cromwell’s Arch
  • city Hall

See also

  • Cork
  • Strancally Castle
  • Youghal lace
  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • Market Houses in Ireland
  • Youghal (Ireland Parliament constituency)
  • Youghal Priory
  • North Abbey, Youghal
  • South Abbey, Youghal

References

  1. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland (see archives)
  2. Jump up ^ http://juventutemireland.blogspot.ie/2007/03/irish-confessors-martyrs-1540-c1713.html
  3. Jump up ^ http://tyntescastle.com
  4. Jump up ^ Flood, William H. Grattan (1899). “The University of Lismore” (PDF) .Tidning Waterford and the South East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Waterford. V 12. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “an integrated approach to Youghal 2008-2012 development”. Youghal Socio-Economic Development Group Ltd. Archives from the original (PDF) of 25 October 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ Carl O’Brien (2 April 2011). “How do you fix a broken city?”.The Irish Times.
  7. Jump up ^ Siobhan Tanner (3 June 2008). “Youghal struggling with globalization” .politico.ie. Archived from the original October 25, 2011.
  8. Jump up ^ http://www.ibal.ie/v1/default.php?content=latestresults.php
  9. ^ Jump up to: ab “The families of Tynte castle”. Daniel McCarthy and family. Hämtad26 October 2011.
  10. Jump up ^http://homepage.eircom.net/~youghal/chamber/mobydick/page2.html
  11. Jump up ^http://www.antaisce.org/education/BlueFlags/tabid/175/language/en-IE/Default.aspx
  12. Jump up ^ “Youghal of the CID”
  13. Jump up ^ “Youghal station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Hämtad25 November 2007.

Saint Fin Barre ‘s Cathedral

St Fin Barre’s Cathedral  (Irish:  Ardeaglais Naomh Fionnbarra  ) is a cathedral of the Church of Ireland in Cork City, Ireland. It is in the ecclesiastical province of Dublin. Begun in 1863, the cathedral was the first major work of Victorian architect William Burges. Former Cathedral of the Diocese of Cork, it is now one of three cathedrals in the Diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross.

History and architecture

The current cathedral was built on the site of at least two earlier structures intended for Finbarr of Cork.  [1]  The first dated from the 7th century,  [2] [3] with works continuing through the 12th century.  [4]  This building was damaged during the siege of Cork (1690),  [5]  and a new structure was built in 1735 -. even if parts of the former spire was kept  [6] 

This structure remained until 1860, when a competition to build a new larger cathedral was held in 1862. In February 1863, the design of architect William Burges was declared the winner of the competition to build a new Cathedral of St Fin Barre.  [7]  His diary records his reaction –  “! Got Cork “  – while the cathedral accounts register payment of the winning prize of £ 100  [7] Construction work took seven years before the first service was held in the cathedral in 1870th Building, carving and decoration continued into the 20th century, long after Burges death in 1881.  [7]

The style of the building is an early French, Burges’s favored period and a style he continued to favor all his life, choosing it for their own home, The Tower House in Kensington. The fixed price for construction would be £ 15,000,  [8]  a sum far exceeded. The total cost came to well over £ 100,000.  [9] Burges was “indifferent” (his own words) in his letter of January 1877 to the Bishop of Cork:  “(in the future), all of it will be on its own and parts of the time and cost is forgotten, the result will only be reviewed. the big questions will then be the first this work is beautiful, and have them as it was entrusted, did it with all his heart and all his abilities. ”  [10]

Burges oversaw all aspects of design, including architecture of the building, statues, stained glass and interior decoration. The result is  “undoubtedly Burges greatest works of ecclesiastical architecture”  .  [7]

List of Deans Cork

The deans in Cork include the following, with a number of deans raised to the episcopate.  [ Citation needed ]  

  • 1582 – Thomas Long
  • 1590-1600 – Robert Graves (afterwards Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, 1600)
  • 1600-1604 – Thomas frame (afterwards Dean ferns, 1604 and then Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, 1605)
  • 1605 – George Ley or Lee
  • 1627 / 8-1641 – John Fitzgerald
  • 1642 – Henry Hall (later Bishop of Killala and Achonry, 1661)
  • 1645-1661 – Edward Worth (later Bishop of Killaloe, 1661)
  • 1661 – Thomas Hackett
  • 1662-1666 – Roger Boyle (later Bishop of Down and Connor, 1667)
  • 1666 / 7-1672 – John Vesey (afterwards Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe, 1672)
  • 1672 / 3-1708 – Arthur Pomeroy
  • 1709-1710 – Rowland Davies
  • 1721 / 2-1736 – Robert Carleton
  • 1736-1750 – William Meade
  • 1763-1779 – George Chinnery (afterwards Bishop Killaloe and Kilfenora, 1779)
  • 1779-1795 – John Erskine
  • 1796-1807 – She St. Thomas Lawrence (later Bishop of Cork, 1807)
  • 1807-1812 – John Powell Leslie (later Bishop of Dromore, 1812)
  • 1812-1813 – James Saurin (afterwards Archdeacon Dublin and then Bishop of Dromore, 1819)
  • 1813-1819 – William Magee (afterwards Bishop of Raphoe, 1819)
  • 1819-1841 – Robert Burrowes
  • 1841-1842 – James Thomas O’Brien (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1842)
  • 1842-1864 – Horatio Townsend Newman
  • 1864-1866 – William Connor Magee (afterwards Dean of the Chapel Royal, Dublin and then Bishop of Peterborough, 1868)
  • 1868-1874 – Arthur William Edward
  • 1874-1875 – Robert Samuel Gregg (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1875)
  • 1875-1878 – Achilles Daunt
  • 1878-1890 – Samuel Owen Madden
  • 1891-1894 – Thomas Brisbane Warren
  • 1894-1897 – Mervyn Archdall (later Bishop of Killaloe and Clonfert, 1897)
  • 1897- 1914 – Charles Saul Bruce
  • 1914-> 1944 – Richard Babington
  • 1952-1952 – George Otto Simms (afterwards Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross, 1952)
  • ? 1952- 1962 – Henry Robert MacAdoo (afterwards Bishop of Ossory, Ferns and Leighlin, 1962)
  • 1962- 1967 -? Ernest George Daunt
  • 1967- 1971 -? Frederick Mervyn Kieran Johnston
  • 1971-1993 – James Maurice George Carey
  • 1993-1996 – Richard Clarke (later Bishop of Meath and Kildare, 1996 then Archbishop of Armagh, 2012)
  • 1997-2002 – Michael Jackson (afterwards Bishop of Clogher, 2002, and then archbishop of Dublin, 2011)
  • 2002-2006 – Michael Burrows (afterwards Bishop of Cashel and Ossory, 2006)
  • 2008-present – Nigel Dunne

Organ

The organ was built in 1870 by William Hill & Sons, with three manuals and 40 stops. The action in Major was a form of pneumatic action (possibly barkermaskin) on the large, and tracker for the other two handböcker.Instrumentet was reformed in 1889 by Cork organ building firm, TW Magahy, which added three new stops. As part of these works was the organ moved from the western gallery (balcony) down to a pit in the north transept, where it sits today.

The next major revision was in 1906 by Hele & Company in Plymouth, who added a fourth manual (Solo). By now, the action of the organ was completely pneumatic.

Other work was completed on the organ in 1965-1966, when JW Walker & Sons Ltd in London reviewing the soundboards, installed a new console with electro-pneumatic action, and lowered the pitch. The organ then had four manuals, 56 stops and 3012 pipes.

From 2010 organ builder Trevor Crowe was hired to reconstruct and expand the body, when it was supplemented with a west gallery nave division and tonal improvements to the main instrument. This included a full-length 32 ‘extension of the pedal trombone. The work also meant a revised layout to enable earlier buried bodies to sing freely into the body of the cathedral.Crowe layout improvements intended to overcome obstacles to its underground location,  [ citation needed ]  and the western nave division improves complement to the church hymns.  [ Citation needed ]  Most of the choir organ is housed in a casing attached to the console, the lid of which can raised and lowered electrically by the organist. At 88 speaking stops, it is now the largest organ on the island of Ireland.  [ Citation needed ]      

organists

  • 1677-1698 – William Love  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1698? -1703? – Thomas Hollister  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1703-1711 – William Toole  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1712-1720 – Edward Broadway  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1720-1777 – William Smyth  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1782-1796 – Henry De La Maine  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1797-1811 – James Roche  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1811-1860 – James Brealsford Stephens  [ clarification needed ]  
  • 1860-1903 – John Christopher Mark
  • 1903-1922 – William George Everleigh  [11]
  • 1922-1977 – Jonathan Thomas Horne
  • 1977-1984 – Paul Andrew Padmore (afterwards organist at St. Anne’s Cathedral, Belfast)
  • 1984-2007 – Colin, Gerald Nicholls
  • 2007-2015 – Malcolm Wisener (formerly organist at St. Bartholomew’s Church, Dublin)
  • 2015-present – Peter Stobart

funerals

  • Richard Boyle (Archbishop)
  • William Lyons (bishop)

See also

  • Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross
  • List of abbeys and priories in Ireland (County Cork)

Notes

  1. Jump up ^  “Cork Heritage” Ode to St. Finbarre Cathedral “.Corkheritage.ie. 09.06.2009. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  2. Jump up ^  “Saint Finbarr | Cathedral, Cork, Ireland. ” Britannica.com.Pulled 06/17/2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Richard Caulfield, ed. (1871). Annals of St. Fin Barre’s Cathedral, Cork. Purcell.
  4. Jump up ^  “History – Medieval cathedral”. Official website Cathedral.Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  5. Jump up ^  “St Fin Barre’s Cathedral.” Lonely Planet. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  6. Jump up ^  “Old St Fin Barre’s Cathedral (1735-1865) | Cork Past & Present “. Corkpastandpresent.ie. Pulled 06/17/2015.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork, page 19
  8. Jump up ^ Cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork, page 28
  9. Jump up ^ Cathedral St. Finbarr of Cork
  10. Jump up ^ Burges letter to the Bishop of Cork: 8 January 1877 – reproduced as the preface to the Cathedral of Saint Finbarr of Cork
  11. Jump up ^ Dictionary of organs and organists. First edition. 1912. p.272

References

  • David Lawrence and Ann Wilson (2006). Cathedral of Saint Finbarr of Cork William Burges in Ireland. Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1846820236.
  • Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae: The consequence of prelates and members of the cathedral organs in Ireland Volume 1 by Henry Cotton
  • Coles registers pin Cork

English market

The  English market  (Irish:  An Margadh Sasa Nach  ),  [1]  include  Princes Street Market  and  Grand Parade market  , and is a local food market in central Cork, Ireland. The market is managed by Cork City Council.  [2]  The market is well supported locally and has become a tourist attraction – drawing visitors from around the world,  [3]  , including a visit avdrottning Elizabeth II during her 2011 state visit.  [4] The  term  English Market  coined in the 19th century to distinguish the market from the nearby Peters market (now the site of Bodega on Cornmarket Street), which was known as the Irish market  .  [5]

There has been a market at its current location since 1788  [6]  , but the current group of buildings was constructed in the mid 19th century with ornamental entrance on Princes Street, built in 1862 by Sir John Benson.  [7] The market changed little over the next century or so until it was severely damaged by fire June 19, 1980 and had to be extensively renovated by Cork City council. Renovation work was done in sympathy with the original Victorian building design  [ citation needed ]  and won a gold medal from Europa Nostra Heritage Foundation conservation shortly after completion.  [7]  The renovated market suffered a second fire in 1986 but the fire was less harmful than the first.  [8]  

Since the renovation market has become more multicultural and a variety of fresh produce from around the world can be bought there. The market is still best known but for its fresh fish and butcher, and it serves many of the city’s best restaurants.  [ Citation needed ]  It is a source of local specialties drisheen, seasoned beef, eggs and buttered.  [3]  

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Official placental Database of Ireland – Swedish Market Entry
  2. Jump up ^ ie – About us
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b New York Times Travel – Cork – Old English Market
  4. Jump up ^ The Independent – Bowl as the Queen visits the market – May 20, 2011
  5. Jump up ^ The Heritage Council – A guide to Cork city’s historic plaques and signs – Page 10
  6. Jump up ^ ie – History – The establishment of the English market
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b Cork City Library – Cork Past & Present – English Market
  8. Jump up ^ Excerpts from Cork Examiner article of January 7, 1986 (published on TheEnglishMarket.ie)

Church of St Anne (Shandon)

The  Church of St. Anne  is a Church of Ireland church located in the district of Shandon Cork in Ireland. It sits on top of a hill overlooking the River Lee and the church tower is a famous landmark and symbol of the city.The church bells popularized the song in the 19th century and remains a visitor attraction.

History

Shandon name comes from the Irish,  Sean Dun  , which means “old fortress”.Shandon was one of 28 settlements in and around the old Cork. A medieval church dedicated to St Mary were on this website and mentioned in the decretals of Innocent III in 1199 as “St. Mary on the hill.” This church stood until Williamite war when it was destroyed during the siege of Cork (1690). In 1693 this was replaced by a church, also dedicated to St. Mary, and at the bottom in Mallow Lane, modern Shandon Street. Because of population growth, it was decided to build new on this old place and so in 1722 the present church of St. Anne Shandon was constructed.

It is built with two types of rock, red sandstone from the original Shandon castle standing nearby, and limestone taken from the abandoned Franciscan Abbey which stood on the North Mall. If the strategy for Shandon, it is possible to see both red and white colored stone, and so is the affection that Shandon argue that citizens designated both colors to represent the city.  [Citation needed ]  

The Church of St. Anne reached full parish status in 1772 when Rev. Arthur Hyde (great grandfather of Dr. Douglas Hyde) was appointed its first principal.

Features

Bell

The church is known for its eight bells (called via a Ellacombe)  [1]  because of the song “The Bells of Shandon” by Francis Sylvester Mahony.  [2]  The largest weighs about 1.5 tons and was originally cast by Abel Rudhäll Gloucester . To reduce vibration, they were placed in a fixed position. They called the first 7 December 1752. They have been revised twice, in 1865 and 1906.  [1]  . Today, visitors can climb to the first floor and ring the bells themselves  [3]

The original inscription retained on each watch:

  • When you call us, we sing sweetly
  • God preserve the Church and the King
  • Health and prosperity for all our benefactors
  • Peace and good neighborhood
  • Prosperity to the city and trade thereof
  • We were all cast in Gloucester in England by Abel Rudhäll 1750
  • Because generosity has opened our mouths, our tongues sing his praise
  • In the church’s live calls and to the grave does not call all

Tower

The walls of the building is 2 meters (7 feet) thick and the height of the tower is 36.5 meters (120 feet). This will be extended an additional 15 m (50 ft) for “pepper pot” ornament on the tower. The McOsterich family was involved in the design and construction of this tower and to this day a special privilege gave them. When a family member get married, anywhere in the world, bells ringing in their ära.Ovanpå this Pepper pot is a weather vane in the shape of a salmon, which represents the fishing of the River Lee. It is an apt symbol for the top of a church,  [ citation needed ]  as in the earliest Christian days the fish was used as a symbol for the name of the Lord.  

Clock

The clock of the tower is known to Corkonians as “The Four Faced Liar” because, depending on the angle of the viewer, and the effects of the wind on his hands on a given surface, the time does not appear to correspond perfectly on every surface.  [4 ]  due to maintenance issues, the clock stopped in 2013, but plans to finance the repair agreed May 2014  [5]  , and the clock is started in September 2014.  [4]

Font

The baptismal font, dated 1629, is a relic of the church was destroyed in the siege of Cork in 1690 and bears the inscription,  “Walter Elinton and William Ring made this pant  (the Anglo-Saxon word for font)  when their fees”  .Within a tin bowl dated 1773rd

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b church of St. Anne – Home
  2. Jump up ^  “1726 – St. Anne’s, Shandon, Cork – Architecture of Cork City “. Archiseek.com. 2009-11-06. Pulled 04/22/2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Tours of the Bells of Shandon in Cork City, the Church of St. Anne’s in Cork City Guide Cork City”. Discoveringcork.ie. 03.24.2012.Pulled 04/22/2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Eoin English (3 September 2014). “Shandon clock ticking again after expert spends time with” liar “”. Irish Examiner. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  5. Jump up ^  “Cork City Council to establish Shandon Clock”. Irish Examiner. May 22, 2014.

Cork City

Cork  (/ k ɔr k / Irish:  Corcaigh  , pronounced [koɾkɪɟ], from  corcach  , which means “swamp”) is a city in Ireland, which is located in South-West Region, in the province of Munster. It has a population of 119,230,  [6]  and is the second largest city in the state and the third most populous on the island of Ireland. The larger the Metropolitan Cork (which includes a number of satellite towns and suburbs) has a population exceeding 300,000.  [7]  In 2005, the city selected as the European Capital of Culture.

The city is built on the River Lee which divides into two channels in the western part of the city, the center is divided by these channels. The reconverge on the eastern side where ochbryggor quays along the riverbank leads outwards towards Lough Mahon to Cork Harbour, one of the world’s largest natural harbors.  [8] [9]

The city’s cognomen of “rebel city” has its origin in its support for the Yorkist cause during the English 15th century Wars of the Roses.  [10]  Corkonians often refer to the city as “real capital”  [11]  referring to the city’s role as the center of the anti- Treaty forces during the Irish Civil war.  [12]

History 

Main article: History of Cork

Cork was originally a monastery settlement, said founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.  [13]  Cork achieved an urban character at some time between 915 and 922 närNorseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port.  [14]  It has been suggested that as Dublin Cork was an important trading center in the global Scandinavian trade network. [15]  ecclesiastical settlement continued with Viking  longphort  , the two develop a type of symbiotic relationship;Northmen provide otherwise unobtainable goods of the monastery, and perhaps also military support.  [16]

The corner of Grand Parade and South Mall, Cork, c.1830

The city charter was granted by King John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185.  [17] The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today.  [18]  For much of the Middle Ages, Cork was an outpost of the old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaeliclandsbygden and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin.Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno Norman lords pressed the “Black Pure” from citizens to keep them from attacking the city. The current extent of the city has exceeded the limits of medieval Barony of Cork City; now takes in large parts of neighboring Barony of Cork. Together, these baronies between the Barony of Barrymore in the east, Muskerry East to West and Kerrycurrihy in the south.

The city’s municipal government dominated by about 12-15 merchant families whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. The medieval population of Cork was approximately 2,100 people. It suffered a major blow in 1349 when almost half of the city residents died of the plague, when the Black Death arrived in the city. 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The then mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was founded by Royal Charter in 1318, and the title was changed to  mayor  in 1900 after the knighthood of the incumbent mayor of Queen Victoria on her royal visit to the city.  [19]

Patrick Street c.1890-1900.

Since the nineteenth century Cork had been a strong Irish nationalist city, with wide support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood firmly behind William O’Brien’s dissidents All-for-Ireland Party. O’Brien published a third local newspaper, Cork Free Press.

In the war, was the center of Cork was burned down by the British Black and Tans,  [20]  and the city saw fierce fighting between Irish rebels and British forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.

Climate 

The climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is gentle sea and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of extreme temperatures. Cork is located in Plant Hardiness Zone 9b. Met Éireann has a climatological weather station at Cork Airport,  [21]  a few kilometers south of the city. It should be noted that the airport is at an elevation of 151 meters (495 feet) and temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill.  [21]

Temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F) or above 25 ° C (77 ° F) are rare. Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimeters (4.029 ft) of precipitation annually, most of which is rain.  [22] The airport registers an average of 7 days of hail and 11 days of snow or sleet per year; even if only registers lying snow for 2 days a year. The low height of the city, and the moderating influence of the port, means lying snow very rarely occur in the city itself. There are on average 204 “rainy” days a year (more than 0.2 millimeters (0.0079 in) of precipitation), of which there are 73 days with “rain” (more than 5 millimeters (0.20 inches)) .  [22]  Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog per year, most during the mornings and during the winter. Nevertheless, Cork is also one of Ireland’s sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine per day and only has 67 days where there is no “recordable sunshine”, mostly in and around the winter.  [22]

Culture 

The Lewis Glucksman Gallery at UCC.

The Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design offers a throughput of new blood, as well as the active theater components of many courses at University College Cork (UCC). Highlights include: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a squad member  [26]  before the Hollywood fame; The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource,  [27]  the Triskel Arts Centre (capacity c.90), which includes Triskel Christchurch independent film; dance in place Firkin Crane (c.240 capacity); Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA) and graffiti Theatre Company,  [28]  and the Cork Jazz Festival, Cork Film Festival,  [29]  and Live at The Marquee events. The Everyman Palace Theatre (capacity c.650) and granary Theatre (capacity c.150) both play host to dramatic plays throughout the year.

Cork is home to RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet, and many musical acts, including John Spillane, Frank and Walters, Sultans of Ping, Simple Kid, Micro Disney, Fred, Mick Flannery and the late Rory Gallagher. Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan and Sean O’Hagan of the High Llamas also hails from Cork. The opera singer Cara O’Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. Ranging in capacity from 50 to 1000, the most important music venues in the city is Cork Opera House (capacity c.1000), Everyman, Cyprus Avenue, Triskel Christchurch, the Roundy, Savoy and Coughlan’s.  [30]

The city’s literary society revolves around the Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre.  [31]  short story writer Frank O’Connor and Seán Ó Faoláin came from Cork, and contemporary authors include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy, and novelist and poet William Wall.

The English marknadeni Cork.

Cork has been the cultural diversity for many years, from Huguenot communities 17th century, by Eastern European societies, and a small number of African and Asian countries in the 20th and 21st centuries.  [32] This is reflected in the multicultural restaurants and shops, including specialty stores for Eastern European or Middle Eastern food, Chinese and Thai restaurants, French patisseries, Indian buffets and Middle Eastern kebab houses. Cork saw some Jewish immigration from Lithuania and Russia in the late 19th century. Jewish citizens as Gerald Goldberg (several times Mayor), David Marcus (author) and Louis Marcus (documentary maker) played notable roles in 20th century Cork. Today, the Jewish community is relatively small population, although the city still has a Jewish quarter and synagogue. [33]  Cork also has various Christian churches and a mosque. Some Catholic masses around the city said in Polish, Filipino, Lithuanian, Romanian and other languages,  [34]  in addition to the traditional Latin and local Irish  [35] and English language services.

Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery. The Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the fall of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and the construction of a new € 60 million School of Music, was completed in September 2007.

Cork was the European Capital of Culture in 2005, and in 2009 was included in Lonely Planet’s top 10 “Best in Travel 2010 ‘. The guide described Cork as “at the top of its game: sophisticated, vibrant and diverse”.  [36]

There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between London and Manchester, Sydney and Melbourne or Madrid and Barcelona.Some Corkonians prove that differs from the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as “insurgents”; the county known as the Rebel County. This view has in recent years proved in humorous references to  the Real Capital and the sale of T-shirts with light-hearted banners celebrating the  People’s Republic of Cork  .

Food 

The city has many local traditions in food, including  crubeens  ,  stomachs and drisheen  . Cork English Market sells locally produced food, including fresh fish, meat, fruit and vegetables, eggs and artisan cheeses and breads.Under certain town festivals are also food stalls sometimes erected on city streets as St. Patrick Street and the Grand Parade.  [37]

Accent 

Cork accent, part of Southwest dialect of Irish English, show different characteristics that distinguish it from other accents in Ireland. Pattern tone and intonation often rise and fall with the overall tone tends to be more high-pitched than the other Irish accents. English is spoken in Cork has a number of dialect words that are characteristic of the city and surroundings.Like the standard Irish English, some of these words comes from the Irish language, but other languages through other Cork residents encountered at home and abroad.  [38]  The Cork accent shows varying degrees of rhoticity, usually depending on the social class of the speaker.

Media 

Broadcasting 

The city’s FM radio band have RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2Fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, 4FM, Newstalk and religious station Radio Spirit. There are also local stations Cork’s 96FM, Cork Red FM, C103, CUH 102.0FM, 98.3FM UCC (former Cork Campus Radio 97.4fm)  [39]  and Christian radio station 93.1FM Life.  [40]  Cork also has a temporary licensed citywide Community station “Cork FM Community Radio ‘on 100.5FM, which is currently on air on Saturdays and Sundays only. Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, including South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s.Today some small pirates stations remain. A number of neighboring counties radio stations can be heard in parts of Cork City, including Radio Kerry at 97.0 and WLR FM on 95.1.

RTÉ Cork has TV and radio studios, and production facilities in the center of Father Matthew Street in the city center.

Print 

Cork is home to one of Ireland’s main national newspapers,  the Irish Examiner  (formerly the  Cork Examiner  ). It also writes  Evening Echo  , which for decades has been connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless children who sold the newspaper. Today, the cries of vendors selling the Echo can still be heard in various parts of the city center. One of the largest free newspaper in the city is  Cork Independent  .  [41]  The city’s universities publish  UCC Express  [42]  and Motley  magazine.  [43]

Tourist attractions 

Further information: List of public art in Cork City

The Angel of the Resurrection, St. Finbarre Cathedral.

Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Middle Ages to modern times.  [44]  The only notable remnant of the medieval era is the Red Abbey. There are two cathedrals in the city, St. Mary’s Cathedral and St Fin Barre’s Cathedral. St Mary’s Cathedral, often called the North Cathedral, the Catholic Cathedral in the city and was started in 1808. Its distinctive tower added in the 1860s. St Fin Barre’s Cathedral serves the Protestant faith, and is possibly the more famous of the two. It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges.

Patrick Street, the main street of the city built in the mid-2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along the pedestrian road and the main shopping street. It is dominated at its north end of the landmark statue of Father Mathew. The reason for its curved shape is that it was originally a channel of the River Lee, which was built over the vault.  [45] The main post office, with its limestone facade, located on Oliver Plunkett Street, on the site of the royal theater which was built in 1760 and burned down in 1840 . the English circus owner Pablo Fanqueåteruppbyggdes an amphitheater on the site in 1850, which was later converted into a theater and then into the current General Post office in 1877.  [46] [47]  the Grand Parade is an avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions . The old financial center is the South Mall, with several banks whose interior is derived from the 19th century, as Allied Irish Bank’s which was once an exchange.

Cork County Hall was Ireland’s tallest building for some time and is located on the western side of the city

Many of its buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County Hall tower, which was at one time the tallest building in Ireland  [48]  until they are replaced by another Cork City building: The Elysian. Outside County Hall is a landmark sculpture of two men, known locally as “Cha and Miah ‘. Across the river from County Hall is Ireland’s longest building; built in Victorian times Virgin psychiatric hospitals now restored and converted to a housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins.

Cork’s most famous building is the church tower Shandon, which dominates the north side of the city. It is widely regarded as a symbol of the city. The northern and eastern sides faced in red sandstone, and the western and southern sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. At the top is a vane in the form of an eleven foot salmon.  [49]

Cork City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one destroyed by the Black and Tans during the War of Independence in an event called “Burning of Cork”.  [20] The cost of this new building was provided by the British government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation.  [50]

St Finbarre cathedral

Other notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the Cork Opera House, Christchurch on South Main Street (now Triskel Arts Centre and original site of early Hiberno-Norse church), St. Mary’s Dominican Church of the Popes Quay and Fitzgerald Park to the west of the city, contains Cork Public Museum .Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Cork, through which the river Lee flows, the angling lake called the Lough, women’s Gaol at Sundays Well (now a heritage center) and English market. This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the current building dates from 1786.  [51]

Until April 2009, there were also two large commercial breweries in the city.The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street was closed in April 2009 and transferred production to Murphy’s brewery in Lady source. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market. There are also Franciscan Well Brewery, serving the local market with a variety of lagers, ales and stouts. In May 2008 it was awarded as “Best Microbrewery in Ireland” by Food and Wine Magazine.

Local governments and politics

Cork City Hall reflected the River Lee. Elysian Tower, Ireland’s tallest building, can be seen in the background.
With a population of 119,230, is Cork the second most populous city in the state and the 16th most populous area of the local authorities.  [58]  As of the Local Government Act 2001  , Cork City Council is a group -a unit of local government with the same legal status as a county.

While local authorities in Ireland have limited powers in comparison with other countries, the Council has responsibility for planning, roads, sewers, libraries, street lighting, parks, and a number of other important functions.Cork City Council has 31 elected members representing the six electoral avvärjer.Medlemmarna are connected to the following political parties: Fine Gael (5 members), Fianna Fáil (10 members), Sinn Féin (8 members), Anti-Austerity Alliance (3 members) , Labour party (1 member), Independents (4 members).  [59]  Certain Council co-opted to represent the city at the South-West Regional Authority. A new Mayor of Cork is chosen in a vote by the elected members of the Council under the D’Hondt system counts.  [60] [61]

The administrative offices for Cork County Council are also located within the city limits.  [62]

For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of two constituencies: Cork North-Central and Cork South Central was back four TDs. After the 2016 general election, these constituencies together returned two TDs for the Fine Gael party, three for Fianna Fáil, two for Sinn Féin and the Anti-austerity Alliance-People before profit.

Economy

Winthrop Street in Cork city center

Retail

Main article: Economy of Cork

Castle Street

The retail trade in Cork include a mix of both modern, state of the art shopping centers and family owned local shops. Department stores cater to all budgets, with expensive boutiques for one end of the market and high street stores also available. Shopping can be found in many of Cork’s suburbs, including Blackpool, Ballincollig, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton and Mahon Point. Others are available in the center. These include the recently  when?  ]  Completed the development of two large department stores in Cornmarket Centre on Cornmarket Street, and new retail street called “Opera Lane” off St. Patrick Street / Academy Street.Grand Parade system, on the site of the former Capitol Cineplex plans approved for 60,000 square feet (5,600 m  2  ) of retail space, with work commencing in 2016. [63]  Cork’s main shopping street is St. Patrick Street and is the most expensive street in the country per square meter. Meters after Dublin’s Grafton Street. From 2015, this area has been affected by the post-2008 downturn, with many retail space available to let.  Citation needed  ]  Other shopping areas in the city center include Oliver Plunkett St. and the Grand Parade. Cork is also home to some of the country’s leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores placed in the city.Outside the city center, Mahon Point Shopping Centre.

Industry

Murphy’s Stout 1919 ad for the famous Cork brewery.

Cork City is the center of industry in southern Ireland. Its main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. and Swiss company Novartis is a major employer in the region. The most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc., where over 3,000 people are involved in manufacturing, research and development and customer support.  [64]  Logitech and EMC Corporation are also key IT employers in the area.  [65] [66]  Three hospitals also among the top ten employers in the city (see table below).

The city is also home to the Heineken brewery that brews Murphy’s Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (taken over by Heineken in 2008) that has been in the city for generations. 45% of the world’s Tic Tac sweets manufactured in the city Ferrero factory.  [67]  For many years, Cork was home to the Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the port area before the plant was closed in 1984. Henry Ford ‘grandfather was from west Cork, who was a of the main reasons for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork.  [68]  But technology has replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working in the many IT centers of such – the city of Amazon.com, the online retailer , established in Cork Airport Business Park.[69]

Cork’s deep harbor allows ships of all sizes to get in, which trade and easy import / export of products. Cork Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and Cork Kent railway station in the city center provides good rail links for domestic trade.

Employment

According to the survey 2011 2011 Cork City Employment and land use, the single largest employers in the city (each with over 1000 employees) include Cork University Hospital, Apple Inc, University College Cork, Boston Scientific, Cork City Council, Cork Institute of Technology, Bon Secours Hospital, Cork, retailer Supervalu and Centra, the Irish Defence forces at Collins Barracks, and Mercy University Hospital.  [70]

Transport

Air

Cork Airport

Main article: Cork Airport

Cork Airport is one of Ireland’s main airports. It is located on the south side of Cork City in an area known as Ballygarvan. Over 15 airlines flying to over 68 destinations with over 60 flights per day. Regular airlines using Cork airport include Aer Lingus, Aer Lingus Regional operated by Stobart Air, CityJet, Flybe, Iberia Express and Ryanair.

Bus

The long-distance bus terminal at Parnell Place

Public bus transport in the city is provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. City routes are numbered from 201 to 219 and connect the center to the principal suburbs, schools, shopping centers and places of interest.  [71] Two of these bus lines provide orbital services in northern and southern districts respectively. Buses to the outer suburbs, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire, Midleton and Carrigaline are provided from the city’s bus terminal at Parnell Place in the center. Suburban includes transfer to Cork Airport, and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs only.

Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services go to Killarney / Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport / Limerick / Galway and there are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Wales and Bristol.

Private operators include Irish Citylink, Aircoach and Dublin coach. Irish Citylink earns Limerick and Galway. Aircoach runs a non-stop express service serving Dublin city center and Dublin Airport 18 times daily in each direction. Dublin Coach earn Dublin via Dungarvan, Waterford and Kilkenny.

Ferry

See also: Port of Cork

Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrooke to Passage West, links R624 to R610.This service is useful when trying to avoid traffic congestion in the Jack Lynch Tunnel and Dunkettle area.  [72]  The port of Cork is påRingaskiddy, 16 kilometers (10 miles) SE via the N28. There are direct connections to France and Britain. A Water Taxi is also proposed to link the city with towns in the lower harbor.  [73] [74]

Road

Patrick Bridge

Cork area has seen improvements in road infrastructure in recent years. For example, Cork South Link dual carriageway was built in the early 1980s, to link the Kinsale Road roundabout in the center. Shortly thereafter, the first parts of the southern ring two-lane opened. Work continued in the 1990s to extend the N25 South Ring Road, with the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee is a significant addition. Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a bottleneck for traffic heading to Cork Airport or Killarney. Other projects completed at this time include the N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork Mallow road projects. The N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the west of Cork Southern Ring Road was opened in September 2004. City Centre road improvements include the Patrick St. project – which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus.The M8 motorway links Cork to Dublin.

Cork City Council supports a carpool system operated by Mendes GoCar in partnership with Cambio Mobility Services. There are several bases in Cork. [75]

From 2012, the cycle paths and cycle stands placed in a number of areas, making the city more bicycle-friendly.  [76]  Then in 2014, a public bike rental system was launched. The system is powered by a Rothar Nua on behalf of the National Transport Authority, with funding supplemented by an advertising sponsor.  [77]

Rail

Railway and tramway heritage

Cork was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland, with eight stations at different times. The highway, still very same day, from Dublin Heuston.Originally completed on the city’s outskirts at Blackpool, the route now reaches the center terminal of the Kent Station via the Glanmire tunnel. Now a through station, line by Kent connects the towns of Cobh and Midleton east of the city. This is also linked to the coastal town of Youghal, until the 1980s.  Citation needed  ]

Other railroads terminating or serving Cork was  Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway  , a line Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarney, Coach Ford and Donoughmore, as well as Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork cities. West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (although a rail system in the street connecting the two rolling stock and cargo handling).

Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city’s railway terminals) conducted by the American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. But ceased now trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line, mainly because of objections from cab operators to the type of track – even if they were added to the Irish national gauge of 5ft 3in – stack from the road surface.  Needed citation  ]

In December 1898 in Cork electric tramways and Lighting Company began operations on the Blackpool-Douglas, Summer-Sunday’s Well and Tivoli -Blackrock roads. Increased use of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, as discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931.

Plans to build a type Luas tram in the city has been put on hold because of the 2008 Irish economic crisis, and sufficient funding is not expected to be available until at least 2017.  [78]

The wider urban area, including the city’s suburbs are served by three railway stations. These are Cork Kent Train Station, Little Island train station and Glounthaune railway station.

The usual

Cork Kent Station is the main station in the city. From here, services runs to destinations throughout Ireland. The main line from Cork to Dublin, has hourly departures on the half hour from Cork. InterCity services are also available förKilarney and Tralee, Limerick, Ennis, Athenry and Galway (via Limerick Junction Limerick to Galway rail line)  [79]

Cork is also linked from Limerick Junction with connections to the Clonmel and Waterford.

The Cork commuter rail system also differs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork. Stations include Little Island, Mallow, Midleton, Fota and Cobh. In July 2009 Glounthaune Midleton line was opened, with new stations at Carrigtwohill and Midleton (future stations planned for Kilbarry, Monard, Carrigtwohill West and Blarney).  [80]  Little Island train station serving Cork eastern suburbs, while the Kilbarry train station planned to serve the northern suburbs.

Training

University College Cork

See also: Education in Cork and Category: secondary schools in County Cork

Cork is an important educational center in Ireland – there are over 30,000 third level students in the city, including 1200 graduate students, which is the highest rate per capita in Ireland. Citation needed  ]  Over 10% of the population in the metropolitan area are students of University College Cork (UCC) and Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), including nearly 3,000 international students from over 100 different countries.  [81]

UCC is a constituent of the University of the National University of Ireland, and offers courses in arts, commerce, engineering, law, medicine and science. The university was named “Irish University of the Year” four times since 2003, most recently in 2016.  [82]  Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish “Institute of Technology of the Year” 2007, 2010 and 2016 and offers three courses in Computing and IT, Business, aesthetic and engineering (mechanical, electronic, electrical and chemical).

The National Maritime College of Ireland are also in Cork and is the only college in Ireland where nautical studies and Marine Engineering can be implemented. CIT also contains the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design as opening schools. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest after the Leaving Certificate College in Ireland and is also the largest provider of vocational and training programs in the country. Citation needed  ]  Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork, a private institution, and various other colleges .

Research linked to the third level colleges in the city to support research and innovation capacity in the city and the region. For example, the Tyndall National Institute (hardware research ICT), IMERC (Marine Energy), Environment Institute, NIMBUS (Network Embedded Systems); and CREATE (Advanced Therapeutic Engineering).  [81]  UCC and CIT also has start-ups incubation centers. In the UCC, Ignite Graduate Business Innovation Centre aims to promote and support entrepreneurship.  [83]  In CIT, The Rubicon Centre is a business innovation hub that is home to 57 knowledge-based start-ups.  [84]

Sports 

See also: List of Cork people – Sports

Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastime for Corkonians.

Gaelic game 

Spectators watch Cork take on Kerry påPairc Uí Chaoimh in the city

Main article: Cork GAA

Hurling and football is the most popular spectator sports in the city. Hurling has a strong identity with the city and county – with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Championships. Gaelic football is also popular, and Cork have won seven All-Ireland Senior Football Championship titles. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including Blackrock National Hurling Club, St. Finbarr’s, Glen Rovers, Na Piarsaigh and Nemo Rangers.The main public places is Pairc Uí Chaoimh and Pairc Uí Rinn (named after the noted Glen Rovers Player Christy Ring). Camogie (sling for men) and women’s Gaelic football is gaining popularity.

Cork City FC line out against Red Star Belgrade in a 2006 Champions League qualifier

Association football 

Main article: League of Ireland in Cork

Cork City FC was founded in 1984 is the largest and most successful association football team in Cork, winning two League of Ireland titles, two FAI Cup titles and an “All Ireland” Setanta Sports Cup titel.De play their home matches on the south side of the city in Turner Cross. Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs around the city as well as in the “five-a-side” style leagues.

Rugby 

Rugby union is played at various levels, from school to higher league level.There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork Constitution (three-time All Ireland league champions) play their home games in Ballintemple and Dolphin RFC play at home in Musgrave Park. Other notable rugby clubs in the city include, Highfield, Sunday source and UCC. At school level, Christian Brothers College and Presentation Brothers College are two of the country’s more famous rugby nurseries.

Munster Rugby plays half of its home games in the Magners League at Musgrave Park in Ballyphehane. In recent Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park, but due to capacity issues, they are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick. In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup champions, with many players came from Cork city and county.

Cork’s rugby league team, Cork Bulls, was formed in 2010 and plays in Munster Conference for Irish Elite Series.

water sports 

There are a variety of water sports in Cork, including rowing and sailing.There are five rowing clubs train on the River Lee, including Shandon BC, RC UCC, Pres RC, RC Lee, Cork BC. Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members range of traditional naomhóga Lee in individual competitions.”Ocean City” race has been held annually since 2005 and attracts teams and boats from local and visiting clubs that line 24 kilometers (15 mi) from Crosshaven in Cork city center.  [85]  The decision to move the National Rowing center to Inniscarra  [86]  has increased numbers involved in the sport.  citation needed  ]  Cork’s maritime sailing heritage maintained by their yacht clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club is located in Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world’s oldest yacht clubs, and “Cork Week” is a remarkable sailing events.  [87]

Cricket 

Mardyke, home of Cork County Cricket Club

The most notable cricket club in Cork is Cork County Cricket Club, founded in 1874. Although located in Munster jurisdiction club playing in the Leinster Senior League.  [88]  The club plays at Mardyke, a foundation to host three first-class matches in 1947, in 1961 and 1973. All three involved Ireland play Scotland.  [89]  the Cork Cricket Academy operates within the city, with the express purpose of introducing the sport to schools in the city and county. [90]  Cork’s other main cricket club, Harlequins Cricket Club, playing close Cork Airport.  [91]

Other sports 

There Cork clubs active nationally in basketball (Neptune and UCC Demons) and golf, pitch and putt, ultimate frisbee, hockey, tennis and athletics clubs in the Cork area.

The city is also home to the road bowling, played in the north side and south suburbs. There are also boxing and martial arts clubs (including Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo) within the city. Cork Racing, a motorsports team in Cork,  [92]  has competed in the Irish Formula Ford Championship since 2005. Cork also hosts one of Ireland’s most successful Australian Rules Football team,  [93]  leeward Lions, who have won the Australian Rules Football League of Ireland Premier four times (2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007).  [93] [94]  there are also inline roller sports such as hockey and figure skating, which transfer to the ice during the winter season.  citation needed ]

Demography 

Cork in the evenings

The population of Cork City and its immediate suburbs was 198,582 according to the census of 2011.  [95]

There were 119.230 people currently in Cork City Council administered area at the time of the census of 2011, 117,221 of these indicated that they were usually present in Cork.I like other Irish cities, the female population (50.67%) higher than the male population (49.33%), although the difference is slightly less than in other cities.

Main Immigrant Groups, 2011  [96]
Nationality Population
 Poland 6822
 UK 3075
 Lithuania 1126
 France 960
 Germany 866
 India 824
 Nigeria 640
 Hungary 543
 Slovakia 523
 Spain 520

Of the habitual residence, 110 192 (94.00%) said they were white, 2623 (2.24%) that they were Asian, 1104 (0.94%) that they were black, while the 3302 (2.82%) not indicate ethnicity. 100 901 (86.08%) were Irish citizens;10,295 (8.78%) were citizens of other EU countries; 4316 (3.68%) were citizens of countries elsewhere in the world; 1709 (1.46%) did not disclose their nationality.  [97]

In the 2006 census, has no separate figures indicated Cork City, but for the greater Cork, 94.51% identified as White, 1.13% is identified as black, 1.33% identified as Asian, 1.11% is identified as Other / Mixed, while 1.91% did not state the ethnicity. In terms of nationality, the figures were 88.78% Irish, was 6.56% other EU nationals, was 3.45% citizens of countries elsewhere in the world, and 1.20% did not state their nationality.  [98]

Although the Census of Ireland 2011 counted 119.230 people in Cork, there are more than 300,000 in the Metropolitan Cork area.  [99]  Total Cork is 86.1% White Irish, 8.8% Other White, 2.2% Asian and 0.9 % black.  Quote necessary  ]

Notable residents 

See also: List of Cork people

See also 

  • List of civil parishes in County Cork
  • List of townlands of the barony of Cork in Cork
  • List of twinning in Ireland
  • Sheriff of Cork City

further reading 

  • Merchants, mystics and philanthropists – 350 years of Cork Quakers Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), 2006 ISBN 978-0-9539542-1-6
  • Atlas of Cork City  , edited John Crowley, Robert Devoy, Denis Linehan and Patrick O’Flanagan. Illustrated by Michael Murphy. Cork University Press, 2005, ISBN 1-85918-380-8.
  • A new history of Cork  , Henry A. Jefferies. History Press Ireland, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84588-984-5.
  • Cork Rock: From Rory Gallagher Sultans of Ping  , Mark McAvoy.Published by Mercier Press (2009) ISBN 978-1-85635-655-8.
  • Where Bridges Stand: River Lee bridges of Cork City  , Antóin O’Callaghan. History Press Ireland, 2012, ISBN 978-1-84588-746-9.
  • Cork City Through Time  , Kieran McCarthy & Daniel Breen. Stroud Amberley, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4456-1142-6.

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