CategoryCounty Clare

Cliffs of Moher

The  Cliffs of Moher  (Irish:  Aillte a Mhothair  )  [1]  is located on the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland.  [2] [3]  The rising 120 meters (390 feet) above the Atlantic on HÅG’s head and reach its maximum height of 214 meters (702 ft) just north of O’Brien’s Tower, eight kilometers north.  [4]  A round stone tower near the midpoint of the cliffs built in 1835 avSir Cornelius O’Brien.  [2] [5]  from the cliffs and from the top of the tower, visitors can see the Aran Islands in Galway Bay, the Maumturks and the twelve Pins mountain ranges in the north in County Galway, and Loop Head to the south.  [5]  cliffs rank among the best visited tourist attractions in Ireland  [6]  and gets nearly a million visitors per year.  [4]  the nearest settlements are Liscannor (6 km south) and Doolin (7 km north).  

Name

The cliffs take their name from an old fort called Moher, which once stood at Hag’s head, the southernmost point of the cliffs. The author Thomas Johnson Westropp referred to it in 1905 as  Moher Uí Ruis  or  Moher Uí Ruidhin  .  [7]  The fort stood still in 1780 and mentioned in an account of John Lloyd  a short tour in Clare  (1780).  [8]  It described 1808 to provide a basis for a new telegraph tower.  [7]  the present tower near the site of the old  Moher Uí Ruidhin  built as a lookout tower during the Napoleonic wars the wars ~~ POS = HEAD COMP.  [9]

Tourism

The cliffs are one of the most popular tourist destinations in Ireland and topped the list of attractions in 2006 by drawing nearly a million visitors.  [10] Since 2011, they have formed part of the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark, one of a family of Geotourism destinations throughout European members of the European Geoparks network.  [11]

In the 1990s, Clare County Council has initiated development plans to allow visitors to experience the rocks without significant intrusive man-made amenities. In line with this strategy was the Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience, built on a slope approaching the cliffs. The center is also designed to be environmentally sensitive in their use of renewable energy, including geothermal heating and cooling, solar panels and gray water recycling.  [12]

The € 32 million plant was planned and built during a period of 17 years and inaugurated in February 2007. The facility exhibits include interactive media show covering geology, history, flora and fauna rocks. A large multimedia screen shows a bird’s eye view from the cliffs, as well as video from underwater caves in the rocks.  [13]

The visitor center will charge € 6 per adult, with children under 16 years liberation. This includes parking, access to the visitor center and the Atlantic Edge exhibition, and a contribution to the preservation and safety of the rocks.  [14]

Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience, won a prize in the Interpret Britain and Ireland Awards 2007 awarded by the Association of Heritage Interpretation (AHI). Although it was specifically for Atlantic Edge Exhibition, AHI assessed throughout the visitor center and place. The justification stated that the entire visitor center was “one of the best facilities that the judges had ever seen.”  [15]

Separate ferries also allow tourists to see the cliffs from the sea.  [16]

Geology and wildlife

The cliffs consist mainly of beds of Namurian shale and sandstone,  [17]  with the oldest rocks that are at the bottom of the cliffs. It is possible to see 300 million years old river channels cutting through the form unconformities at the foot of the cliffs.  [ Citation needed ]  

There are an estimated 30,000 birds that live on the rocks, representing more than 20 species.  [18]  These include Atlantic Puffins, which live in large colonies at isolated parts of the cliffs and the small Goat Island,  [18]  and razorbills. The site is an important bird area.  [19]

popular culture

Cliffs of Moher have appeared in the media. The cinema has rocks appeared in several films, including  The Princess Bride  (1987) (as the filming location for “The Cliffs of Insanity”),  Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince  (2009), [20]  and the  leap year  (2010). The cliffs mentioned in Martin Scorsese’s film bring out the dead  (1999) and noted in the 2008 documentary  Wave Riders  as the site for a big surfing called “Aileens”.  [21]

The music rocks have appeared in music videos, including Maroon 5’s “Runaway” video, Westlife’s “My Love”, and Rich Mullins’ “green color”. Most of singer Dusty Springfield’s ashes were spread on the rocks at his brother, Tom.  [22]  Gaelic Storm’s song “Green eyes red hair” refers rocks.  [23]

In television, the rocks is shown in episodes of  Father Ted  called “tentacles Doom” and “cigarettes and alcohol and Rollerblading” (1996).

In the literature, the cliffs are an important place in Anthony Trollope’s  eye for an eye  , and in Eoin Colfer’s  wish list  .

Transport

Bus Éireann route 350 links the Cliffs of Moher in several locations: Ennis, Ennistymon, Doolin, Lisdoonvarna, Kinvara and Galway. The service includes a number of trips each way daily. There is also a privately run bus service that serves the location of Doolin.  [24]

Gallery

  • A broad perspective
  • A 200-meter drop
  • The rocks from the sea
  • Local wild blueberries goats
  • Branaunmore  sea stack
  • Looking south over the Cliffs of Moher
  • Panoramic bottom O’Brien Tower

See also

  • Wild Atlantic Way, a tourism trail
  • Slieve League, another Irish rock with sea cliffs
  • Croaghaun, another Irish rock with sea cliffs

References

  1. Jump up ^ Cliffs of Moher placental Database of Ireland. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  2. ^ Jump up to: ab “Cliffs of Moher”. Myguideireland.com.
  3. Jump up ^  Portraits of Ireland: Landscapes, Treasures, traditions.Dorling Kindersley Travel Guides. On August 1, 2000. ISBN 0-7894-6361-X.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Discover Ireland website (official tourism website) – Cliffs of Moher
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “O’Brien’s Tower.” CliffsofMoher.ie (Official Site).Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  6. Jump up ^  “Ireland’s most popular tourist attractions for 2012 announced”. Fáilte Ireland (the National Tourism Development Authority of Ireland). July 26, 2013.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b archeology of the Burren ancient castles and dolmens in North Clare by Thomas Johnson Westropp.  , Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland   . XXXV, Conveyor series; Vol. xv., fifth series (1905). Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  8. Jump up ^  “Lloyds Tour of Clare, 1780: Burren, Mohar, Liscannor Bay.”Clarelibrary.ie.
  9. Jump up ^ Kelly, Eamonn (2009). The Cliffs of Moher. Matthew Kelly.ISBN 0-9561746-0-4.
  10. Jump up ^  “Failte Ireland – Tourism Facts 2006”. Failteireland.ie.Archived from the original October 1, 2011.
  11. Jump up ^ Burren & Cliffs of Moher Geopark Burren Connect Project.
  12. Jump up ^ Eco-technologies in the Cliffs of Moher underground center ConstructIreland.ie
  13. Jump up ^  “If Cliffs – Education”. Cliffsofmoher.ie (Official website).
  14. Jump up ^ Official website – tickets and prices Cliffsofmoher.ie.
  15. Jump up ^ 2007 Awards – Atlantic Edge Exhibition – Cliffs Experience and Martello Media AHI.org.uk
  16. Jump up ^  “Doolin Ferry to the Cliffs of Moher and the Aran Islands.”Doolin-tourism.com.
  17. Jump up ^ Rider, MH  The Namurian of West County Clare  . 1974
  18. ^ Jump up to: a b com – Official tourism site – Birdwatching at the Cliffs of Moher
  19. Jump up ^  “Important Bird Areas factsheet: Cliffs”. BirdLife International. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Downloaded from http: //www.birdlife.org.
  20. Jump up ^  “Weekend Window: The Cliffs of Moher”. ABC News. 7 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  21. Jump up ^  “Film of the Week – Wave Riders”. Sunday Tribune. 5 April 2009. Archived from the original April 17, 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  22. Jump up ^  “Dusty Springfield Biography”. London: The Guardian. 8 July, 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  23. Jump up ^  “green eyes red hair.”
  24. Jump up ^  “Cliffs Coastal Walk Shuttle Bus” (PDF). Cliffs of Moher.Cliffs of Moher. Retrieved June 10, 2016.

Kilkee

Kilkee  (Irish:  Cill Chaoi  , which means “church Chaoineadh Ita – lamentation for Ita”) is a small coastal town in County Clare, Ireland. It is in the parish of Kilkee, former Kilfearagh. Clare is midway between Kilrush and Doonbeg on N67 road. The city is popular as a seaside resort. The horseshoe bay is protected from the Atlantic by Toss Islands Reef.

History

During the early part of the 19th century, Kilkee was just a small fishing village in the 1820s, when a paddle steamer service from Limerick to Kilrush launched, it began to attract visitors.  [6] It has been a resort since and was featured on front page of the  illustrated London news  as the premier swimming spot in the then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As the city was more available to the people of Limerick rather than Clare, holidaying in Kilkee became more of a limerick customizable, because of steamboats traveling daily up and down the River Shannon.  [7]  Eventually, the city grew rich merchants from Limerick wanted holiday home at sea, resulting in a building boom in the 1830s. As the demand for accommodation in Kilkee grew, several hotels are being built. Along with these three churches were built, a Roman Catholic church in 1831, a Protestant church in 1843 and a Methodist church in 1900, reflecting the cosmopolitan feel of the city at the time.  [7]

On January 30, 1836  Intrinsic  , a ship from Liverpool on the way to New Orleans, was blown into a bay near Bishop’s Island in Kilkee. The ship repeatedly dashed against the rocks and sank along with its crew of 14 people, none of whom survived. Shipwreck place now called “Own Bay”.  [8]  A chartered passenger sailing vessel named Edmond  fell at Edmond Point 19 November 1850. The ship sailed from Limerick to New York City, but was concentrated in Kilkee Bay by a storm. As the tide was very high, the ship was driven all the way to Edmond Point, where it split in two. Of the 216 on board, 98 were drowned in the accident.  [9]  Exactly 50 years to the day after Intrinsic  fell, January 30, 1886 in  Fulmar  fell just north of Kilkee in an area called Farrihy Bay. The ship was a cargo ship carrying coal from Troon in Scotland to Limerick, but never reached its destination. Of the 17 crew members on board just a body ever recovered.  [10]

Between 28 and 29 December 1894 in  Inishtrahull  disappeared somewhere near Kilkee coast. At the time of the disappearance carrying a shipment of coal from Glasgow to Limerick but never reached its destination. The ship was only confirmed to have sunk January 3, 1985, as part of a port bow of a ship with a brass plate marked “Glasgow” was picked up by Kilkee Coast Guard.  [11]

In the 1890s, Kilkee again had another boom, when the West Clare Railway opened to freight, improve business life in the area, as well as providing a relatively quick means of travel to and from the city. Many prominent people in the community traveled to Kilkee, including Sir Aubrey de Vere, Charlotte Brontë (who spent their honeymoon here), Sir H. Rider Haggard, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. In 1896, Crown Princess of Austria visited the city.  [12]  The entertainer Percy French was a regular performer in the city and an incident at the West Clare Railway heading to Kilkee led him to write the song “Are Ye Right There Michael”. Although it has become more developed and modern in recent years, the town retains some of its 19th century Victorian feel.

Kilkee has regularly awarded the blue flag of the European Commission. In 2006, a statue of Richard Harris unveiled in Kilkee by actor Russell Crowe.

Economy

In recent years, during a period of rapid economic growth in Ireland called “Celtic Tiger”, Kilkee went considerable expansion with the development of hotels, transport and other forms of housing. During this period, the beach or the “horseshoe” bay crowded as the population increased to 25,000 during the summer months, although this peak has declined significantly from 2008 onwards as the Irish financial crisis has prevented so many people from visiting the city for the summer.  [13] The  city’s principal income is still the tourism industry and thus many recreational sites have been established, including restaurants, pubs and cafes. After the last weekend of August the city emptied and many businesses close by next summer, creating a much slower pace of life compared to the busy summer months. This means that if the local companies do not have a good summer in terms of sales, they may suffer financially for the rest of the year. Summer 1950 in Kilkee are evocatively described in Homan Chesterton’s memoir,  Rathcormick  (2001).

Sports

Along with bath on the string, swimmers can choose between Pollock Holes, New Found out and Byrnes Cove. Pollock hole, which is also known as Toss are Reef, three natural rock closed pools of water which changes each of the tide. This results not only in fresh water, but fills the marine life in many rock pools surrounding it. Diving boards at New found allow dives up to 13 meters (45 feet) in the open sea. The annual diving competition held on these cards. [14]

Every year there are many participants in the Bay Swim, a race of about one mil from the east end of the city to the west of the bay. The race starts at Byrnes Cove, a protected cove located near George’s head, a prominent headland in the city. In 2011, nearly 200 people participated in the swim.There is also a mini cove swimming for children under fourteen, from Sandy Cove to the pier.  [15]  The last weekend in June sees an influx of triathletes as Kilkee host Hell of the West Triathlon, the longest triathlon in the country.This is one of the biggest and toughest triathlon in the Irish Triathlon calendar with upwards of 600 athletes taking part in a 1,500-meter swim, 45 km bike and finish with a 10km road race.  [16]

Kilkee has a reputation as a place to enjoy diving. Jacques Cousteau declared that it was the best place in Europe for scuba diving, and one of the five best in the world.  [ Citation needed ] The Kilkee Dive Centre is a fully equipped dive center that caters to both beginners and experts. Divers can go to depths of 10 meters (32 feet) to 45 meters (147 feet). The variety of marine life in the reefs surrounding the bay attracts divers from all over the world.  [17]  

A version of badminton (not squash, as is often erroneously stated) played against the high sandstone walls in the West End for generations, and it is possible that the rules were codified in Kilkee before racquetball standardized elsewhere. The most important trophy, the Tivoli Cup, first competed in Kilkee in 1935; badminton in its present form is not codified internationally until 1950. Richard Harris, who would go on to become an internationally known actor, won the Cup four consecutive years, from 1948 to 1951, a record unmatched by any of today.  [18]

The Strand Races are horse races annually contested Kilkee beach. The first began in the 19th century on the sandy hills where the golf club is now. The races are normally held over two days in September, when the summer season is nearing its end. The course is done by placing the poles on the beach and when the tide goes out the competitions begin.  [19]  Traditionally a celebration of farmers when the season is over.

Clare has a strong GAA tradition, where the local team called St. Senan’s.The club has won many county finals at all levels and has reached two Munster Senior Football Final-determining. The people of the city is proud of its strong history with Gaelic sports, especially in football, the club has won many titles over the years.

Kilkee is popular with walkers as different paths stretch out in all directions from the bay. The most popular walk is the cliff walk, which means to go up Dunlicky Road and then turn right onto the rocks at Intrinsic Bay, following the road until you eventually end up at Pollack holes.

East End of the city is home to an 18-hole golf course. The first and second tees overlook the Atlantic Ocean and the third tee overlooks Chimney Bay.Other golf clubs in the immediate vicinity of the city is Doonbeg Golf Club, and Lahinch Golf Club, both world famous links courses.

Transport

Before the West Clare Railway opened in 1887, the only way to get to town was a paddle steamer from Limerick to Kilrush and then by horse and carriage from there. This service ran from 1816 to 1918, but was stopped after World War I because of the popularity of the railroad, but for many years the railroad and steamship service ran along with a special “Steamer Express” train to and from Kilkee.  [20]  After the railway closed in 1961 , the only way to get to the place where the car but because the mainline railway system will connect Limerick and Galway to Ennis, it is still possible to get the train as far as Ennis. Although only bus services offered by Bus Éireann from Kilkee is Kilrush, Ennis and Limerick (via Shannon Airport), it is possible to get to Cork or even Dublin by connecting buses or trains.  [21]

For international visitors, the nearest airport is Shannon. Shannon Airport offers services to Europe, USA and Canada.

Cois Fharraige

Kilkee hosted the previous Cois Fharraige festival in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Each year the festival was held over three days in September and consisted of live music and water sports events including a surf contest in Spanish Point.It was remarkable that Ireland’s first surfing and music festival. Although Cois Fharraige was a new event, it managed to attract some well-known bands in the three years were organized, such as Republic of Loose, The Coronas, The Blizzards, Noah and the Whale, Ocean Colour Scene, Laura Izibor and Delorentos.  [22]

See also

  • List of towns and villages in Ireland
  • List of tourist attractions in Ireland

References

  1. Jump up ^  “Census Ireland 2011”. cso.ie. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  3. Jump up ^  “NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013 ‘. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 15 October, 2013.
  4. Jump up ^  Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  5. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel, O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review. Volume.  37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  6. Jump up ^  “Shots open a window in Kilkee history.” limerickleader.ie. 27 November 2007. Taken 20 August augusti2012.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b “A History of Kilkee.” clarelibrary.ie. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  8. Jump up ^  “inherent Shipwreck”. irishshipwrecks.com. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  9. Jump up ^  “Sail Ship Edmond” run ashore on Kilkee “.irishshipwrecks.com. 12 December 2008. Hämtad16 August 2012.
  10. Jump up ^  “Fulmar Report”. Irishshipwrecks.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^  “Inishtrahull Record”. Irishshipwrecks.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  12. Jump up ^  “Discover Kilkee -County Clare”. discoverireland.com.Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  13. Jump up ^  “hope on the horizon.” clarechampion.ie. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  14. Jump up ^  “Bombs Away! Annual diving competition “.limerickleader.ie. August 4, 2011. Retrieved 21 August augusti2012.
  15. Jump up ^  “Big day out for Kilkee Bay swim.” limerickpost.ie. August 4, 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  16. Jump up ^  “Hell of the West – Latest News”. limericktriathlon.com. June 23, 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  17. Jump up ^  “Kilkee Dive Centre”. oceanlife.ie. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved 21 August augusti2012.
  18. Jump up ^  “Tivoli Cup in Kilkee.” kilkee.ie. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  19. Jump up ^  “A History of the Beach Races”. kilkee.ie. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  20. Jump up ^  “Passenger Services on the Lower Shannon”. clarelibrary.ie.Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  21. Jump up ^  “Kilkee – to come here.” kilkee.ie. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  22. Jump up ^  “The Blizzard & Laura Izibor go Cois Fharraige Line-Up”.hotpress.com. August 21, 2009. Hämtad21 August 2012.

Lisdoonvarna

Lisdoonvarna  (Irish:  Lios Duin Bhearna  , which means “once it gapped hold”)  [2]  is a spa town of 822 people (2002 census) in County Clare in Ireland. The city is known for its music and festivals.

The town got its name from the Irish  Lios Duin Bhearna  meaning “Lios Duin,” or enclosured soon, of the gap ( “Bearna”). It is believed that the fort within the meaning of this name is the green earth Lissateeaun fort (Fort fairy hill), which is 3 km northeast of the city, near the remains of a Norman-era castle.

Transport

Bus Éireann route  350  links Lisdoonvarna to multiple locations: Ennis, Ennistymon, Cliffs of Moher, Doolin, Fanore, Kinvara and Galway. There are a number of trips each way dagligen.Vidare rail and bus links are Ennis and Galway.

Events

In September each year, one of Europe’s largest matchmaking events are held in the town attracting upwards of 40,000 romantic hopefuls, bachelor farmers and accompanying revelers. The month-long event is a major tourist attraction. The current matchmaker Willie Daly, a fourth-generation matchmaker.

A now defunct music festival that took place near the town celebrated in a song of the same name written by the Irish folk singer Christy Moore. This festival took place until 1983, when the last event was marred by a riot and the accidental drowning of eight people.  [3]

History

The current city is a relatively new by Irish standards, dating mainly from the early 19th century.

On September 11, 1887 house landowner Mr. Mike Walsh was attacked Moonlighters (members of one of the organized bands desperadoes who carried on a system of farming abuse in Ireland).  [4]  A detachment of the Royal Irish Constabulary defended the house and its owners and it was hard battles in and around the house. Head Constable Whelehan killed. All Moonlighters caught. Seven constables, four acts constables and two head constables Constabulary received a medal for bravery.  [5]

See also

  • Ireland portal

List of towns and villages in Ireland

Notes

  1. Jump up ^  Census Statistics Office Ireland: Alphabetical list of cities with its population, 2002
  2. Jump up ^ Lisdoonvarna placental Database of Ireland. Pulled: 09/05/2013.
  3. Jump up ^ Lisdoonvarna Festival 1983
  4. Jump up ^ http://www.wordnik.com
  5. Jump up ^ PE Abbott and JP Tamplin, British Galanntry Awards, page 274th
  6. Jump up ^ http://www.cso.ie/census and www.histpop.org.Lisdoonvaarna not considered a census town until 1891. Pre 1891 totals for the townlands of Lisdoonvaarna and Royal Spa, where the spa is and the first guest house was built for tourists in the 1870s. For a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses” in the  Irish population, economy and society  , edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54, and even “The latest developments the Irish population history, 1700-1850 “by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in  the Economic history Review  , New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November, 1984), pp. 473-488.

Karst

Karst topography  is a landscape formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage system with sinkholesoch caves.  [1]  It has also been documented for weathering resistant rocks, such as quartzite given the right conditions. [2]  Subterranean drainage can limit surface water with few or no rivers or lakes. But in areas where the dissolved bedrock is covered (perhaps by debris) or limited by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock layers, distinct developments karst surface be completely missing.

Etymology

The word  Karst  borrowed from German  karst  in the late 19th century.  [3] The German word came into use before the 19th century.  [4]  According to the usual interpretation, the term derives from the German name for Kras region (Italian:  Carso  ), a limestone plateau surrounding the city of Trieste in northern Adriatic (nowadays, located on the border between Slovenia and Italy in the 19th century part of the Austrian Littoral).  [5]  Scientists agree, however, on whether the German word (which shows no metathesis) was borrowed from Slovenian.  [6] [7]  the Slovenian common noun  anchored  first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form  Kraški  in the 16th century.  [8]  as a proper noun, the Slovenian shape  Grast  was first certified in 1177,  [9] refers to the karst plateau -a region in Slovenia partially extending into Italy, where the first research on the karst topography was performed.The Slovenian word arose by metathesis from the reconstructed form  * korsъ  ,  [8]  borrowed from Dalmatian Romance  carsus  .  [9]  In the end, the word Mediterranean origin,  [9]  are believed to come from a Romanized Illyrian base.  [8]  It has been suggested that word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root  karra-  “rock”.  [9] [10] the  name may also be connected to oronym  Kar (u) sádios Oros  quoted by Ptolemy, and perhaps even LatinCarusardius  .  [8] [9]   

Chemistry

The development of Karst occurs when acidic water begins to break down the surface of the rock close its cracks or bedding plane. As the bedrock (limestone or dolostone) continues to break down the cracks tend to be larger. As time goes on, these fractures will be wider, and eventually, a system of any kind drainage begins to form under.Om this underground drainage system does form, it will accelerate the development of karst arrangement where because more water will be able to flow through the region. [ 11]

Resolution mechanism

The carbonic acid that causes these features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide (CO  2  ), which dissolves in water. When rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can give much more CO  2  to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves the calcium carbonate. The primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following:

2  O + CO  2 2  CO  3
CaCO  3 + 2  CO  3 Ca  2+ + 2 HCO  3  

In particular, and very rare conditions as previously encountered in Lechuguilla in New Mexico (and more recently of Frasassi caves in Italy), other mechanisms may also play a role. Oxidation of sulfides which leads to the formation of sulfuric acid can also be one of the corrosion factors of karst formation. As the oxygen (O  2  ) -rich surface water seep deep into anoxic karst system, the supply of oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system (pyrite or H  2  S) to form sulfuric acid (H  2  SO  4  ). Sulfuric acid then reacts with the calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion of the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is:

2  S + 2 O 2 2  SO  4 (Sulfide oxidation)
2 SO  4 + 2 H 2  O SO  42-  + 2 H  3  O  + (Sulphuric acid dissociation)
CaCO 3 + 2 H 3  O + Ca  2+ + 2 CO 3 + 2 H 2  O (Calcium carbonate dissolution)
CaCO 3 + 2 SO 4 caSO 4 + 2  CO  3 (Global reaction leading to calcium sulfate)
caSO 4 + 2 H 2  O CaSO  4  · 2H  2  O (Moisture and gypsum formation)

This reaction chain forms gypsum.  [12]

Morphology

The karstification of a landscape can result in a variety of large-or small-scale features both on the surface and under. On exposed surfaces, small features include solution ribs (or rillenkarren), rivulets, clints and grikes, collectively called Karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes, or cenotes (closed basins), vertical shafts, foibe (inverted funnel shaped sinkholes), disappearing streams and return springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements, poljes and karst valleys.Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, can result in karst towers, or haystack / eggbox landscape. Under the surface, complex underground drainage systems (such Karstakviferer) and extensive caves and cave systems can be formed.

Erosion along limestone beaches, especially in the tropics, produces karst topography comprising a sharp makatea surface of the normal reach of the sea and cuts that are usually the result of biological activity or bioerosion at or slightly above the sea surface. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailand’s Phangnga Bay and Halong Bay in Vietnam.

Calcium carbonate dissolved in water can be folded out where the water discharges a part of the dissolved carbon dioxide. Rivers occur from sources can give tough terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over long time periods. In caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals.

Hydrology

Agriculture in karst areas must take into account the lack of surface water.The soils may be fertile enough, and rain can be adequate, but rain water moves rapidly through the slots in the ground, sometimes leaving the surface dry between rain.

A karst fenster occurs when an underground stream emerges at the surface between layers of rock, cascades certain distance, and then disappears back down, often into a sinkhole. Rivers in karst areas may disappear underground a number of times and grow up again in different places, usually under a different name (Ljubljanica, the river of seven names). An example of this is denPopo Agie River in Fremont County, Wyoming. In a place simply called “sinks” in Sinks Canyon State Park, the river flows in a cave in a formation known as the Madison Limestone and then rises again 800 meters (  1  /  2  mi) down the canyon in a quiet pool. A Turlough is a unique type of seasonal lake found in Irish karst areas are formed by the annual upwelling of water from the underground water system.

Water from wells in karst topography may be unsafe, as the water may have run unimpeded from a sinkhole in a pasture cattle, through a cave and to the well, bypassing the normal filtering that occurs in a porous aquifer. Karst formations are cavernous and therefore high rates of permeability, resulting in reduced opportunity for contaminants to be filtered. Groundwater in karst areas is just as easily polluted as surface streams. Sinkholes have often been used as farm or community rubbish dumps. Congested or faulty septic tanks in karst landscapes may dump sewage directly into underground channels.

Karst topography also means problems for the human population. Sinkholes can develop gradually as surface openings enlarge, but progressive erosion is often invisible until the roof of an underground cavern suddenly collapses.Such events have swallowed homes, cattle, cars and agricultural machinery.In the US, for example, a cave sinkhole swallowed a part of the collection of the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green, Kentucky in 2014.  [13]

Interstratal Karst

Interstratal Karst is a karstic landscape that developed under a cover of insoluble stones. Usually this will involve a cover of sandstone overlying limestone layers undergo lösning.I UK wide doline field developed at Mynydd Llangynidr over a plateau Twrch Sandstone lying hidden Carboniferous Limestone.  [14]

Kegelkarst

Kegelkarst is a type of tropical Karst terrain with many cone-like hills formed by the cockpit, and mogotes poljes and without strong fluvial erosion processes. There are in. Cuba, Jamaica, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Puerto Rico, southern China and Vietnam  [15]

Pseudokarst

Pseudokarsts is similar in form or appearance of karst features but is created through different mechanisms. Examples include lava caves and granite tors -for example Labertouche Cave iVictoria, Australia and paleocollapse functions. Mud caves is an example of pseudokarst.

Sheet Karst areas

The world’s largest limestone karst is Australia’s Nullarbor Plain. Slovenia has the highest risk of sinkholes, while the Western Highland Rim in the eastern US is the second highest risk of karst sinkholes.  [16] [17] 

Chocolate Hills in the Philippines, is also a significant karst topography.They are chocolate colored conical karst hills widespread in the heart of Bohol, the island province of Central Visayas.

Ozark Plateau Ozarks of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas.

The Arbuckle Mountains of south central Oklahoma contains intensely folded and faulted carbonate beds that have produced some of the highest densities of karst features found in the United States. Because of the nature of the raised beds, Arbuckle Mountains contains a sequence of limestone ridges and valleys slate. This causes the waterfall development which streams down over a limestone ridge in a valley slate. Because the water is rich in calcium carbonate dissolved from the karst system, large deposits of travertine have gathered at the waterfalls where the turbulence causing mineral precipitation. The most notable of these waterfalls is Turner Falls near the town of Davis.

Historical studies and early theories

1689, Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer in the study of karst in Slovenia, and a Fellow of the Royal Society for improving Natural Knowledge, London introduced the word  Karst  to European researchers, describes the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Cerknica.  [18]

In 1893, Jovan Cvijić in his  Das Karstphänomen  theorized  holo karst  as the type found along the eastern Adriatic, and  Mero Karst  incompletely developed some karst forms like the kind of karst located in eastern Serbia.He claimed that most types of dolines, “the diagnostic karst landforms,” created by mountains resolution.  [ Citation needed ]  

List of terms for karst related features

See also: stalactite

  • Abime, a vertical shaft in the karst that can be very deep and usually opens in a network of underground passages
  • Cenote, a deep sinkhole, characteristic of Mexico, because of the collapse of limestone bedrock exposing groundwater during
  • Phoebe, an inverted funnel-shaped sinkhole
  • Scowle
  • Turlough (lake) (turlach), a kind of vanishing lake as Irish Karst
  • Uvala (landform), a collection of several smaller individual sinkholes that coalesces into a compound sinkhole
  • Karren, bands of limestone forming a surface
  • Limestone pavement, the shape of the land consists of a flat, carved surface of exposed limestone similar to an artificial pavement
  • Polje (polje karst, karst fields), a large flat-specific karstic plains.Identification Polje is the Slovenian word meaning field.
  • Doline, also sink or sinkhole is a closed depression draining underground in karst areas. The name comes from the doline dolina, the Slovenian word meaning valley.
  • Fenster karst (karst window), a feature where a spring emerges with water flow suddenly disappear into a sinkhole

See also

  • Glaciokarst
  • Thermokarst
  • Speleology
  • Scowle
  • underground river
  • List of landforms
  • Karstjäger

References

  1. Jump up ^ What is karst, the University of Texas
  2. Jump up ^ Geomorphological landscapes in the world.
  3. Jump up ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary . 2002. Vol. 1 AM. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 1481st
  4. Jump up ^ Seebold, Mr. 1999.  Kluge Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache  , 23 edition. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, p. 429th
  5. Jump up ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=karst&searchmode=none
  6. Jump up ^ Pfeiffer, Dieter. 1961. “Zur Definition von der Begriffen Karst Hydrologie.”  Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft Chen Geology  113: 51-60, p. 52
  7. Jump up ^ Portner, Rudolf. 1986.  bevor die Römer cam. Städte und Stätten Deutscher Urgeschichte  Rasatt: Pabel Moewig-Verlag, p. 88th
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b c d SnO, Marko. 2003.  Slovenski etimološki slovar  . 2nd edition. Ljubljana Modrijan, p. 318th
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e (ed.) Bezlaj, France. 1982.  Etimološki slovar slovenskega jezika  , Vol. 2, KO. Ljubljana Sazu, p. 82.
  10. Jump up ^ Gams, I.,  Kras against Sloveniji – v prostoru in this case (Karst in Slovenia in time and space), 2003, ISBN 961-6500-46-5.
  11. Jump up ^  “What is the Karst (and why it is important)?”. Karst Waters Institute.
  12. Jump up ^ Galdenzi, S.; Cocchioni, M.; Morichetti, L.; Amici, V.; Scuri, S. (2008). “Sulfidic groundwater chemistry of Frasassi Cave, Italy” (PDF).Journal of Cave and Karst Studies.  70 (2): 94-107.
  13. Jump up ^ http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/13/travel/corvette-museum-sinkhole
  14. Jump up ^ http://www.blaenau-gwent.gov.uk/documents/Documents_Environment/PH4_SSSI_Notification_Letter.pdf
  15. Jump up ^ Whittow, John (1984).  Dictionary of Physical Geography  .London: Penguin, 1984, p 292. ISBN 0-14-051094-X.
  16. Jump up ^ http://www.apsu.edu/news/harned-bowl-work-not-blame-new-sinkhole-say-experts
  17. Jump up ^ http://www.clarksvilleonline.com/2009/02/25/what-is-karst-topography-and-why-should-you-care/
  18. Jump up ^ Paul Larsen,  scientific accounts, a vanishing lake: Janez Valvasor, Cerknica and the new philosophy  , in 2003.

Burren

Burren  (Irish:  Boireann  , which means “big stone”) is a karst landscape in County Clare, Ireland. It measures about 250 square kilometers and is enclosed roughly within the circle made by the villages Ballyvaughan, Kinvara, Tubber, Corofin, Kilfenora and Lisdoonvarna.

The  Burren National Park  is one of six national parks in Ireland and the smallest in size (15 km  2  ) .The Burren National Park Visitor Centre is located on Church Street in Corrofin, Ireland.

History

Burren area formed part of the territory of Corco Modhruadh, which means “seed or people Modhruadh” which was coextensive with the diocese of Kilfenora. At some point around the 12th century, the area is divided into two: Corco Modhruadh Iartharach ( “Western Corcomroe”) and Corco Modhruadh Oirthearach ( “Eastern Corcomroe”) also known as Boireann as the end of the 16th century, the English administrative baronies of Corcomroe and the Burren, respectively. The O’Loughlin (Ó Lochlainn) clan ruled Boireann down to the middle of the 17th century from his boss’s home on Gragans Castle (Tower is not the house of the same name). The head of the family was known in later times as “Prince of the Burren” and clan members were buried in the family grave near altareCorcomroe Abbey. Their kinsmen O’Connor (Ó Conchubhair) clan ruled Corco Modhruadh Iartharach from Dough Castle near Liscannor. Villages and towns are within medieval territoriumBoireann include Lisdoonvarna, Ballyvaughan, New Quay / Burrin (Burren), Noughaval, Bealaclugga (Bell Harbour), Carron and Fanore / Craggagh.

Burren is rich with historical and archaeological sites. There are more than 90 megalithic tombs in the area, portal dolmens (including Poulnabrone Dolmen), a celtic high cross in the village of Kilfenora, and a number of ring forts – among them the triple ring fort Cahercommaun on the edge of an inner trim and exceptionally well-preserved Caherconnell Stone Fort.Corcomroe Abbey is one of the area’s main scenic attractions.

Geology

Grikes and clints drive along the limestone pavement

The rolling hills of the Burren consists of limestone pavements with crisscrossing cracks known as “grikes”, leaving isolated rocks called “Clint”.The region supports arctic, Mediterranean ochalpina plants side by side, because of the unusual environment. The limestones, which goes from Visean stage of the Lower Carboniferous, shaped like sediment in a tropical sea about 350 million years ago. The layer contains fossil corals, crinoids, sea urchins and ammonites.

Icing of the Quaternary facilitated greater denudation. The result is that the Burren is one of the finest examples of a glacio- karst landscapes in the world. The effects of the last ice age (the Midlandian) is the most common, with the Burren overrun by ice during this glaciation. The effects of past karstification (solutional erosion) have been eliminated by the last ice age.So all surfaces karstification now seen is from about 10,000 years ago and the Burren karst is why recently. Solutional processes have increased and deepened grikes of limestone pavement. Preexisting lines of weakness in the rock (vertical joints) contributes to the formation of extensive cracks separated by clints (flat sidewalk tiles). Berg karstification facilitates the formation of underground drainage.

Climate and agriculture

Burren has an unusually temperate climate. Average air temperatures range from 15 ° C in July to 6 ° C in January. Soil temperature usually does not fall below 6 ° C (end of 2010 registered a very unusual prolonged period of snow).As the grass grows when the temperature rises above 6 ° C, this means that the Burren (the neighboring Aran Islands) has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland or Britain, and supports diverse and rich vegetation. Late May is the sunniest time,  [1]  and also probably the best time to see the flowers, with gentianaoch avens top (but orchids bloom later).  [ Citation needed ]  

During the counter-guerrilla operations in the Burren in 1651-1652, Edmund Ludlow said ” (Burren) is a country where there is not enough water to drown a man, wood enough to hang one or earth enough to bury him …. .. And yet their cattle are very fat ,. grass growing in turfs of earth, of two or three feet square, which lies between the stones, which are of limestone, is very sweet and nourishing  ” [1] [2] 

Flora and fauna

Burren is known for its outstanding collection of plants and animals.  [2]  The region supports many rare Irish species,  [ which? ]  Some of which are only in this area.  [ Citation needed ]  Others occur in similar karst areas in the west of Ireland.    

Three-quarters of Irish species of flowers found in the Burren. The grikes (cracks) to give damp protection, supporting a wide range of plants, including rice. Where the surface of the pavement split into gravel, many of the hardier arctic or alpine plants can be found when the limestone pavement is covered with a thin layer of soil, are patches of grass seen, interspersed with herbaceous plants. Among the flowers that recorded from the Burren’s spring gentian, an alpine plant with bright blue flowers used as a symbol of the area by the Tourist Board. The Irish orchid (  tätnycklar Intacta  ) and bloody cranesbill (  bloody cranesbill  ) are also there.  [3]

Notes insects found in the Burren includes the butterflies on Fritillary ( Boloria Euphrosyne  ), Brown Hairstreak (  Thecla betulae  ), Marsh Fritillary ( Euphydryas aurinia  ) and white wood (  forest suite wing  ); moths, the Burren Green ( torvfly  ), Irish ANNULET (  gnophos dumetata  ) and Transparent Burnet (  Zygaena purple formalized  ); the Hoverfly  Kronblom fly  and the water beetle  Ochthebius nilssoni  . This last species is known from only five places in the world, its type locality in northern Sweden and four marl lakes in the Burren.

Burren is one of the most important nesting areas in Ireland for marten.

Culture

Burren has a long history of traditional Irish music. It is especially known for “West Clare Style” of concertina playing and music festival in Doolin and Corofin.

Sports

Burren many limestone cliffs, especially sea cliffs on Ailladie, are popular with rock-climbers.  [4]  For cavers, there are a number of mapped caves in the area, especially Pollnagollum. Doolin is a popular “base camp” for cavers and is home to one of the two largest cave rescue businesses in the Irish Cave Rescue Organisation.

Gallery

  • Native flowers and rock formations
  • Poulnabrone portal grave
  • Burren landscape
  • Poulnabrone Portal Tomb
  • burren fences
  • Karst meadow
  • stone monuments
  • Karst dome near Kilkeedy Parish – eastern Burren

See also

  • Aillwee Cave
  • Burren Action Group
  • Cliffs of Moher
  • Turlough (lake)
  • Mullaghmore, County Clare
  • Newtown Castle
  • Temple Cronan
  • Wild Atlantic Way
  • Corrofin

References

  1. Jump up ^ http://www.met.ie
  2. Jump up ^  “Remarkable Plants of the Burren: A catalog raisonné”.
  3. Jump up ^ Clements, P. 2011  Burren Country, travels through an Irish limestone landscape  . Collins Press. ISBN 9781848891173
  4. Jump up ^  “Irish Climbing Online Wiki”.

Bunratty Castle

Bunratty Castle  (Irish:  Caislean Bhun Raithe  , which means “castle at the mouth of the Ratty”) is a large 15th century tower house in County Clare, Ireland. It is located in the center of Bunratty village (Irish:  Bun Raite  ), the N18 road between Limerick and Ennis, near Shannon Town and its airport.The castle and adjoining folk park are run by Shannon Heritage attractions.

Name

Identification Bunratty,  Bun Raite  (or possibly,  Bun na Raite  ) in Irish means “basin” of “Ratty” river.  [2]  This river, at the side of the castle, flows into the near Shannon orifices.

History

Previous structures

The first recorded settlement on the site may have been a Norsemen deal / trade camp is reported in the Annals of the Four Masters have been destroyed by Brian Boru in 977. According to local tradition, such a camp was located on a rise southwest of the current castle. Since no actual remains of this settlement has yet been found, its exact location is unknown and its existence is not proven.  [3]

Around 1250, King Henry III of England granted cantred or district Tradraighe (or Tradree) to Robert De Muscegros, which in 1251 cut down about 200 trees in King’s Wood påCratloe. These may have been used to construct a  motte and bailey  castle, which would have been the first castle at Bunratty, but again the exact position of this is unknown. A later reference in state newspapers, dating to 1253 gives the Muscegros right to hold markets and an annual fair in Bunratty. It has therefore been assumed that the site was the center of early Norman control in south-east Clare. Early 19th century scholars bring structure to the north west of the present castle. But when a hotel was built there in 1959, John Hunt excavated the area and thought the remains be to a gun position from the League Wars (see below).  [2] [3] 

These chips later be returned to (or taken back by) King Henry III granted to Thomas de Clare, a descendant of Strongbow in 1276. The Clare built the first stone structure on the site (the second castle). This castle was occupied by ca. 1278-1318 and consisted of a large single stone tower with lime white walls. It was near the river, at or near the site of the current Bunratty Castle.In the late 13th century, Bunrattty had about 1,000 inhabitants. The castle was attacked several times by O’Brien (or O’Brians) and their allies. 1284, while De Clare was away in England, the place was captured and destroyed.On his return in 1287, The Clare had the place was rebuilt and a 140-yard (130 m) Longfossé built around it. The castle once again attacked but it did not appear until 1318. In that year, a great battle was fought at Dysert O’Dea as part of the Irish Bruce Wars, where both Thomas De Clare and his son Richard was killed. The Lady Clare, on learning this, fled from Bunratty Limerick after burning castle and town. The De Clare family never returned to the area and the remains of the castle eventually collapsed. Because the stones probably used for other local buildings, no trace of the other castles. [3]

In the 14th century, Limerick was an important port for the English crown.Protecting access via Shannon Estuary from attack by the Irish, the site was once occupied. In 1353, Sir Thomas de Rokeby led a British army to conquer MacNamaras and MacCarthys. A new castle (third) was built in Bunratty, but again, its exact location is unknown. Local tradition considers that stood on the site where the Bunratty Castle Hotel later constructed. However, the new structure is hardly finished before they are picked up by the Irish. Documents show that in 1355, King Edward III of England released Fitzjohn Thomas Fitzmaurice from prison in Limerick. He had been indicted for allowing the castle to fall into the hands of Murtough O’Brien also serves as a Governor (captain) in Bunratty.  [3]

Current structure

The fourth castle, the current structure, built by the MacNamara family in about 1425. Its builders may have been a Maccon Sioda MacNamara, chief of Clann Cuilein (ie MacNamaras). He died before the castle was completed happened during his son Sean Finn (died 1467). At about 1500, came Bunratty Castle in the hands of O’Brien (or O’Brians), the most powerful clan in Munster and later the Earls of Thomond. They expanded the place and finally made it to his boss seat, move it there from Ennis.  [3]

In 1558, the castle is now listed as one of the most important stongholds of Thomond -was taken by Thomas Radclyffe, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from Donal O’Brien of Duagh last King of Thomond (died 1579), and given to Donal’s nephew, Connor O ‘Brien. Donogh O’Brien, Conor’s son, may have been to move the seat of the family from Clonroad (Ennis) Bunratty. He made various improvements to the castle, including putting a new management roof on it.  [2]

During the League Wars set off the Irish rebellion in 1641, Lord Forbes, commanding forces in the English Long Parliament, received by the then Lord Barnabas O’Brien to occupy Bunratty 1646. Barnabas did not want to commit to both sides of the fight, play royalists rebels and Roundheads against each other. He left for England, where he joined King Charles.Defense of the castle, whose position allowed them to hold it to access the blockade by sea to Limerick (held by the League) and the River Shannon, was in the hands of Rear Admiral Penn, father of William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania. After a long siege, the Confederates took the castle. Penn surrendered but were allowed to sail away to Kinsale.  [2]

Barnabas O’Brien died in 1657, but had apparently rented the castle to a “John Cooper”, possibly the same person married to Máire Ní Mahon avLeamaneh Castle, widow of another O’Brien, Conor (died 1651).  [2]  Bunratty remained O’Brien property, and in the 1680s the castle was still the main seat of the Earls of Thomond. 1712, Henry the 8th and last Earl of Thomond (1688-1741) sold Bunratty Castle and 472 acres (191 hectares) of land to Thomas Amory for £ 225 and an annual rent of £ 120 Amory in turn sold the castle Thomas Studdert who moved in about 1720.  [4]

The Studdert family left the castle (allows to decay), to reside in the more comfortable and modern adjacent “Bunratty House” they had built in 1804.  [4][5]  The reason for the move is tied up in family arguments over the oldest son marry his cousin.  [ citation needed ]   

For some time in the middle of the 19th century, the castle was used as a barracks by the Royal Irish Constabulary.  [6]  In 1894, Bunratty again be used by Studdert family, as the seat of Captain Richard Studdert.  [6]  at the end of the 19th century , the ceiling of the Great Hall collapsed.  [2]

In 1956 the castle was bought and restored by the 7th Viscount Gort, with support from the Office of Public Works.  [4]  He reroofed castle and saved it from destruction. The castle was opened to the public in 1960, sports furniture, tapestries and works of art dating to around 1600.  [3] [4] 

Today

Today, the castle is a major tourist attraction, along with “Bunratty Folk Park”. Both the Castle and Bunratty House is open to the public. The castle is known for its medieval banquets, offered since 1963, where “Bunratty Castle Entertainers” performing today.

“Bunratty Folk Park” is an open air museum with 30 buildings, including Ardcroney Church of Ireland church, moved here and reopened in 1998.

References

  1. Jump up ^ national monuments in County Clare
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Lynch, Christopher (1977), “Bunratty Castle – a Brief History” (PDF), The Other Clare,  a : 17-18
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f . Ryan, William Gerrard (1979), “An examination of the monuments of Archaeological and historical interest in the Barony of Bunratty Lower, Co. Clare, Part 4: Castles and tower houses c.1500 Chapter 33: Bunratty Parish “. Clare Library. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Landed estates database: Studdert (Bunratty)”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  5. Jump up ^  “estates database: Bunratty House”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.
  6. ^ Jump up to: ab “Landed estates database: Bunratty Castle”. NUI Galway. Retrieved 17 August, 2013.

Bibliography

  • Christopher Lynch,  Bunratty Castle  , Volume 41 of The Irish Heritage series, Eason, 1984, ISBN 0900346566th

County Clare

County Clare  (Irish:  Contae an Chlair  ) is a municipality in Ireland, in the Mid-West region and the province of Munster. Clare County Council is the local authority. The county had a population of 117,196 at the census of 2011.  [1]

Geography and political subdivisions

Clare is the northwestern part of the River Shannon, covering a total area of 3400 sq km (1300 sq mi). Clare is the 7th largest of Ireland’s 32 traditional counties in area and 19th largest in terms of population. It borders two counties in Munster and a county in Connacht: County Limerick in the south, County Tipperary to the east and County Galway in the north. Clare nickname is the  Banner County  .  [2]

Baronies, parishes and townlands

The county is divided into baronies of Bunratty Lower, Upper Bunratty, Burren, Clonderalaw, Corcomroe, Ibrickan, Inchiquin, islands, Moyarta, Tulla Tulla Lower and Upper. These in turn are divided into civil parishes, which are divided into townlands. These divisions are real estate define land boundaries and ownership, rather than administrative.

Towns and Villages

  • Ardnacrusha
  • Ballynacally
  • Ballyvaughan
  • Bare Field
  • boston
  • Broadford
  • bunratty
  • Carrigaholt
  • Carron
  • Clarecastle
  • Clonlara
  • Connolly
  • Coolmeen
  • Cooraclare
  • Corofin
  • Crevice
  • Cratloe
  • Cree (Creegh)
  • Cross
  • Chrusheen
  • Doolin
  • Doonaha
  • Doonbeg
  • Ennis
  • Ennistymon
  • Fanore
  • Feakle
  • Inagh
  • Inch
  • Kilbaha
  • Kilfenora
  • Kilkee
  • Kilkishen
  • Kildysart
  • Kill
  • Killimer
  • Kilmaley
  • Kilmihil
  • Kilmurry McMahon
  • Kilnaboy
  • Kilnamona
  • Kilrush
  • Labasheeda
  • Lahinch
  • Liscannor
  • Lisdoonvarna
  • lissycasey
  • Meelick
  • Milltown Malbay
  • Mount
  • Mullagh
  • Newmarket-on-Fergus
  • O’Brien’s Bridge
  • O’Callaghans Mills
  • Ogonnelloe
  • Parteen
  • Quilty
  • Quin
  • Ruan
  • Scariff
  • Shannon
  • Sixmilebridge
  • Toonagh
  • Tuamgraney
  • Tubber
  • Tulla
  • Whitegate

physical geography

Water defines a large part of the physical limits of Clare. To the southeast is the River Shannon, Ireland’s longest river and to the south is the Shannon Estuary. The boundary to the northeast is defined avLough Derg which is the third largest lake in Ireland. In the west, the Atlantic Ocean, and the north is Galway Bay.

County Clare contains The Burren, a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and plants. On the western edge of the Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher. The highest point in County Clare is Moylussa, 532, in the Slieve Bernagh  [3]  varies in the eastern part of the county. The following islands are outside the county:

  • Aughinish
  • Inishmore (or Deer) Island
  • Inishloe
  • mutton Island
  • Scattery Island

History

There was a Neolithic civilization in the Clare area – the name of the people is unknown, but the prehistoric peoples left the evidence remains in the form of old dolmen; megalithic single chamber, typically consisting of three or more upright stones. Clare is one of the richest sites of these graves in Ireland, most attention is the Burren area, it is known somPoulnabrone dolmen which translates as  the hole sorrows  .  [5]  The remains of people inside the tomb has been excavated and dated to 3800 BC .  [5]  Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia  information dating back to 100 AD, is the oldest written account of the island with geographical features.  [6] in his map Ptolemy names Gaelic tribes inhabit it and the areas where they residents; Clare in the area he identified a tribe called  Gangani  .  [7] Historians have found tribes on the west of Ireland most difficult to identify with famous people, menCamden O’Conor and speculated a possible connection between Gangani and  Concani  ,  [8] [9] [ 10]  of the eleven tribes in the confederation of Cantabri in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. [11]

During the early Middle Ages, the area was part of the kingdom of Connacht controlled by Uí Fiachrach Aidhne, until it was annexed to the Kingdom of Munster solved by Dalcassians in the middle of the 10th century. It was renamed Thomond, which North Munster and given rise to Brian Boru in this period, perhaps the most noted högkung. From 1118 onwards, the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as their own petty kingdom, controlled by the O’Brien clan. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman domination Thomond, expire at the Battle of Dysert O’Dea in 1318 under Edward Bruce invasion. The County name Clare will probably not from the Clare family, but upon payment of Clare (now Clarecastle) whose Irish name  Clar  [ “plank bridge”] refers to a crossing of the River Fergus.  [12] [13] [14]

1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough O’Brien in surrender and regrant to Henry VIII became Earl of Thomond in Henry’s The Kingdom of Ireland. Henry Sidney Lord Deputy of Ireland, Desmond Rebellions responded by creating Presidency of Connaught in 1569 and the presidency in Munster in 1570. He was transferred Thomond from Munster to Connaught, which he shired, Thomond is County Clare. About 1600 Clare was removed from the presidency Connaught and made a presidency in its own right under the Earl of Thomond. When Henry O’Brien, 5th Earl of Thomond died in 1639, Lord Deputy Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford decreed Clare should return to the presidency in Munster, but the war of the three kungadömenaförsenat until reset.  [15]

County Clare’s nickname is the  Banner County  , where various origins have been proposed: the banners captured by Clare Dragoons at the Battle of Ramillies; or the banner of “Catholic Emancipation” up avDaniel O’Connell victory in a 1828 election for County Clare who led the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829th  [16]

Scattery Island, at the mouth of the Shannon off the Clare coast, was transferred to Limerick Corporation and the County of Limerick city after the dissolution of the monasteries, and assigned to County Clare by municipal companies (Ireland) Act 1840th Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, a part of the legal County Galway (Drummaan, Inishcaltra North and Mount electoral divisions) were transferred to County Clare. This area includes the village of Mountshannon on the northwestern shore of Lough Derg.

Local authorities and the Dáil representation

See also: Clare (Dáil Éireann constituency) and Clare County Council

The county seat is at Ennis, who also serves as a major regional hub for County Clare. Among its rescue, it contains Ennis Regional Hospital, Clare divisional HQ in Lake, Clare fire brigade and civil defense.

Clare is represented by its own parliamentary constituency in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas and has been since 1921. Clare currently served by four TDs. In short, a small area of Clare were in Clare-Galway South constituency in the 1970s before being abolished.The second part of the local government represented by the Municipal -Clare four in the form of Ennis, Kilrush, Kilkee and Shannon.

The constituency has historically been a Fianna Fáil stronghold. But Fianna Fáil lost its overall majority Council in 2004.  [17]  As of 2009 local elections Fine Gael is the largest party with 12 seats.  [18]  It won 40% of votes in the Clare constituency in the 2011 Irish general election.

Prominent former TDs Clare include Éamon de Valera who went on to become prime minister and president, former President Patrick Hillery and former Minister Brendan Daly.

Demography

English is the main language spoken in Clare. The vast majority of the population are Irish people, accounting for 86%. Most immigrants are Europeans total additional 7520; There is also a small African minority of 1,124 people while other groups are very small in number.  [22] The population of Clare accounted for 117.196 people in the last census in 2011. The main cities are Ennis with a population of 25,360 and Shannon with the 9673rd demographic profile of Clare in general is quite young: 22% are under 14 years, while 12% are over 65, compared to the national average of 20% and 11%, respectively.  [20]  There is a slightly higher percentage of males by 50 , 5%, while females number 49.5%.  [21]

In addition there is a large Clare diaspora due to large migration during the 19th century. There are millions of people around the world who can trace their family background Clare; these are mostly present in North America, UK, Australia, South Africa, Argentina and New Zealand.  [23]  Many people from the Irish diaspora visiting the area to trace his family roots and background.  [23]

Most of the names in Clare derived from September’s of Dalcassian course of Gaels; some of the most common examples are few names of assimilated Norman origin such as Burke, Dalton, and Comyn.  [25]

Religion

The most dominant religion in County Clare is Christianity; at least 92% of the population in the area surveyed as part of Ireland Census 2006 identified as Christian.  [26] There are many abbeys and priories in Clare; some of the ruins of these as Scattery Island, Bishop Island and Drum monastery is old, dating from the 6th century when Christianity was first introduced to Ireland.The former was founded by St. Senan who was born locally near Kilrush in 488 and is counted among the twelve apostles of Ireland.  [27]  There are many other saints of Clare as Flannan, Mochulleus, Moula, Caïmin, Maccreiche, Munchin and more.  [28]  today the Catholic Church is in the majority with 88% of the population declaring themselves adherents of the religion, this is slightly above the national average.  [26]

Most of Clare falls under the Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Guy, which is part of the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and Emly.  [29]  The Bishop of Killaloe sitting at the St Peter and Paul Cathedral in Ennis. A small part of the northwestern part of the Clare falls under the Diocese of Galway, Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora.  [30] As part of the local architectural conservation projects around eighty Christian churches are protected structures, some of the more notable structures include the ruins of Corcomroe Abbey, Quin Abbey and Dysert O Dea monastery.  [31]

The largest religious minority is the Church of Ireland, which is part of the Anglican community, with nearly 2000 followers  [26]  in Clare. The county is part of the Diocese of Limerick and Killaloe, one of the three cathedrals of the diocese is St. Flannan’s Cathedral in Kill.  [32]  Other religious communities in Clare are very small in comparison, while there is also a minority who declare no religion.  [ 26]

Culture

Tourist attractions

County Clare is famous for beautiful scenery.  Citation needed  ]

  • Cliffs of Moher
  • Doolin
  • Inis Cealtra (Holy Island) in Lough Derg
  • Kilbaha
  • Kilkee
  • loop Head
  • Scattery Island
  • Spanish Point
  • Burren

Gaeltacht

West Clare and some pockets in East Clare was recognized as part of the Gaeltacht, the Irish Free State government in the original  Coimisiún na Gaeltachta  1926th The most prominent of these areas with native Irish speakers were west of Ennis in Kilmihil, Kilrush, Doonbeg, Doolin, Ennistimon, Carrigaholt, Lisdoonvarna and Ballyvaughan. But at the time of the second  Coimisiún na Gaeltachta  1956, the decline has been such that West Clare was completely removed from the list, but it remained under the Gaeltacht (Housing) serves until 2001.

Geographical proximity to the Aran Islands (which was once a part of Thomond) and local trade by fishermen from that meant the language held out longer in Fanore, Murroogh, Doolin and Quilty than other places. The last native Clare Irish speakers, the  seanchaí  Paddy Pharaic Mhichil Shannon Fisher Street, Doolin, died in the early 1990s. More recently, pressure group  Coiste Forbartha Gaeltachta Chontae a Chlair  have tried to restore the official status in West Clare a Gaeltacht area.  [33] [34]

Music

County Clare has a strong history of traditional music. It is home of the Kilfenora Ceili Band, the Tulla Ceili Band, Stockton Wing, Sharon Shannon, Noel Hill, Peadar O’Loughlin, Martin Hayes and legendary tin whistlerMicho Russell. Ennis in County Clare is also the birthplace of Grammy-nominated singer Maura O’Connell, whose grandmother started a fish market in the city.The county has many traditional music festivals and one of the most famous is the Willie Clancy Summer School, held every July in the town of Milltown Malbay in memory of the famous uilleann piper Willie Clancy.

Andy Irvine has written two songs celebrate County Clare is a “west coast of Clare” (recorded with Planxty 1973), where he mentions the Spanish Point and Milltown Malbay. The other is “My Heart last night in Ireland” (recorded on his solo album  rain on the roof  in 1996, and again at the  transit station 2005), where he mentions several towns and villages in County Clare: Milltown Malbay, Scariff, Kilrush, Sixmilebridge, Kilkishin, Lahinch, Ennistymon, Liscannor and Kilkee, and makes two references to music Willie Clancy:

In the town of Scarriff sun shone in the sky
When Willie Clancy played their pipes and tears welled in my eyes
Many years have passed and gone since the time we were there
, but my heart tonight in Ireland in the cute County Clare.
. ..
Lahinch and Ennistymon , Liscannor and Kilkee
But best of all was the Milltown when the music flowed so free
Willie Clancy and County Clare I am ever in your debt
for the sights and sounds of yesterday lights memories yet.

Milltown Malbay is home to Oidhreacht a Chlair, an institute of higher education in all aspects of Irish tradition, history and literature.  [35]

Sports

Clare hurling team has one of the best records of success in the country in recent years with many cups Liam MacCarthy Cup after winning the 1995, 1997 and 2013 and also finalists in 2002. Clare won the Munster final in football in 1992 beat Kerry . There is a strong Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) presence in County Clare with the founder of the GAA, Michael Cusack, born in Carron in the heart of the Burren in North Clare. Irish rugby internationals from Clare include Keith Wood, Anthony Foley and Marcus Horan.

Transport 

Bunratty

Clare has two national primary roads -a classification with reference to the main roads between major cities in Ireland.  [36]  This includes the N18 linking Limerick to Galway, passing through Ennis and route of the N19 -Shannon. [36]  these two roads is a part of the wider western and southern corridor linking many of the major settlements across the island in these areas. There are also some significant national secondary roads -across coast, stretching from Bally by Lahinch and Kilkee, before they get to Kilrush is N67.  [36] In addition to this N68 connects Kilrush to Ennis, but Ennis is connected to Ennistymon via the N85.  [ 36]

Main public transportation is mostly limited to buses drove by the Irish government companies Bus Éireann; There are about 25 buses run frequently roads that pass through most major settlements in Clare.  [37]  The Ennis railway station operated by the state-owned Iarnród Éireann is the main railway station in Clare today; it opened 2 July 1859.  [38]  The route limerick trains run from Ennis to Dublin and it generally takes three hours to complete the journey.  [39] [40]  It was formerly much more extensive local rail network in Clare, who, while a part of the United Kingdom, West Clare Railway was in existence from its opening in 1887 by Charles Stewart Parnell until 1961 that covers a large part of the county.  [41]  it was quite ineffective but leads Percy French to write the song  Ye Right there Michael?  about their experiences. A large part of it was dug up and removed by the Irish Government from 1950 to 1970 after having considered wasteful, but it remains to local organizations who want to conserve and restore parts of it. [42]

The third busiest airport in Ireland is located in Clare with Shannon International Airport, which opened in 1945.  [43]  Together with Dublin Airport and Cork Airport is one of the three main airports in the country, handling 3.62 million passengers in 2007. Shannon was the first airport in Ireland to receive transatlantic flights.  [43]  Ryanair is the airline handling Main with the UK and continental European countries such as Spain, France and Germany as the top destinations.  [44]  much traffic from the United States received, Aer Lingus handles the majority; It is sometimes used as a military landing that has caused some controversy in the country,  [45]  , but nonetheless has generated significant revenue for the airport.  [46]  There are some local ferry services, so much of the county is surrounded by water, there is one from Killimer to Tarbert Island in Kerry  [47]  and also from Doolin to the Aran islands of Inisheer and Inishmore. [48]

See also

  • High Sheriff of Clare
  • Lord Lieutenant of Clare
  • Wild Atlantic Way

Notes

  1. Jump up ^  “Census 2011 – County Clare Overview”.
  2. Jump up ^  “Clare, The Banner County – World Cultures European” .Irishcultureandcustoms.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  3. Jump up ^ NB: not related to the Slieve Bearnagh mountain in County Down.
  4. Jump up ^  “Climate”. Clare-Tour.com. 25 December 2008.
  5. ^ Jump up to: ab “Neolithic sites in Ireland.” MyGuideIreland.com.Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  6. Jump up ^  “Ptolemy’s map of Ireland: a modern decoding” .InformAWorld.com. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  7. Jump up ^  “The arrival of the Celts”. WesleyJohnston.com. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  8. Jump up ^ O’Laughlin,  families, County Clare, Ireland ; 7.
  9. Jump up ^  “Before there were counties”. RootsWeb.com. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  10. Jump up ^ Four Masters,  “The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters” as translated by Owen Connellan. , 393rd
  11. Jump up ^ Anthon,  a classic Dictionary , 368th
  12. Jump up ^ Briggs, Keith (2009). “Clare, Clere and Cleres” (PDF).Newspaper English ortnamns Society (41): 14th
  13. Jump up ^  “Origin of the name” Clare “”. Irishcultureandcustoms.com .Hämtad 19 April 2012.
  14. Jump up ^  “Thom Directory 1931”. From-ireland.net. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  15. Jump up ^  Falkiner, Caesar Litton. “The Counties of Ireland: A historical sketch of their origin, constitution, and gradually Demarcation (1902-1904)” .Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature. 24 : 184-5.
  16. Jump up ^ Spellissy, Sean (1 January 2003). A History of County Clare.Gill & Macmillan. p. 39. ISBN 9,780,717,134,601th
  17. Jump up ^ Mark Hennessy and Michael O’Regan (15 June 2004). “” A very poor performance “- Ahern”. The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  18. Jump up ^  “2009 local elections – Electoral Area Details”. Election Ireland. Taken 19 april2012.
  19. Jump up ^ for post 1821 numbers, 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865, for a discussion of the accuracy of pre-famine census return see JJ Lee “On the accuracy of pre- Irish famine bills “in the Irish population, economy and society, edited by JM Gold Strom and LA Clarkson (1981) P54, and also in New developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850 by Joel Mokyr and Cormac Ó GRADA in the Economic history Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473-488.
  20. Jump up ^  “Persons, males and females in each Province, County and City classified by age group, 2006”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  21. Jump up ^  “Population of each Province, County and City, 2006 ‘.Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  22. Jump up ^  “Persons, males and females usually resident in each province and county, and present in the State on census night, classified by ethnic or cultural background, in 2006”. Central Statistics Office Ireland .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  23. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Clare Diaspora”. Clare Heritage and Genealogical Research Centre. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  24. Jump up ^  “Valley gCais or The Dalcassians of Thomond” .DalcassianSeptembercom. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
  25. Jump up ^  “Norman and Cambro-Norman surnames in Ireland”.Family-Crests.com. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  26. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Census 2006 – Volume 13 – Religion”. Central Statistics Office of Ireland. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  27. Jump up ^ Gratton-Flood, WH (1 March 1907). “The Twelve Apostles of Erin.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York. Robert Appleton Company In  . Hämtasnio February 2008.
  28. Jump up ^  “County Clare folk tales and myths: early Christian times.”ClareLibrary.ie .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  29. Jump up ^  “History of Guy Pin”. KillaloeDiocese.ie. Archived from originaletden 11 December 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  30. Jump up ^  “pin Galway, Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora.”GalwayDiocese.ie .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  31. Jump up ^  “List of Protected Structures in Co. Clare – churches “. Clare County Council. Archived from the original November 19, 2007.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  32. Jump up ^  “St Flannan’s Cathedral, Killaloe”.Cathedral.Killaloe.Anglican.org .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  33. Jump up ^  “public meeting at Clare Gaeltacht revival”. Gael Port.January 26, 2015.
  34. Jump up ^  “Clare Gaeltacht:” When we have come from and where we are going “. ‘ Gael Port. January 26, 2015.
  35. Jump up ^  “Oidhreacht a Chlair Teo”. Oac.ie. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  36. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Highway: lengths of 2007” (PDF). National Roads Authority .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  37. Jump up ^  “Bus services to Clare County Council”. CarlBerry.co.uk.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  38. Jump up ^  “Ennis station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Hämtad25 December 2008.
  39. Jump up ^  “Data on trains between Dublin and Enniskillen”.CarlBerry.co.uk .Hämtad 25 December 2008.
  40. Jump up ^  “Your journey – Timetables”. Irish Rail. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  41. Jump up ^  “A Brief History of the West Clare Railway”.WestClareRailway.ie.Arkiveras from the original January 4, 2008.Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  42. Jump up ^  “The West Clare Railway Co.”. WestClareRailway.ie.Archived from the original January 4, 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  43. ^ Jump up to: ab “Shannon Airport Facts & Figures”. CARHIRE.ie.Hämtadsex November 2013.
  44. Jump up ^  “Flights from Shannon Airport.” FlightMapping.com.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  45. Jump up ^  “Peaceful protest at Shannon Airport draws 1,700 people” .AllBusiness.com. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  46. Jump up ^  “Nearly 200,000 soldiers using Shannon”. Irish Times. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  47. Jump up ^  “Killimer Tarbert Car Ferry”. DiscoverIreland.com.Hämtad25 December 2008.
  48. Jump up ^  “Doolin Ferry Landing”. DoolinFerry.com. Archived from originaletden 8 December 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2008.

References

  • Anthon, Charles (1855). A Classical Dictionary. Harvard University.
  • O’Laughlin, Michael C. (2000). The families of County Clare, Ireland.Irish Roots Cafe. ISBN 0-940134-98-5.
  • The four Masters (2003). “The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters”, translated by Owen Connellan. Irish Roots Cafe. ISBN 0-940134-14-4.

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