CategoryCounty Armagh

County Armagh

Armagh  (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland and one of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland, located in the northeastern part of ön.Gränsar to the southern shore of Lough Neagh, covering the county an area of 1326 sq.km.  [4]  and has a population of about 174,792. It is in the historical province of Ulster. Armagh is known as the “Orchard County” because of its many apple orchards.  [5]

Etymology

The name “Armagh” is derived from the Irish word  Ard  means “height” and Macha  , together meaning “height” (or high place) and Macha. Macha mentioned in  The Book of the Taking of Ireland  , and is also said to have been responsible for the construction of the hill place Emain Macha (now Navan Fort near Armagh City) to serve as the capital of Ulaid kings (who give their name to the Ulster), also thought to be Macha’s  height  .

Geography and Features

From its highest point at Slieve Gullion, in the southern part of the county falls Armagh land away from its rugged south with Carrigatuke, Lislea and Camlough mountains, the rolling drumlin country in the center and west of the county, and finally the plains in the north where rolling flats and small hills reaching the sea at Lough Neagh.

County Armagh’s border with Louth is characterized by rugged Ring of Gullion rising in the southern part of the county, while a large part of its border with Monaghan and down goes unnoticed with seamless continuation of drumlins and small lakes. The Blackwater River marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the county’s northern border.

There are also a number of uninhabited islands in the county’s portion of Lough Neagh: Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Padian, Phil Roe flat and shallow flat.

Climate

Despite being located in the east of Ireland, Armagh has an oceanic climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters, and temperate, humid summers. Generally, the temperature rarely drops below freezing during the daytime, but the frost is not uncommon in the months of November to February. Snow is rarely longer than a few hours, even in the elevated southeastern länet.Somrarna is mild and humid, and even with sunshine often interspersed with showers, daylight lasts for nearly 18 hours during high summer.

History

The main Irish SEPTS in the county were descendants of the Collas, the O’Hanlons and MacCanns and Uí Neill, the O’Neills of Fews. Armagh into several baronies: Armagh held by O’Rogans, lower Fews held by O’Neill in Fews and upper Fews was under the control of O’Larkins, later moved by MacCanns. Oneilland East was territory O’Garveys, also displaced by MacCanns. Oneilland West, who Oneilland East, was once O’Neill territory, until then held by MacCanns, who were Lords of Clanbrassil. Upper and Lower Orior was O’Hanlon territory. Tiranny ruled by Ronaghan. Various country ruled by O’Kelaghan. The area around the base of Slieve Guillion near Newry was also home to a large number of McGuinness clan as the outcasts of hereditary countries held in County Armagh was the territory Down.Ancient Ulaid (also known as Voluntii, Ultonians, Ulidians, Ulstermen) before the fourth century . It was ruled by the Red Branch, whose capital was Emain Macha (or Navan Fort) near Armagh. Place, and then the city was named after the goddess Macha. Red Branch plays an important role in Ulster Cycle, such as cattle Raid of Cooley. But they were eventually driven out of the area of the three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. Clan Colla ruled the area known Airghialla or Oriel for these 800 years.

Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, and the Catholic Church continues to be his view. Armagh is currently one of four counties in Northern Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Catholic background, according to the census of 2011.

troubles

The southern part of the county has been a stronghold of support for the IRA, earning it the nickname “Bandit Country” but this is generally regarded as untrue media label that has resulted in slander and demonization of the local community.  [13]  South Armagh is predominantly nationalist , with most of the population opposed to any form of British presence, especially of a military nature. See Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade for further information.

On 10 March 2009 CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI officer in Craigavon, County Armagh the first police deaths in Northern Ireland since 1998. The officer fatally shot by a sniper when he and a colleague looked “suspicious activity” at a house in nearby when a window was smashed by youths causing the occupants to call the police. The PSNI officials answered emergency calls, providing a CIRA sniper opportunity to shoot and kill officer Stephen Carroll.  [14] [15] 

Administration

County Armagh is no longer used as a management area for municipal purposes, however, still officially used for purposes such as Lieutenancy area – the county retains a lord lieutenant acting as representative of the British monarch in the county.  [16]

County Armagh ceased to function as a municipal entity in 1973. Currently, the county is covered for municipal purposes by four district councils, namely Armagh City and District Council, most of Craigavon, roughly the western third of Newry and Mourne District Council and part of Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council , centered on Peatlands Park.

With the proposed reform of local authorities in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Armagh would have covered part of two new council areas, Armagh City and Bann District and Newry City and down; However, the reform is not gone yet.

Armagh ceased to function as a constituency in 1983 but is still the core of Newry and Armagh constituency represented at Westminster and the Newry and Armagh constituency represented in the Northern Ireland Assembly.County Armagh also remain as a district for legal and real estate purposes;But its baronies no longer has any administrative use.

The -XZ suffixes are used today in vehicle registration plates for vehicles registered in County Armagh.

settlements

Main article: List of places in County Armagh

cities(population of 18,000 or more and 75,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Newry (also part of the settlement is in County Down)
  • Craig, include:
    • Lurgan
    • Portadown

means towns

(population of 10,000 or more and 18,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Armagh (the town charter)

small towns

(population of 4,500 or more and 10,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • No

intermediate regulations

(population of 2250 or more and in 4500 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Bessbrook
  • Keady
  • Rich Hill
  • Tandragee

villages

(population of 1,000 or more and for 2250 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • Crossmaglen
  • Market Hill
  • Mullavilly / Laurelvale
  • Poyntzpass (part of the settlement is in County Down)
Small villages and hamlets(population of less than 1,000 at the 2001 census)  [17]

  • acting on
  • Annaghmore
  • Anna Hugh
  • Aughanduff
  • Ardress
  • Ballymacnab
  • Bann Foot
  • Belleeks
  • Blackwater Town
  • BLEARY
  • Broomhill
  • Camlough
  • Clonmore
  • Charlemont
  • Cladymore
  • Creggan
  • Cullaville
  • Cullyhanna
  • Darkley
  • Derryadd
  • Derryhale
  • Derrymacash
  • Derrymore
  • Derrynoose
  • Derrytrasna
  • Dorsey
  • Dromintee
  • Drumnacanvy
  • Edenaveys
  • Forkill
  • Hamiltonsbawn
  • Jonesborough
  • Killean
  • Killylea
  • Kilmore
  • Lislea
  • Lisnadill
  • Loughgall
  • Loughgilly
  • Madden
  • Maghery
  • Meigh
  • Middletown
  • Milford
  • Mount Norris
  • Mullaghbawn
  • Mullaghbrack
  • Mullaghglass
  • Newtownhamilton
  • Street Scotch
  • silver Bridge
  • Tartaraghan
  • Tynan
  • Whitecross

sub

baronies

The baronies of County Armagh (1900)

Main article: baronies Ireland

  • Armagh
  • Lower fews
  • Upper fews
  • Oneilland East
  • Oneilland West
  • Lower Orior
  • Upper Orior
  • Tiranny

Helge

Main article: List of civil parishes in County Armagh

townlands

Main article: List of townlands in County Armagh

Transport

County Armagh is crossed by two major motorways – the M1 connecting Belfast to Dungannon crosses the northern part of the county, while the A1 / N1 from Belfast to Dublin in the long run sydost.Armagh has many local roads connecting settlements in the county.

Armagh once had a well-developed network of connections, including Armagh City, Culloville, Goraghwood, Market Hill, Verner Bridge, Tynan (see History of rail transport in Ireland) but today only Newry (Bessbrook), Portadown, Poyntzpass, Scarva and Lurgan served by railway.

There is a possible re-opening the railway from Portadown Railway Station Armagh railway station in the future.  [18]  Minister of the Department of Regional Development, Danny Kennedy MLA indicates the railway restoration plans in line from Portadown Armagh.  [19]

Ulsterbus provides the most comprehensive public transport in the county, including frequent bus service daily from most cities in Belfast. Northern Ireland Railways / Iarnród Éireann’s Enterprise service provides connections to Dublin in just over an hour and Belfast for some forty minutes, several times a day.

inland waterways

County Armagh is crossed by the Ulster Canal and the Newry Canal that is not fully open to navigation.

Sports

In conjunction football, NIFL Premiership has that serves as the top division, two teams in the county: Glenavon FC and Portadown FC, with Annagh United Armagh City FC, Doll Hastings Town FC, Loughgall FC and Lurgan Celtic FC competes in NIFL Championship, which serves as the levels two and three.

The Armagh County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or  Armagh GAA  organizes Gaelic games in the county.

People associated with County Armagh

See main article  : People from County Armagh

  • Frank Aiken (1898-1983), born in County Armagh, Irish Republican, Irish Foreign Minister, Tánaiste
  • Saint Benignus Armagh, (d. 467), first principal Cathedral School in Armagh and the Bishop of Armagh
  • Brian Boru (941-1014), buried in Armagh City, winner of Clontarf, högkung
  • George Buchanan Armstrong (1822-1871), born in County Armagh, developed the new system for sorting mail on trains in the US  [20]
  • Sir Robert Hart (1835-1911), born in County Armagh, others Inspector General of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service (IMCS) 1863-1911
  • Arthur Hunter Palmer (1819-1898), born in County Armagh, 5th Premier of Queensland
  • Samuel Knox (1756-1832), born in County Armagh, Presbyterian clergyman, headmaster, and author.  [21]
  • Tommy Makem (1932-2007), born in County Armagh, singer, musician, songwriter, often called “The Bard of Armagh”.
  • Seamus Mallon (1936-), born in County Armagh, first deputy First Minister in Northern Ireland
  • Colin Morgan (1986-), born in County Armagh, actor
  • Paul Muldoon (1951-), born in County Armagh, poet, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for poetry and TS Eliot Prize
  • Tomás Ó Fiaich (1923-1990), born in County Armagh, Cardinal (Catholicism), Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland from 1977 to 1990
  • Eunan O’Neill (1982), born in County Armagh, journalist,  Russia Today
  • Sir William Olpherts (1822-1902), born in County Armagh, soldier and recipient of the Victoria Cross
  • Ian Paisley (1926- 2014), was born in County Armagh, priest, politician, second Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
  • Saint Patrick (fifth century), the first bishop of Armagh
  • Connor Phillips (1981-), born in County Armagh, radio, TV presenter and DJ
  • George William Russell “AE (1867-1919), born in County Armagh, writer, critic and painter
  • Robert Stewart (1759-1822), educated at The Royal School, Armagh.British Foreign Minister, secretary of war, the leader of the British House of Commons and the Chief Secretary for Ireland
  • Colin Turkington (1982), born in Portadown, County Armagh, professional race driver and 2009 British Touring Car champion.
  • James Ussher (1581-1656), Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, 1625-1656
  • Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (1760-1842), educated at The Royal School, Armagh. Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and India’s Governor General

Tourist attractions

  • Armagh Observatory, which was founded in 1790 and the Armagh Planetarium, a modern working astronomical research institute with a rich heritage
  • Armagh Public Library on Abbey Street in Armagh City, particularly rich in 17th and 18th century English books, including Dean Jonathan Swift’s own copy of the first edition of his  Gulliver’s Travels  with his manuscript corrections
  • Navan Fort, now a tree-ring hill once housed the rulers of Ulster with contemporary interactive visitor center
  • Saint Patrick’s Church of Ireland Cathedral, founded in 445, the seat of the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, which contains the tomb of Brian Boru
  • Saint Patrick’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, started in 1838, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, on a hill and dominates the local countryside
  • Gosford Castle, mock medieval 19th-century castle with large grounds
  • Slieve Gullion, extinct volcano with a crater lake, the highest burial cairn in Ireland, view over 9 counties, with the visitor center at its feet
  • Bagel Bean, Armagh most famous breakfast and lunch spot. Found in two places in the small town center. Founded 10 years ago in the Lower English Street and also now open on Market Street.

Surname

The most common surnames in County Armagh at the time of the United Kingdom Census 1901,  [22]  by order of incidence:

  • 1. Murphy
  • 2. Hughes
  • 3. Wilson
  • 4. McCann
  • 5. Kelly
  • 6. Quinn
  • 7. Donnelly
  • 8. Campbell
  • 9. Robinson
  • 10. Johnston

Gallery

  • View of Slieve Gullion
  • The Enterprise näraNewry
  • South Armagh rural
  • Forkhill Mountain
  • Emain Macha
  • Moyry Castle
  • Killnasaggart Stone, 700 AD
  • Patrick’s Anglican Cathedral, est. 445
  • Armagh City
  • The small town of Market Hill
  • Clare Glen Forest, Tandragee
  • approach tillCrossmaglen
  • Knock Bridge near Portadown to Newry Canal
  • Gosford Castle, off Market Hill

See also

  • references abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland (County Armagh)
  • List of Irish counties by area
  • List of Irish counties by population
  • Lord Lieutenant of Armagh
  • High Sheriff Armagh
  1. Jump up ^ Census figures no longer released detailing yields County but rather parliamentary constituency, Municipal District Electoral Ward and exit. This figure is based on a compilation of all persons residing in Titles include County Armagh April 29, 2001, ie all electoral wards in Newry and Armagh parliamentary constituency (minus Mary, St. Patrick and Windsor Hill from County Down) in combination with 17 departments in Upper Bann parliamentary constituency from County Armagh (ie Derrytrasna, birches, bleary, Drumgask, Taghnevan, court , Annagh, Brown, Ballybay, Ballyoran, Corcrain, Edenderry, Killycomain, Kernan, Drumgor, Mourneview church Knocknashane, Park Lane, Wood, Drumnamoe and Tavanagh).  “Area Profiles”. Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service. Hämtadskrevs 8 August of 2008.
  2. Jump up ^ Tourism Ireland: 2007 Annual report of the Ulster Scots
  3. Jump up ^ North-South Ministerial Council: Annual Report 2006 in Ulster Scots
  4. Jump up ^ [1] County Armagh, Surface
  5. Jump up ^ your place and mine – Armagh
  6. Jump up ^  “Met Office”. Retrieved 4 October of 2008.  [ Dead link  ]
  7. Jump up ^ For the 1653 and 1659 figures from the Civil Survey Census of those years, the paper Mr. Hardinge Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  8. Jump up ^ Census of post 1821 figures.
  9. Jump up ^ http://www.histpop.org
  10. Jump up ^ NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) in 2013. Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk (27 September 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  11. Jump up ^ Lee, JJ (1981). “On the accuracy of pre-famine Irish censuses”. In the Gold Strom, JM; Clarkson, LA Irish population, economy and society: Essays in Honour of the late KH Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  12. Jump up ^  Mokyr, Joel; O Smooth, Cormac (November 1984). “New Developments in the Irish population history, 1700-1850”. The Economic History Review.  37 (4) :. 473-488 doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  13. Jump up ^  “The myth of the bandit country”. Armagh: Iarchimi Ard Mhacha Thea. May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “Continuity IRA shot dead officer.” London: BBC News. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  15. Jump up ^  “Continuity IRA claims PSNI murder”. RTE News and Current Affairs. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original 11 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  16. Jump up ^ See Northern Ireland (Lieutenancy) Order 1975 (SI 1975 No 156)
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f “Statistical Classification of settlements”. NI Neighbourhood Information Service. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  18. Jump up ^ The Ulster Gazette. May 16, 2013
  19. Jump up ^  “Kennedy hopes of Armagh line restoration – Portadown Times.” Retrieved 21 August, 2013.
  20. Jump up ^  who was who in America historical volume, 1607-1896.Marquis Who’s Who. In 1963.
  21. Jump up ^ Ibid .
  22. Jump up ^ The most common surnames in Armagh

Navan Fort

Navan Fort ( Old Irish : Emain Macha ( [eṽənʲ ṽaxə] ), Modern Irish : Eamhain Mhacha ( [AWN waxə] )) är en fornlämning i County Armagh , Nordirland . Enligt traditionen var en av de stora kungliga platser av förkristna Gaelic Irland och huvudstad i Ulaid . Avhuggna huvuden av deras fiender sades hållas här. Det är en stor rund höljet präglas av en bank och dike-med en cirkulär kulle och resterna av en ringkärra i mitten. Arkeologiska undersökningar visar att det fanns en gång byggnader på platsen, inklusive en storroundhousen -liknande struktur. Webbplatsen tros ha haft en hednisk ceremoniell ändamål. Enligt Oxford Dictionary of keltisk mytologi “, den [Eamhain Mhacha] av myt och legend är en mycket större och mystisk plats än arkeologiska utgrävnings stöd”. [1]

Namnet Eamhain Mhacha tros betyda “paret Macha ” eller “tvillingarna av Macha”. “Navan” är en Anglicization av den irländska An Eamhain .

Plats och beskrivning

Webbplatsen är ett statligt Care historisk byggnad i townland av Navan i Armagh City och District Council området. Det är på en låg kulle cirka 1,6 miles (2,6 km) väster omArmagh (vid rutnät ref. Område H847 452). [2] Platsen består av en cirkulär hölje 250 meter (820 fot) i diameter, präglad av en bank och dike. Konstigt nog är diket på insidan, vilket tyder på att det inte var byggd för försvar.

Inuti höljet två monument är synliga. Excentriskt till nordväst är ett lerkärl kulle 40 meter (130 fot) i diameter och 6 meter (20 fot) hög. Excentriskt till sydöst är den cirkulära intrycket av en ringkärra, de tillplattade resterna av en sen förhistorisk ceremoniell eller nedgrävning monument, ca 30 meter (100 fot) i diameter. [3]

Arkeologiska utgrävningar har visat att byggandet av 40 meter högen så får du 95 BC (säkert dateras av dendrokronologi ). [3] : 61 A roundhousen -liknande struktur bestående av fyra koncentriska ringar av tjänster kring en central ek stam byggdes, dess ingång mot väster (förhistoriska hus alltid möter österut, mot soluppgången). Golvet i byggnaden täcktes med stenar ordnade i radiella segment, och hela byggnaden var avsiktligt brändes ned innan de täcks i en jordhög och torv (det finns arkeologiska bevis för liknande upprepad byggnad och förbränning av Tara och Dún Ailinne ). [3] : 24-25 banken och dike som markerar höljet gjordes samtidigt.

Ingen fast datum kan tilldelas den ringskottkärra, men utgrävningar och geofysiska undersökningar har visat resterna av en siffra-of-åtta formad träbyggnad under. Den större ringen av figuren-of-åtta var 30 meter (100 fot) i diameter, de mindre cirka 20 meter (65 ft). Byggnaden hade byggts två gånger. Liknande, något mindre strukturer, var och en med en central härd , konstaterades under 40 meter högen. Artefakter som finns i dessa skikt visar de bebodda i slutet av bronsåldern och tidig järnålder (ca 600 till åtminstone 250 f.Kr.). Kanske den mest ovanliga objekt som finns i dessa skikt var skallen av en berberapa . [4]

En tidigare bronsålders struktur, en cirkulär dike som omger högen, 45 meter (150 fot) i diameter, 5 meter (16 fot) bred och 1 meter (3 fot) djup, konstaterades också, och flintverktyg och skärvor av keramik show aktivitet på platsen i neolitiska (c. 4000-2500 BC).

Fram till 1985, var platsen hotas av utbyggnaden av en närliggande kalkbrott. Främst till följd av de ansträngningar aktivistgrupp vänner Navan, en offentlig utredning som genomförts under året stoppat ytterligare brytning, och rekommenderade att platsen utvecklas för turism. Ett besökscentrum, med artefakter och audiovisuella utställningar, öppnades 1993, men stängdes 2001 i brist på medel. [5] det igen på säsongsbasis under 2005 efter det att platsen köptes av Armagh City och District Council .

Andra viktiga förhistoriska platser i närheten inkluderar Haughey Fort , en tidigare bronsåldern hill fort två tredjedelar av en mil (1 km) till det västra; den kungens stall , en konstgjord pool också anor från bronsåldern; ochLoughnashade , en naturlig sjö som har gett järnålders artefakter.

I irländsk mytologi

Enligt irländsk mytologi och historisk tradition det var huvudstad i Ulaidh , de människor som gav sitt namn till provinsen Ulster . Det var förmodligen grundades av gudinnan Macha i den 7: e eller 5: e århundradet f.Kr., och var säte för Conchobar i berättelser om Ulster Cycle . Conchobar sägs ha haft tre hus på Eamhain Mhacha:

  • den Cróeb Ruad ( “Dull Red Branch “, härleder varifrån den närliggande townland av Creeveroe) där kungen satt;
  • den Cróeb Derg ( “Bright Red Branch”), där troféer av slaget hölls, och
  • den Tete Brecc ( “Spräcklig förråd”) där krigare vapen förvarades.

Många av de mest kända namnen i irländsk mytologi förknippas med Eamhain Mhacha och Red Branch krigare.

  • Amergin poeten
  • Cuchulainn , den stora krigaren
  • Emer , hans viljestark och vacker brud
  • Conall Cernach (Conall Segersäll), hans fosterbroder och nära vän
  • Lóegaire , en annan krigare
  • Conchobar , kung av Ulster
  • Cathbad , chefen druid
  • Fergus Mac Róich , en annan stor krigare och kung
  • Deirdre av Sorrows, den vackraste kvinnan i Irland, och Naoise , hennes modiga älskare
  • Leabharcham , den kloka kvinnan

I mytologin namnet Eamhain Mhacha är omväxlande förklaras som “Macha tvillingar” (så därför Macha födde tvillingar där efter att ha tvingats tävla i en vagn-ras) eller “Macha hals-brosch” (kallas så eftersom Macha utstakad gränserna för den platsen med hennes brosch). De Annals of Four Masters post som det övergavs efter den brändes av tre Collas i 331 e.Kr., efter att de hade besegrat Fergus Foga , kung av Ulster, i slaget vid Achadh Leithdheirg .

I populärkulturen

Eamhain Mhacha är namnet på en traditionell irländsk musik band som bildades 2008. [6] irländska heavy metal-bandet Waylander har också en låt som heter “Emain Macha” på deras 1998 album Reawakening Pride gång förlorat .

“Emain Macha” är namnet på en plats i datorspel Dark Age of Camelot , [7] Mabinogien och The Bard Tale .

Se även

  • ? En sluagh sidhe så jag nEamhuin ( “Är detta en älva värd i Eamhain Mhacha?”) – En irländsk dikt dateras till slutet av 16-talet.

Referenser

Anmärkningar

  1. Hoppa upp^Oxford Dictionary of keltisk mytologi , ed. James MacKillop, inträde för Emain Macha
  2. Hoppa upp^ “Navan Fort” (PDF) . Miljö och arv service NI – State Care historiska monument . Hämtastre december 2007 .
  3. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b c. Lynn, Chris (2003) Navan Fort: Arkeologi och myt . Spanien: Wordwell Books. ISBN 1-869857-67-4 .
  4. Hoppa upp^http://irisharchaeology.ie/2014/05/a-barbary-ape-skull-from-navan-fort-co-armagh/
  5. Hoppa upp^Bender, Barabara (2001). “The Politics of the Past: Emain Macha (Navan), Nordirland”. I Layton, Robert. Förstörelse och bevarande av kulturegendom . Routledge . pp. 199-209. ISBN 0-415-21695-8 .
  6. Hoppa upp^[1]
  7. Hoppa upp^Shadows Edge – DAOC – Emain – Dark Age of Camelot New Frontiers Karta

St Patricks Cathedral, Armagh (Church Of Ireland)

St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh  is the seat of the Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland. There are Armagh, Northern Ireland. It is also the Cathedral of the Diocese of Armagh.

History

The origin of the cathedral are related to the construction of the stone church at 445 Druim Sail Each (Willow Ridge) hill at St. Patrick, around which a monastery community development. The church was and is the center for the Church of Ireland. After Henrician Reformation in Ireland cathedral became increasingly associated with the then established church and has been settled in Anglican happening since the reign of Elizabeth I. A Roman Catholic cathedral was built on a nearby hill in the nineteenth century. Friendly relations existing between the two cathedrals.

The church itself has been destroyed and rebuilt 17 times. The building was renovated and restored under Dean Eoghan McCawell (1505-1549) at the beginning of the sixteenth century has suffered a devastating fire in 1511 and is in poor condition. Shortly after his death, the cathedral was described by the Lord Chancellor Cusack as “one of the fairest and best churches in Ireland”.  [1]  Again, it was substantially restored between 1834 and 1840 by Archbishop Lord John George Beresford and architect Lewis Nock Exalted in Cottingham. The fabric is still the medieval (and earlier – in particular the crypt) buildings, but much restored. While Cottingham was heavy-handed in its restoration research of TGF Patterson and Janet Myles at the end of the twentieth century have shown that restoring to have been especially antiquarian of his time. The tracery of the nave windows in particular are meticulous restorations that is a copy of the font. Capital decoration of the two westernmost pillar of the ship (either side of the West Door internal porch) is medieval as the bulk of the external gargoyle carvings (some resited) of the rack in East Arm. Cottingham intends to maintain rich cusped West Door with flanking niches heavens was over ruled. Later restorations have been more radically changed the internal proportions of the medieval building, proportions Cottingham had retained.

Many other Celtic and medieval carvings are to be seen in the cathedral which is also rich in eighteenth and nineteenth century sculpture. There are works of Chantry, Roubiliac, Rysbrack, Mirochetti and others.

Cathedral Foundation and Worship  Precentor – Reverend Terence Scott;Chancellor – Pastor Colin Moore; Treasurer – Pastor John McKegney;Archdeacon – The Venerable Raymond Hoey. Prebendaries: Mullabrack, Reverend WJA Dawson (2006) Bally, Reverend RJN Porteus (2006) Loughgall, Reverend JNT Campbell (2009) Tynan, Pastor WM Adair

Priest Vicars Choral: Pastor Peter Thompson, Succentor (2006) Pastor Michael Kennedy (1995) Pastor TA Cross (2006) Pastor EM Culbertson (2007) Pastor J Moore (2007) Reverend JM McClenaghan (2007)

The Choral Foundation, dating from Culdees and refounded as the Royal College of King Charles the Vicars Choral and organist at the Cathedral in Armagh, continues until today. There is generally a dozen men in the Lay Vicars Choral and sixteen boy choristers.

Every Sunday there are three services in the cathedral; 10:00 said the Eucharist, 11:00 Sung Eucharist (except the second Sunday of the month when sung Matins) and 3:15 Choral Evensong.Matins said, Monday to Saturday, at 09:30. On holidays and anniversaries, the Eucharist is celebrated at 9:30.

Notable burials

  • Marcus Gervais Beresford (1801-1885), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland (appointed in 1862). Cousin of Lord John Beresford
  • Charles Frederick D’Arcy (1859-1938), Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland
  • Saint Ethnea, baptized by St. Patrick, died around 433 AD; Her Feast Day is 11 January
  • Brian Boru (c.942-1014) högkung
  • Lord John Beresford
  • John Baptist Crozier and his wife Alice Isabella

Organs and organists

Organ

Details of the organ from the National Organ Register

organists

  • 1634 Richard Galway
  • 1661 John Shaw
  • 1695 Robert Hodge
  • 1711 William Toole
  • 1722 Samuel Betteridge
  • 1752 John Woffington
  • 1759 Robert Barnes
  • 1776 Langrishe Doyle
  • 1782 Richard Langdon
  • 1794 John Clarke Whitfield
  • 1797 JOHN JONES
  • 1816 Frederick Horncastle
  • 1823 Robert Turle
  • 1872 Thomas Marks
  • 1917 GHP Hewson
  • 1920 Edred Chaundy
  • 1935 West Reginald
  • 1951 Frederick Carter
  • 1966 Christopher Phelps
  • 1968 Martin White
  • 2002-2015 Theo Saunders
  • 2015- Present Dr. Stephen Timpany

See also

  • Anglicanism portal
  • List of cathedrals in Ireland
  • Dean of Armagh List of Deans in Armagh cathedral.
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh (Roman Catholic)

References 

  1. Jump up ^ Church in two nations. Published in early modern history (1500-1700), functions, Issue 1 (Spring 1998), medieval history (pre-1500), Volume 6 http://www.historyireland.com/early-modern-history-1500-1700/ the-church-from-two nations

St Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh (Roman Catholic)

St. Patrick’s Cathedral  in Armagh, Northern Ireland is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland. It was built in stages between 1840 and 1904 to serve as the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Armagh, the original medieval cathedral of St. Patrick have been transferred to the Protestant Church in Ireland at the time of the Irish Reformation.

The cathedral stands on a hill, which makes his Anglican counterpart.

Cathedral Primate Crolly

The construction of a Catholic cathedral in Armagh was a task imbued with great historical and political symbolism. Armagh the primatial seat of Ireland and its ancient ecclesiastical capital Darst Patrick had established its Great Church. But since the Irish Reformation under Henry VIII had no Catholic archbishop resident there. Since the seventeenth century, had the majority Catholic population in Ireland living under the rigors of criminal laws, a number of provisions that were designed, in the words of the Anglo-Irish historian Lecky, “to deprive Catholics of all civilian lives, to reduce them to a state of extreme, brutal ignorance, and to distance them from the ground. ” As a result, while to some extent tolerated, the public practice of Catholicism was almost completely extinguished and all the churches exist at the time of the adoption of laws ceded to the established church. Thus, in the late eighteenth century, there were some Catholic churches and cathedrals no existing in Ireland for a large Catholic population. After Catholic Emancipation in 1829, the need to build churches and cathedrals to serve this population became critically apparent. The lack of a Catholic presence in the primatial city of Armagh, in particular, became a popular cause of discontent among the emerging Catholic episcopate, clergy and congregation.

Archbishop William Crolly was appointed to the Catholic See Armagh in 1835 and almost immediately sought permission to reside in Armagh; the first Catholic Primate to do so since the Reformation. After having settled in the town, he put then to seek a site for a new Catholic cathedral. The main difficulty in constructing a Catholic Cathedral in Armagh was that the country Armagh city and suburbs consisted almost entirely of “see the country,” the mensal property or demesne of the Protestant Primate and thus would not be available for the Catholic Episcopate to purchase. A dramatic location on top of a hill on the outskirts of the city, however, had been sold to the Earl of Dartrey. According to the ninth century Book of Armagh, this hill was prominent in the St. Patrick had reunited DOE spared at the site of the high altar of his Cathedral during his inauguration in around 445 AD with his mother.

A building committee was established and a weekly penny collection taken for construction. The architect was to be Thomas Duff of Newry who had designed the cathedral there and also the Pro-Cathedral iDundalk.

He designed a cross-building, with a nave, aisles, trancepts, cows, and run; a large square central tower and two smaller ones on the western front flanking the main door, and flush with the walls of time, similar to York Minster. At Dundalk, the style was a highly romanticized and noticeably un-historicist version of Perpendicular Gothic of the sixteenth century. The foundation stone was laid on St. Patrick’s Day 1838 but as a result of the Irish Famine work stalled in 1847 with the basics and aisles only partially complete.

Cathedral of choice Dixon and McGettigan

Archbishop Crolly was himself a victim of starvation, contracting cholera while tending to famine-ravaged Drogheda and die on Good Friday 1849.Hans successor, Archbishop Paul Cullen abandoned the project and moved primatial See Drogheda. It was only when Cullen was translated into Dublin and Archbishop Joseph Dixon was appointed to the See Armagh who work resumed in 1854. At this time, Duff was dead and there had been a revolution in ecclesiastical architectural taste of Ireland. After the visit to Ireland of AWN Pugin, the perpendicular Gothic was the style of the sixteenth century had fallen from favor and the former medieval Gothic becoming more popular. The architect James Joseph McCarthy, a self-proclaimed “student” of Pugin, was appointed to oversee the completion of the cathedral.

Its position as the architect for the new cathedral was quite difficult for the, at the time of McCarthy’s appointment, the walls of Duff’s Perpendicular building was already 10 meters (34 feet) high and had reached the top of the aisles. McCarthy does not want to continue to build the now outmoded Perpendicular Gothic Duff. His solution was to start building a Decorated Gothic cathedral of the fourteenth century on top of the alleged sixteenth century foundations and walls. Decorated Gothic tracery was introduced into the existing window openings and in the west, he reduced the size of the window and traceried-in an arcade of apostolic statues. The pitch of the roof was raised Duff a full 6.1 meters (20 feet), adding significantly to the external impact of the building and allows the insertion of the clerestory and Triforium to the interior. A sense of drama added to the transepts by adding asymerical spired towers at its ends and the addition of bow windows to their ends. The most dramatic change is made to Duff plans were desertion of the three fairly squat tower designed by Duff to reach a height of 39 meters (128 feet). Instead, two broken towers crowned with spiers of 64 meters (210 feet) high were built in the western part.

Dixon died back in 1866 before the completion of the cathedral and once again the project was abandoned in his older successor Archbishop Michael Kieran. It therefore fell to Kieran’s successor, Archbishop Daniel McGettigan to complete the building. After completion of the spiers, McGettigan turned his attention to the interior. Here, to capitalize on the increased height at the expense of external design studies, McCarthy constructed an elaborately carved arched hammer-beam ceiling with carved angels concluding the hammer beams and stone saint consoles. He constructed a Caen stenreredos that spans the entire wall at the east end and filled with carvings from the Life of the Virgin in an arcade carved and crocketted pinnacles and centered with a carved canopy over the statue of the Madonna and child. Archbishop McGettigan authorized painted murals that adorn the walls of the Lady Chapel and stencilling applied onto its roof. The cathedral was consecrated August 24, 1873

After the inauguration, Primate McGettigan continued to make improvements as funds and his fall would allow. In 1875 he was ordered Stations of the Cross from Herbert & Co. Liverpool and installed the large 33-stop organ by William Telford. In 1879, seven light east windows filled with stained glass of Earley & Powell in Dublin and work began on seven terrace stairs to the plaza in front of the west end. Finally, in 1884, a sexton’s lodge was constructed at the bottom of the stairs. When Archbishop McGettigan died in December 1887 after several years of declining health, the cathedral had seen the passage of five successive archbishops and expenditure for the unprecedented sum of over £ 70,000.

Cathedral Cardinal Logue

McGettigan’s successor as Archbishop Michael Logue, longest Archbishop of Armagh. An acquaintance learned priest, Logue was appointed to the College of Cardinals by Leo XIII in 1893, became the first Archbishop of Armagh appointed to the College in its history. When he came up to the finished Cathedral in Armagh, Logue was far from impressed. He complained about the “poor and beggerly elements” in decor and noted that “visitors who had turned to the cathedral filled with admiration for the beauty of its exterior was … unpleasantly surprised, not to say disedified in comparative shabbiness and poverty interior”. On August 20, 1899 Cardinal Logue issued a pastoral letter entitled “The National Cathedral” urged the Irish people and its diaspora to supply sufficient funds to beautify the interior of the cathedral. A collection Bazaar was organized in 1900 and now by the architect William Hague in Dublin (who had inherited much of McCarthy’s practice at his death) was appointed to make plans.

The bazaar raised over £ 30,000 and Logue traveled to Italy with his architect to visit the marble quarries and artisan workshops, selecting materials and craftsmen to perform the Hague plans. Haag died shortly after designing the first of its extension: a marble rood 9.1 meters (30 feet) wide and 11 meters (36 feet) high.

He was replaced by George Coppinger Ashlin, former partner Pugin’s son. At the appointment Ashlin identified almost immediately a large structural problems with the roof at McCarthy aisles and a new groined ceiling Bath stone was constructed. In combination with repairs due to the towers that had not been designed to take the weight of McCarthy’s spiers, used a large part of the funds raised by the bazaar. Yet Cardinal Logue pressed ahead with lavish plans. Ashlin designed an altar carved from Carrara marble, Lapis Lazuli and Jasper to sit at the Hague’s rood and Italian sculptor Cesare Aureli was commissioned to cut a head in  alto relievo  of Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper.

Ashlin closed the crossing by constructing two side screens of marble statues, 9.1 meters (30 feet) wide, across the north and south transepts and sculptures in marble communion rails inlaid with  Breccia di S Votaleat Nave.

The  Cathedra  throne is projected in three divisions in the second bay on the north side with canopied niches, has crockets and pinnacles and crowned with a marble spire. In the middle of the throne was carved with the arms of Cardinal in statuary marble. The entire intersection was coated with inlaid marble, constructed in squares with quatrefoil panels and cross and centered on a  pietra dura  representation of the Cardinal’s armorial bearings.

An elaborate pulpit was constructed in the southwest pier of intersection.Consists of statuary marble inlaid with rare colored marbles, his plane was octagonal, with angular niches containing statues of the Evangelists, St. Patrick and St. Brigid, the canopies above the statues and carved groined.The panels between the statues filled with inlaid traceries. The canopy of the pulpit, rises to a height of nearly 36 ft. Was carved in Austrian oak painted white and inlaid with colored enamel and gold leaf.

Behind the rood, McCarthy reredos remained intact, but its lower parts enriched with marble inlay in a diaper pattern with  fleur de lis  in a vibrant variety of colored Italian marbles. A new Lady altar and the tabernacle was constructed before the altar wall of the marble statue. The antependium contained three relief groups, labor prominent Roman sculptor Michele Trepisciano (1860-1913) shows “The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple”, “assumption” and “Coronation of the Virgin” inset into separate panels with cusped heads, and columns  Breccia di Seravezza Antica  and Breccia Corallina  bullets. The tabernacle, inlaid with Corsican Jasper, was in the form of a cube topped with a roof made of fish scales carvings and ended with two large marble statues standing angels.

In the north and south of the Lady Chapel, was Side chapels erected to St. Joseph (North) and St Brigid (South), close the aisles in the East.

In the south transept, was a sumptuous altar erected to the Sacred Heart.Finally, to the west end, McCarthy wooden gallery replaced with a three-bay marble screen of white marble supported the quatrefoil pillars  Portas Suppose  marble and inlaid with  Brocatello  marble. The organ itself was built to fit the new enlarged space and a new Austrian oak organ case was designed and built.

The most striking and composed by Cardinal Logue’s legacy to the cathedral, however, was the system of mosaics he was commissioned to decorate every inch of blank wall in the Cathedral. Considerable thought was given to how best to deal with the decoration of the walls of the building. Metropolitan McGettigan had completed a system of painted murals and stencilling of the walls, but as a result of Armagh humid climate, these had died within a few years of completion. T therefore decided to adopt a mosaic decorative order, with the initial high costs paid by the future save on repainting a mural systems. The material used was Italian ceramics of different colors in the cube-shaped cubes of glass slabs for plated parts to prevent tarnishing, and for increased gloss. The sections were compiled in two workshops in London and carefully glued, face down, on paper strips. These were then applied to a fresh coating of special cement on the walls in a manner similar to the hanging of wallpaper.

To complete its scheme of decoration, Cardinal Logue ordered Italian painter Oreste Amici (1872-1930), who had been trained at the Institute of Fine Arts in Rome, painting the picture of McCarthy’s hammer beam ceiling in an Italian style .The ceiling is painted in oil, the current shadow primer adopted by a soft terracotta to harmonize with the color of the wall mosaic.

With works closed, stirred cathedral solemnly rededicated July 20, 1904.

Reformulation: the Cathedral Cardinals Conway and O’Fiaich

The cathedral remained much as Cardinal Logue left it until the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council called for work to be carried out on the high altar. William Cardinal Conway was appointed to the See Armagh in 1963 even though he had served as senior Irish participants in the Second vatikankoncilietsedan start. He returned to Armagh Archbishop keen to introduce the reforms proposed by the Council. The reforms of the liturgy requires greater visibility and Assembly participation in Catholic services and for a time it had felt that 1904 marble works at the intersection had prevented large-scale ritual in the cathedral. Conway then inaugurated an architectural competition to adapt shrine Armagh cathedral to the new requirements and to allow greater freedom of movement and visibility around the shrine area. Several candidates submitted designs and controversial all of them suggested to remove substantially all of Ashlin marble works at the intersection. Conway chose the winning design by Liam McCormick (1916-1996), even if the work is started on the reorganization of the intersection until the death of Cardinal Conway in 1977.

It then fell to Tomas Cardinal O’Fiaich to complete the works. As completed, they were as radical as they were divisive. The entirety of marble in the intersection were removed and much of it destroyed, including The Hague’s rood and Ashlin’s high altar, Cathedra, the altar and the inlaid marble floor.The pulpit was dismantled and broken up and the side altar to Saints Brigid and St. Joseph were removed and relocated in other churches. Only McCarthy Caen stone removal reredos survived, although their lower parts, enriched in 1904 with Carrara marble, dismantled and flowers wallpaper attached to the lower part of the reredos in their place. New furnishings carved from rough hewn Wicklow granite was installed at the intersection and the sanctuary area was expanded beyond the line of the former rood and was taken up by several feet and dressed in polished Wicklow granite. Critic had been 1904 system design and foreign materials that result in the reorganization stressed its native roots. The new altar, ambo and tabernacle was carved by a sculptor Dundalk, Peter McTigue and the tent is manufactured in Kilkenny. Carpets that replaces the marble floor was woven in Killybegs. To replace the rood cross, was a huge sculpture entitled “Tree of Life” mission from Imogen Stuart, the German-born Irish skulptör.Katedralen re rededicated June 13, 1982 when the relics of St. Malachy placed in the new altar.

The work was met with almost unanimous shock and outrage. “Neither the quality of the replacements or skill craft can hide the total alienation of the new work from the spirit and meaning which was McCarthy’s ecclesiological and architectural inspiration. In this setting, these modern intrusions appear unjustified and irrelevant, “complained the Ulster Architectural Heritage Society (UAHS, 1992). Architecture historian Joan Sheehy wrote on reformulation as “compensation … of a fine late Gothic Revival cows with pieces of granite and a tabernacle which looks like a microwave.”

Restoration and renovation: the Cathedral by Cardinal Brady

Even the decorative style cathedral thus changed significantly in 1982, had the building has not undergone any major construction since the exchange of time-ceiling in 1904. In 2002, the need for major structural repairs to the building has become apparent. As a result of the construction methods walls and wear of the roof had moist damaged much of mosaic and painted decorations had blunted with smoke and dust. A large part of the exterior stonework had been destroyed and the twin spired towers had become unstable. A pin-committee to monitor these great works to secure the building decided that the time was ripe to examine the much criticized sanctuary. The firm Rooney & McConville was commissioned to design the sanctuary area. McCormick’s vilified seized deleted in its entirety and the sanctuary area re floor with Italian porcelain tiles from Armatile mimic (with little success) inlaid marble floor of 1904 that had survived virtually intact for McCormick granite podium.marmorgolvet is thus finally destroyed in the process. A new altar and ambo of Tunisian limestone was installed.

The altar was inspired by early-Irish cross and the image of Christ (Crucified, Risen, Return to Glory), flanked by the Apostles, on three sides. The fourth side visible from the main part of the church showing Our Lord with four Irish saints: St. Patrick St. Malachy, St. Brigid and St. Oliver Plunkett .Two pair of brass gates that had survived from 1899 marble rood was replicated several times, welded, topped with a completely convincing poor quality gothic crown and made into a new full brass screen behind the high altar, restoring a separate Lady Chapel area as the culmination of an ambulatory around the shrine area. Tabernacle removed to Southern nave which in turn is shielded by another brass screens and Cathedra placed on a podium directly behind the new altar. A Evangelarium created in the south tower (now converted to a shop), and the baptistry was restored at the base of the north tower. The base of the McCarthy reredos was restored in 1904 and inlaid marbles revealed. At the time of the rededication of the cathedral May 25, 2003 more than £ 6 million had been used.

The Crossing designed by Rooney & McConville, 2003

Cathedral today

Daily Mass is held Monday through Saturday at 10:00. On Sunday, Mass is celebrated at 9:00, 11:00 and 05:30, with a 7:00 Vigil Mass on Saturday evening. Lots holy day celebrated at 09:00 and 11:00. Confessions are usually heard before and after the Saturday evening vigil mass.

funerals

  • Cardinal William Conway
  • Cardinal John D’Alton
  • Tomas Cardinal Ó Fiaich
  • Michael Cardinal Logue
  • William Cardinal Crolly

Organ

The organ in Armagh cathedral was originally built by the famous organ builder William Telford 1875. In 1987, the organ was rebuilt, enlarged and tonal changes of the Irish Organ Company Ltd. who also gave a new townhouse drawknob console. The renovation was designed by the late John Holmes with the Cathedral Organist Baron George Memory as a consultant.All the old pipes and individual cases were not restored and retained. The organ is now part of the English, French Cavaille-Coll and European style, the dominant sound is French. The organ currently has four manuals and 58 stops.

Specification

Positif:  Gelind gedeckt 8, Bell Gamba 8, Singend Principal 4, Koppelflute 4, Nasard 2 2/3, Octavin two, Tierce a 3/5, Petit Cymbale III, Cromorne 8, Zymbalstern, anxious (adjustable), Octave, Essential positif, Swell to positif, Bombarde to positif,

Large:  Double Diapason 16, Open Diapason 8, Gamba 8, Bourdon 8, Principal 4, flute Ouverte 4, 2 2/3 twelfth, fifteenth 2, Fourniture V Cymbale II (a total crazy screaming deal,) 16 Bombarde, Trompette 8 , Clairon 4, Swell to Great, Positif Great, Positif Sub-Octave to Great,

Swell:  Open Diapason 8, Stopped Diapason 8, Salicional 8, Unda Maris 8, Principal 4, Doublette 2, Plein Jeu III, Basson 16, Cornopean 8, Clarion 4, anxious (adjustable), Octave, Sub-Octave,

Bombarde:  Flute Harmonique 8, Voce Umana 8 + 8, Carillon III Orlos 8, Trompeta Magna 16 (TC from Trompeta Réal 8), Trompeta Réal 8, Clarin 4 (From Trompeta Réal 8), Campana Bella (an octave of clocks),

Pedal  Gravissima 32, Principal 16, Violonbasse 16, Bourdon 16, Double Diapason (large) Violone 8 (From Violonbasse 16), Gedecktbass 8, Principal 4, Doublette 2, Grosse Fourniture III, Carillon II, Bombarde 16 Basson 16 (Swell) trumpet 8 (from Bombarde 16), Clarion 4 (from Bombarde 16), Orlos 4 (from Orlos 8, Bombarde) Positif pedaling, great to Pedal, Swell to Pedal, Bombarde pedaling, large and pedal Pistons Together.

Organist

The organist of St. Patrick’s Cathedral for over 50 years, Baron George Memory, born in Belgium in 1924. He has a large repertoire of Bach, Handel, Mozart and various French composers, and is a most accomplished pianist and composer.

Bibliography

  • Buildings Co. Armagh  by CEB Brett, published by the Ulster Architectural Heritage Society 1999
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh  . Tomas Ó Fiaich. The Irish Heritage Series: 58, Eason & Son Ltd, Dublin, in 1987.

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