CategoryCounty Antrim

Rathlin Island

Rathlin Island  (from Irish:  Reachlainn  ) is an island and the parish off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland.


Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island Northern Ireland, with a growing population of about 145 people, and is the northernmost inhabited island off the coast of Ireland. The inverted L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles (6 km) from east to west, and 2.5 miles (4 km) from north to south.

The highest point on the island is Slieveard, 134 meters (440 feet) above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles (25 km) from the Mull of Kintyre, the southern tip of Scotland’s Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, and represented by Rathlin Development & Community Association.  [2]

Town Country

Rathlin is part of the traditional Baroni Cary (around town Bally), and the district Moyle. The island is a parish and is divided into 22 townlands:

townland Area acre [3] 
Ballycarry 298
Ballyconagan 168
Bally Gill USA 244
Bally Gill North 149
Bally Gill South 145
Ballynagard 161
Ballynoe 80
Carravinally (Corravina Beg) 116
Carravindoon (Corravindoon) 188
church Quarter 51
Cleggan (Clagan) 202
Craigmacagan (Craigmacogan) 153
demesne 67
glebe 24
Kebble 269
Kilpatrick 169
Kinkeel 131
Kinramer North 167
Kinramer South (Kinramer) 173
Knockans 257
Mullindross (Mullindress) 46
Roonivoolin 130


A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles (10 km) away. Two ferries on the route – a quick foot passenger only catamaran ferry called “Rathlin Express” and a larger ferry, owned by the Scottish Government, called “MV  Canna  “, carrying both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.  [ 4] [5]  Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 as a subsidized “lifeline” service.  [6]  there is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners.  [7] 


Rathlin is a prehistoric volcanic origin, which have been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province.  [8]

Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland. It is home to tens of thousands of sea birds, including guillemots, kittiwakes, puffins and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is a popular place förfågelskådare, with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve with spectacular views of Rathlin’s bird colony. The RSPB has also managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the chough. Northern Ireland’s only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively barren island is impressive, standing 70 meters (230 feet) high. Bruce’s cave  [9]  is named after Robert Bruce, also known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider. As described as inspiring Bruce to continue their struggle for Scottish independence  [10] The  island is also the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.  [11]

2008-09, the Coast Guard in the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland implemented bathymetric survey work in the area north of County Antrim, update Admiralty charts (Joint Irish bathymetric survey Project) .By doing so a number of interesting underwater geological identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged or the crater lake on a plateau with clear evidence of the rivers that feed it. This suggests the events that led to the flooding – ground subsidence or rising water levels – was extremely quick.Marine research in the area has also identified new species of anemone, rediscovered fan mussel (the UK’s largest and rarest mussels – thought to be found only in Plymouth Sound and a few places off the West of Scotland) and a number of shipwreck sites,  [12] [13]  , including HMS Drake (1901),  [14]  , which was torpedoed and sank just off the island 1917th 


Rathlin probably known to the Romans, Pliny refers to “Reginia” and Ptolemy to “Rhicina” or “Eggarikenna”. In the 7th century Adomnán mentions “Rechru” and “Rechrea insula”, and these may also have been early name for Rathlin.  [15]  The 11th century Irish version of History Brittonum indicates that the Fir Bolg “took the man and other islands except -. Arran, Islay and ‘Racha’ ‘another possible early variant  [16]

Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster. The raid, marked by the looting of the island’s church and the burning of its buildings, took place in 795 (  Burning of Reachrainn of looters, and its shrines were broken and looted.  )

In 1306, Robert Bruce sought refuge on Rathlin, which is owned by the Irish Bissett family, staying in Rathlin Castle, originally belonging to their domination in the Glens of Antrim. The Bissetts later displaced by Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, to welcome Bruce.Later, in the 16th century, it came into the possession of Macdonnell in Antrim.

Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront the Scottish refugees on the island, and in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men, women and children in the Clan MacDonnell was killed.  [17] [18]  Also in 1642, Covenanter Campbell Foot soldiers in Argyll encouraged by his commander Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands clan MacDonald. This they did with ruthless efficiency, throwing lots of MacDonald women over cliffs to their death on the rocks below.  [19] [20]  The number of victims of this massacre has been as low as a hundred and as high as three thousand.  

In the later 18th century, kelp production became important with Rathlin become an important center of production. The shoreline is still full of ovens and bins. This was a commercial venture, sponsored by the landowners on the island and encompassed the entire society.  [21]

A 19th century British visitors to the island found that they had an unusual form of government where they chose a judge who sat on the “throne of turf”.  [22]

The world’s first commercial wireless telegraphy link was formed by employees Guglielmo Marconi between East lighthouse on Rathlin to Kenmara House Bally July 6, 1898.  [23]

More recently, Richard Branson crashed his hot air balloon in the sea off Rathlin Island in 1987 after his record flight across the Atlantic from Maine.  [Citation needed ]  

The island formerly boasted a population of over a thousand in the 19th century, and its current permanent population is about 125. This swelled with visitors in the summer, with most going to see the cliffs and their huge seabird populations. Many visitors come for the day, and the island has around 30 beds for overnight visitors. Boathouse visitor center at Church Bay is open seven days a week from April to September, minibus tours and bike rentals also available. The island is also popular with divers who come to explore the many wrecked ships in the surrounding waters.

Rathlin Island dialect of Irish are now extinct, and could have been described as intermediary form between the other Irish and Scottish dialects.

On 29 January 2008 the RNLI Portrush lifeboat, the “Katie Hannan,” grounded after a big swell hit the rear end of the ship on the breakwater rocks just outside the harbor on Rathlin while trying to retrieve an islander RIB. The lifeboat was handed over to an outside salvage company.  [24] [25] 

In July 2013 BT Ireland installed a high-speed wireless broadband pilot project to a number of premises. The first deployment of its kind in the UK and Ireland, “wirelessly to the cabinet” will deliver 80Mbs to the user. [26]

After Brexit referendum June 23, 2016 is Rathlin residents consider being a part of Scotland, to remain within the European Union.  [27]


Tievebulliagh mountain near Cushendall has a Neolithic stone ax factory, and a similar one is to be found in Brockley (a cluster of houses in the townland of Bally Gill USA)  [28]  and has the same porcellanite stone. The island has also been settled during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.There is also a unexcavated Viking vessel in a mound formation.  [29]

Gallery of panoramic photos

  • views of Rathlin Island seen from the boat to Bally
  • panorama of Rathlin Island Harbour
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • panorama of Rathlin Island
  • views of Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island harbor


  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island Seafront
  • Rathlin lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island harbor
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island beach
  • Rathlin Island rocks
  • Rathlin Island cliffs and lighthouse
  • Rathlin Island Harbour
  • Rathlin Island from Bengore Head on the North Antrim Coast
  • Rathlin Island Ferry
  • Rue Point on the south of Rathlin Island looking towards Fairhead
  • The island seen from Dry Headmed Fair Head visible to the left
  • Rathlin Island Ferry at Ballycastle

See also

  • References Conservation in the UK
  • northern Ireland
  • List of islands in Ireland
  • List of islands in Great Britain
  • List of civil parishes in County Antrim
  • Chadwick, Hector Munro (1949)  Early Scotland Picts, Scots and Welsh in southern Scotland  . Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, WJ (1994)  The Celtic place names in Scotland  . Edinburgh;Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published in Edinburgh; Celtic Royal Society, the 1926th


Portrush  (from Irish:  Port Rois  meaning “cape port”)  [2]  is a small seaside town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, on the County Londonderry border. The main part of the old town, including the railway station and most hotels, restaurants and bars, is built on a mile-long peninsula, Ramore Head, pointing north-northwest. It had a population of 6.454 people, as measured by the 2011 Census. During the off-season, Portrush is a bedroom community for the nearby campus of the University of Ulster in Coleraine. It neighbors the resort Port.

The city is known for its three sandy beaches, West Beach, East Beach and white stones, as well as Royal Portrush Golf Club, the only golf club outside mainland Britain which has hosted the Open Championship.

It was the base for  Katie Hannan  (this life boat was damaged in 2008 after running aground during a rescue on Rathlin Island, now based as a training boat for RNLI), a Severn class lifeboat and  Ken and Mary  , a D class coast by RNLI lifeboat. Lifeboats have operated from Portrush Harbour since 1860, and currently stationed there’s Severn Class William Gordon Burr  and D-class coaster David Roulston  .

Portrush is in the East Londonderry constituency of the UK Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly.


A number of flint tools were found during the late nineteenth century shows that the location of Portrush occupied during “Larnian” (late Irish Mesolithic) period,  [4]  Latest estimates to date to about 4000 BC.  [5]

The location of Portrush, with its excellent natural defenses, was probably a permanent solution around the 12 or 13 century. A church is known to have been on Ramore Head at this time, but no part of it survives now. From the records of the papal taxation in 1306, the Portrush Church – seems to have been quite wealthy – and by extension the village. The cape also held two castles, with varying periods. The first of these, Caislean an Teenie, believed to have been on top of Ramore Head, and probably destroyed in the late 16th century; the second, Portrush castle may have been built around the time of the Plantation of Ulster in the early 17th century. Nothing survives either castle.  [6]

As a result of the war the Three Kingdoms in the middle of the seventeenth century, became Portrush a small fishing village. It grew considerably during the nineteenth century as a tourist destination, after opening avjärnvägsBallyMena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Portrush Junction in 1855, and at the turn of the twentieth century has become one of the biggest tourist destinations in Ireland, with a number of large hotels and guesthouses, including prominent Northern Counties Hotel. Like the city’s beaches and Royal Portrush Golf Club (opened 1888), the nearby Giant’s Causeway was a popular tourist destination, with the Giant’s Causeway Tramway – at that time one of the world’s longest electrified railways – building in 1893 to cater to travelers coming from Portrush.

The city’s fortunes peaked in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, and declined after World War II with the growth of foreign travel. It escaped any involvement in the Troubles until August 6, 1976, when a series of bombings of buildings burned and destroyed several buildings, but without loss of life.  [7]  In a second attack in April 1987, two officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was shot in the back by the provisional Irish Republican army while on foot patrol on Main Street.  [8]


Portrush is classified as a small town in the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA)  [9]  (ie with population between 4,500 and 10,000 people). 2011 Census recorded that there were 6.454 people living in Portrush. Of these:

  • 18.89% were younger than 16 years, and 25.11% were aged 60 and over
  • 48.22% of the population were male and 51.78% were women
  • 20.8% listed their religion as Catholic, 50.8% were of Protestant denomination, and 14% said no religion.
  • 4.97% of the population aged 16-74 were unemployed.

For more information, see :. Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service  [10]

Tourist attractions

  • Attractions in the city include the “coastal zone” (formerly Portrush Countryside Centre),  [11]  Waterworld swimming complex, and, in the outskirts of the city, the ties between the Royal Portrush Golf Club, which hosted the 1951 British Open Golf Championship and Ballyreagh golf course. At the 1951 British Open Golf Championship young star Derek McLachlan won the hearts of the local crowd when he led the third day with 3 kind only to run out of bounds twice on the last day of the open and finished tied for 8th place.
  • There are two long sandy beaches in the city, the so-called Western and Eastern Beach. White Rocks and Curran Strand stretch on from the East Strand and are backed by sand dunes. The coast continues past Dunluce Castle to Giant’s Causeway (it was once possible to travel to these attractions from Portrush at the Giant’s Causeway Tramway). A 13-foot high bronze sculpture,  [12] inspired by local traditional sail boats, located at East Beach ( “for the people of the sea” by Cork-based sculptor Holger Lönze).
  • Portrush is home to one of Northern Ireland’s most famous nightclubs.Kelly complex consists of a multitude of bars and clubs and is Northern Ireland’s biggest nightclub complex.  [ Citation needed ]  There are nightclub Lush!  Like attracts many of the world’s top DJ and host BBC Radio 1 events.  
  • Portrush is also home to Barry’s Amusements, the largest amusement park in Northern Ireland. The actor James Nesbitt once worked in Barry.
  • The inserts, a collection of stones lying just off the coast, is an important habitat for several species, some unique to Northern Ireland.
  • Portrush parkrun is a free, weekly, timed 5 km runs along the East Strand beach to the White Rocks and back.  [13]


  • Portrush hosted an annual air show in early September.  [14]
  • The RNLI raft race is a popular annual event. This is a popular game show where contestants must build a raft that can travel from West Strand beach in Portrush Harbour. The race has been on Northern Ireland News broadcasts in several years. The event is a great credit to the RNLI’s popularity in the region.  [15]
  • The North West 200 is a motorcycle race that runs through Port, Coleraine and Portrush each May, a prolonged tourist attraction that has attracted audience of over 150,000 in recent years.  [16]  The late brothers Joey Dunlop and Robert Dunlop have been regular winners at the races : they hold the record for most wins, thirteen and fifteen respectively.


The following schools in Portrush:  [ citation needed ]  

  • Portrush Primary School  : an elementary school with a nursery unit at Crocnamac Road. The school educates about 250 students aged 4-11.Portrush Primary founded 1959th
  • Carnalridge Primary School  : back in 2010 by ex-student and professional golfer Graeme McDowell.  [ Citation needed ]  
  • Mill Strand Integrated Primary School  .
  • St Patricks Primary School  .


  • LGBT Activist Mark Ashton lived here.  [17]
  • Golfer Darren Clarke, winner of the Open Championship 2011, live in Portrush.
  • Fred Daly, golfer, winner of the 1947 Open Championship
  • Golfer Graeme McDowell, who was the first Irishman to win the US Open, born in Portrush.


  • Royal Portrush Golf Club. The only place outside of mainland Britain to host the British Open. 2011 British Open champion Darren Clarke is the resident professional clubs, and live in Portrush.
  • Portrush Hockey Club
  • The Northern Ireland Milk Cup uses Parker Avenue in Portrush as one of the venues for the tournament, and many teams stay within the city itself.
  • All three Portrush beaches often used by water sports enthusiasts, especially surfers and bodyboarders
  • Coleraine afford to maintain tennis courts, bowling greens and a playground on Ramore Head.
  • Fishing is popular from land or at sea, Causeway Lass fishing boat available for rent at the harbor.


Portrush railway station was inaugurated December 4, 1855 and closed for freight September 20, 1954. The station is the last stop on the Coleraine-Portrush railway line, where travelers can connect with trains to Derry, Belfastoch outside.  [18]

Portrush is a busy seaside resort, with a frequent train service run by Northern Ireland Railways contact with Ulsterbus services related to Bushmills and the Giant’s Causeway.

See also

  • List of RNLI stations
  • Stewart


  1. Jump up ^ Dunluce Castle NI US Department of the Environment.Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ placental Database of Ireland
  3. Jump up ^  “Portrush chapel, Ireland”. Wesleyan Juvenile Offer. London.Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society  VII : March 31, 1850 is taken.Nineteen November 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25506293, p. 244; JSTOR 25513788, p. 238-242
  5. Jump up ^ JSTOR 25800527, p. 249
  6. Jump up^,274001,en.pdf
  7. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1976
  8. Jump up ^ Cain: Chronology of the conflict, 1987
  9. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website.”
  10. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service website.
  11. Jump up ^  “Education in the coastal areas Portrush”. UK: DOENI.Retrieved 19 August 2014.  External link to (help) | publisher =
  12. Jump up ^  “East Strand Portrush artworks website”.
  13. Jump up ^  Missing or empty (help) | title =
  14. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland International Air Show website”.
  15. Jump up ^  “Portrush Royal National sea rescue site.”
  16. Jump up ^ BBC News
  17. Jump up ^ Doward, Jamie (21 September 2014). “The real triumph gay communist behind the hit movie Pride”. The Guardian.
  18. Jump up ^  “Portrush station” (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways.Retrieved 28 August of 2007.

The Old Bushmills Distillery

The  Old Bushmills Distillery  is a distillery in Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. As of December 2014, it was in the process of moving from ownership of Diageo plc to Jose Cuervo. All whiskey bottled under the Bushmills whiskey brand is produced in Bushmills Distillery and uses water drawn from Saint Columb’s Rill, which is a tributary of the River Bush. The distillery is a popular tourist attraction, with around 120,000 visitors per year.

The company that originally built the distillery was founded in 1784, but the date of 1608 is printed on the label of the brand -. Referring to an earlier time when a royal license was granted to a local landowner to distill whiskey in the area  [1] [2]  for different periods of closure in its recent history, the distillery has been in continuous operation since it was built after a fire in 1885. 


The area has a long tradition of distillation. According to one story, as far back as 1276, called an early settler Sir Robert Savage of Ards, before defeating the Irish in battle, strengthened their troops with “a mighty drop acqua vitae”.  [3]  In 1608, a license was granted Sir Thomas Phillipps by king James in distilling whiskey.  [4]

for the next seven years, in countie of Colrane, otherwise known as O Cahanes countrey, or within territorie called Rowte in Antrim by himselfe or his servauntes, to do, ho, and distill these and SOE large amounts aqua penalty, usquabagh and aqua composita, that he or his assignes shall thinke fitt; and the same to sell, vent and dispose of all people, yerelie yeeldinge Somme 13s 4d …

Bushmills Old Distillery Company itself was not established until 1784 by Hugh Anderson.  [1]  Bushmills suffered many lean years with many periods of closure with no information about the distillery in operation in official records in both 1802 and 1822. In 1860, Belfast spirit merchant Jame McColgan and Patrick Corrigan bought the distillery; In 1880 they formed a limited liability company. In 1885, the original Bushmills buildings were destroyed in a fire, but the distillery quickly rebuilt. In 1890, a steamer owned and operated by the distillery, the SS  Bushmills  , made its maiden voyage across the Atlantic to deliver Bushmills whiskey to America. It is called the Philadelphia and New York before heading to Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama.

In the early 20th century, the US was a very important market for Bushmills (and other Irish whiskey producers). American Prohibition in 1920 came as a huge blow to Irish Whiskey industry, but Bushmills managed to survive.Wilson Boyd, Bushmills’ manager at the time, predicted the end of the ban and had large stores of whiskey ready to export. After World War II the distillery was bought by Isaac Wolfson, and in 1972 it was taken over by Irish Distillers, which means that Irish Distillers controlled the production of all Irish whiskey at the time. In June 1988, Irish Distillers was acquired by French spirits group Pernod Ricard.

In June 2005, the distillery was bought by Diageo for £ 200 million. Diageo has also announced a major advertising campaign to regain market share for Bushmills.

In May 2008, Bank of Ireland issued a new series of sterling banknotes in Northern Ireland, all of which have an illustration of the Old Bushmills Distillery on the front page, replacing the previous notes series which depicted Queen’s University in Belfast.  [5] [6] 

In November 2014 it was announced that Diageo was trading Bushmills brand Jose Cuervo in exchange for 50% of Don Julio tequila brand Diageo does not already own. The transaction is expected to be completed in early 2015.  [7]

Current whiskey range

  • Bushmills Original – Irish whiskey blend is sometimes called the Black Bush, Bushmills White Label. Grain whiskey is stored in American oak barrels.
  • Black Bush – has a significantly higher proportion of malt to grain whiskey than the white label. Spanish Oloroso sherry seasoned oak casks mature malt.
  • Bushmills 10 years single malt – Matured in American bourbon and Oloroso sherry casks for at least 10 years.
  • Bushmills 12 years single malt – A special edition is currently sold only at Bushmills Distillery, mostly matured in sherry casks.
  • Bushmills 16 years single malt – Matured for 16 years or more in a combination of American bourbon, Spanish Oloroso sherry butts and Port tubes.
  • Bushmills 21 years single malt – A limited number of 21 years bottles are made each year, and stored on three different types of barrels: first in American bourbon barrels and then in Spanish Oloroso sherry casks.Together it will be 19 years in these containers, after which it can be in Madeira barrels for another two years until bottling.
  • Bushmills 1608: A special 400th anniversary whiskey. From February 2008 there Bushmills outlets around the world; But from 2009 it will be available only in Whiskey Shop distillery and duty free shops.  [8]
  • Bushmills Sherry Cask Single Malt -. A special edition, the first in the “Steamship Collection”, available only in Belfast, Dublin and London Heathrow Airport  [9]  Matured in Oloroso sherry casks.


Some Bushmills has performed well at international Spirit ratings competitions. In particular, the Black Bush Finest blended whiskey received double gold medals at the 2007 and 2010 San Francisco World Spirits competition.  [10] There was also a well-above-average 93 points from the Beverage Testing Institute in 2008 and 2011.  [10]

In popular culture

  • The band NOFX mentions Bushmills in the song “Theme from a NOFX Album” of 2000 release  Pump Up The Valuum
  • Tom Waits mentions “Old Bushmills” in the song “Tom Traubert Blues” (also covered by Rod Stewart)
  • In the third season episode of  The Wire  , the Back Burner, Jimmy McNulty refers to Bushmills “Protestant whiskey” when he offered after that Jameson is available
  • Burt Reynolds plays a police lieutenant in the 1975 film  Hustle  whose favorite alcohol Bushmills
  • In 1982, the film  ‘s Cathedral  , the Paul Newman character Frank Gavin orders Bushmills and water at his neighborhood pub
  • In the Rescue Me series seasons 1-7, the Bushmills whiskey shared the common and favorite of the entire Irish Gavin family and referred to in at least ten episodes

See also

  • Irish whiskey
  • List of Irish whiskey brands
  • Whiskey
  • Barrel
  • Distillation
  • List of oldest companies
  • master mixer
  • Diageo



  1. ^ Jump up to: a b Old Bushmills History (official website)
  2. Jump up ^ Alternative Whisky Academy
  3. Jump up ^ Ray Foley (1 January 2006). The best Irish drinks. Source, Inc., p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4022-0678-8. Hämtasoch 31 October of 2010.
  4. Jump up ^ George Hill (1877). A history of the plantation in Ulster in the early seventeenth century, from 1608 to 1620. M’Caw, Stevenson & Orr. p. 393rd Retrieved 31 October of 2010.
  5. Jump up ^  “Bank of Ireland to present the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland a new issue of banknotes”. Bank of Ireland. 02.11.2008.Hämtas2016 / 03 / 07th
  6. Jump up ^  “Bank raises glass to the famous drink”. BBC News. .Hämtas 04/23/2008 10/30/2008.
  7. Jump up ^ Taylor, Charlie (11.03.2014). “Jose Cuervo to acquire Bushmills from Diageo”. The Irish Times. Pulled 03/11/2014.
  8. Jump up ^ Bushmills kick-starting 400th anniversary campaign
  9. Jump up ^ [1]
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b Product review of Bushmills Black Bush Irish Finest blended whiskey

Lough Neagh

Lough Neagh  , (pronounced / ˌ l ɒ xn eɪ /,  lokh ja  ) is a freshwater lake in Northern Ireland. The largest lake by area in the British Isles, deliver the 40% of Northern Ireland’s water.  [3] [4]  Its name comes from the Irish:  Loch nEachach  , which means “Lake of Eachaidh”, but today it is usually spelled Loch nEathach  (Irish : [ɫ̪ɔx n̠ʲahax].) in Irish  [5]  Lough owned by the Earl of Shaftesbury. 


With an area of 151 square miles (392 km  2  ), it is the largest lake on the island of Ireland, the 15th largest lake in the European Union  [3] [4]  and is ranked 31 in the list of largest lakes of Europe. Located 20 miles (30 km) west of Belfast, is about 20 miles (30 km) long and nine miles (15 km) wide. It is very shallow around the margins and the average depth in the main part of the lake (9 m), about 30 feet, although the lough deepest is about 80 feet (25m) deep. 


Of the 1760 square miles (4550 km  2  ) catchment, about 9% is located in Ireland and 91% in Northern Ireland,  [6]  a total of 43% of the land area of Northern Ireland is drained into Lough,  [7]  which itself flows out northwards to the sea via the River Bann. As one of the sources, the upper Bann Lough can itself be considered as part of Bann. Lough Neagh is fed by many tributaries, including the rivers  Main  (34 mi) Six Mile Water (21 ml), Upper Bann (40 mi) Blackwater (57 mi) Ballinderry (29 mi) and Moyola (31 mi)  [8]

Islands and peninsulas

  • Coney Island
  • Coney Island Flat
  • Flat Croaghan
  • Derrywarragh Island
  • Flat Kinturk
  • Oxford Island (peninsula)
  • Padian
  • Ram Island
  • Phil Roe plate
  • The shallow Flat
  • Traad (peninsula)

Towns and Villages

Towns and villages near the Lough include Craigavon, Antrim, Crumlin, Randalstown, Toomebridge, Ballyronan, Ballinderry, Moortown, Ardboe, Maghery, Lurgan and Magherafelt.


Five of the six counties of Northern Ireland have shores on Lough (only Fermanagh does not), and its area is shared among them. Counties listed clockwise:

  1. Antrim (eastern and northern shores of the lake)
  2. Down (small part in the southeast)
  3. Armagh (south)
  4. Tyrone (west)
  5. Londonderry (northern part of the western shore)

municipal Districts

The area of the lake is divided between four municipal districts in Northern Ireland, listed clockwise:  [9]

  • 3 Antrim and Newtownabbey, in northeastern
  • 4 Lisburn and Castlereagh, east
  • 6 Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon, in the south
  • 9 Mid Ulster in the west


Although the Lough is used for a variety of recreational and commercial activities, it is fragile and tends to get very serious very quickly in windy conditions.

Water supply

Lough used by Northern Ireland Water as a source of fresh water. The Lough supplies 40% of the region’s drinking water. There have long been plans to increase the amount of water drawn from the Lough, through a new treatment plant works at Hog Park Point, but these have not yet been realized. The Lough ownership of the Earl of Shaftesbury has implications for planned changes in government domestic water services in Northern Ireland,  [10]  that the lough is also used as a sewer outlet, and this arrangement is only permitted by the British Crown immunity.  [ Citation needed ] In 2012 it was reported that Earl considering transferring ownership of Lough to the Northern Ireland Assembly.  [11]  


Traditional working boats on Lough Neagh include wide beamed from 4.9 to 6.4 meters (16 to 21 feet) clinker-built, Spirits-rigged working boats and smaller flat-bottomed “cots” and “flats”. Barges, here called “lighters” was used until the 1940s to transport coal over the lough and adjacent canals.Until the 17th century, log boats (  coití  ) were the main mode of transportation. Some traditional boats are left now, but a community-based group on the southern shore of the lough is based on a range of workboats. [12]

In the 19th century, three canals were constructed with the help of the lough to connect various ports and cities: Lagan Navigation link from the city of Belfast, the Newry Canal Attached to the port of Newry, and the Ulster canal led to Lough Erne navigation, providing a navigable inland route via the river Shannon to Limerick, Dublin and Waterford. Lower Bann was also navigable to Coleraine and the Antrim coast, and the short Coalisland Canal as a route for coal transportation. Of these waterways, only the lower Bann remains open today, although a recovery plan for the Ulster Canal is underway.

Lough Neagh Rescue provides search and rescue services 24 hours a day. It is a voluntary service funded by the district bordering the Lough. Its members are well trained and is a declared facility for Coast Guard coordinates rescue on Lough Neagh.


Lough Neagh attracts bird watchers from many nations due to the number and variety of birds that winter and summer in the bogs and beaches around the lough.


The flora of the northeastern part of Northern Ireland contains algae:  Chara aspera  ,  Chara globe  . Each  sphere  ,  Chara globe  . Where  virgate  ,  Chara vulgaris  . Where  vulgaris  ,  Chara vulgaris  var.  Papillata  ,  Tolypella nidifica  each.  Slick  .  [13] The  record of Angiospermae include:  ranunculus flammula  . was  pseudoreptans  ,  ranunculus auricomus  ,  Ranunculatus sceleratus  ,  Ranunculatus circinatus  ,  Ranunculatus peltatus  ,  extended box  ,  coastline box  . subsp  minus  ,  Nymphaea alba  ,  Ceratophyllum demersum  ,  sylörter water  ,  Erophila Verna  . sub  samples  ,  Cuckooflower  , lundbräsma  ,  Cardamine flexuosa  ,  sumpfräne  ,  fran amphibian  , mignonette  ,  sweet violet  ,  herb pansy  ,  Viola tricolor  ssp.  Violoa tricolor ssp.  curtissi  ,  hypericum androsaemum  ,  Hypericum maculatum  ,  Elatine hydro  ,  Silene vulgaris  ,  Rödblära  ,  SOAPWORT  ,  [13]


Eel fishing has been a major industry in Lough Neagh for centuries. These European eel get from the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, about 4,000 miles along the Gulf Stream to the mouth of the River Bann, and then get into the lough. They remain there for about 10 to 15 years, matures, before returning to the Sargasso to spawn. Today Lough Neagh eel fisheries export their eels to restaurants all over the world, and Lough Neagh Eel has been granted protected geographical status under EU law.  [14]

Mythology and folklore

The Irish mythical story  Cath Maige Tuired  ( “Battle of Moytura”), is Lough Neagh known as one of the top 12 Loughs in Ireland.  [15]  The origin of the lake and its name is explained in an Irish tale that was written down in the Middle Ages, but is probably pre-Christian.  [16] [17]  According to the tale, the lake is named after Echaid (modern spelling: Eochaidh or Eachaidh), who was the son of Mairid (Mairidh), a king of Munster. Echaid falls in love with his stepmother, a young woman named Ébliu (Ébhlinne). They try to escape, along with many of its holder, but someone kills their horses. In some versions, the horses are killed by Midir (Midhir), which can be another name for Ébliu husband Mairid.Óengus (Aonghus) will appear and provide them with a huge horse that can carry all their belongings. Óengus warning that they must not let the horse rest or it will be their downfall. But after reaching the Ulster horse stop and urinate, and a spring rising from the site. Echaid decides to build a house there and cover the spring with a cornerstone to stop it overflowing. One night Capstone is not replaced and spring flooding, drowning Echaid and most of his family, and to create  Loch n-Echach  (  Loch nEachach  : Lake Eochaidh or Eachaidh).  [16] [17]  

The character Eochaidh refers to the Daghdha, a god of the ancient Irish also called Eochaidh Ollathair (which means “horsemen, father of all”).  [17] Ébhlinne, Midhir and Aonghus was also the names of the gods. Mary McGrath and Joan Griffith writes that the idea of a supernatural being create the landscape with their own body is an old man that is common to many pre-Christian cultures.  [17]  A Gaelic September called UI Eachach (which means “descendants of Eochaidh”) lived in area and it is likely that their name comes from the cult of the god Eochaidh.  [16]

Another story tells how the lake was formed when Ireland’s legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn McCool) scooped up a bit of earth and threw it at a Scottish rival. It fell into the Irish Sea, form the Isle of Man, while the crater left behind filled with water to form the Lough Neagh.  [18]

See also

  • List of Loughs in Ireland
  • Lough Beg
  • Portmore Lough


  1. Jump up ^ Naijural Heirship: Peat Moss NI Environment and Heritage Service.
  2. Jump up ^ org
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b Official Tourism Ireland website
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b com
  5. Jump up ^ Deirdre Flanagan and Laurance Flanagan, Irish placenta (Gill & Macmillan Ltd, 1994)
  6. Jump up ^  “Lough Neagh.” UK Environmental Change Network.Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  7. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Rivers Agency
  8. Jump up ^ Ordnance Survey of IrelandRivers and their watersheds, 1958 (table reference)
  9. Jump up ^
  10. Jump up ^  “Sudden death can affect NI Water”. BBC News. 19 May 2005.
  11. Jump up ^  “Earl of Shaftesbury does not exclude Lough Neagh sale”.BBC News.
  12. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Boating Heritage Association
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b Hackney, P. 1992.  Stewart & Corry Flora in northeastern Ireland.  Third Edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen’s University of Belfast. ISBN 0 85389 446 9
  14. Jump up ^ official list of UK protected foods. Taken Accessed 15 christmas 2011.
  15. Jump up ^ Augusta, Lady Gregory. Part I of Book III: the great battle of Magh Tuireadh.  Gods and Fighting Men  (1904) on
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ó hÓgáin, Daithi.  Myth, Legend & Romance: An Encyclopedia of the Irish folk tradition  . Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p.181
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mary McGrath, Joan C. Griffith.  The Irish Draught Horse: A History  . Collins, 2005. p.44
  18. Jump up ^ Lough Neagh Heritage: Folklore & Legends

Giant Causeway

The  Giant’s Causeway  is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic eruption.  [1] [2]  It is also known as Clochán a Aifir  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  in Irish  [3]  and  tha Giant Causey  in Ulster -Scots.  [4] 

It is located in County Antrim in the north east coast of Northern Ireland, about three miles (4.8 km) northeast of the town of Bushmills. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986, and a national nature reserve in 1987 by the Ministry of the Environment for Northern Ireland. In a 2005 survey of  Radio Times  readers, Giant’s Causeway was named as the fourth greatest natural wonder in United Kingdom.  [5]  The tops of the columns form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot and disappear under the sea. Most of the columns are hexagonal, but there is also some with four, five, seven or eight sides. The maximum is about 12 meters (39 feet) high, and the solidified lava in the cliffs is 28 meters (92 feet) thick in places.

A large part of the Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast World Heritage Site is currently owned and managed by the National Trust and it is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Northern Ireland.  [6]  The rest of the site is owned by the Crown Estate, and a number of private landowners.


About 50 to 60 million years ago,  [1]  during the Paleocene Epoch, Antrim was the subject of intense volcanic activity, when viscous molten basalt pierced through chalk beds to form an extensive lava plateau. As the lava cooled, the contraction occurred. Horizontal contraction fractured in a manner similar to the drying clay, with cracks propagating according mass was cooled, leaving pillar like structures, which are also broken horizontally in “biscuits”. In many cases, the horizontal fracture resulting in a bottom surface that is convex and the upper face of the lower segment is concave, which produce what is called “batch” leads. The size of the columns in the first place is determined by the speed at which lava from a volcanic eruption cools. [7]  The extensive fracture network produced the distinctive columns seen today. The basalts were originally part of a large volcanic plateau called Thulean plateau formed during the Paleocene.  [8]


According to legend, the columns are the remains of a causeway built by a giant. The story goes that the Irish giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn MacCool) from the Fenian Cycle of Gaelic mythology, was challenged to a fight by the Scottish giant Bena Donner. Fionn accepted the challenge and built footbridge across the North Channel, so that the two giants could meet.In one version of the story, Fionn down Bena Donner.  [9]  In another, Fionn hides from Bena Donner when he realizes that his enemy is much greater than he. Fionn’s wife, Oonagh, hides Fionn as a baby and put him in a cradle.When Bena Donner sees the size of the “baby”, he expects that the father, Fionn, must be a giant among giants. He flees back to Scotland in fear, destroying the causeway behind him so that Fionn could not follow.  [10] above sea level, are identical basalt columns (part of the same ancient lava flow) at Fingal’s Cave on the Scottish island of Staffa, and it is possible that the story was influenced by this.  [11]

In total Irish mythology, is Fionn mac Cumhaill not a giant but a hero with supernatural abilities. In  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888), it should be noted that, with time, “the pagan gods of Ireland […] grew less and less in the popular imagination, until they turn into fairies, pagan heroes became bigger and bigger until they turn into giants. ”  [12]  there are no surviving pre-Christian tales of the Giant’s Causeway, but it may have originally been associated with the Fomorians (  Fomhóraigh  ),  [13]  the Irish name Clochán na bhFomhóraigh  or  Clochán na bhFomhórach  means” stepping stones in  Fomhóraigh  “. The  Fomhóraigh  are a race of supernatural creatures of Irish mythology sometimes described as giants and that may have originally been part of a pre-Christian pantheon.  [14]


The discovery of the Giant’s Causeway was announced to the world in 1693 by the presentation of a paper to the Royal Society from Sir Richard Bulkeley, a Fellow of Trinity College, although discoverer had in fact been the Bishop of Derry who had visited the place a year earlier. The site gained international attention when Dublin artist Susanna Drury did watercolors of the year 1739; the Drury won the first award presented avRoyal Dublin Society in 1740 and was engraved in 1743.  [15]  In 1765, a record at the Causeway appeared in volume 12 of the French  Encyclopédie  , which was informed grave Drury work; engraving of the “East Prospect” itself appeared in a 1768 volume of plates published for  the Encyclopédie  .  [16]  In the caption to the plates French geologist Nicolas Desmarest proposed, for the first time in print, that such structures were volcanic origin.

The site first became popular among tourists in the nineteenth century, especially after the opening of the Giant’s Causeway Tramway, and only after the National Trust took over his care in the 1960s were some of the traces of commercialism away. Visitors can walk over basalt columns that are on the edge of the sea, a half mil walk from the entrance to the site.

Visit Centre

Causeway was without a permanent visitors’ center between 2000 and 2012, as previously, built in 1986, burned down in 2000.  [17]  Public funds have been earmarked to build a new center, and after an architectural competition, a proposal was accepted to build a new center, designed by Dublin architects Heneghan Peng, which would be put into the ground to reduce the impact on the landscape. A privately funded proposal received preliminary approval in 2007 by Environment Minister and DUP member Arlene Foster.  [18]  The public funds that had been allocated were frozen as a disagreement developed about the relationship between the private developer Seymour Sweeney and the DUP.  [19]  It was also discussed whether an individual interest should be allowed to take advantage of the location – given its cultural and economic importance and because it is largely owned by the National Trust. Coleraine Borough Council voted against the private plans, and for the benefit of a public development projects  [20]  and Moyle similar signaled dissatisfaction and gave the land on which the former visitor center stood for the National Trust. This gave the Trust control of both the Causeway and surrounding land. Ultimately, Mr. Sweeney dropped a legal challenge to the publicly funded plan.  [21]

The new visitor center was opened by the first minister Peter Robinson and Deputy Prime Minister, Martin McGuinness, in July 2012,  [22]  has with funding raised from the National Trust, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board, the Heritage Lottery Fund and public donations.  [23]  Since its inception, the new visitor center gathered very mixed reviews from those who visit the Causeway to their pricing, design, content and placement across the causeway walk descent.  [24]

There was some controversy about the content of some exhibits in the visitor center, which refers to the Young Earth Creationist given the age of the Earth.  [25] [26]  Although these inclusions were welcomed by the chairman of the Northern Irish Protestant group, the Caleb Foundation,  [27 ]  National Trust stated that the inclusions formed only a small part of the exhibition and the Trust “fully supports the scientific explanation for the creation of the stones 60 million years ago.”  [28]  an online campaign to remove creationist materials launched in 2012, and after this, Trust conducted a review and concluded that they should be amended to have the scientific explanation of the footbridge origin as the main focus. Creationist explanations still mentioned, but presented as a traditional belief in some religious communities, rather than a competing explanation for Causeway origin.  [29] 

Notable features

Some of the structures in the area, after having been the subject of several million years of weathering, similar objects, such as  Organ  and  Giant boot structures. Other features include many reddish, weathered low columns known as  Giants Eyes  , created by the displacement of basalt boulders; the Shepherd footsteps  ; the  honeycomb  ; the  giant harp  ; the  chimneys  ; the Giant Gate  and  Camel hump  .

Flora and fauna

The area is a haven for seabirds fulmar, petrel, cormorant, shag, redshank, guillemots and razorbills, while the weathered rock formations host a number of rare and unusual plants, including sea Spleenwort, hare’s foot tooth, vernal squill, sea fescue and frog orchid.

A stromatolite colonies report is available at the Giants Causeway in October 2011 -. A rare find as stromatolites are more common in warmer water with higher content of salt solution than that found by the road  [30]

similar structures

Main article: List of places with column articulated volcanics

Although the basalt columns of the Giant’s Causeway are impressive, they are not unique. Basalt Pillars is a common volcanic feature, and they occur at many scales (because rapid cooling produces smaller columns).

railway access

The Belfast-Derry course run by Northern Ireland Railways connects to Coleraine and along Coleraine-Portrush branch line to Portrush. Local Ulsterbus provide connections to railway stations. It is a beautiful walk 7 miles from Portrush together Dunluce Castle and the Giant’s Causeway and Bushmills Railway.


  1. ^ Jump up to: ab “Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast ‘. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  2. Jump up ^ Jack Challoner, John Farndon, Rodney Walshaw (2004).Rocks, minerals and the Changing earth. South Water. p. 19.
  3. Jump up ^  “Clochán a Aifir / Giant’s Causeway – placental Database of Ireland ‘.Placen Commission. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. Jump up ^ The crack: Yin giant leap for mankind  newsletter  .Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ Report survey results Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  6. Jump up ^  “Giant’s Causeway Northern Ireland still Top Attraction” (Press release). Northern Ireland Tourist Board. August 18, 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  7. Jump up ^  “The University of Toronto (2008, December 25). Mystery of hexagonal column formations “.
  8. Jump up ^ Geoffroy, Laurent; Berg, Françoise; Angelier, Jacques (September 1996). “Brittle tectonism in relation to PALEOGENE development of Thulean / NE Atlantic domain: a study in Ulster”.Geological Journal.  31 (3) :. 259-269 doi: 10.1002 / (SICI) 1099-1034 (199,609) 31: 3 <259 :: AID-GJ711> 3.0.CO, 2-8. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  9. Jump up ^ “The Giant’s Causeway.”  The Dublin Penny Journal  , issue 5 (1832), p.33
  10. Jump up ^ Jones, Richard.  Myths and legends in the UK and Ireland  .New Holland Publishers, 2006. p.131
  11. Jump up ^ formation of basalt columns / pseudocrystals
  12. Jump up ^ “giants.”  Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish peasantry  (1888)
  13. Jump up ^ Lyle, Paul.  Between rocks and hard places: Discovering Ireland’s northern landscapes  . The Stationery Office, 2010. p.3
  14. Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia.  The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore  .Infobase Publishing, 2004. p.198
  15. Jump up ^ Arnold,  Irish art  , p. 62.
  16. Jump up ^ “Susanna Drury, Causeway and the Encyclopédie, 1768”ämtat 14 March 2007.
  17. Jump up ^ BBC News – Study Causeway blaze – 30 April, 2000
  18. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers set to get the nod Causeway – 10 September 2007
  19. Jump up ^ BBC News – developers DUP link “irrelevant” – 11 September 2007
  20. Jump up ^ BBC News – Causeway must be public; advice – 12 September 2007
  21. Jump up ^ BBC News – Developers ends Causeway Challenge – May 2009
  22. Jump up ^ Maguire, Anna (5 July 2012). “Causeway Visitors Centre: A great leap forward?”. Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  23. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway gets £ 9m Tourist contribution”. BBC. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  24. Jump up ^  “Giants Causeway Visitor Centre, TripAdvisor”. TripAdvisor.15 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  25. Jump up ^  “National Trust in the Giant’s Causeway creationism row”.The autonomous. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  26. Jump up ^  “Causeway center provides creation view”. U TV. July 4, 2012.Hämtat5 July 2012.
  27. Jump up ^  “Online conference calls to remove the creation of the exhibition at the Giant’s Causeway.” BBC Northern Ireland. July 5, 2012.Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  28. Jump up ^  “Trust Causeway creationism row”. Irish Independent. July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  29. Jump up ^ confidence, change the Causeway center “Creationist” exhibition  BBC News  October 3, 2012 (retrieved November 30, 2012)
  30. Jump up ^ stromatolite colonies found in the Giant’s Causeway, BBC News. 14 October 2011.

Carrickfergus Castle

Carrickfergus Castle  is a Norman castle in Northern Ireland, which is located in the town of Carrickfergus in County Antrim, on the north shore of Belfast Lough. Besieged in turn by denskotska, Irish, English and French, the castle played an important military role until 1928 and is still one of the best preserved medieval buildings in Northern Ireland. It was strategically good, with 3/4 of the castle perimeter surrounded by water (even in modern times only 1/3 is surrounded by water because of clearance). Today it is maintained by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency as a state care historic monument, at grid ref: J4143 8725th  [1]


Carrickfergus built by John de Courcy in 1177 as its headquarters, after he conquered eastern Ulster in 1177 and ruled as a petty king until 1204, when he was overthrown by another Norman adventurer, Hugh de Lacy. Initially they Courcy built the Interior Department, a small courtyard at the end of the promontory with a high polygonal wall and east gate. It had several buildings, including the main hall. From its strategic location on a promontory, originally almost surrounded by sea, commanded the castle Carrickfergus Bay (later known as the Belfast Lough), and the ground approaching the walled city developed in its shadows.

English control

It first appears in the official English records in 1210 when King John besieged it and took control of the then Ulster main strategic garrison. After his capture, constables were appointed to command the castle and its surroundings. In 1217 the new constable, The Serlane, was awarded a hundred pounds to build a new curtain wall so that the approach along the mountain can be protected, as well as eastern methods of sand exposed at low tide. The middle-ward curtain wall later reduced to ground level in the eighteenth century, save along the sea side, where it survives with a poster gate and east tower, known for a fine collection of crossbows loops on the basement level.

A chamber on the first floor in the east tower believed to have the castle canopy because of their fine Roman style double window surround, if the original canopy must have been in the inner compartment. The ribbed vaults over the entrance passage of the murderous hole and the massive portcullis at each end of the gatehouse is later realizes started by Hugh de Lacey, who died in 1248 and did not live to see its completion in about 1250. It was completed by King Henry III.

After the collapse of the Earldom of Ulster in 1333, the castle remained in the Crown’s main residential and administrative center of Northern Ireland.During the early stages of the nine-year war (1595-1603), when the English influence in the north became weak, crown forces were provided and maintained by the city’s port. And in 1597, the surrounding countryside was the scene of the Battle of Carrickfergus.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, improvements were made to accommodate artillery, including external splayed gun ports and embrasures for cannons, but these improvements not prevent the castle from being attacked and captured on many occasions during this time. Marshal Schomberg besieged and took the castle in the week-long siege of Carrickfergus in 1689. This is also the place where Schomberg leader, King William III first set foot in Ireland June 14, 1690.

In 1760, after heavy fighting in the city, it was handed over to the French invaders under the command of François Thurot. They looted the castle and the town and then left, only to be captured by the Royal Navy.

Subsequent use

In 1778, a small but important event in the American War of Independence began in Carrickfergus, when John Paul Jones, given the reluctance of his crew approached too close to the castle, attracted a Royal Navy ship from its moorings in the North Channel, and won an hour long struggle. In 1797 the castle, which had on several occasions been used to house prisoners of war, became a prison and it was heavily defended during the Napoleonic Wars; six cannons on the eastern battery remaining twenty-two used in the 1811th

For a century remained a magazine and armory. During the First World War it was used as a garrison and ammunition store, and during World War II as a bomb shelter.

It was garrisoned continuously for about 750 years until 1928, when ownership was transferred from the British army to the new government in Northern Ireland for the conservation of an old monument .Many of its after Norman and Victorian additions removed to restore the castle’s original Norman look. It remains open to the public. Assembly Hall has been completely renovated and there are many exhibits to show what life was like in the Middle times. It was built and rebuilt three times, and still stands today.

railway access

The castle is a short walk from Carrickfergus railway station. Trains connect west to Belfast Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street and east to Whitehead and Larne port operated by Northern Ireland Railways.

See also

  • Castles in the UK and Ireland
  • Castles in Northern Ireland
  • Castles in Ireland


  1. Jump up ^  “Carrickfergus Castle” (PDF). Environment and Heritage Service NI – State Care of historical monuments. Be checked out three December 2007.

Belfast–Derry Railway Line

The  Belfast-Derry railway line  (called  Derry ~ Londonderry line  with NI Railways  [1]  ) runs from Belfast to Londonderry Derry in Northern Ireland.This line consists mainly of single track from just under Mossley West station up to Londonderry Waterside station with venues in Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Coleraine and Castle.

Current position

Services on Derry ~ Londonerry line runs on an alternating pattern to and from Belfast. The trains will change every hour between services from Great Victoria Street Londonderry Waterside (and vice versa), and a service from Great Victoria Street Coleraine, which then continues to Portrush via Coleraine-Portrush railway.

On weekdays, stations between Great Victoria Street, Coleraine every hour in both directions, with each outgoing trains alternating between a service to Londonderry Waterside, and a service to Portrush, except for some rush hour trains that stop at Coleraine. In the other direction, all the trains run every hour to Great Victoria Street, with the exception of a few late night and peak time services, that ends at Belfast Central. Stations between Coleraine and Londonderry Waterside served every hour in each direction.

On Saturdays, the service is still very much the same throughout the line during the week, except for a reduction in peak-time services.

On Sundays, all trains running between Great Victoria Street, Londonderry Waterside, except for the first and last service of the day, starting from or ending in Coleraine. Only seven trains go each way on Derry ~ Londonderry line on Sundays.  [2]

All passengers traveling to Portrush on the Derry-based services, or to Derry at Portrush-bound services, must change Coleraine Station.

previous activities

Before 2001 and the resumption of the Bleach Green Line, services operated via Crumlin, Glenavy, Ballinderry and Lisburn. The resumption of Bleach Green Line resulted in shorter travel between Belfast and Londonderry. A skeleton service continued on the Lisburn-Antrim line until 2003, when the line and its stations were closed. This section of railway is now used exclusively for driver training, for emergency diversions needed.

Recent history and future

In August 2011 it was planned to reduce services in Coleraine to Londonderry section to five services in each direction on weekdays, to facilitate safety improvement works in 2012. A reconstruction of the line was due to commence in April 2012, but the £ 75 million it was to be sold, was not tillgänglig.Detta resulted in opposition from supporters of the section who feared that the line would be permanently shut down.  [3]

In October 2011, after years of uncertainty, DRD Minister Danny Kennedy moved funds from the A5 dual development project upgrade railway projects, allowing for a three Phase upgrade, which began in July 2012.

Phase 1 saw the line near the 9 months to completely relay two sections (Coleraine Castle and Eglinton Londonderry) of the stretch, extend the life of the remaining portion by converting the current hit track continuous welded rail, eliminating the wet spots and essential bridge repairs. This ended March 24, 2013 and the new timetable changes have resulted in a morning train to reach Derry before 9:00 for the first time since Northern Ireland Railways took control of the network in the 1960s.

Phase 2 was due to begin in 2014/15, but is currently delayed, consisting of the introduction of a passing track and resignalling route. It will see the signal cabins Castle and Londonderry turn, centralize signaling in Coleraine, and deliver every hour between Derry and Belfast.  [4]

Phase 3 will include the entire relay tracks between Castle and Eglinton 2021 deliver half-hour services.  [5]

Other future plans for Londonderry line includes a reinstatement of the double line of Antrim Ballymena, doubling the track from Monkstown Templepatrick, and any transfers of the route terminal in Londonderry.

Railway Technology function

Coleraine is a bascule bridge for railway over navigable river Bann.  [6] Shortly after Castle station are two tunnels created during an event called the Big Blast in October 1845. Castle tunnel is 668 yards long and is the longest operating railway tunnel in Northern Ireland . After passing through a short opening train passes the shorter Downhill tunnel is 301 yards in length.  [7]


The signal on the line from Great Victoria Street to slaught level crossing (just south of Ballymena station) is controlled by the Belfast Central control terminal. From Ballymena, are signaling and level crossings controlled by Coleraine signal cabin. After trains depart Coleraine an electric train crew system works between Coleraine and Castle. This is when the driver receives a token to access the portion of the line. Castle has its own signal cabin, which controls the signaling from up to Ballykelly, where the driver hand symbol to the signal controller and allowed another to make it possible for trains to move on to Londonderry. Londonderry also has a signal control terminal that controls the signaling from Eglinton.De most of Belfast to Londonderry line is controlled by color light signals, but Castle station still has semaphore signals from the somersault-type typical of the NCC functions.


After a full withdrawal of NIR NIR Class 80 and Class 450 trains, the line is now served by a combination of NIR NIR Class 3000 and Class 4000 diesel units.


  1. Jump up ^  “NI Railways Timetable – Derry Line, Winter 2012” (PDF).Translink. Be checked out three January 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ Northern Ireland Railways (March 2013). “NIR Service 3 Timetable”. Translink. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  3. Jump up ^  “Kennedy calls for more money for Londonderry rail link.”BBC News. August 25, 2011.
  4. Jump up ^ “Londonderry Line” Andy Milne Rail Staff May 2012.
  5. Jump up ^  “Derry railway upgrade on the right track.” Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^
  7. Jump up ^


The  Falls Road  (from Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , which means “territory attachments”  [1]  ) is the main road through west Belfast, Northern Ireland, which runs from Divis Street in Belfast city center to Anderson’s in the suburbs. Its name is synonymous with Republican community in the city, while neighboring Shankill Road are mainly loyalists, separated from the Falls Road avfredslinjer. The road is usually called  the  Falls Road, rather than as Falls Road. It is known as the  Faas Raa  in Ulster-Scots.  [2]


Nearby White Rock Road 1968

The Falls Road got its name from the Irish  Tuath na bhFál  , an Irish small kingdom whose name means “territory attachments”.  [1]  This territory was roughly the same as the church congregation in Shankill, which spanned a large part of today’s Belfast.  [1]

The Falls Road itself was originally a road leading from the center but the population in the area expanded rapidly in the 19th century with the construction of several large linen factories. All of these have now closed or repurposed. This initial area, which was centered on the intersection of today’s Millfield and Hamill Street in what is now the Divis Street, was known as the Falls and lent its name to the road,  [3]  previously called the “pound”.  [Citation needed ]  the homes in area developed in the 19th century and organized in the narrow streets of small radhus.Många of these streets were named after characters and events of the Crimean War (1853-1856), which is present at the time.  [1]  

These included Raglan Street (named after Lord Raglan, the commander of the British forces in the Crimean War), Alma Street (named after the Battle of Alma), Balaclava Street (named after the Battle of Balaklava), Inkerman Street (named after the Battle of Inkerman) and Sevastopol Street (named after the siege of Sevastopol).  [1]

The view from the Falls Road to the city center, 1981

In the 1960s the buildings in the area had fallen considerably and the Belfast Corporation introduced a greater development plan that involved whole scale demolition of large parts of the area and replaced with a series of flat complex. The highest point in this transformation was the Divis Tower, built on top of the historic district formerly known as Pound Loney.  [4]


Bobby Sands mural on the Falls Road

A predominantly working class community Falls Road has historically had a strong socialist tradition before 1970 had been less Irish nationalist than other parts of Northern Ireland. James Connolly, a resident of Upper Falls during a period in the early 20th century and was involved in organizing the workers in linen factories  [ citation needed ]  , but the area was generally seen as a bedrock of Irish parliamentary party (IPP) at the time. Éamon de Valera lost heavily here in the 1918 UK general election the IPP Joe Devlin. Connolly secretary Winifred Carney also stayed at the Falls with her husband, George McBride, a Protestant and World War I veteran.  [ Citation needed ]    

The last century has seen an ongoing competition between different versions of the labor / socialist and nationalist / Irish Republican leadership elections in the area. In the 1929 elections to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, Belfast, Falls constituency was won by nationalist Richard Byrne after a bitter contest with William McMullen, a supporter of Connolly.  [Citation needed ]  

In the 1945 election, Harry Diamond won the seat stands for Socialist Republican Party. He held the position until 1969, when he was defeated by Paddy Devlin stands for Northern Ireland Labour Party. Devlin, who had once been a member, along with the Diamond, in Belfast branch of the Irish Labour Party, became a founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party in 1970 and remained a member until Parliament has been prorogued in 1972.  [ citation needed ]  

Garden of Remembrance, Falls Road.

In 1964, Billy McMillen stood as a Republican clubs candidate for Belfast West constituency in the Westminster election. His office was in the Divis Street and the Irish tricolor along Starry Plough of Connolly’s Irish Citizen Army was displayed in the window. The public display of the flag of Ireland was prohibited by the Northern Ireland government. Protestant preacher Ian Paisley insisted Royal Ulster Constabulary remove the flag or he would organize a march and remove it yourself. The police feared a backlash from loyalists, and removed it, causing unrest and riots by nationalists.  [5]

Frederick Douglass mural on “Solidarity Wall”, then painted.

In the late 1960s, many Catholics from all over Northern Ireland began the campaign, many with NICRA, against discrimination in housing and employment, under the banner of a civil rights campaign in conscious imitation of philosophy and tactics used by the American Civil Rights Movement.  [6 ]

Many activists saw NICRA as an Irish Republican Trojan horse, designed to destabilize Northern Ireland, and force members of a united Ireland.  [7] [8] Several streets around the Falls Road burned by loyalists in August 1969. In response to the worsening situation, the British government utplaceradebrittiska army on Falls Road. The troops were initially welcomed by many but not all Falls residents to protect them, but the heavy-handed tactics of the most mainland British-born members of the army who do not know or understand the situation would alienate most Catholics and nationalists. [9] [10]  

In 1970, the road was the scene of what became known as the Falls Curfew.3000 British troops sealed off the streets around the Falls Road, home to about 10,000 people, setting off tear gas. The UK measures was received by the Official IRA (OIRA), who engaged them in a vicious firefight. Over the weekend, four Catholic civilians were killed by the British army. Ninety rifles were recovered.  [11]  It is generally regarded as the end of the British Army “honeymoon” period with the Nationalists in Belfast.  [12]

For the next three decades, the British Army had a significant presence on the Falls Road, with a base on top of Divis Tower. This was removed in August 2005 as part of the British government’s normalization program for Provisional Irish Republican Army’s claim that it ends its armed activity. In the meantime, Falls Road saw some of the worst violence “troubles”. The last British soldier to be killed on the road itself was private Nicholas Peacock, was killed by a trap bomb left outside Rock Bar, opposite the top of the Donegall Road.  [13]

1991 IRA hit squads based in Upper Falls and Beech Mount was involved in attacks against loyalist paramiliaries in the nearby village area. In September 1991, they shot dead 19 years old up UVF John Hanna at his home in the Donegall Road, and in November the same year, they shot dead William King Berry and his stepson Samuel Mehaffey, members of the UDA and the RHC, respectively, in their home on Lecale Street .  [13]


Falls Road Library, opened 1908th

Since the 1960s there has been a significant recovery of the traditional culture of the Irish language, dance and music. These are all showcased during the Feile an Phobail, an annual festival of Irish culture. The road is also home to Culturlann, an Irish cultural center that is open all year.  [ Citation needed ]  

One of three Carnegie libraries were built in Belfast is on the Falls Road. It opened on 1 January 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Belfast still serves as a library.  [14]

Educational institutions and hospitals

Several major educational institutions in the area, including St. Dominic Grammar School for Girls, St. Rose High School, St Mary’s University College, and the Irish school Coláiste Feirste.

St. Louise’s Comprehensive College is one of the largest comprehensive girls schools in Europe. St Finian’s and St. Catherine’s schools were closed because of falling student numbers. Katarina together with St. John’s girls and St. Gallen boys to form St. Clares in September 2005. St. Mary’s Christian Brothers Grammar School was originally located in Barrack Street off Divis Street in the Lower Falls but was transferred to a new establishment on the Glen Road in the Upper Falls in the 1960s. There are several major hospitals in the area, including the Royal Victoria Hospital, the Royal Maternity and Children’s Hospital.  [ Citation needed ]  


KyrkogårdarDet are several Catholic churches in the Falls Road. These include St. Church, St. Paul’s Church in the center of the Falls and St. John’s Church in Upper Falls. Nearby is Clonard Monastery, home of the Redemptorist religious order. Father Alec Reidsom played a key role in the Northern Ireland peace process was based here.

Two large cemeteries located on top of the Falls Road: Belfast City Cemetery and Milltown Cemetery.

other buildings

Although the area is largely residential, there are several large (former)), industrial and other buildings. The most famous of the original factory buildings Conway Mill Conway Street (named after the Conway family, a famous rich family of Clonard Area), originally a flax spinning mill, now houses a community enterprise in small business, studios, retail space and training floor. The Dunlewey Centre (Belfast Metropolitan College campus) is a community training center in the heart of the Lower Falls.

See also

  • Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast
  • Lower Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Upper Falls (District Electoral Area)
  • Raidió Fáilte


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e placental NI Falls
  2. Jump up ^ Language / Cultural Diversity – Irish Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  3. Jump up ^ Belfast history,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  4. Jump up ^ Megan Deirdre Roy.  Divis Flats: the social and political consequences of a modern housing project in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1968-1998  ,; accessed 30 March 2015.
  5. Jump up ^ Peter Taylor.  Loyalists  , ISBN 0-7475-4519-7, p. 32
  6. Jump up ^  Weiss, Ruth. Peace in his time: War and Peace in Ireland and South Africa. p. 34.
  7. Jump up ^ Lord Cameron,  Disturbances in Northern Ireland: Report of the Commission appointed by the governor in Northern Ireland  (Belfast, 1969)
  8. Jump up ^ Purdie, Bob.  Politics in the streets: the origins of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland  , The Black Staff Press, ISBN 0-85640-437-3.
  9. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  10. Jump up ^; accessed 31 March 2015.
  11. Jump up ^ Ed Moloney.  A Secret History of the IRA  , ISBN 0-14-101041-X, p. 91.
  12. Jump up ^ Richard English.  Armed struggle  (2003), p. 136
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b McKittrick, Feeney, Thornton, Kelters, David, Brian, Chris, Seamus (2004). Lost lives. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 1158, 1248, 1257-1258.
  14. Jump up ^  “Catalogue of the photo exhibition Irish Carnegie Library” (PDF). An Chomhairle Leabharlanna (The Library Council Sweden).Retrieved 4 September 2012.


mural  is a piece of artwork painted or applied directly to a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A distinctive feature of the mural is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.

Some murals are painted on large canvases, which are then attached to the wall (eg with marouflage). If these jobs can be accurately called “murals” is the subject of some controversy in the art world  [ who? ]  , But the technology has been in general use since the late 19th century.  [1]  


Jataka stories frånAjantagrottorna, 7th Century

Murals of sorts date to the Upper Paleolithic times that the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France (around 30,000 BC). Many old wall paintings have survived in Egyptian tombs (about 3150 BC),  [2]  the Minoan palaces (Middle period III of Neopalatial period from 1700 to 1600 BC) and Pompeii (about 100 BC – AD 79) .

In medieval times, the wall paintings were mostly done on dry plaster (Secco). The huge collection of Kerala mural dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco.  [3] [4]  In Italy, around 1300, the technique for painting frescoes on wet plaster reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of the mural .  [5] 

In modern times, the term became more familiar with Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The most famous is probably  the fresco  , using water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a quick use of the resulting mixture over a large area, often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry. The  marouflage  method has also been used for millennia.

Painting today is painted in a variety of ways, using oil or aqueous media.The styles can vary from abstract to  trompe l’oeil  (a French term for “fool” or “fool the eye”). Initiated by the works of wall artists like Graham Rust and Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe l’oeil painting has experienced a revival in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas which is then pasted on a wall surface  (see the wallpaper, Frescography)  to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene.


Historic wall techniques

The 18-century BC fresco of the installation of Zimrilim  discovered vidKungliga castle in Old Navy in Syria

In the history of the mural, several methods have been used:

A fresco  painting from the Italian word  affresco  which derives from the adjective  fresco  ( “fresh”), describes a method in which the color is applied to the plaster on walls or ceilings. The  Buon fresco  technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water in a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is then absorbed by the wet plaster; after a number of hours, plaster dries and reacts with the air: it is this chemical reaction which fixes the pigment particles in the plaster. After that the painting stays for a long period of time up to centuries in fresh and bright colors.

Fresco-secco  painting is done on dry plaster (  Secco  is “dry” in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

Mezzo fresco  painted on almost dry plaster, and was defined by the sixteenth-century writer Ignazio Pozzo as “firm enough not to take a thumb-print” so that the pigment penetrates only slightly into the drywall. At the end of the sixteenth century this had largely displaced the  buon fresco  method, and was used by artists who Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of  a secco  work.


In Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic paints were used in a cold state is used.  [6] [7] 

Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods of the mural. The tempera pigments are bound in a proteinaceous media such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.

In 16th century Europe, oil on canvas emerged as a simpler method for the mural. The advantage was that the artwork would be completed in the artist’s studio and later transported to their destination and attached to the wall or taket.Oljefärg can be a less satisfactory medium of murals because of its lack of brilliance in color. Even pigments yellowed by the binder or easily affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more vulnerable to rapid deterioration over a patch of ground.  [ Citation needed ]  Various muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, be it oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints  [8]  applied by brush, roller or airbrush / aerosols . Customers will often ask for a certain style and the artist can adapt to the appropriate technology.  [9]  

A consultation usually leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a quotation to the customer approves muralist before starting work. The area to be painted can be structured to match the design allows the image to be peeled carefully, step by step. In some cases the design is projected directly onto the wall and traced with a pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without Sketch, prefer the spontaneous technique.

Once completed, the mural can be given layer of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work against UV rays and surface damage.

In modern, fast form of muralling young enthusiasts also use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give the desired models on a canvas board. The fabric later set aside to let the mud dry. Once dried, the cloth and the shape painted with your choice of colors and later coated with lacquer.

CAM designed Frescography by Rainer Maria Latzke digitally printed on canvas

As an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural can be digitally printed murals also applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and then reproduced in close to original quality.

The disadvantages of prefabricated murals and decals is that they often mass produced and lacking attractiveness and exclusivity of an original work of art. They are often not adapted to the individual wall sizes of the customer and their personal ideas or requests can not be added to the mural as it progresses. The Frescography technology a digital method of manufacture (CAM) was invented by Rainer Maria Latzke up some of the personalization and size restrictions.

Digital technology is often used in advertisements. A “wall cape” is a big advertisement on or attached to the outer wall of a building. Wallscapes can be painted directly on the wall as a wall painting, or printed on vinyl, and securely attached to the wall just like a plate. Although not strictly classified as paintings, large scale printed media is often referred to as such.Advertising paintings traditionally painted on buildings and shops of recordings authors, recent large-scale poster signs.

The significance of murals

The San Bartolo mural

Murals are important that they take the art in the public space. Because of the size, cost, and work to create a mural, muralists must often on behalf of a sponsor.Ofta it is the local authorities or a business, but many murals have been paid with grants of patronage. For artists, their work to a wide audience that otherwise might not set foot in an art gallery. A town benefits by the beauty of a work of art.

Murals can be a relatively effective tool of social emancipation or achieving a political objective.  [10] The  paintings have sometimes created the law, or have been commissioned by local bars and cafes. Often the visual effects are an enticement to attract public attention to social issues. State-sponsored public art expressions, particularly paintings, often used avtotalitära regimes as a tool for propaganda. Despite the propagandistic nature of that work, some of them still have an artistic value.

Murals can have a dramatic impact on the conscious or unconscious attitudes passer, when added to the areas where people live and work. It can also be argued that the existence of large public murals can add aesthetic improvement of the daily lives of residents or employees at a company site.

Other world-famous wall paintings can be found in Mexico, New York, Philadelphia, Belfast, Derry, Los Angeles, Nicaragua, Cuba and India. [1] They have served as an important means of communication for members of socially, ethnically and racially divided communities in times of conflict.They also showed to be an effective tool in a dialogue and thus solve the cleavage in the long run. The Indian state of Kerala has exclusive murals.These Kerala mural on the walls of Hindu temples. They can be dated from the 9th century.

The San Bartolo murals of the Maya civilization in Guatemala, is the oldest example of this technique in Mesoamerica and is dated to 300 BC.

Many rural towns have begun using murals to create tourist attractions in order to increase economic income. Colquitt, Georgia is one such city.Colquitt was elected to host the 2010 Global Mural Conference. The city has more than twelve paintings completed, and will be hosting the conference along with the Dothan, Alabama, and Blakely, Georgia. In the summer of 2010, Colquitt begin work on its icon painting.

Murals and politics

Diego Rivera’s mural depicting Mexico’s history vidNational Palace in Mexico City

The Bardia Mural, photographed in the 1960s, before its damage by corruption and the ravages of time.

Wall paintings show the Marxist view of the press in this cafe in East Berlin in 1977 was covered by advertising after Germany was reunited

The Mexican mural movement in the 1930s brought a new prominence to the murals that a social and political tool. Diego Rivera, Jose Orozco and David Siqueiros was the most famous artists in the movement. Between 1932 and 1940, Rivera also painted murals in San Francisco, Detroit, and New York. In 1933 he completed a famous series of twenty-seven fresco panels entitled  Detroit Industry  on the walls of a courtyard of the Detroit Institute of Arts.  [11]  During the McCarthyism of the 1950s, a large sign was placed in the yard defend the artistry of the murals while attacking his policies “abominable”.

The Colombian government in 1948 hosted IX Pan-American Conference to establish the Marshall Plan for America. The head of the OEA and the Colombian government commissioned Master Santiago Martinez Delgado, to paint a mural in the Colombian Congress building to commemorate the event. Martinez decided to do it on the Cucuta Congress, and painted Bolívar front of Santander, upset liberals do; so, because of the murder of Jorge Eliezer Gaitan mobs El bogotazo tried to burn the capital, but the Colombian army stopped them. Several years later, in the 1980s, with the Liberals in charge of Congress, passed a resolution to shut down the whole house of the elliptical room 90 degrees to put the main mural on the side and mission Alejandro Obregon to paint an impartial mural in the surreal style.

Northern Ireland contains some of the most famous political murals in the world.  [12]  Nearly 2,000 paintings have been documented in Northern Ireland since the 1970s.  [13]  More recently, many murals are non-sectarian, political and social issues such as racism and environmentalism and many are completely a-political, depicting children at play and scenes from everyday life. (Senordirländska murals.)

One is not political, but social belonging mural covering one wall of an old building, once a prison, on top of a cliff in Bardiyah in Libya. It was painted and signed by the artist in April 1942 weeks before his death on the first day of the first battle of El Alamein. Known as the Bardia Mural, was created by the English artist, Private John Frederick Brill.  [14]

In 1961, East Germany began erecting a wall between East and West Berlin, which became known as the Berlin Wall. Also on the painting side of East Berlin were not allowed, artists painted on the western side of the wall from the 80th century until the fall of the Wall, 1989.

Many unknown and known artists such as Thierry Noir and Keith Haring painted on the wall, “the world’s longest canvas”. Sometimes detailed artwork often painted over within hours or dagar.På the western side of the wall was not protected, so that everyone can paint on the wall. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the eastern side of the Wall was also a popular “canvas” for many mural and graffiti artists. Orgosolo, Sardinia, is a very important center for paintings policies.

It is also common for wall painting graffiti used as a memoir. In the book “Someone said to me,” Rick Bragg writes about a number of communities, mainly in New York, which has walls dedicated to the innocent lives lost.  [15]These memorials, both the written word and mural style, gives the deceased to be present in the communities where they lived. Bragg says that “murals has woven itself into the fabric of the neighborhoods and the city.” These memorials serve as a constant reminder to the living community of innocent lives lost due to inner city violence.

Murals in modern interior

Traditional interior murals

Forest mural of  a red shoe  in private homes, England 2007

Many people like to express their individuality by commissioning an artist to paint a mural in their home, this is not an activity exclusively for owners of large houses. A mural artist is only limited by the charge and therefore the time of the painting; dictate the level of detail; a single wall painting may be added to the smallest of the walls.

Private tasks can be for dining, bathroom, living room, or, as is often the case-the children’s bedroom. A child’s room can be transformed into “fantasy world” of a forest or the racetrack, encourage imaginative play and an awareness of art.

The current trend for feature walls has increased behalf of muralists in the United Kingdom. A large hand-painted mural can be designed on a theme, incorporate personal pictures and elements and can be changed during the painting. The personal interaction between client and muralist is often a unique experience for an individual usually does not participate in the arts.

In the 1980s, illusionary wall painting experienced a revival in private homes.The reason for this revival of the interior can in some cases be attributed to the reduction of living space for the enskilde.Faux architectural features as well as scenery and views can lead to “open out” walls. Urban areas of housing can also contribute to people’s feelings of being cut off from nature in its free form. A mural commission of this kind may be an attempt by some people to re-establish a balance with nature.

Commissions of murals in schools, hospitals and retirement homes can achieve an attractive and welcoming atmosphere in these care institutions.Murals in other public buildings such as pubs are also common.

Graffiti interior murals

Mint & Serf at Ace Hotel, New York

Recently, graffiti and street art has played a key role in modern mural. Such graffiti / street artists such as Keith Haring, Shepard Fairey, ABOVE, Mint & Serf, Futura 2000 OS GÊMEOS and Faile, among others, has successfully crossed their street art aesthetic outside the walls of the cityscape and on the walls of private and corporate clients. As graffiti / street art became more mainstream in the late 1990s, the youth-oriented brands like Nike, Red Bull and Wieden Kennedy turned to graffiti / street artists to decorate the walls of their offices. This trend continued in the 2000s with graffiti / street art to get more recognition from art institutions worldwide.

Ethnic murals

Rajasthani motifs mural of Kakshyaachitra, Bombay 2014

Many homeowners choose to display the traditional art and culture of their community or events from their history in their homes. Ethnic paintings have become an important form of decoration. Warli painting paintings become a preferred way of wall decoration in India. Warli painting is an ancient Indian art form where the tribal people used to depict different stages of life on the walls of their mud houses.

Tile mural

Panel of tiles by Jorge Colaço (1922) depicts an episode from the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) between the Portuguese and Castilian arméer.En piece of public art in Lisbon, Portugal.

Tile murals are murals made of stone, ceramic, porcelain, glass or metal trays that are installed in, or added to the surface of an existing wall. They are also inlaid in the floor. Wall tiles are painted, glazed, sublime printed (as described below) or the more traditional cut or broken into pieces. Unlike the traditional painted murals as described above, the tile paintings are always done with the use of plates.

Mosaic murals are made by combining small 1/4 “to 2” size pieces of colored stone, tile ceramic or glass and then put out to create an image. Today’s modern technology has made commercial mosaic wall makers to use the computer program to separate the photographs in colors that automatically cut and glued onto discs with a mask create precise paintings quickly and in large quantities.

The azulejo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐzuleʒu], Spanish pronunciation: [aθulexo]) refers to a typical form of Portuguese or Spanish painted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. They have become a typical aspect of Portuguese culture, manifesting without interruption for five centuries, the successive trends in art.

Azulejos can be found inside and outside the churches, palaces, ordinary houses and even train stations or subway stations.

They are used not only as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity as temperature control in homes. Many azulejos chronicle major historical and cultural aspects of Portuguese history.

Custom Printed tile murals can be produced using digital images of kitchen splashbacks, wall displays, and floors. Digital images and artwork can be resized and printed to accommodate the desired size of the area to be decorated. Custom tile printing using a variety of techniques, including dye sublimation and ceramic type laser toners. The latter technique can provide fade-resistant custom plates which are suitable for long term outdoor exposure.

notes muralists

  • Edwin Abbey
  • Carlos Almaraz
  • Added Dorothy
  • Judy Baca
  • Banksy
  • Arnold Belkin
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • John T. Biggers
  • Torsten Billman
  • Henry Bird
  • Edwin Howland Blashfield
  • Pale le Rat
  • Steve Bogdanoff
  • Giotto di Bondone
  • Gabriel Bracho
  • Paul Cadmus
  • Eleanor Coen
  • Dean Cornwell
  • John Steuart Curry
  • Robert Dafford
  • Dora The Larios
  • Santiago Delgado Martinez
  • Faile
  • Shepard Fairey
  • Piero della Francesca
  • Louis Grell
  • Satish Gujral
  • Manav Gupta
  • Richard Haas
  • Keith Haring
  • Albert Henry Krehbiel
  • Susan Krieg
  • Rainer Maria Latzke
  • Tom Lea
  • Will Hicok Low
  • Sofia Maldonado
  • John Anton Mallin
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Reginald Marsh
  • knox Martin
  • Peter Max
  • Michelangelo
  • Mario Miranda
  • Claude Monet
  • Roberto Montenegro
  • Frank Nuderscher
  • violet Oakley
  • Edward O’Brien
  • Juan O’Gorman
  • Pablo O’Higgins
  • José Clemente Orozco
  • Rufus Porter
  • Aarón Pina Mora
  • Archie Rand
  • Raphael
  • Freydoon Rassouli
  • Diego Rivera
  • Graham Rust
  • Sadequain
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Eugene Savage
  • Conrad Schmitt
  • Clément Serveau
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros
  • Frank Stella
  • Rufino Tamayo
  • Titian
  • Alton Tobey
  • Allen Tupper True
  • Kent Twitchell
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • John Walker Augustus
  • Oliver Henry Walker
  • lucia Wiley
  • Ezra Winter
  • Robert Wyland
  • Isaiah Zagar
  • PK Sadanandan


  • Stylized mural of the miners’ leader Warren James, at a pub in Parkend, Gloucestershire.
  • Painting of Erykah Badu iSutton, Greater London, United Kingdom
  • Mural in Satriano, Italy.
  • 15th century Christ in Majesty in Jaleyrac
  • Building, Boston, Massachusetts, around 1992
  • Paint, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Graffiti mural in Gutovka, Prague 10, Czech Republic, 2012
  • The tree of life, stairway mural of Manav Gupta
  • Orr C. Fischer,  The Corn Parade,  1941, oil on canvas, agricultural -themed mural on the wall of the post office, Mount Ayr, Iowa.  [16]
  • Largest mural stamp of artist Francisco Vargas
  • Mural on Israel’s security barrier
  • Mural against indifference to evil in Warsaw, Poland

See also

  • anamorphosis
  • Bogside Artists
  • Brixton mural painting
  • Detachment of murals
  • List of US post office paintings
  • Mexican muralism
  • Murals in Kerala, India
  • MURAL Festival
  • Newtown area graffiti and street art
  • Post Office paintings
  • Propaganda
  • public art
  • social realism
  • socialist realism
  • The Manchester paintings
  • tiled print
  • Trompe l’Oeil
  • Wall Poetry


  1. Jump up ^ Clare AP Willsdon (2000). Mural in Britain 1840-1940: Image and Meaning. Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-817515-5. Retrieved syv May 2012.
  2. Jump up ^ Only after 664 BC are dates secure. See Egyptian chronology for details.  “Chronology”. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Pulled 03/25/2008.
  3. Jump up ^ Mena Chery, George (ed.):  St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India  , Vol. II, 1973; (Eds.) Mena Chery, George  Native American Church History Classics, Vol. I, Nazranies  , Saras, 1998
  4. Jump up  ^ ” ‘Pallikalile Chitrabhasangal” (PDF).
  5. Jump up ^ Péter Bokody,  mural painting as a medium: Technology, Entertainment and liturgy  , in the  image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle Ages  , Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014, 136-151
  6. Jump up ^ Selim in August. La Tecnica dell’Antica pittura parietal Pompeiana. Pompeiana, Studi per il 2 ° Centenario degli Scavi di Pompei. Napoli 1950, 313-354
  7. Jump up ^ Jorge CuNi, Pedro CuNi, Brielle Eisen, Rubén Savizki and John Bove. “Characterization of the binding medium used in the Roman encaustic paintings on the wall and the wood.” Analytical methods.Retrieved February 2012.  Check date values in: (help) | Access-date =
  8. Jump up ^  “used by Eric cumini paintings”. Eric cumini. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  9. Jump up ^  “Toronto mural”. Technical aspects of the mural. Toronto muralists. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ Sebastian Vargas. “Seizing the public space”. D + C Development and Cooperation. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  11. Jump up ^  “Diego Rivera”. Olga Gallery. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  12. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Looking for a neutral identity in Northern Ireland’s political murals. In: Peace Review 24 (4).
  13. Jump up ^ Maximilian Rapp and Markus Rhomberg: Importance of paintings during the unrest: Analyze the Republican use of murals in Northern Ireland. In: Machin, D. (Ed.) Visual Communication Reader. De Gruyter.
  14. Jump up ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission. “Final resting place”. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  15. Jump up ^ Bragg, Rick.  Someone said to me: Newspaper Stories of Rick Bragg  . New York: Vintage Books, 2001.
  16. Jump up ^  “The Corn Parade”. History Matters. George Mason University. Retrieved 27 August of 2010.


Belfast City Hall  is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, is on the north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas in the city center.


The White Linen Hall, and Linen Hall Library as it was in 1888. Now replaced by City Hall.

The site is now occupied by the Belfast City Hall was once the home of the White Linen Hall, an important international linen exchange. The street that runs from the back door of Belfast City Hall through the middle of linen Quarter’s Linen Hall Street.  [2]

Plans for the City Hall began in 1888 when Belfast was granted city status by Queen Victoria. This was in recognition of Belfast’s rapid expansion and thriving linen, rope-making, shipbuilding and engineering industries. During this period passed Belfast Dublin cards as the most populous city in Ireland. [3]

Construction began in 1898 under the supervision of architect Sir Alfred Brumwell Thomas and was completed in 1906 at a cost of £ 369 tusen.Belfast Corporation (now Council) used their profits from the gas industry to pay for the building of the Belfast City Hall. Local firms H & J Martin and WH Stephens were among those involved in the construction business. James G. Gamble, architect, was clerk of works.

City Hall in Durban, South Africa almost an exact copy of Belfast City Hall.  [4] It was built in 1910 and designed by Stanley G. Hudson, who was inspired by Belfast design. The Port of Liverpool Building, designed by Arnold Thornley and was completed in 1913, is another very close relative.  [5]

August 1, 2006 celebrated the City Hall its centenary with a “Century of Memories” exhibit and family picnic day.  [6]

On December 3, 2012 the City Council voted to limit the days that the Union Flag flies from City Hall to a maximum of 18 designated days. Since 1906, the flag flown every day of the year. The move was supported by the Council of Irish nationalist members of the Council and the Alliance Party Council. It objected to the union council, which had a majority in the Council until the Northern Ireland local elections in 2011. On the night of the vote, union and pro-government demonstrators tried to storm the town hall. They held protests across Northern Ireland, some of which turned violent.  [7]


The grounds of the City Hall is popular for relaxation during the summer. In the background is the dome of Victoria Square and Belfast Wheel.

The exterior is built mainly from Portland stone and is in Baroque Revival style. It covers an area of one and a half acres and has an enclosed courtyard.

With towers at each of the four corners, with a lantern -crowned 173 feet (53 m) copper dome in the center dominates the city hall downtown skyline. Like other Victorian buildings in the city center, the town hall copper-clad domes are a distinctive green.

The  Titanic  Memorial in Belfast located on the grounds of Belfast City Hall.

The pediment sculpture is by FW Pomeroy, assisted by local Carver J. Edgar Winter, and on the back of the current line of £ 10, £ 20, £ 50 and £ 100 sterling bank notes issued avNorthern Bank.  [8]

The design of the building is reminiscent of the Old Bailey in London.  [ Citation needed ]  

Highlighting projects

Floodlights have been added to City Hall to illuminate the building in a variety of colors and combinations. Using the same technology as the Empire State Building in New York, a white light is applied to the building, after dusk, and there will also be “color-washed” on special dates.  [9]

Belfast City Hall is lit green for the annual St. Patrick’s Day celebration

Opportunity Date Color
Belfast Pride Saturday, July 6, 2013 Rainbow
orange Fest Friday, July 12, 2013 Orange and purple
Polish Independence Day Monday, November 11, 2013 red and white
Chinese New Year Friday, January 31, 2014 Red and yellow
Valentine’s Day Friday, February 14, 2014 RED
International Women’s Day Saturday, March 8, 2014 Purple
St. Patrick’s Day Monday, March 17, 2014 Green
May 1 Monday, May 5, 2014 RED
The Queen’s official birthday To be confirmed – first or second Saturday in June 2014 Red, white and blue


The interior has a number of notable features including porte-cochere and the Grand Entrance, the grand staircase, reception room and the great hall. The latter was destroyed during the Belfast Blitz, and then rebuilt.

Carrara, Pavonazzo and Brescia bullets are used extensively throughout the building is stained glass window featuring among other Belfast Coat of Arms, portraits of Queen Victoria and William III and shields iprovinserna Ireland.

Various monuments are in the building, including those of Frederick Robert Chichester, Earl of Belfast, Sir Crawford and Lady McCullagh and 36th (Ulster) Division.

The gardens around City Hall is popular with office workers take their lunch during the summer months, as well as tourists and teenagers gather in their dozens to enjoy the green.

Various statues stands in the grounds, including the Queen Victoria by Sir Thomas Brock. There is also a granite column dedicated to American Expeditionary Force, many of which were based in Belfast before D-Day.

Brock has also designed the marble figure of  Thane  , the Titanic Memorial in the memorial to victims of the sinking of the RMS  Titanic  . The ship was built at the Harland and Wolff’s shipyard located in the eastern part of the city. The monument was originally located at the front gate to the town hall, at the junction of Donegall Square North and Donegall Place.

There is a memorial to Sir Edward Harland, former head of the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast and mayor from 1885 to 1886. It also sculpted by Thomas Brock. [10]

The grounds also house Northern Ireland’s largest war memorial, The Garden of Remembrance and the Cenotaph, where wreaths laid on Remembrance Day.

James Magennis VC, the only Northern Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, is also celebrated in the grounds. Leading Seaman won the medal while serving in the Far East in 1945. A 6-foot-high (1.8 m) memorial Magennis, made of Portland stone and bronze, standing in front of city hall. It was built in 1999.

3 January 2006 ratified Belfast City Councillors a plan to erect a statue to the late Belfast footballer George Best in the grounds of City Hall. After approval from the Best family, George Best Memorial trust was created in December 2006. The trust protector David Healy contributed £ 1,000 to the estimated total cost of £ 200,000.  [11]

In October 2007, a 60 m Ferris wheel was built on the plot, which gives passengers panoramic view 200 feet (61 m) above the city. The wheel had 42 air-conditioned capsules, which can contain up to six adults and two children.The wheel finally ended at 18:00 April 11, 2010 and was removed in May 2010.  [12]

In 2008 Imjin River Memorial was moved here when Patrick’s Barracks in Ballymena closed. The monument celebrates the Irish  [13]  troops lost the battle of Chaegunghyon in January 1951 during the Korean War.  [14]

  • Under construction
  • Belfast – Titanic Memorial
  • In building
  • Monument to Queen Victoria
  • Lord Dufferin monuments
  • Statue of Edward James Harland, founder avHarland and Wolff
  • Memorial James Magennis VC (2004)
  • Showing Belfast City Hall with the Belfast Wheel aside, since March 2010
  • Statue of James Horner Haslett, Mayor of Belfast (1887-1888)
  • Statue of Sir Daniel Dixon, first mayor of Belfast (1892-1893, 1901-1904 and 1905-1907)
  • Statue of William James Pirrie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1896-1898)
  • Statue of Robert James McMordie, Lord Mayor of Belfast (1910-1914)


  1. Jump up ^Brett, CEB Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914. Page 67. Friar Bush Press, Belfast, 1985.
  2. Jump up ^The Linen Hall Library, one of Belfast’s oldest cultural institutions, which occupies a place in Donegal Square North in front of City Hall today, began life within the walls of the White Linen Hall.
  3. Jump up ^The Victorian Web, National University of (12 September 2006).
  4. Jump up ^BBC Schools website.
  5. Jump up ^Brett, CEB  Buildings Belfast from 1700 to 1914  . Belfast Friar Bush Press, 1985;  65.
  6. Jump up ^BBC news. BBC News (1 August 2006).
  7. Jump up ^“Violence in Belfast after the Council votes to change the flag of the EU policy,”  BBC News  3 December 2012 Retrieved 5 December 2012
  8. Jump up ^  “Northern Ireland”. Ron Wise’s Banknote World. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October of 2008.
  9. Jump up ^Belfast City Hall – Belfast City Council. (1 August 1906).
  10. Jump up ^Belfast City
  11. Jump up ^BBC News (30 January 2007).
  12. Jump up ^Belfast City Council Archive March 17, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. Jump up ^  “Royal Ulster Rifles Korean Memorial”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^  “War Memorial Trust”. Retrieved April 18, 2014.

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